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Sample records for thyroid gland lesions

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of CD44 in thyroid gland lesions

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    Kiziridou Anastasia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD44 is a polymorphic family of cell surface proteoglycans and glycoproteins implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion interactions and tumor metastasis. Its expression appears to be an indicator of invasive and metastatic behavior in carcinomas. The purpose of our study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CD44 protein in thyroid lesions and its association to other histopathological parameters. METHODS: Samples from thyroid lesions were obtained from 40 patients treated in our hospital. The material consisted of 5 cases of multinodular goiter, 7 cases of thyroiditis (Hashimoto type, 5 cases of follicular adenoma, 4 cases of Hurthle cell tumor, 15 cases of thyroid carcinoma (11 papillary carcinomas, and 4 myeloid tumors, and 4 cases of normal thyroid tissue. Immunostaining was performed using the Ventana ES automated immunostainer. A monoclonal antibody was used and avidin-biotin method was applied to paraffin-embedded samples. A membranous immunostaining pattern was considered positive. RESULTS: CD44 expression was detected in three adenomas (60%, mostly of follicular type, and in eight carcinomas (72%. The CD44 immunostaining was especially apparent in papillary type of carcinomas which showed high expression. In normal thyroid tissue, a reduced CD44 expression was observed. CONCLUSION: The results of our study indicate that deregulated expression of CD44 contributes to the ability of thyroid carcinomas for invasion and metastasis and may constitute a prognostic factor for malignant biological behavior.

  2. Ultrasound of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A thyroid and parathyroid ultrasound (US) is an imaging test to check the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands and is done to: check for nodules in the thyroid gland, find out whether the thyroid gland is enlarged, to keep track of the size of the thyroid gland during treatment, look for enlarged parathyroid glands caused by disease, guide the placement of the needle during a thyroid biopsy. The thyroid gland is formed by two lobes joined by an isthmus and, in a significant percentage of individuals, the 'pyramidal lobe', a vestige of the thyroglossal duct extending upward from the isthmus. A fibrous capsule surrounds the gland and connects with intrathyroidal fibrous septa forming 'lobules' that become grossly evident in pathologic conditions. Each lobule is supplied by a single artery and contains 20 to 40 'follicles' that average 200 nm in size and contain 'colloid'. Follicles are lined by a monolayer of low-cuboidal 'follicular' cells surrounded by a basement membrane. In fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimens, normal follicular cells are typically arranged in follicles, and monolayered sheets arranged in a honeycomb pattern with well-defined borders and nuclei which maintain polarity. Thyroid nodules are extremely common with an estimated prevalence on the basis of palpation that ranges from 3% to 7%. It has been estimated that there is a 5 to 10% lifetime risk of developing a palpable thyroid nodule, most of these nodules are benign, and cliniost of these nodules are benign, and clinicians should be as selective as possible in recommending surgical removal. Although thyroid nodules are a common incidental finding, US should not be performed as a screening test. Moreover, 20% to 48% of patients with one palpable thyroid nodule are found to have additional nodules on US investigation. Thyroid nodules are more common in elderly persons, in women, in those with iodine deficiency, and in those with a history of radiation exposure. Patients with benign thyroid nodules should undergo clinical and US follow-up. Symptomatic goiters, whether euthyroid or hyperthyroid, may be treated surgically or with radioiodine. Malignant or suspicious nodules should be treated surgically after preoperative evaluation with US and FNAB. An ultrasound can reveal which thyroid nodules are larger than 1-1.5 centimeters, requiring further evaluation for cancer. In addition to size, other nodule characteristics that can be noted on a thyroid ultrasound include the following: number of nodules, location of nodules, distinctness of borders, fluid versus solid contents, other nodule contents, such as calcium deposits, or the amount of blood flow (certain newer ultrasound machines can assess blood flow to the thyroid and its nodules). Thyroid lesions discovered on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for other reasons have an uncertain risk of malignancy and should undergo US evaluation before considering evaluation with FNA biopsy. Nodules are also detected infrequently by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography,but when found they are considered to have higher risk of malignancy. The annual incidence of thyroid malignancies in different parts of the world varies from 0.5 to 10 per 100,000 individuals. Despite its infrequency, it is important to remember that thyroid carcinoma is as prevalent as multiple myeloma, twice as common as Hodgkin's disease, and as frequent as cancers of the esophagus, larynx, mouth, and uterine cervix. Furthermore, thyroid cancer is the most common malignant endocrine tumor, responsible for 64% of deaths attributable to malignant endocrine neoplasms, more than all other endocrine cancers combined. Nevertheless, treatment of thyroid cancer is very successful

  3. MORPHOGENESIS OF THE THYROID GLAND

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    Fagman, Henrik; Nilsson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Congenital hypothyroidism is mainly due to structural defects of the thyroid gland, collectively known as thyroid dysgenesis. The two most prevalent forms of this condition are abnormal localization of differentiated thyroid tissue (thyroid ectopia) and total absence of the gland (athyreosis). The clinical picture of thyroid dysgenesis suggests that impaired specification, proliferation and survival of thyroid precursor cells and loss of concerted movement of these cells i...

  4. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

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    Wan Faiziah WAN ABDUL RAHMAN; Anani Aila MAT ZAIN; Mohamad, Irfan; Anusha BALASUBRAMANIAN; Nur Asyilla CHE JALIL

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland either primary or metastatic is extremely rare. However, MEC is the most common malignant tumour of the salivary glands with the majority originating from the parotid gland. We report the case of a 54-year-old Malay lady who presented with recurrent MEC affecting the thyroid gland two years after being treated for primary parotid MEC.

  5. Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions

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    F. Fulya KÖYBA?IO?LU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using ?2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05. Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05. The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05.Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

  6. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  7. Thyroid gland removal

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    ... have tests that show exactly where the abnormal thyroid growth is located. This will help the surgeon find the growth during surgery. You may have a CT scan , ultrasound , or other imaging tests. Your doctor may ...

  8. Multimodality imaging of the thyroid and parathyroid glands

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    Nuclear imaging of the thyroid and parathyroid glands has evolved from early radionuclide rectilinear thyroid scanning to the recently developed dual isotope subtraction technique for detecting parathyroid lesions. At the same time, x-ray fluorescent scanning, ultrasound, x-ray computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have improved identification of these endocrine organs. The appropriate use and relative role of these imaging modalities in the investigation of patients with thyroid and parathyroid diseases is discussed

  9. Metastasis to the Thyroid Gland; Unusual Site of Metastasis

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    Background: The incidence of metastasis to the thyroid gland in autopsy series varies from 1.25% to 24%. Metastasis to the thyroid gland is usually considered as a terminal event, and the effectiveness of conventional treatment has been questioned. Methods: Seven patients with metastasis to the thyroid gland were studied retrospectively. Primary tumor origin was identified in all of them. Metastasis to the thyroid gland was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology or histology. Data were analyzed for the type of malignant lesions, the clinical course of the disease, and the prognosis after thyroid involvement. Results: Two patients had lung as a primary tumor site. Breast. iris, kidney, parotid and soft tissue sarcoma were the involved primary sites in the other cases. The time from the diagnosis of primary tumor to metastasis to the thyroid gland was considerable (ranged from 13135 months, median 60 months). Fine needle aspiration cytology detected metastasis in five of seven patients. Treatment was surgery alone or surgery with adjuvant therapy. One patient didn't receive any treatment. Conclusions: In any patient with a previous history of malignancy, no matter how old that history is, a new thyroid mass should be considered as recurrence until proved otherwise. Although detection of metastasis to the thyroid gland often indicates poor prognosis, aggressive surgical and medical therapy may be effective in a small percentage of patientstage of patients

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... how the thyroid functions in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its ... critical where this technology has evolved over the last several years. All right, doctor, thank you. And, ...

  11. Cystic parotid gland lesion evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated differential diagnoses of cystic parotid gland lesions and the efficacy of preoperative diagnosis. Of 191 parotid gland nodules resected between January 2003 and October 2008, 167 (87%) were benign and 24 (13%) malignant. Thirty-five parotid gland nodules whose components were almost cystic were enrolled in this study. All cystic lesions were retrospectively evaluated with respect to preoperative diagnostic examinations and histopathological confirmed diagnosis. Cystic components in surgical specimens were also evaluated histopathologically. The relationships with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological confirmed diagnosis were studied. Of 35 cystic lesions, 11 were complete cystic masses and had no mural nodules, while remaining 24 were incomplete and had mural nodules. Histopathological examinations showed that 5 were nonneoplastic, 27 were cystic degenerations of benign tumors, and 3 were cystic degenerations of malignant tumors. In the 11 complete cysts, preoperative diagnosis could not be made using any modality, whether with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), salivary scintigraphy, or 67-gallium citrate scintigraphy. Of 24 incomplete cysts, only 9 cystic Warthin tumors were diagnosed correctly before surgery. Studies of cystic components in MRI and histopathology suggested that hemorrhagic degeneration of malignant tumors should be kept in mind for cystic lesions showing hemorrhagic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesionsgic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly before surgery, but the evaluation of cystic components by MRI and FNAC is helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  12. Morphological variations of the thyroid gland

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    Savitha Veerahanumaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge of various morphological and developmental anomalies of thyroid gland will help the surgeons in better planning of safe and effective surgery. Considering these facts we studied the variations of thyroid gland. Methods: The material for the present study was collected from the department of forensic medicine, MMC and RI, Mysore, which includes 56 male and 33 female adult postmortem cadavers aged between 18 to 80 years. A dissection was carried out to expose thyroid glands and variations were observed in the morphology of thyroid gland. Results: 1 9% of specimens had agenesis of isthmus. 2 46% of specimens had pyramidal lobe. 3 41% of specimens had levator glanduli thyroidae. 4 2.24 % of specimens had accessory thyroid tissue. Conclusion: This study highlights the various morphological anomalies of the thyroid gland which forms cornerstone to safe and effective surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 53-57

  13. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    B T Turumhambetova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  14. Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland

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    Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collecticancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

  15. [Primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland].

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    Ibnou Soufyane, N; Chadli, A; El Ghomari, H; Essodegui, F; Marouan, F; El Farouqi, A; Ababou, M R; Kafih, M

    2002-06-01

    Malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease generally occurring women in the 6(th) or 7(th) decade of life. The principal clinical sign is giant goiter rapidly leading to sings of compression, raising the question of differential diagnosis with anaplastic cancer. The radiological findings in our patient were suggestive of malignancy due to the locoregional invasion. Immunohistochemistry study of the surgical specimen was required to reach the definitive diagnosis of thyroid gland primary lymphoma. Diagnosis of malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland made at the stage of extensive locoregional extension compromises prognosis. Our patient died after one session of chemotherapy. PMID:12193880

  16. Effect of iodine-137 on sex and thyroid hormone binding to blood plasma proteins in children with functional lesions of the thyroid gland as a result of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying characteristics of specific interaction of estradiol-, testosterone- and thyriod-binding blood globulins with the corresponding ligands in children from Gomel region with with endemic swelling of the thyroid gland (degrees 1 and 2) affected by iodine-131 revealed were a reduced cooperativity in estradiol T-3 binding and a halved affinity to androgens and thyroids as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a drastic decline in the binding capacity of estradiol- and testosterone-binding globulins in the blood plasma. The endemic thyroid gland swelling is supposed to be due to sexual malfunction in teenagers

  17. Follicular lesions of the thyroid.

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    Mathur, Aarti; Olson, Matthew T; Zeiger, Martha A

    2014-06-01

    Follicular lesions of the thyroid encompass a wide spectrum of diseases with clinicopathologic overlap, including benign follicular adenoma, malignant follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary cancer. This review addresses the clinical presentation, preoperative diagnosis in the era of molecular markers, pathologic diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of follicular lesions, taking into account the frequent controversy about definitive histologic diagnoses. PMID:24857573

  18. Imaging diagnosis of thyroid gland congenital anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and radiological findings in 25 patients presenting diverse thyroid gland anomalies are described, as follows: thyroid aplasia - 2, thyroid hemiagenesis - 9, lingual thyroid gland - 3, median cervical cysts - 8, lateral cervical aberrant tissue - 2, distant aberrant thyroid tissue - 1 case. In all patients the following methods are applied: echography, computer tomography and radionuclide examination with 99mTc. Conclusions are made that: 1) To make definite diagnosis of thyroid ectopia the complex application of imaging methods is mandatory. 2) Ultrasound examination is sufficient to establish agenesis, hypo- or hemiaplasia of the thyroidea without need to resort to other imaging modalities. 3) Ectopic thyroid tissue eventually discovered should be carefully monitored by echography and cytologically because of susceptibility of malignant degeneration

  19. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... will see every moment of this procedure as it takes place over the course of the next ... picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage ...

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ... what does that do? In certain types of cancers if there is concern that there may be ...

  1. Fine structural lesions and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to polychlorinated biphenyls.

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    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C C

    1980-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) produced ultrastructural lesions of thyroid follicular cells and a reduction in serum levels of thyroid hormones in neonatal (0, 7, 14, and 21 days of age) Osborne-Mendel rats exposed to 50 or 500 ppm PCB in utero and by the milk. Litter size was decreased significantly in rats fed 500 ppm PCB. Body weights at 21 days of age were reduced in rats exposed to 50 and 500 ppm PCB. The ultrastructural lesions in follicular cells were dose- and age-dependent but were ...

  2. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland

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    ?aparevi? Zorica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland can be defined as a lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland. Lymphomas of the thyroid gland represent less than 5% of primary thyroid neoplasms and are two to three times more common in women than in men, whereas the median age is usually close to 60 years. Majority of thyroid lymphomas are diffuse, large-cell lymphomas. The incidence of thyroid lymphomas in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis has markedly increased and this phenomenon is probably related to their pathogenesis. Clinical presentation Unlike most other thyroid neoplasms, lymphomas are usually rapidly enlarging masses and local symptoms are common: pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea or stridor. Diagnosis To evaluate the extent of disease, a chest x-ray and CT scans of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are necessary. An excisional or large-needle biopsy may also be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. Occasionally, these tumors can be confused with anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which can lead to serious mistakes in management. A gallium scan or a positron emission tomography (PET scan can help later to establish whether any residual abnormality, observed on x-ray studies after treatment, contains active lymphoma or scar tissue. After diagnosis, patients are clinically staged (without surgery using appropriate computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy Assessment of the extent of thyroid lymphomas is crucial for prognosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy may improve the prognosis in patients with intrathyroidal disease only. It is very important to identify patients with favorable prognostic factors and to treat them with standard chemotherapy (CHOP and radiotherapy protocols. Patients with diffuse large-cell primary thyroid lymphomas should not be treated with radiation therapy alone. Conclusion The best treatment results for malignant lymphomas of the thyroid gland are achieved using a combined-modality therapy.

  3. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland.

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    Mizuuchi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsuya; Shirahane, Kengo; Souzaki, Masae; Tanaka, Masao; Oda, Yoshinao

    2014-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a spindle cell neoplasm rarely arising in the thyroid gland. We present a 78-year-old man with the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland resected by subtotal thyroidectomy. Fine needle aspiration cytology via ultrasound guidance demonstrated a hypocellular aspirate that revealed follicular epithelial cells with mild nuclear atypia and scattered spindle cells with bland nuclei. Histologically, the patternless proliferation of spindle cells was seen among collagenous bundles, accompanied by hemangiopericytomatous vessels, and variously dilated follicles with mild atypical cells having slightly enlarged nuclei, indicating adenomatous goiter. The neoplastic spindle cells showed diffuse immunoreactivity to CD34, bcl-2, CD99 and vimentin, but were negative for cytokeratins, calcitonin, TTF-1 and CD5. Although solitary fibrous tumor arising in thyroid gland is rare, this tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of thyroid spindle cell tumors and also that of adenomatous. PMID:24013381

  4. Estrogen receptors in human thyroid gland. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to determine the estrogen receptors (ER) status (present in the nucleous of cell) in the thyroid gland tissues. For this purpose 50 previously diagnosed cases of various thyroid lesions were selected from the Surgical Pathology Records of Pathology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute,Jinnah Postgraduate. Medical Center,Karachi,Pakistan between March and August 2000.The staining was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embeded tissues using monoclonal anti-ER anti-body (clone1D5).Out of 50 cases,8 were noduler goiter,9 cases of adenoma 19 papillary carcinoma, 10 follicular and 4 cases were of medullary carcinoma. Surrounding normal tissue was available in 25 (50%) cases, 4 non-neoplastic and 21 neoplastic lesions.Out of 50 cases ,10(20%) and 40(80%) were females, the youngest patient was a 15-year-old female and the eldest patient was a 56-years-old male. Despite the availability of normal thyroid tissue and a wide range of lesions, none of our cases showed the positive staining. In contrary to many earlier reports by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibody (clone1D5) on formalin- fixed praffin-embedded thyroid tissues, the ER is not detectable. The effect of Estrogen on thyroid gland may be indirect one. (author)

  5. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-99m MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO-4) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO-4) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO-4 subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: -4 subtraction methods are commonly applied. The thyroid gland was not visualized on Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy of suppressed thyroid tissue in a study by Turkolmez et al.. It should be taken into account that sometimes we may not be able to visualize a normal thyroid gland, and in these cases we might encounter suboptimal visualization in T1-201 subtraction method as well. Erdil et al. foun that Tl-201 is superior to Tc-99m MIBI in the visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue with a toxic thyroid nodule. Kiratli et al. mentioned decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the thyroid gland in hemodialysis patients. However, no patient presented an absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in the thyroid gland with secondary hyperthyroidism. In this case, the thyroid was not suppressed and the TcPO-4 scan thyroid gland was normal, but the thyroid gland was not visualized with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, and Tl-201 accumulation in the thyroid gland was not sufficient. To the best of our knowledge, from a search of the published literature, there has been no case like this previously reported

  6. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

  7. Thyroid gland metastasis of rectal cancer.

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    Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Sohei; Kishi, Hirohisa; Maeda, Mamoru; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a history of rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital to undergo thyroidectomy and left adrenalectomy. She had undergone low anterior resection and regional lymph node dissection for rectal cancer 52 months pre-admission (T3 N1 M0, stage IIIb according to International Union Against Cancer tumor-node-metastasis), and she had also undergone metastasectomy for lung metastases and right adrenal gland metastasis after the rectal surgery. Follow-up computed tomography scans detected nodules in the bilateral lobes of the thyroid gland and in the left adrenal gland. Subtotal thyroidectomy and left adrenalectomy were performed, and pathological examination revealed metastases of rectal cancer to the thyroid gland and left adrenal gland. PMID:25952954

  8. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates vas. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  9. High Resolution Real Time Sonography of the Thyroid Gland

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    A. Honarbakhsh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: High-resolution sonography equipment permits for visualization of normal and abnormal thyroid gland with or without gel pad or water bath. This study prospectively presents surgically and pathologically proved patients with thyroid disease by direct ultrasound with or without Doppler (pulse, color, power Doppler."nPatients and Methods: This study was performed by 7.5-10 MHz frequency linear probe transducer with axial resolution of 0.7mm and lateral resolution of 1-2 mm (Aloka 650 and super SG 140 Toshiba unit assembly with color, power Doppler. Patient's neck was extended as a supine position."nResults: Pathologic proof was obtained in 45 patients with benign and five patients with malignant thyroid disease. Benign lesions were follicular adenoma in 30 patients, goiter in 10 patients, as hashimoto thyroiditis in two patients, hemorrhagic cyst in two patients and simple cyst in one patient. Malignant lesions were follicular, papillary, and medulary carcinoma which seen in two, two, and one patients respectively. Echopatterns were as follow: Most of them showed decreades echo when we compare to normal thyroid tissue, some malignant lesions showed increased echo and some isoecho, in the last group we need other work up for example Doppler (pulse, color, power for evaluation vascularity. We did not have metastasis to thyroid gland."nConclusion: With advace in technology in crystal and design overall probe as a result creat broadband width probe and also full digital sonography unit inclding (beam forming - CPU in images resolution is with high grade than semi digital unit that before used for thytoid gland. When With any reason resolution is increased we sould be able to diagnosed very small and smallest lesion (for example mest to thyroid or reccurency after total Lobectomy: there is three primay uses of sonography, 1 detection of mutionodular gland when only one nodule is suspected clinically and by isotop scan.2 High resolution sonogtaphy can detect occult malignancy with or without cervical adenopathy 3 small lesion for recurrency malignant"nlesion.

  10. Hydatid disease of the thyroid gland--(a case report.

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    Arunabha

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease of the thyroid gland, presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, is being reported below. Pre-operative investigations, including thyroid isotope scanning and aspiration of the nodule, did not help in establishing the diagnosis which was later confirmed by histological examination. Post-operative investigations revealed it to be an isolated involvement of the thyroid gland.

  11. Historical review of the thyroid gland surgery

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    Ignjatovi? Mile D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid gland surgery passed through history from the suggestions for prohibition, during middle of XIX century due to unacceptable mortality even for mediaeval conditions, to highest level of surgical art later, as W. Halsted sad. First thyreoidectomy was done by Albucasis (El Zahrawi in 925 A.D, and after him by Roger from Salerno. While Pierre-Joseph Desault in 1791 has done first operation on thyroid gland that can fulfill today’s criteria, Theodor Billroth gave scientific grounds of thyroid surgery. Genius attitude and surgical talent of Theodor Kocher raised thyroid surgery on scientific level, brought surgical skills on the top of surgical art pyramid, and brought him personally to the Nobel Prize in 1909. Very important contribution to development of thyroid surgery gave its giants: Johann von Mikulicz, William Halsted, Charles Mayo, George W. Crile and Frank Lahey. Thomas P. Dunhill, F. A. Coller, A. M. Boyden, and many others did important contribution, too. Development of thyroid surgery was constant to nowadays, with tendention for multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers. Thyroid surgery in Serbia followed this world trends, in spite of great problems in this area during history.

  12. Semi-automatic elastic registration on thyroid gland ultrasonic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Zhong, Yue; Luo, Yan; Li, Deyu; Lin, Jiangli; Wang, Tianfu

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. However, the shape of thyroid gland is irregular and difficult to calculate. For precise estimation of thyroid volume by ultrasound imaging, this paper presents a novel semiautomatic minutiae matching method in thyroid gland ultrasonic image by means of thin-plate spline model. Registration consists of four basic steps: feature detection, feature matching, mapping function design, and image transformation and resampling. Due to the connectivity of thyroid gland boundary, we choose active contour model as feature detector, and radials from centric points for feature matching. The proposed approach has been used in thyroid gland ultrasound images registration. Registration results of 18 healthy adults' thyroid gland ultrasound images show this method consumes less time and energy with good objectivity than algorithms selecting landmarks manually.

  13. Neuroendocrine tumors presenting with thyroid gland metastasis: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivrikoz Emre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autopsy series have shown that metastasis to the thyroid gland has occurred in up to 24% of patients who have died of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors may metastasize to thyroid gland. Case presentations Case 1 was a 17-year-old Turkish woman who was referred from our Endocrinology Department for a thyroidectomy for treatment of neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination results were consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor; neoplastic cells showed strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin, but the immunohistochemical profile was inconsistent with medullary thyroid carcinoma in that the tumor was negative for calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Case 2 was a 54-year-old Turkish woman who presented with a 3-cm nodule on her right thyroid lobe. She had undergone surgery for a right lung mass four years previously. After a right pneumonectomy, thymectomy and lymph node dissection, a typical carcinoid tumor was diagnosed. Under ultrasonographic guidance, fine needle aspiration biopsy of her right thyroid pole nodule was performed and the biopsy was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination indicated three nodular lesions, 5 cm and 0.4 cm in diameter in her right lobe and 0.1 cm in diameter in her left lobe. The tumors were consistent with a neuroendocrine phenotype, showing strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Conclusion Thyroid nodules detected during follow-up of neuroendocrine tumor patients should be thoroughly investigated. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid confirms the diagnosis in most cases and leads to appropriate management of those patients and may prevent unnecessary treatment approaches.

  14. Squamous metaplasia in thyroid gland as histologic diagnostic pitfall: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haideh Haeri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is rare to find squamous metaplasia in the thyroid gland. Its existence is usually seen in association with a pathological lesion such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In most cases the squamous cells are few in number and squamous metaplasia is focal and small in size. Extensive squamous metaplasia of the thyroid gland is a very rare finding.Case Presentation: We report a case of massive squamous metaplasia in Hashimoto thyroiditis in a 53 year-old- male with a four year history of hypothyroidism. Also seen in the history is impaired thyroid function tests of low T3 and T4 levels with rise in TSH. The patient currently presented with neck discomfort and a somewhat firm nodular neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous nodular enlargement of both thyroid lobes and a calcified nodule of the left lobe. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule was performed which reported findings suspicious for malignancy. Based on these findings the patient underwent total thyroidectomy.Conclusion: In this article we address the causes and sources of massive squamous metaplasia in the thyroid gland. We also discuss the histopathologic differential diagnostic lesions which could be the cause of potential pitfalls encountered in the interpretation of the cytopathology and histopathology of such lesions arising in this gland.

  15. Oxyphilic carcinoma of the thyroid gland

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    Stankov Karmen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxyphilic tumors of the thyroid gland are rare tumors characterized by the presence of Hürthle cells - mitochondrion-rich, eosinophilic epithelial cells. Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCC of the thyroid behave in a more aggressive fashion as compared to other well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Many recent studies have been focused on the further elucidation of pathogenesis and the role of mitochondrial hyperplasia in carcinogenesis of these neoplasms. The importance of combining morphological and genetic approaches in the study of HCC has been emphasized by the difficulties encountered in establishing adequate differential diagnostic criteria between benign and malignant forms, as well as by the resistance of HCC to radio and chemotherapy. It has been well documented that the Hürthle cells are characterized by profound aberrations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genome and by alterations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other key genes involved in energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis.

  16. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15...of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human...

  17. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or laboratory examinations. Parathyroid scan is a noninvasive method used in determining parathyroid adenoma, and Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4} subtraction methods are commonly applied. The thyroid gland was not visualized on Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy of suppressed thyroid tissue in a study by Turkolmez et al.. It should be taken into account that sometimes we may not be able to visualize a normal thyroid gland, and in these cases we might encounter suboptimal visualization in T1-201 subtraction method as well. Erdil et al. foun that Tl-201 is superior to Tc-99m MIBI in the visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue with a toxic thyroid nodule. Kiratli et al. mentioned decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the thyroid gland in hemodialysis patients. However, no patient presented an absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in the thyroid gland with secondary hyperthyroidism. In this case, the thyroid was not suppressed and the TcPO{sup -4} scan thyroid gland was normal, but the thyroid gland was not visualized with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, and Tl-201 accumulation in the thyroid gland was not sufficient. To the best of our knowledge, from a search of the published literature, there has been no case like this previously reported.

  18. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a pows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

  20. The theoretical and palomporphological aspects of cancerogenesis and anticancerogenesis in the thyroid gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenko M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of theoretic and pathomorphologic postulates are offered for creation of the integrated concept of morphological mechanisms of cancero- and anticarcinogenesis in the thyroid gland. These postulates developed on the basis of long-term researches of this organ. The problems of system formation with new properties (neosystemogenesis which are the important philosophical and theoretical problem of oncology are introduced in the article.The new view of sight on a function – morphogenetic and morphodynamic- of hemocapillars in the thyroid gland is offered. These mechanisms provide the coordina-tive change of the spatial-time ratio, by which adaptive change of a qualitative condition of thyroid gland is reached without change of quantitative characteristics, and also realize morphogenetic processes - formation of new follicles by their fragmen-tation by hemocapillars. We insist, that the failure of morphogenetic and morphodynamic function of hemocapillars of a thy-roid gland bases a pathogenesis of the majority diseases of this organ, including tumors. The conception about pretumoral and intratumoral dysplasia, mechanism of their formation and role in formation of blastomas are offered. An experimental model of carcinogenesis from C-cells by long-term lesion of structural homeostasis of thyroid gland by hypercalcemia is developed. The problem of existence of anticarcinogenesis is analyzed in the article. The phenomenon of elimination of follicles of a central zone of the thyroid gland is determined as a specific mechanism of the thyroid gland during long-term stimulation of prolifera-tive activity of C-cells. This phenomenon can be explained as the mechanism of anticarcinogenesis in the thyroid gland. It is necessary to search for similar phenomenon in other organs for creation of a new trend in medicine - therapeutic surgery, which is extirpation of pathological neoplasms on early stages of their formation without a classic surgical intervention.

  1. Interactive MR-guided biopsies of the thyroid gland: validation of a new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility and utility of an interactive MR-guidance system to target and biopsy thyroid lesions, and to compare resolution between ultrasound and interventional MR imaging in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Twenty thyroid lesions of 18 patients were interactively biopsied using a 0.5-T superconducting open magnet system. Stereotactic localization of the needle and imaging was accomplished using T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images. Representative cytological material was retrieved in 16 of 20 lesions (benign cystic or colloid goiter: n = 14; one de Quervain's thyroiditis and one follicular neoplasia). Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm detected by ultrasound could not be visualized adequately on GRE images. Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm were successfully biopsied by ultrasound (three colloid and haemorrhagic goiters and one adenoma). Magnetic-resonance-guided interactive biopsies and positioning of non-ferromagnetic needles in the thyroid gland are technically feasible and safe. Compared with high-resolution ultrasound, lesions larger than 1.5 cm can be adequately visualized and biopsied. Magnetic-resonance-guided placement of non-ferromagnetic needles is no substitute for high-resolution ultrasound in clinical work-up of thyroid lesions. (orig.)

  2. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's try carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  3. Scintigraphic evaluation of congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total 2287 patients who undergone thyroid scintigraphy in Nuclear Medicine Centre, Khulna from January 1998 to December 2000 were retrospectively studied to evaluate the congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland. Scintigraphy showed thyroid anomalies in 11 patients (0.48%). The presenting features and thyroid function tests were analyzed and a detailed study was performed. Of these 11 cases, 7 patients (63.6%) had ectopic thyroid gland and site of ectopic was found to be lingual in 4 cases, sublingual in 2 cases and pre laryngeal in 1 case, 3 patients (27.3%) with hemi agenesis of thyroid and 1 patient (9.1%) with athyreosis. Biochemically 3 cases were hypothyroid of which 2 had ectopic thyroid and 1 with athyreosis. 1 patient was hyperthyroid with hemi agenesis of thyroid and 7 were euthyroid. Females were more affected than males, the ratio being 4.5:1. (authors) 2 tabs. 12 refs

  4. Ranking of sonography in the diagnosis of the decompensated autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 30 patients with decompensated autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland, the possibility was investigated whether sonography of the thyroid gland could replace the thyroid stimulation scintigram or a diagnostically insufficient, saturated scintigram. It was found that the thyroid sonogram - which has a lower specificity - has a markedly higher sensitivity than the saturated scintigram of the thyroid gland. (orig.)

  5. Multimodality imaging of pediatric parotid gland lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although diseases of the parotid gland are relatively uncommon in children, a variety of benign and malignant lesions may occur and the use of imaging is essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Ultrasonography (US) is the initial imaging modality utilized for suspected parotid lesions, and its use may suggest a correct diagnosis in an adequate clinical setting. The use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful for the assessment of large and atypical lesions. These modalities also allow the ability to image the deep parotid lobe and to better define the nature of a lesion. CT is the preferred imaging modality for inflammatory processes, including suspected sialolithiasis, abscesses and salivary duct obstructions, whereas MRI is usually used to evaluate tumors due to excellent anatomic resolution and a lack of ionizing radiation exposure, especially in children. This report describes the imaging findings of various parotid gland lesions in children. Familiarity with these findings will aid in lesion characterization and should facilitate optimal clinical management

  6. Study of histopathological changes in thyroid gland in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. shelke

    Full Text Available Present Study is observarionf Histopathological changes of Thyroid Gland In Buffaloes. Tissue samples i.e.thyroid glands were collected from the 300 buffaloes slaughtered at Municipal Slaughter House, Balapur Akola. Thyroid glands were cut in to small pieces for further histopathological processing. They were dehydrated in ascending (50%, 70, 95, 100% order of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin and sections of 4-6 micro diameter were obtained and stained with haematoxylin and eosin stain. The animals slaughtered were certified as non-productive. During present study mean, standard deviation and standard error were calculated as per the standard procedure. Microscopically 76.96% glands were normal, incidence of colloid goitre was recorded in 11.72% thyroid, parenchymatous goitre in 1.89% thyroid, increased interfollicular spaces and fibrotic condition in 9.66% glands. Haemorrhages and congestion was observed in 2.75% thyroid glands. Conclusion of this study is colloid goitre due to distention and enlargement of number of follicles, congestion in the thyroid gland occurs as the part of more general syndrome and Interfollicular hemorrhages occurs due to distribution of RBCs, escaped from blood vessels. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 387-389

  7. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  8. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  9. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Keith; Muglia, Valdair F; Koff, Walter José; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. PMID:25741090

  10. Lesions of skene glands and periurethral region: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S

    2015-04-01

    The periurethral (Skene) glands may become involved by a variety of conditions. Mass-like lesions need to be distinguished from other lesions arising from the anterior vagina. Familiarity with these lesions will be helpful if a patient with a lesion of the Skene glands or periurethral region is encountered. PMID:24983349

  11. Diagnosis of inflammatory processes in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method proposed is based on the specific deposition of the labelled leucocytes in the inflammatory area - diffuse (in diffuse thyroidites), or focal (in focal form). 99mTc-HMPAO (370 mBq) and 111In-oxine (10-14 mBq) are used for in-vitro labelling of the autologic leucocytes. Thyroid scanning on gamma camera using 111In-oxine is performed on hours 2 and 24, and when using 99mTc- HMPAO - on hours 1, 2 and 24. The method is noninvasive, highly specific and especially suitable for nodal formations of the gland. The results from its application in 2 patients are reported. 2 figs

  12. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criteria for distinguishing hyperplastic thyroid lesions from thyroid neoplasia in bony fishes have long been debated by scientists. Confusion exists because the thyroid tissue in most teleosts is unencapsulated, is occasionally found in ectopic sites, and is frequently predispos...

  13. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  14. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital ? camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na+, K+-ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na+, K+-ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na+, K+-ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na+, K+-ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na+, K+-ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na+, K+-ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

  15. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but diagnostic terminology and criteria for these lesions are inconsistent in the literature. The diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions is especially challenging in fish due to the fact that the thyroid is not a ...

  16. Some findings on the fine structure of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the site of iodination of thyroglobulin, electron microscopic autoradiography of 125I was made using in vitro mouse thyroid gland. The effect of TSH and dbcAMP on fine structure was also examined in cultured mouse thyroid gland and compared with those on in vivo mouse thyroid. When cultured in the medium containing TSH, the thyroid gland showed numerous pseudopods on the cell surfaces of the follicular epithelial cells and increase of colloid droplets in the follicular epithelial cells. Similar changes were also noted in the mouse thyroid gland stimulated by TSH in vivo. dbcAMP also caused pseudopod formation and increase in intracellular colloid droplets in cultured mouse thyroid gland but did not cause these changes in mouse thyroid gland in vivo. In the thyroid gland incubated in the medium containing 125I, silver grains appeared over the periphery of the follicular lumen at 30 seconds. With lapse of time, grains over the follicular lumen increased very rapidly until the lumen was filled with numerous grains at 60 minutes of incubation. Grains over the follicular epithelial cells were always scanty and showed no constant localization on the specific intracellular organelle. Since it has been known that the synthesis and release into the follicular lumen of the thyroglobulin is a process requiring at least 15 to 40 minutes, the appearance of silver grains over the follicular lumen at 30 seconds seemed to indicate the follicular lumonds seemed to indicate the follicular lumen as the principal site of thyroglobulin iodination. When TSH was added to the culture medium containing 125I for 60 minutes, grains were found over the follicular lumen and intracellular colloid droplets. (author)

  17. Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Gutaj, Pawe?; Sowi?ski, Jerzy; Wender-O?egowska, Ewa; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Br?zert, Jacek; Rucha?a, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that cigarette smoking exerts multiple effects on the thyroid gland. Smoking seems to induce changes in thyroid function tests, like decrease in TSH and increase in thyroid hormones. However, these alterations are usually mild. In addition, tobacco smoking may also play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Many studies have confirmed a significant influence of smoking on Graves' hyperthyroidism and particularly on Graves' orbitopathy. Here, smoking may increase the risk of disease development, may reduce the effectiveness of treatment, and eventually induce relapse. The role of smoking in Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not as well established as in Graves' disease. Nonetheless, lower prevalence of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroperoxidase antibodies and hypothyroidism were found in smokers. These findings contrast with a study that reported increased risk of hypothyroidism in smokers with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases the incidence of multinodular goitre, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Some studies have examined cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer. Interestingly, many of them have shown that smoking may reduce the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Furthermore, both active and passive smoking during pregnancy might modify maternal and foetal thyroid function. This review evaluates the current data concerning the influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland, including hormonal changes, autoimmunity and selected diseases. These findings, however, in our opinion, should be carefully evaluated and some of them are not totally evidence-based. Further studies are required to explain the effects of smoking upon thyroid pathophysiology. PMID:24549603

  18. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimashkieh Haytham

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (<50, 51–500 or >500 cells, cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation, cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin, and background (colloid-like material and macrophages. Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51–500 cells with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma. Immunocytochemical analysis for PHT was performed for 14 cases (6 destained smears and 8 cell blocks which showed distinct cytoplasmic positivity. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland. Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin. Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology. Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

  19. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... diagram and explain a little bit about the anatomy involved in this procedure and how the thyroid ... be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ...

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Tershakovec will be performing a thyroidectomy, in this case, the removal of an enlarged thyroid from this ... thyroidal vessels come in. Now are there some cases when you don’t have to remove the ...

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... no energy, listless. And is surgery usually the protocol for both or do you try a series ... with an enlarged thyroid, and this would be protocol for heading off any possibility of thyroid cancer ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as papillary, is extraordinarily marvelous. Surgery cures the majority of those patients, and some who ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ... decide if the symptoms are consistent with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... have a simple unilateral cyst or a benign adenoma, or sometimes even just a unilateral goiter, you can just do a hemi- or partial removal of the thyroid. Now, once the thyroid is removed, how does ...

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... them for you. By the way, if your issue is something other than an enlarged thyroid, but ... is in fact the thyroid that is the issue? Basically, it’s done through blood tests and a ...

  7. Surgery of thyroid gland in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The surgery department of Central Hospital no.1 operated on 1690 thyroid disease patients in last 7 years (2000-2007). Patients' ages were 9-80 years. Female : Male ratio 10 : 1. In the last years morbidity is changed, Diffuse toxic Goiter has decreased, Thyroid nodule and cancer has increased. During last 7 years we have operated 164 patients for thyroid mass. 69 cases (51.54%) of them were thyroid carcinoma. In this 69 cases include Anaplastic carcinoma 3, Papillary carcinoma 36, follicular carcinoma 30 cases. 80 percent patients from thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in pre-operative period, 20 percent were diagnosed in inter and post-operation period. For thyroid cancer cases we made the following operations: - Total thyroidectomy 20 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 30 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 29 cases. After operation 49 patients were sent for radioactive I-131 treatment and 3 cases which recurred, were operated a second time. In the treatment of DTG, there has been a decrease in the number of surgeries, while great increase in the use of I-131. From 1990 to 1999 have been done 1307 operations, because of thyroid disease: - 580 (44.37%) for DTG, 636 (48.66%) for thyroid nodule, 37 ( 2.83%) for thyroid cancer. From 2000 to 2007 we have conducted 1608 operations, because of thyroid disease: 473 (29.41%) for DTG, 919 (57.15%) for thyroid nodule and 134 (8.33%) for thyroid cancer. All operations were done by O.V.Nicolaev's method. (intracapsular resection). Conc's method. (intracapsular resection). Conclusion: 1. the numbers of thyroid cases which have been treated by operation is changing. There are an increasing number of cases of Thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. 2. There is need to improve preoperative diagnostics. 3. Combination of surgery treatment and radioactive I131 treatment gave good results for thyroid cancer. (author)

  8. [Study of female predilection for thyroid gland carcinoma in Republic Armenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatrian, A S

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common primary cancer of the thyroid gland. The purpose of the study is to find if thyroid gland carcinoma show gender predilection in Armenia. 529 cases of thyroid gland cancer were studied in hospitals from 1999 to 2011. It was found that thyroid gland carcinoma is three times more common in women than in men practically in all age groups. In comparison with 1985 year the frequency of disease in women has increased. Thyroid gland carcinoma had a higher death rate in women than in men. The lethality was higher in men. PMID:22392775

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... has thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as papillary, is extraordinarily ... be protocol for heading off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters ...

  10. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, N. N.; Grynyeva, E. N.; Blagosklonnaya, Y. V.

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

  11. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Young Ha; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Soo Kyo [Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  12. Improvement of 131 I - radiotherapy on thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to evidence the effect of ascorbic acid administration on the radioactive iodine retention in thyroid gland and thigh-bone by supplying '131 I for thyroid cancer treatment. It may be considered that the results obtained from thigh-bone zone indicate, with a good confidence, the iodine circulation in blood and in the body. The measurements were carried out with a NaI (Tl) detector on patients who received only '131 I and also on patients who received 131 I associated with ascorbic acid. In the last case the data indicate the increase of radioactivity in thyroid gland and a decrease in the body. This result points out that the administration of ascorbic acid leads to a higher retention of 1'3'1 I radioisotope in the thyroid gland and on the other hand denotes a radioprotection effect concerning the body. The time dependence of 1'3'1 I radioactivity in both thyroid gland and thigh-bone is characterized by the same rate regardless of the presence of ascorbic acid in the applied radiotherapy. (author)

  13. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Reyhan Ersoy; ?lhan Yetkin; Ömer Uluo?lu; ?pek I??k; Metin Arslan

    2008-01-01

    An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE) of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metast...

  14. Role of metallothioneins in benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pula Bartosz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent findings in the past two decades have brought many insights into the biology of thyroid benign and malignant lesions, in particular the papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Although, much progress have been made, thyroid cancers still pose diagnostic problems regarding differentiation of follicular lesions in relation to their aggressiveness and the treatment of advanced and undifferentiated thyroid cancers. Metallothioneins (MTs were shown to induce cancer cells proliferation, mediate resistance to apoptosis, certain chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. Therefore, MTs may be of utility in diagnosis and management of patients with benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid.

  15. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NON - NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THYROID: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Purushotham Krishnappa; Dr Sowmya Ramakrishnappa

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are one among the common clinical encounters, which range from congenital disorders to the malignant lesions. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid is accepted globally as the best screening tool to differentiate neoplastic versus non neoplastic lesions. The cytological features of the non-neoplastic disorders of thyroid have a good amount of overlap between them and with a few neoplastic lesions as well, thus leading to wrong interpretation and possible inappropriate mana...

  16. Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia / Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caridad, Verdecia Cañizares; Andrés, Portugués Díaz; Marta, Longchong Ramos.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptiv [...] o de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000). RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %), seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente). Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 %) y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %). La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of st [...] ructural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000). RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5%) followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively). There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%), and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%). Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

  17. Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Verdecia Cañizares

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000. RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %, seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente. Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 % y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea.INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of structural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000. RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5% followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively. There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%, and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%. Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

  18. Agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland in adult human cadavers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Daksha; Shilpa, M B; Harsh, M P; Ravishankar, M V

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid gland, a highly vascular endocrine gland, is composed of two lateral lobes connected by a narrow median isthmus thus giving an 'H' shaped appearance to the gland. A wide range of morphological variations and developmental anomalies of the thyroid gland have been reported in the literature. In our study, on the morphometric features of the thyroid gland it was found that, 6 out of 41 thyroid glands that were dissected, showed an absence of the isthmus. The respective lateral lobes were positioned independently on either side of the trachea. The incidence of agenesis of isthmus, along with the developmental and clinical significance are discussed herein under. PMID:20181171

  19. False positive uptake of I-131 during a I-131 whole body follow up scan in a patient with differentiated thyroid cancer and chronic inflammation of parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unusual high uptake of I-131 was detected in a parotid gland during a routine I-131 whole body scan in a patient of papillary carcinoma thyroid, raising the suspicion of functioning metastasis from the primary lesion in the thyroid. A review of the clinical history and additional scintigraphic evaluation revealed this to be of inflammatory origin. (author)

  20. Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovi? Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT scan showed left lobe thyroid tumor with tracheal deviation on the right site. Extended total thyroidectomy was done. Intraoperative consultation with the pathologist confirmed thyroid cancer. The pathologist diagnosed thyroid paraganglioma on the base of immuohistochemical investigation. This thyroid paraganglioma was positive for neuron-specific enolase, chomogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein highlighted the sustentacular cells. Tumor cells were nega-tive for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic. After the surgery the patient was treated with chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of thyroid hormone and serum neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A level, every 6 months. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest and abdomen CT scan as well as further tests (chest x-ray, ultrasound of the neck, and whole body octreotide scintigraphy were done. No primary neuroendocrine tumor in digestive sistem or in the chest was found. After more than 3 years the patient has no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of thyroid paraganglioma, followed by chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with thyroid gland paraganglioma.

  1. Alterations within the rat thyroid gland during vitamin A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands from female rats kept vitamin A deficient for one, two, and three months were examined by electron microscopy. After one month on the diet, no consistent alterations were noted. After two months, the colloid in some follicles displayed a peripheral zone of decreased density. In addition, ultimobranchial follicles within the gland had become keratinized. After two to three months on the diet, cells were seen entering the colloid. Many of these cells were identified as follicular cells. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies indicated that thyroids of vitamin A deficient rats took up less radioiodide than thyroids of control rats. It's possible that the presence of follicular cells in the colloid reflects an accelerated turnover of these cells and could indicate an early pathological sign

  2. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

  3. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Takenori; Adachi, Tosihide; Enomoto, Kenichi; Ishii, Hidenori [Asahikawa Medical School, Hokkaido (Japan); Yoshida, Chikako; Hokunan, Kazuhiko; Bando, Nobuyuki; Shigyo, Hiroshi

    1997-09-01

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin`s tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  4. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland 15 years after nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Fleischer, Jens Geelmuyden

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the thyroid gland is rare and can mimic primary thyroid carcinoma leading to diagnostic difficulties. We present a case of a 55-year-old female with RCC metastasis to the thyroid gland 15 years after nephrectomy. Diagnosis was made after total thyroidectomy. This case emphasizes the importance of considering metastasis in patients with increasing growth of the thyroid gland over a short period of time known with earlier RCC, even decades after nephrectomy.

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Live. Today we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the- ... period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our ...

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... the thyroid is removed, does it go into pathology? OR Live Bah 3926 12 Absolutely. It will ... on is adequate. We’ll discuss the final pathology, and then we’ll reinforce that the patie ...

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... removal of an enlarged thyroid from this female patient. As you can see, we are already in ... us. Well before we hear more about the patient, I wonder if you could take just a ...

  8. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Now, is there some reason that we are hearing about so many thyroid problems, particularly in women and ... telling us that very little blood loss is taking place during the course of the ...

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... some spread, it will destroy the other living cells that are too small to remove surgically that ... often that an enlarged thyroid presents with cancerous cells? It may, yes. Okay. And, again, I believe ...

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, the nerves to the vocal cords, the trachea, the carotid ... to the surgery? We’ll be using a nerve integrity monitor, and that monitor will be checking ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... of the surgery. This shows some of the structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, ... that you can visualize all the important anatomic structures. And people at home may be hearing a ...

  12. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... surgery at Homestead Hospital, a thyroidectomy, in this case, the removal of an enlarged thyroid from a 65-year-old patient. This is happening live on the web and we do encourage you to ...

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... of the thyroid is removed, is the medication still needed long-term? Usually not. Usually not. Now ... that the NIM is a tool but it still takes the surgeon’s skills to make sure the ...

  14. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage and the muscles surrounding it. We’re going ... along the esophagus. Here’s the trachea. The thyroid cartilage up in through here. Yes. The cricothyroid membrane. ...

  15. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... it’s failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ... body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is there some reason that ...

  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead ... you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will ...

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... and ask for the blood test that would check the thyroid? Well, clearly, the doctor would need ... to their endocrinologist in about 30 days to check the level of hormone to be certain that ...

  18. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... today. Thank you very much, and thank you all for joining us. Well before we hear more ... have some greater explanations once we get in. All right. The patien t’s thyroid is much larger ...

  19. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... sluggish, they can be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except ... a (INAUDIBLE) a few extra days. In the extreme situation where we can’t agree on a ...

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the ... plastic closure. The patients recover very nicely. The robotic surgeries are requiring up to three surgeons. Oh, ...

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... that patients will become symptomatic. They can have fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel ... thyroids can actually have problems with mentation, with fatigue, with normal function. They gain weight and really ...

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... thyroid to begin with? A goiter is a phenomenon that is caused sometimes by diet, and other ... happens postpartum. Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s, both autoimmune phenomenon, more common in women as well. So if ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some greater explanations once we get in. All right. The patien t’s thyroid is much larger than ... for the surgery today. That is correct. All right. Let me just go to our second diagram ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagram and explain a little bit about the anatomy involved in this procedure and how the thyroid ... easily to all of these parts of the anatomy. Correct. This is the trachea here, and this ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which is something like this. It’s a size seven endotracheal tube that we put in a routine ... remove the entire thyroid? OR Live Bah 3926 7 Absolutely. If you have a simple unilateral cyst ...

  6. Agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland with bilateral levator glandulae thyroideae

    OpenAIRE

    Dk, Sankar; Sp, Bhanu; Pj, Susan; Gajendra K

    2009-01-01

    Among endocrine glands, thyroid gland is well known for its developmental anomalies ranging from common to rare. During routine dissection of the male cadaver, agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland in the midline was noted. It resulted in two lateral lobes with two pyramidal lobe and levator glandulae thyroidae. There is no anastamosis of blood vessels between the right and left lobes as normally seen. The agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland is extremely rare and very few cases have been repo...

  7. Incidental thyroid lesions detected by FDG-PET/CT: prevalence and risk of thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Sung; Kim Jeong; Park Woo; Chae Byung; Bae Ja; Jung Sang; Song Byung

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Incidentally found thyroid lesions are frequently detected in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of incidentally found thyroid lesions in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT and determine the risk for thyroid cancer. Methods FDG-PET/CT was performed on 3,379 patients for evaluation of suspected or known cancer or cancer screening without any history of thyroid cancer between November 2003 and December 2005. Medical records re...

  8. Development of Thyroid Gland Specific Markers of Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid Axis Disruption in the Amphibian Model Species Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis....

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... actually cause the muscles to seal. Taking a big gland out, like we did, creates a lot ... Okay, but so that would be about this big. So we’re talking about something about like ...

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Gland Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL February 1, 2012 Hello, I’m Diane Magnum, and welcome ... goiter. Recently there has been substantial growth in one of the nodules, going from 2.8 to ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it. OR Live Bah 3926 6 Now what does that mean in laymen’s terms, doctor? Well, it ... and work perfectly. No kidding. Wow. And what does the parathyroid gland do in the body? What ...

  12. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... visualize all the important anatomic structures. And people at home may be hearing a monitor going off. Can ... gland here gently. Uh-huh. And for people at home who are watching, this procedure actually takes place – ...

  13. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, B.; Mahabob, M. Nazargi

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by block...

  14. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Ersoy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metastasis has been noted in the postoperative course of five years. She is the youngest patient with SMECE in literature. In this report, we briefly present the clinical and biologic course of this patient’s neoplasm and also review the associated literature. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 39-41

  15. Sonography and scintiscanning of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is intended as a synopsis of diseases of the thyroid, dealing with the sonography, scintiscanning, cytomorphology and histomorphology of the various diseases, as well as with clinical examination and therapy. The material presented is a textbook and an atlas, reviewing the current state of knowledge and skill in the application of the various imaging methods available at present, their clinical value and restraints with regard to optimised thyroid diagnosis. The many illustrations and drawings explain the potentials and limits of structural and functional examination techniques, with the sonograms being accompanied by schematic drawings in order to facilitate image analysis. (orig./MG) With 124 figs., 43 tabs

  16. 131I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic doses of 131I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of 131I (64-277 ?Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before 131I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following 131I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 ± 8.16 to 55.0 ± 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 ± 6.9 to 25.4 ± 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after 131I administration to rats, which was not 131I dose dependent. (author)

  17. An Unusual Case of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis with Four Lobed Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Chowdri, Nisar Ahmad; Parray, Fazl Qadir; Wani, Sabiya Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), an autoimmune disorder, is the most prevalent cause of subclinical or overt hypothyroidism in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The gland is often diffusely enlarged, and the parenchyma is coarsened, hypoechoic, and often hypervascular on ultrasonograpy. Histopathologic appearance of HT includes lymphocyte aggregates with germinal centers, small thyroid follicles, presence of Hurthle cells, and variable fibrosis. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with ...

  18. Phenotype of blood lymphocytes in correlation with histological picture in thyroid gland of rats treated with potassium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovi? Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind the former results which confirmed the functional relationship between the thyroid and the immune system, and the administration of potassium iodide (KI in the therapy of auto-immune diseases, we considered it of interest to investigate the pathogenesis of KI induced experimental thyroiditis, by studying the morphology of thymus, thyroid gland and spleen, as well as the phenotype of lymphocytes in the thymus and peripheral blood in relation to the expression of CD4 and CD8 molecules. The experiments have been carried out on 30 male Wistar rats, divided in 3 groups. The first group (n=10 received KI (225 ?g/g, i.p., the second group (n=10 received KI (675 ?g/g, i.p., while the third group (n=10 received sodium chloride (0.9%, i.p.. The intensity of histological lesions in the thyroid gland, was statistically significant (p<0.01 in KI treated groups, compared to the controls. KI also significantly decreased rat body mass, and increased masses of thymus and thyroid gland (p<0.05. No statistically significant difference was found in thymocyte and peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulation numbers between the groups. Our experiments suggest that KI, at least in some doses could induce mild lymphocytic thyroiditis in rats, and that this simple, practical and non-expensive model of experimental thyroiditis could be of importance for further research.

  19. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... the geologist’s important role in this procedure, and I think our patient’s doing quite well. I’m going ... or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the first consideration is the length of time ...

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... geologist’s important role in this procedure, and I think our patient’s doing quite well. I’m going ... even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the first consideration is the length of time ...

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that monitor will be checking that the nerv es to the vocal cords are not in harm’s ... An enlarged gland like this, identifying the nerv e oftentimes can’t be done until you’ve ...

  2. Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gary L., Ellis.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

  3. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschowitz Sharon; Sayre James W; Jw, Ju; Ragavendra Nagesh; Chopra Inder; Yeh Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In ...

  4. Ectopic mediastinal thyroid tissue with a normally located thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aal, Mohamed; Scheer, Fabian; Andresen, Reimer

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare entity and a challenging differential diagnosis. This is a report of a case of a mediastinal mass that was found to be an ectopic mediastinal thyroid tissue, in a 77-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital for breast cancer management. The mediastinal mass was identified in the postsurgical computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest and was suspected as mediastinal lymph node metastasis. A CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic punch biopsy (CT-TPB) proved to be an adequate diagnostic tool to exclude malignancy and provide a definite diagnosis of the mediastinal mass. We find that CT-guided punch biopsy as a useful diagnostic alternative enabling histopathological specimens to be obtained from mediastinal masses and lymph nodes suspected of malignancy. PMID:25785182

  5. Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of thyroid gland cancer in people of Belarus is one of the most actual medical problems appeared after the Chernobyl disaster. During the period 1986 -1999 in Belarus were revealed 6901 cases of cancer in the adults and 673 -in the children. Compared with the pre-disaster period the increase of the pathology has made 4.7 and 84 times correspondingly. In Magilew region during post-disaster years were revealed 899 cases of thyroid gland cancer in the adults and 34 -in the children. From the year 1998 perceptible rise of disease appeared in people over 19 years old. According to the prognosis of specialists the problem of high thyroid gland carcinoma rate will be actual for years, gradually decreasing in the children and increasing in the adults. Thyroid gland cancer promoted by radiation has very aggressive nature. According to the data of Republican science-practical thyroid gland tumors center even small carcinomas (3-9 mm) can give numerous metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. The possibility of tumor growth to the nearest tissues is very high. That's why the early diagnostic of the pathology is important. Medical help to the patients with thyroid gland cancer and other node formations consist in the complex problem solution: early node formation revealing by ultrasonic method, early diagnosis verification with the help of cytological bio-assays examination, received by the way of the thin needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgicay (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were carried out on ultrasonic apparatus Aloka SSD-630, Toshiba-220A, Sonoscop-20 electronic sensor with 7.5 MHz using adapter or by the 'free hand' method. Preparations for cytological examination were prepared according to the common procedure with the coloration after Papanikolou and Pappenheim. Diagnostic methods of thyroid gland node formation changed. The main doctor's problem is to distinguish good-quality and malignant formations because their treatments are diametrically opposite. Between laboratory methods applied for differential diagnostic of good-quality and malignant thyroid gland nodes is used scanning of thyroid gland by I-123 and Tc-99 radio isotopes, but it has lost its meaning for diagnostic of malignant new formations. Nevertheless, the method is still applied for the metastasis of high-differentiated thyroid cancer revealing. Now ultrasonic scanning with following TNAB under the control of ultrasonic beam and cytological examination of the bioassays received is the most effective, high informational and reliable method. Node formations revealing with size of 0.3 cm can be done by ultrasonic method. Screening must be done at first among people whose age at the moment of disaster was 0-19 years. Early ultrasonic feature of thyroid cancer is appearing of focal formation in its parenchyma. Most often locus has low echo (75%), irregular contours (80%), impure structure (97%). Precise correlation between types of vascular net on ultrasonic angiographies and echo structure of node formations has not been found. The main role of ultrasonic examination is in revealing of the focal alterations in the parenchyma of gland, visualization of regional lymph nodes and TNAB applying. The introduction of TNAB to the clinical practice with the following bioassays cytology has raised the efficiency of early thyroid gland cancer diagnostic and has given the possibility to choose patients, who can be operated in occasion with nodal craws, more accurate. Since 1993 in diagnostic centre were made 10739 TNAB and revealed 445 case

  6. The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

  7. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Rani1, Kamlesh Khatri2, Renu Chauhan1

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate (MSG is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experimental group was given 4mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate intra-peritoneally for seven days. Controls were maintained. After thirty days of the last dose, all the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were dissected out, processed and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and examined for histomorphometry under Zeiss light microscope and Image Pro-Express Analyzer. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in the body weight of the MSG treated animals, although these animals consumed less food than the controls. A significant increase in the size of the follicles ac-companied by an increase in the mean height and area of the folli-cular cells and decreased colloid in some of the follicles was ob-served, pointing towards an increase in thyroid gland activity.

  8. Morphometric studies on the development of human thyroid gland in early fetal life

    OpenAIRE

    Bocian-Sobkowska, J.; Malendowicz, L K; Woíniak, W.

    1992-01-01

    Histological and morphometric studies were performed on 30 thyroid glands obtained from normal human fetuses. Their crown-rump length (CRL) ranged from 57 to 190 mm, corresponding to the gestational age of 10 - 20 weeks. The weight of the thyroid gland increased proportionally in relation to CRL, foot length and fetus weight. The first follicles containing PAS-positive colloid were observed in the peripheral part of the thyroid gland of 57 mm CRL fetus. The...

  9. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  10. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was unknown) were nearly twenty-times the average background concentration, while the concentration in the person who ingested Ra-226 in a medicinal preparation was about two-hundred times our background concentration. A variety of studies of small cohorts of persons either occupationally exposed to Ra-226, given Ra-224 as part of medical treatments, or among beagle dogs given Ra-226 in long-term health studies, has shown evidence of a small but significant increase in thyroid cancer rates. The findings presented here have implications for improving dosimetry models of Ra-226 in soft tissues and for projecting health risks from natural radium intake. (author)

  11. Cases with focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-PET screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined fifteen cases with focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) screening for cancer. Examination of the thyroid gland was carried out by using computer tomography, ultrasound sonography, laboratory test and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Surgical operation was performed to the patient who was suspected of having thyroid cancer by FNAC or clinical findings. Thyroid cancer was histologically confirmed in 4 cases. Malignancy was not ruled out by FNAC in one patient. Seven patients were suspected of having benign thyroid tumor (adenoma, adenomatous goiter). Three patients were diagnosed with thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, painless thyroiditis) by laboratory tests. It was not easy to differentiate between cancer and benign diseases only by FDG-PET. However, it was useful to detect thyroid tumor especially if the tumor is hardly palpable. FDG-PET was also valuable as a diagnostic imaging technique to evaluate metastasis and the extent of cancer. (author)

  12. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  13. [The thyroid gland of newborn individuals at different seasons of birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubina-Vakulik, G I

    1994-01-01

    Thyroid glands were examined in newborn rats born in different seasons. Histological, histochemical, and cytophotometrical methods were used. It was demonstrated that winter newborns show the minimum development of the thyroid gland and summer newborns show the maximum one. PMID:7701601

  14. Chemical homeostasis of thyroid gland under modelling microelementosis influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalenko R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of the research of a thyroid tissue of 36 laboratory rats of different ages which have been drinking water with salts of zinc, cooper, iron, manganese, chrome and lead within 60 days. By means of anatomical, histological and spectrochemical methods it was established: the most significant morphological changes was increase with the growing terms of the experiment, concentration of ions in 30 days of experiment was the highest in the thyroid gland of young aged rats, at the end of the experiments the decreasing of the speed of their accumulation was observed. This work consideres the influence of ions of heavy metals on apoptosis of thyrocytes.

  15. A case of fibrosarcoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring fibrosarcoma of the thyroid gland is very rare. Only 5 cases of this tumor have been reported in Japan. Recently, we diagnosed a thyroid fibro sarcoma in a 46-year-old woman. It started as a papillary cystadenoma 26 years ago, followed by the appearance of papillary adenocarcinoma 6 years later. At that time most of the tumor was removed, except for a small portion which had invaded the trachea, and 5,000 rads of 60Co was given postoperatively to her neck. The tumor was quiescent for 18 years and then fibrosarcoma appeared in the same region. We think that this tumor may be a radiation-induced sarcoma. (author)

  16. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie externe sur la glande thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, A. [Centre Hospitalier general A-Boulloche, 25 - Montbeliard (France)

    1997-12-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto`s disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  17. Agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland with bilateral levator glandulae thyroideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar DK

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Among endocrine glands, thyroid gland is well known for its developmental anomalies ranging from common to rare. During routine dissection of the male cadaver, agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland in the midline was noted. It resulted in two lateral lobes with two pyramidal lobe and levator glandulae thyroidae. There is no anastamosis of blood vessels between the right and left lobes as normally seen. The agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland is extremely rare and very few cases have been reported in literature.

  18. The determination of the volume of the thyroid gland by a new ultrasonic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed high-resolution ultrasonic scanner for determining the volume of the thyroid gland was employed in 1983's health screening for A-bomb survivors in Nishiyama district (Nagasaki), and effects of radiation on the thyroid gland were examined. Thirty-one inhabitants who have been living in Nishiyama district since the A-bombing were selected as subjects (Nishiyama group) and their sex- and age-matched persons were selected as controls (control group). Regarding the incidence of chronic thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid adenoma, and hypothyroidism, there was no significant difference between the groups. The volume of the thyroid gland was 14.6+-6.2 ml in the Nishiyama group and 13.1+-4.0 ml in the control group; the average volume of the thyroid gland was a little higher in the Nishiyama group than in the control group, but this was not statistically significant. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. PROPOSED DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distinguishing hyperplastic lesions from neoplasia in the thyroid of bony fishes has been debated by scientists for about one hundred years. As early as the first decade of the last century, the histological interpretation of some of the striking proliferative lesions observed in...

  20. Long-term effects of external radiation on the pituitary and thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic damage following external irradiation of the normal pituitary and thyroid glands, delivered incidentally during radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck may be more common than has been appreciated in the past. A case of a child who developed pituitary dwarfism 51/2 years after radiation therapy had been delivered for an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx is described. A review of similar cases from the literature is presented. Likewise, external irradiation of the normal thyroid gland produces a spectrum of radiation-induced syndromes. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands is usually manifested months to years after treatment and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. A careful exclusion of these glands from radiation treatment fields is recommended whenever possible. An early detection of endocrine function abnormalities in patients receiving radiation to these glands is desirable, since appropriate treatment may prevent the late deleterious effects of external irradiation of the pituitary and thyroid glands

  1. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in study of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correlation was found between microstructural and biochemical changes of the thyroid gland and proton magnetic relaxation of tissue water. A significant increase of both relaxation times (T1, T2) was noted in thyroid tissue of rats treated with antithyroid drugs (PTU, C104) or TSH and was inversely correlated with thyroglobulin content in the gland and its morphological structure. When the treatment with PTU or C104 was interrupted, the relaxation times returned to normal values. These changes were in close correlation with the involution of structural changes in the thyroid gland and reaccumulation of follicular colloid (Tg). After T4, T3 or iodine treatment the relaxation times in the stimulated gland decreased following an increase of Tg content in the gland. It was observed that the relaxation times of the thyroid tissue of rats are in strong negative correlation with Tg concentration. Normal values for T1 in rat (530 msec) and guinea-pig (700 msec) thyroid glands are quite different. These species differences are related to the microstructural properties of thyroid glands, i.e. to the composition, structure, and degree of aggregation of follicular colloid (Tg). Finally, the NMR method could be applied in physiological and pathological examinations of the thyroid gland

  2. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschowitz Sharon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In a prospective study, 609 solid thyroid gland tumors were percutaneously probed using standard 25 gauge fine needles, their tissue toughness ranked on the basis of the nature and strength of the haptic force feedback cues, and subjected to standard fine needle biopsy. The tumors' toughness rankings and final cytological diagnoses were combined and analyzed. The interpreting cytopathologist was blinded to the tumors' toughness rankings. Results Our data showed that cancerous and noncancerous tumors displayed remarkable haptically distinguishable differences in their material toughness. Conclusion The qualitative method described here, though subject to some operator bias, identifies a previously unreported in vivo approach to classify fracture toughness of a solid tumor that can be correlated with malignancy, and paves the way for the development of a mechanical device that can accurately quantify the tissue toughness of a human tumor.

  3. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the associatilts have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  4. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  5. Cystic Change of Thyroid Mass: A Useful Sign in Differentiating Benign from Malignant Thyroid Lesions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the usefulness of the cystic change of the thyroid mass in the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions. We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic (US) findings of 65 benign (30 follicular adenomas and 35 nodular hyperplasias) and 206 malignant (202 papillary carcinomas and 4 follicular carcinomas) lesions that had been confirmed by surgery. The cystic change was graded as 0 (mass without cystic change), 1, 2, 3 and 4 (cystic change less than 25%, 25-50%, 51-75%, and more than 75% of the volume of the mass, respectively). The incidence and grades of the cystic change of the benign thyroid lesions were compared with those of the malignant lesions. We also evaluated the US features of the cystic change to evaluate any differences between benign and malignant lesions. Statistical significance was assessed by Chi-square test. Cystic change was present in 47/65 (72.3%) of benign thyroid lesions (21/30 [70%] of follicular adenomas and 26/35 [74.3%] of nodular hyperplasias) and 16/206 (7.8%) of malignant lesions (14/202 [6.9%] of papillary carcinomas and 2/4 [50%] of follicular carcinomas). The grades of cystic change were grade 1 in 29/47 (61.7%), 2 in 2/47 (4.3%), 3 in 2/47 (4.3%), and 4 in 14/47 (29.8%) for benign thyroid lesions, and grade 1 in 14/16 (87.5%) and 3 in 2/16 (12.5%) for malignant lesions. In regard to the US features of cystic change, a large cyst with polypoid projection less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst w less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst with a peripheral rind of solid component were exclusively found in the benign thyroid lesions. In contrast, malignant lesions frequently presented as a mass with irregularly mixed, solid and cystic components, a solid mass with multiple cystic components, or a solid mass with one or two cystic components. Cystic change was more common (p < 0.0001) and more prominent in benign than in malignant lesions. A large cyst with polypoid projection less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst with a peripheral rind of solid component were exclusively found in the benign thyroid lesions. The cystic change was evaluated to be a useful sign in the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions, although the size of the lesion must also be taken into account

  6. Computed tomography imaging of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland is a normal anatomical variant found frequently in the general population. This structure consists of normal thyroid tissue located in the upper part of the thyroid isthmus, extending upward in the form of a fibrous chord that connects it to the foramen caecum at the bottom of the tongue. This paper reviews thyroid anatomy and embryology, and highlights the main features of the pyramidal lobe, including the anatomy, epidemiology and computed tomography imaging.

  7. Rare developmental abnormalities of thyroid gland, especially multiple ectopia: a review and our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental structural abnormalities of the thyroid gland are relatively rare. There are scanty reports of hemiagenesis, dual and triple ectopia of the thyroid in the literature. Materials and Methods: We did a retrospective analysis of 236 patients referred to us for 99mTc Pertechnetate thyroid scan over period of five months (May 2010 to Sept 2010). Twenty of these 236 patients aged less than 20 years found to have developmental abnormality of the thyroid gland on thyroid scan. Diagnosis was correlated with anatomical imaging (USG/CT scan), fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and histopathology. Results: Out of the 20 patients, 8 were diagnosed with thyroglossal cyst, 4 with ectopic thyroid gland, 4 with dual ectopia, two had agenesis of thyroid gland, one case each with hemiagenesis and triple ectopia. Conclusion: The study has emphasized the indispensable role of 99mTc Pertechnetate thyroid scan in the evaluation of midline neck swellings of childhood and diagnosing developmental anomalies of thyroid gland. (author)

  8. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  9. Early thyroid gland dysfunction and biorhythmic activity disturbance in patients with cardiovascular pathology and atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvarts Yu.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the problem of combined pathology of the thyroid gland and cardiovascular system, the state of thyroid homeostasis in atrial fibrillation. The main mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on the heart and blood vessels, particularly changes in the cardiovascular system with hypo-or hyperthyroidism; the possibility of substitution therapy in subclinical disease have been presented in the article. Characteristics of daily rhythmic activity of thyroid gland in normal and various pathological conditions with persistent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation have been considered.

  10. Thyroid gland rupture: a rare finding after a blunt neck trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Faisal; Varshney, Rickul; Payne, Richard J; Manoukian, John J

    2013-05-01

    This is a case report of a 13 years old boy with a thyroid rupture secondary to a hockey stick blunt trauma to his neck and a literature review focused on diagnosis and management. There are 14 other cases in the literature, 7 of which required surgical intervention mainly to evacuate a hematoma. The case in this review did not develop any complications. This is the first reported case in the literature of thyroid gland rupture due to a blunt trauma in a child. Patients with thyroid gland rupture should be monitored closely for developing a hematoma or thyroid storm. PMID:23522054

  11. Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

  12. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  13. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Junkichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

  14. A review of risks of internal irradiation of the thyroid gland - in utero, neonatally, adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author gives examples of how animal studies on the significance of growth factors and dose-rate dependences can give information of corresponding effects in the internally irradiated thyroid gland of the fetal, infant and adult man. (author)

  15. [Comparative study of iodine and thyroid gland in biological processes: development and reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pérez, F

    2000-01-01

    Iodine is an scarce metalloid, essential for life, more abundant in the aquatic ecosystem than in land. Marine species do not need to store and transform the inorganic iodine into organic iodine through the thyroid gland. Adaptation to terrestrial ecosystem has required phylogenetic processes, and animal species have used different strategies to solve the iodine captation problem according to their needs. Jellyfish lack of thyroid gland while lampery developed the thyroid gland during evolution in order to adapt to the terrestrial ecosystem. This review is a comparative phylogenetic study of thyroid gland development and iodine physiology, includes functional disorders, as well as iodine captation ability and requirements during growth and reproduction in different species. PMID:11209551

  16. The reproduction accuracy for stereolithographic model of the thyroid gland derived from the visible human dataset.

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Kapakin; Deniz Demiryurek

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate reproduction accuracy of the rapid prototyping technique by comparing 3-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) (virtual) model with stereolithographic (solid) replica of the thyroid gland. METHODS The Visible Human Dataset was used as the input imaging data. The Surfdriver software package was applied on these images to reconstruct the thyroid gland as 3-dimensional Data Exchange File (DXF) models. These models were post-processed in Cinema 4D and 3D-Doctor...

  17. Effect of vertical angulation to dose of thyroid glands in periapical radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoi, Keitaro; Satoh, Keiji; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-10-01

    Much attention has been given to reducing the dose of radiation in dental radiography in terms of the highest risk for the head and neck. Organ doses in intraoral radiography vary greatly with subtle differences in vertical angulation. Quantitative determination of doses delivered to the thyroid gland is thus necessary in determining adequate doses and risk for dental radiography. A personal computer program, prepared for estimating organ doses under various radiographic conditions, was used to evaluate the effect of vertical angulation on the dose delivered to the thyroid gland in radiography of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Review of the literature revealed that the calculated dose delivered to the thyroid gland is approximately in accordance with the data of the actual determination under the same radiographic conditions. The dose-dependence of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland on vertical angulation of the maxilla was much more than that of the mandible. In the mandible, the dose delivered to the thyroid gland increased about three fold at a field size of 6 cm[phi] and about 1.5 fold at 8 cm[phi] when the vertical angulation changed from -40deg to 0deg. In the maxilla, the delivered dose increased about 480 times at a field size of 6 cm[phi] when vertical angulation changed from 0deg to 50deg and rapidly increased about 280 times at 8 cm[phi] when the angulation changed from 0deg to 40deg. The dose of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland was evaluated as a function of product of the irradiated volume within the primary beam directed at the thyroid gland and the inverse square of the distance between a subject's surface and the thyroid gland. (N.K.).

  18. Selective exposure of thyroid gland follicles to radionuclides decaying according to K-capture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors submit the results of studies of the effect of internal exposure of microstructures of thyroid gland follicles to electron radiation within the energy range from tenths of keV to 1 MeV, covering the electron radiation spectra of the commonly used radionuclides which decay according to the K-capture model. The case of selective exposure of thyroid gland follicles to selenium-75 delivered as a constituent of selenomethionine is described as an example

  19. Ultrasound examination of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland. (orig.)

  20. Ultrasound examination of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaenepoel, L.; Demeester-Mirkine, N.; Sacre, R.; Jockheer, M.H.; van Geertruyden, J.

    1982-07-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland.

  1. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  2. Metabolic Pathways of Tetraidothyronine and Triidothyronine Production by Thyroid Gland: A Review of Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mansourian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetraidothyronine (T4 and Triiodothyronine (T3 are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT and diiodothyrosine (DIT on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction , or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO, which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin to show themselves.

  3. Metabolic Pathways of Tetraidothyronine and Triidothyronine Production by Thyroid Gland: A Review of Articles

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Mansourian

    2011-01-01

    Tetraidothyronine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg) to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT) and diiodothyrosine (DIT) on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues whi...

  4. Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

  5. Interferon-induced progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with enlarged thyroid glands in gynecological patient: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A case report presents a progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid glands and increased thyreotropin hormone concentration-associated with interferon treatment in human papillomavirus infected patient with the autoimmune thyroiditis and a daily L-thyroxin hormone replacement therapy background. Observation was supplemented with a brief review of literature and discussion. On the basis of this observation and a brief review of literature authors suggested that the potential adverse effects of interferon therapy are overbalanced than its benefits for gynecological patients, therefore any interferon treatment should be recommended with strict indications as well as after screening of conditions and functions of thyroid glands and other interferon target organs to avoid interferon treatment side effects. Practitioners especially gynecologists should inform their patients about pleiotropic interferon effects and its high frequent and wide range side effects before to start such kind of treatment.

  6. Histological investigations on the thyroid glands of marine mammals (Phoca vitulina, Phocoena phocoena) and the possible implications of marine pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, U.; Zahler, Stefan; Horny, H. -p; Heidemann, Gu?nter; Skirnisson, K.; Welsch, U.

    1993-01-01

    In 1988 and 1989, thousands of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) died in the North Sea from phocine distemper infection. The morphology of thyroid glands from 40 harbor seals found dead on the North Sea coastlines of Schleswig-Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany, during an epizootic of phocine distemper, was compared with the morphology of thyroid glands from five healthy harbor seals collected in Iceland. Thyroid glands from seven harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) found dead in 1990 on the ...

  7. Effect of laser treatment on thyroid gland hormones in female rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Al-mustawfi, N. S.; Al- Azawi, T. S.; Mohammed, I. F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of laser treatment on thyroid functions and hormones in female rabbits. A total of 18 female rabbits were used in this investigation. Six rabbits were used for examining the thyroid gland location and dissected to be sure that laser therapy will be directed to this gland. Twelve female rabbits were used in this experiment to study the physiological effect of laser therapy (4J/cm2) on normal thyroid function they were divided into two equal gro...

  8. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min [College of Medicine, Chungang University, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Seo Hyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall. In summary, the radiofrequency ablation therapy for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules located in anterior aspect (within a 5 mm radius) of the thyroid gland in human suggests this is an effective treatment, though this was an animal study performed on dogs.

  9. Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko O.O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

  10. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  11. Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients

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    MARÍA ANGÉLICA MATAMALA S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3% se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73% correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27% a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total, 4 (36,3% con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18% con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18% con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9% con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9% con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9% con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología.Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81% had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%. were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36% had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18% had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18% had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

  12. Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores / Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA, MATAMALA S; MIGUEL, GONZÁLEZ P; GONZALO, ROSSEL D; CONSTANZA, NIEME S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósi [...] to de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología. Abstract in english Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical [...] service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

  13. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  14. Influence of chronic stress and terahertz radiation at nitric oxide frequency on functional activity of thyroid gland

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    Tsymbal ?.?.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the chronic stress conditions oppression of functional activity of thyroid gland is revealed. Influence of terahertz radiation at the nitric oxide frequency of 150,176-150,664 GHz on functional activity of thyroid gland in the conditions of chronic experimental stress was studied. It was shown that during 15 minutes of influence of terahertz waves at nitric oxide frequency partial restoration of studied indicators of activity of thyroid gland was observed in stressed animals. At 30 minute mode of influence of specified waves a complete recovery of broken indicators of functional condition of thyroid gland was determined

  15. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence ons. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common finding in Nuclear Medicine in this patient population. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  16. Galectin-3 Immunostaining in Cytological and Histopathological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Ga lectin-3 is a human lectin linked to malignant transformation in different organs including thyroid gland. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions in cytological and histological samples. Material and Methods: This study included a total of 79 cases; 19 multi nodular goiter (MNG), 19 follicular adenoma (FA), 13 follicular carcinoma (FTC) and 28 papillary carcinoma (PTC). Galectin-3 immunostaining was applied on histological sections from all the cases (retrospective analysis) as well as for the available preoperative FNAC (28 cases) (prospective analysis). Results: Retrospective analysis: The positivity percentage of galectin-3 was 10.5%, 92.3%, 93% for non-malignant, FTC and PTC respectively. According to H score, glaectin-3 immunostaining was significantly lowered in FA) 1±2.8 as compared to papillary (158.5±88.6) and follicular carcinoma (150±83.9) (p>0.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between FTC and PTC (p=0.56) or between classic and follicular variants of PTC (p='0.51). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for galectin-3 staining were 93%, 89.5%, 90.5% and 92% respectively. Prospective analysis: There were five benign, six malignant and 17 indeterminate cytology cases. Galectin-3 immunostaining was able to detect the benign nature of 11/17 indeterminate cytology. Combination of standard cytological evaluation with galectin-3 immunostaining markedly improved sen¬sitivity (71% versus 85%), specificity (75% versus 94%), positive predictive value (83% versus 92%) negative predictive value (60% versus 87.5%) and diagnostic accuracy (72% versus 90%). Conclusion: We suggest Galectin-3 as a supplementary immunostaining in histological diagnosis of difficult thyroid follicular lesions and in preoperative evaluation of indeterminate thyroid cytology to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical interference in benign lesions.

  17. An Abattoir Study of Ovine Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Lesions and the Respective Serum T3 andT4 Levels in an Endemic Goiter Region in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Barati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of histologic thyroids lesions and the respective thyroid hormones changes of ewes in an endemic goiter region and to find out any impact of this condition on the fetal thyroid structures and serum thyroid hormones. In the present study a total number of 100 pregnant ewes and their fetuses slaughtered at slaughterhouse were selected for the study. The sera were prepared from the jugular vein blood of ewes and fetuses umbilical cords. The ewes and fetuses thyroids subjected to histopathological examination and radioimmunoassay procedure was used for sera T3 and T4 assay. The results showed a high prevalence of thyroid lesions in ewes and their fetuses. The different kinds of lesions including cysts, follicular hyperplasia, hemorrhage and inflammation were seen in ewes. In the fetuses thyroid structural changes were cysts resemble structures; hemorrhage and hyperemia. Mean T4 concentration was significantly higher in the ewes with pathologic thyroid compared to normal animals. However, there was not any significant difference between pathologic and normal ewes’ thyroids on serum T3. Although, existence of lesions on fetal thyroids did not affect the serum concentrations of T4 and T3, there was a significant correlation between T4 and T3 serum concentrations of fetuses and their age. In conclusion, the significant prevalence of fetal and maternal thyroid pathological changes in the endemic goiter region raises a question about probable congenital source of these variations. The thyroid lesions significantly influenced the functions of mothers' gland but not fetuses.

  18. Thyroid Nodule Demonstrating Itself as Calcified Lung Lesion

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    Ediz Yorganc?lar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Multinodular goiter (MNG is the most prevalent thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland enlarge as a result of MNG, the initial extension is typically outward. After this cervical  enlargement, expansion may extend in to the mediastinum. As substernal goiters enlarge within the mediastinum, vascular and visceral structures may slowly became compressed. The most common symptoms of substernal goiter result from compression of the trachea and/ or esophagus and include dyspnea, choking sensation, cough, and dysphagia. Progressive hoarseness and superior vena cava syndrome are less common symptoms. Substernal goiters can remain asymptomatic for many years and it may be diagnosed incidentally. For example, routine chest radiography may reveal a mediastinal mass or tracheal deviation. Many authors have advocated surgical removal of all substernal goiters, even when these goiters are asymptomatic. In this article, we report a case of substernal MNG which demonstrating itself as a nodular calcification on chest X-Ray radiography.

  19. The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?

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    Gesing Adam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attributed to normal aging. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, as well as thyroid neoplasms, require special attention in elderly subjects. Intriguingly, decreased thyroid function, as well as thyrotropin (TSH levels – progressively shifting to higher values with age – may contribute to the increased lifespan. This short review focuses on recent findings concerning the alterations in thyroid function during aging, including these which may potentially lead to extended longevity, both in humans and animals.

  20. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  1. Cediranib Maleate With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  2. Histological evaluation of thyroid lesions using a scanning acoustic microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Miura K; Mineta H

    2014-01-01

    Katsutoshi Miura,1 Hiroyuki Mineta2 1Department of Health Science, Pathology, and Anatomy, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) uses an ultrasound to image an object by plotting the speed-of-sound (SOS) through tissues on screen. Because hard tissues result in great SOS, SAM can provide data on the tissue elasticity. This paper investigated the utility of SAM in evaluating thyroid lesions. ...

  3. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T3-RU, T3, T4, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

  4. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-08-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T/sub 3/-RU, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06.

  5. [Benign lymphoproliferative lesions of the parotid gland in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, L; Busi Rizzi, E; Schininà, V; Mazzuoli, G

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of ultrasonography (US) as the method of choice in diagnosing parotid lesions in HIV+ patients. Bilateral parotid gland enlargement associated with laterocervical lymph node enlargement is a sign of HIV infection. This pathologic condition is observed in 2-10% of seropositive patients. Histology demonstrates benign lymphoproliferative lesions referrable to immune system activation. Our series consisted of 37 HIV+ patients monitored with US for a year, all patients had cytologic confirmation of their disease, with needle biopsy in 9 patients and with MR studies in 4 patients. US showed focal solid lesions, with cystic and mixed appearance in the 26 adult subjects and gross parenchymal inhomogeneity in the 11 children; laterocervical lymph node enlargement was associated in 31 cases. In the only two cases with unilateral parotid involvement, an abscess and a lymphoma were diagnosed. To conclude, US findings in HIV+ patients, although aspecific, can help make the correct diagnosis, if they are integrated with the patient's history and clinical findings. PMID:8966280

  6. Histological evaluation of thyroid lesions using a scanning acoustic microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Katsutoshi Miura,1 Hiroyuki Mineta2 1Department of Health Science, Pathology, and Anatomy, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM uses an ultrasound to image an object by plotting the speed-of-sound (SOS through tissues on screen. Because hard tissues result in great SOS, SAM can provide data on the tissue elasticity. This paper investigated the utility of SAM in evaluating thyroid lesions. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin sections were scanned with a 120 MHz transducer. SOS through each area was calculated and plotted on the screen to provide histological images, and SOS of each lesion was compared and statistically analyzed. Results: High-concentrated colloids, red blood cells, and collagen fibers showed great SOS, while low-concentrated colloids, parathyroids, lymph follicles, and epithelial tissues including carcinomas demonstrated lower SOS. SAM clearly discriminated structure of thyroid components corresponding to low magnification of light microscopy. Thyroid tumors were classified into three groups by average SOS: the fast group consisted of follicular adenomas/carcinomas and malignant lymphomas; the slow group contained poorly differentiated/undifferentiated carcinomas; and the intermediate group comprised papillary/medullary carcinomas. Fragmented colloids, irregular-shaped follicles, and desmoplastic reactions were observed in the invasive area of surrounding carcinomas. Conclusion: The SAM imaging method had the following benefits: 1 precise images were acquired in a few minutes without special staining; 2 structural irregularity and desmoplastic reactions, which indicated malignancy, were detected; 3 images reflected tissue elasticity, which was statistically comparable among lesions by SOS; 4 follicular functional activity was predictable by converting colloid concentration to SOS; and 5 tumor classification was predictable by SOS because more poorly differentiated carcinomas had a tendency to show lower SOS. Keywords: scanning acoustic microscope, tissue elasticity, cancer imaging, thyroid tumor, parathyroid

  7. A Logistic Regression Model Predicting Malignancy in Follicular Thyroid Lesions Based on CD56 Expression and Patient's Age

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Abdelzaher; Azza Mohamed Rizk; Maram Allam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Follicular thyroid lesions represent a heterogeneous group with variable biological behavior. Discrimination between benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions by histologic examination poses a significant challenge to pathologists. Recently, CD56 has attracted attention as a potential diagnostic marker in follicular thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: A retrospective immunohistochemical and statistical analyses of CD56 expression in 68 cases of follicular thyroid les...

  8. Early Detection of Thyroid Gland Disorders for Students in the Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bafaraj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study 70 male students were participated to determine the thyroid disorder through ultrasonography. Thyroid scan was done in 70 students prospectively with no indicative of thyroid disease (age of 19 - 23 yrs. Thyroid scan for students who participated the study took place in the department of Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University by using an IU 22 Philips ultrasound machine with a 5 - 12 MHz linear transducer. Among the total number of the subjects, 26% was found with abnormal ultrasound findings, 17% of them with cystic nodule, while solid and mixed nodule represented 4% for each. The high rate of abnormal findings of thyroid gland in the study suggested that screening using ultrasound scan was useful in detecting early thyroid disorders.

  9. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  10. ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sporea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men: 44 (32.3% without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3% with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD, 37 (27.2% with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests, 4 (2.9% with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2% cases with thyroid pathology induced by amiodarone. In all patients, 10 elastographic measurements were made in the right thyroid lobe and 10 in the left thyroid lobe, using a 1-4.5 MHZ convex probe and a 4-9 MHz linear probe, respectively. Median values were calculated for thyroid stiffness and expressed in meters/second (m/s. RESULTS: Thyroid stiffness (TS assessed by means of ARFI in healthy subjects (2 ± 0.40 m/s was significantly lower than in GD (2.67 ± 0.53 m/s (P < 0.0001 and CAT patients (2.43 ± 0.58 m/s (P = 0.0002, but the differences were not significant between GD vs CAT patients (P = 0.053. The optimal cut-off value for the prediction of diffuse thyroid pathology was 2.36 m/s. For this cut-off value, TS had 62.5% sensitivity, 79.5% specificity, 87.6% predictive positive value, 55.5% negative predictive value and 72.7% accuracy for the presence of diffuse thyroid gland pathology (AUROC = 0.804. There were no significant differences between the TS values obtained with linear vs convex probes and when 5 vs 10 measurements were taken in each lobe (median values. CONCLUSION: ARFI seems to be a useful method for the assessment of diffuse thyroid gland pathology.

  11. Interrelation specific autoimmune pathologies of a thyroid gland with inorganic autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Paramonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a pathology of a thyroid gland at rheumatic diseases, in particular at rheumatoid arthritis, remains actual and to this day. The work purpose was studying antitelogenesis to thyroid hormones at patients with mixt autoimmune pathology. In whey of blood of patients with RA and autothyroid pathology are found out antibodies (AB to ?3 and ?4, their concentration correlates with activity of pathological process. It is shown, that level AB to ?3 and ?4 authentically differs from the maintenance of the given antibodies in whey of blood of healthy faces. Level of antibodies to thyroid hormones can be considered as the criterion predicting development of pathology of a thyroid gland at patients with RA.

  12. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  13. Warthin-like papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Trignano; Federica Trogu; Federico Attene; Panagiotis Paliogiannis

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman and a review of the literature on the topic. The patient had the occasional discovery of a hypoechoic thyroid nodule of approximately 18?mm, characterized by irregular margins, hyperechoic spots, rich intra- and perilesional vascularization, and a suspicious enlarged right laterocervical lymph node. Fine-needle aspiration was performed for both lesions and the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma withou...

  14. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sadat Alavi Mehr; Azarpira Negar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that app...

  15. Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ohbuchi Toyoaki; Tabata Takahisa; Nguyen Khac-Hung; Ohkubo Jun-ichi; Katoh Akiko; Suzuki Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and ex...

  16. The Effect of Methimazole on Thyroid Gland Uptake of Technetium in Hyperthyroid Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Farshid Gheisari; Gholamreza Pishdad; Mehrdad Emami; Kasra Behdad; Aida Karimpour; Maryam Sharifian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methimazole on Technetium-99m reabsorbing by thyroid gland , it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole. Patients and Methods: Among all the patients with hyperthyroidism who referred to nuclear medicine ward of Shiraz University of medical sciences, 50 patients were randomly selected. we asked the ...

  17. Chronic gamma-radiation impact upon the state of thyroid gland of tundra voles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The histomorphological estimation of the thyroid gland status of tundra voles living in the radiation polluted sites (30-km zone around Chernobyl nuclear plant and the Komi Republic) was given in the experiment. Nature populations of tundra voles have more high variety of the thyroid parenchyma morphological reconstructions in comparison with the experimental animals. Mechanisms of the response to the radiation influence in the nature and in the experiment are different. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of skin absorption of tincture of I in blocking radioiodine from the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topical application of tincture of iodine (I) was found to be effective in blocking the thyroid uptake of orally administered 131I in humans. Abdominal skin application of tincture of I resulted in an approximately 82% reduction in the uptake of 131I by the thyroid gland. The effectiveness varied among individuals and may have depended on the quantity applied and on the application site. In each study group, elevated levels of serum I were observed

  19. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland arising from a papillary epithelial neoplasm.

    OpenAIRE

    AREZZO, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland. The simultaneous association of papillary and mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a Hashimoto's thyroiditis makes the present observation unusual. Surgery was limited due to local extension of the neoplasm. The patient consequently underwent external radiotherapy followed by radiometabolic therapy. The patient survived 11 months after diagnosis. As far as the histogenesis of the neoplasm is concerned, we believe that mucoepidermoid ar...

  20. Calcium iodate-another effective blocker of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, D N; Jagtap, V S; Sonawane, V R; Rajan, M G R; Samuel, A M

    2005-07-01

    KI and KIO3 are the commonly used prophylactic drugs for the protection of thyroid glands against radioiodine. In this study, we have demonstrated the use of another iodine containing salt, calcium iodate [Ca(IO3)2], as an effective blocker of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland in rats. Ca(IO3)2 is permitted by the FDA as a food additive and is "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS, CFR No.1206). We have also compared the efficacy of Ca(IO3)2 with KIO3 in blocking thyroidal uptake of radioiodine, which could be important considering the better shelf life of Ca(IO3)2. Laboratory rats were administered 131I and stable iodide in the form of KIO3 or Ca(IO3)2 was given orally, 2 h after the administration of 131I. All the animals were monitored for whole body retention (WBR) of 131I, at 24 h and further for 14 d. The results of the present study provide us with evidence that Ca(IO3)2 can serve as another promising radioiodine blocker, and is as equipotent as KI/KIO3 in protecting the thyroid gland. We have not found any studies that examined the property of Ca(IO3)2 in blocking radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland and the present study is an attempt in this direction. PMID:15951696

  1. Postirradiation changes in the thyroid gland and skeletal muscle of rats injected with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional status of rat skeletal muscles was studied at dormancy and during the intensive muscular work under conditions of repeated administration of iodine 131 in doses causing reversible and irreversible damages to thyroid gland (the absorbed doses were from 0.27 to 266 Gy). The biochemical changes in muscles were transient; they correlated with the thyroid gland status and lifetime of animals and were displayed during the first 15 days and 2-12 months after the start of the isotope injection

  2. Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author)

  3. Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikekubo, Katsuji; Hino, Megumu; Ito, Hidetomi and others

    1989-03-01

    Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T/sub 3/ suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author).

  4. The diagnostic value of 99Tcm-MIBI imaging to benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the characteristic of 99Tcm-MIBI double-phase imaging, and compared with the pathologic result to discuss and evaluate the diagnostic and difference diagnostic value of early-imaging and delayed-imaging to benign and malignant lesion in thyroid. Methods: Eighty-nine pathological proven thyroid lesions patients were included in this study (38 cases of thyroid cancer and 51 cases of thyroid benign lesion). 99Tcm-MIBI early-imaging and delayed-imaging of thyroid were performed, and comparatively analyzed the T/NT ratio of early-imaging and delayed-imaging of thyroid cancer and thyroid benign lesion. Results: There was no significance in the T/NT ratio of 99Tcm-MIBI early-imaging between thyroid cancer group (T/NT=1.32±0.03) and thyroid benign lesion group (T/NT=1.26±0.22) (t=0.63, P>0.05). The T/NT ratio of delayed-imaging was high (T/NT=1.72±0.39) than that of benign lesion (T/NT=1.20±0.36), and there was statistically significance between them (t=3.45, P99Tcm-MIBI early-imaging but specify is low, and specify is high for diagnosing thyroid cancer using 99Tcm-MIBI delayed-imaging, which is better for differencing malignancy from benignity in thyroid. (authors)

  5. Detection and characterization of RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin in the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Kluger, Sibylle; Kühne, Christian A; Dunstan, Colin R; Burchert, Andreas; Schoppet, Michael; Zielke, Andreas; Heufelder, Armin E

    2002-01-01

    Receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) play essential roles in bone metabolism and immune responses. RANKL activates RANK, which is expressed by osteoclasts and dendritic cells (DC), whereas OPG acts as its decoy receptor. The role of RANKL and OPG in thyroid physiology is unclear. Northern analysis revealed pronounced OPG mRNA levels in normal human thyroid. By contrast, RANKL mRNA levels were most abundant in lymph node and appendix, and low in the thyroid. In the human thyroid follicular cell line XTC and in primary human thyroid follicular cells, OPG mRNA levels and protein secretion were upregulated by interleukin (IL)-1beta (33-fold), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (eightfold), and thyrotropin (TSH) (threefold). RANKL mRNA was stimulated in XTC by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, but inhibited by TSH. Conditioned medium harvested from IL-1beta-treated XTC (containing high concentrations of OPG) inhibited RANKL-induced CD40 upregulation and cluster formation of DC. OPG mRNA levels were three times more abundant in surgical thyroid specimens of Graves' disease as compared to other thyroid diseases. Our data suggest that RANKL and OPG are produced in the thyroid gland by thyroid follicular cells, are regulated by cytokines and TSH, and are capable of modulating dendritic cell functions. Thus, these cytokines may represent important local immunoregulatory factors involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:12210731

  6. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Mazzucchelli; Sergio Suriano; Luca Giovanella; Fabrizio Fasolini

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Hi...

  7. A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T4) and/or triiodothyronine (T3). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins ardance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism

  8. Radonuclide sialoscentigraphy in assessment of parotid salivary glands function after radioiodinetherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Function of parotid salivary glands in patients subjected to radiotherapy with radioactive iodine using radionuclide sialoscintigraphy was studied. 28 patients with thyroid cancer subjected to 131I therapy were examined. It was stated that in patients receiving 1.2-1.6 GBq 131I disturbances of parotid salivary gland function, manifested in decrease of excretory function without secretory deficiency of parenchymatous cells were developed. When radioactive iodine dose was above 4 GBq, secretory function of parotid salivary glands, which degree depended on introduced 131I medical activities, was disturbed

  9. Follicular lesion of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walts, Ann E; Mirocha, James; Bose, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the validity of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), an indeterminate diagnostic category of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). According to BSRTC, FLUS carries a 5-15% risk of cancer. This study was designed to determine if cytomorphology could stratify FLUS into subgroups with different risks of malignancy. Reports of 127 consecutive FNAs reported as FLUS with subsequent tissue diagnoses were evaluated for the presence of various cytologic features and the results were correlated with histological diagnoses. FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia (nuclear overlap/crowding, nuclear grooves/membrane irregularities, nuclear enlargement, and/or nuclear pseudoinclusions) were more frequently malignant on excision whereas those with architectural atypia (microfollicles) were more often benign on excision (P thyroid resection. Papillary carcinomas predominated in excised FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia whereas most FLUS with architectural atypia were adenomas or hyperplastic nodules on histological evaluation. BSRTC recommends that thyroid aspirates containing follicular cell nuclear and/or architectural atypia insufficient for a diagnosis of suspicious for follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy or malignant be classified as FLUS. Our findings indicate that FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia carry a risk for malignancy that is substantially higher than that assigned to FLUS and are best classified as suspicious. FLUS cases lacking these atypical nuclear features have a risk for malignancy that approximates the risk BSRTC has assigned to FLUS. PMID:23894017

  10. Lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma masquerading as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Kung; Tsai, Chieh-Chih; Lin, Chin-Hsuan; Kau, Hui-Chuan; Kao, Shu-Ching; Lee, Fenq-Lih

    2013-08-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most common cause of proptosis in adult female, especially those with positive thyroid antibody. Sometimes, other diagnoses should be considered. A 45-year-old female presented with progressive right proptosis and mild diplopia for 2 years. One year earlier, she had been diagnosed with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy because of abnormal thyroid autoantibody. Computed tomography scan showed a 2.4- × 1.9- × 1.6-mm heterogeneous soft-tissue density lying above the left eye. Excisional biopsy of this mass revealed the histopathologic diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. This case highlights the need for including other diagnoses such as pleomorphic adenoma in the differential diagnosis of patients with proptosis, diplopia and abnormal thyroid antibody. PMID:23514669

  11. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  12. Thyroid lesions in children and adolescents after the Chernobyl disaster: Implications for the study of radiation tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the most obvious effect is manifested by an increase in the prevalence of thyroid gland diseases in the exposed children and adolescents. In this study, we describe a comparative analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and morphological features of 92 malignant and 59 benign thyroid lesions from patients 5-18 yr of age exposed to radiation in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. All of them were operated at the same institution during the period from September 1991 through December 1992. The highest number of patients that subsequently developed thyroid carcinomas was in the group that was less that 1 yr of age at the time of Chernobyl, and this number decreased progressively through age 12 yr. Conversely, none of the patients with benign lesions only was less than 2 yr old at the time of the accident, and an exposure age of 5-6 yr was a threshold separating significant prevalence of malignant tumors in younger children from the more frequently benign lesions in older patients (P ? 0.001). Fifty-two percent of the children with carcinomas and only 24% with benign lesions (P ? 0.005) were residents of the Gomel region, which is the most contaminated in Belarus. The morphology of thyroid tissue adjacent to carcinomas showed a high prevalence of multinodular and diffuse changes, but not of adenomas or solitary adenomatoid nodules. There was a high prevalence of focal micropapillary hyperplasia with graded degopapillary hyperplasia with graded degrees of severity, which we hypothesize may correspond to precursors for papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl radiation-associated tumors. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Arterial embolization of thyroid gland for treating Graves' disease and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial embolization of thyroid gland is a new way to treat Graves' disease. However, there exist some problems about this treatment and no normalized procedure techniques have been stated. The authors reviewed many research papers with regards to the current status of this treatment and its existing problems. (authors)

  14. Effect of laser treatment on thyroid gland hormones in female rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. AL-Mustawfi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of laser treatment on thyroid functions and hormones in female rabbits. A total of 18 female rabbits were used in this investigation. Six rabbits were used for examining the thyroid gland location and dissected to be sure that laser therapy will be directed to this gland. Twelve female rabbits were used in this experiment to study the physiological effect of laser therapy (4J/cm2 on normal thyroid function they were divided into two equal groups, six used as control and the others were exposed to laser therapy at the thyroid gland region for three successive days for 5 minutes on each side. Then blood was collected for hormonal assay from ear vein at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after the last dose of laser treatment. The results revealed a gradual decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels with a concomitant increase in TSH level at the first eighteen days of laser treatment, then normalization of hormones level were take place to be normal after thirty days. More work is needed on this subject to examine the specific role of laser on glands.

  15. Radiation-induced head and neck tumours: is the skin as sensitive as the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six hundred and five persons, randomly selected from 2400 patients who had been irradiated 16-46 yr previously for benign diseases in the head and neck region, were recalled and examined for radiation-associated tumours. Three hundred and sixty-seven patients were alive, 179 had died and 66 had emigrated. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients were clinically examined, 87 refused or were unable to participate and 16 could not be contacted. Eighteen of the clinically examined patients had been or were being treated for 20 skin carcinomas with a mean latency of 37 yr. In this group only 7 carcinomas of the thyroid gland were observed, with a mean latency of 38 yr. Eleven carcinomas of the skin and 3 of the thyroid gland were reported in the group which was examined by questionnaires. The observed number of carcinomas of the skin is higher than expected according to the dose-effect relationship of UNSCEAR, whereas the number of carcinomas of the thyroid gland is lower. It is concluded that there might be less difference in susceptibility for the induction of tumours by ionizing radiation between the skin and the thyroid gland than is commonly assumed. (author)

  16. Comparative radioisotope study on the function of the thyroid gland of some farm animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope functional investigations of the thyroid gland were carried out with weaned lambs and pigs. The 131I captation capacity of the thyroid gland was studied to characterize the inogranic phase of iodine exchange. The evaluation of the hormone producing function of the thyroid gland required the determination of the level of the protein-bound 131 I (PB 131 I), T3-binding capacity of the thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) and the ratio of the T3-binding capacity of TBG and the free thyroxine (T4) calculated as the FT4 index.Established was the species peculiarity of the 131 I captation capacity of the thyroid gland in weaned lambs and pigs in the early phases of investigation. At the second hour the percent captation was calculated as 7.2+-0.8 and 1.11+-0.21%, respectively. The values of PB 131 I, T3-binding capacity of TBG and FT4 of pigs varied within the limits of 1.20+-0.05%, 0.605+-0.012, and 0.976+-0.015 and of weaned lambs they were 0.954+-0.009%, 0.912+-0.017 and 0.890+-0.03. (authors)

  17. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-28

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  18. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  19. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  20. Histological structure of the thyroid gland in apolipoprotein E deficient female mice after levothyroxine application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, I; Mitevska, E; Gerasimovska, Z; Milenkova, L; Kostovska, N

    2014-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The aim of this study was to determine the histological characteristics of the thyroid gland in ApoE KO(-/-) mice following the application of levothyroxine (l-thyroxine). A total of 12 female ApoE KO(-/-) mice were divided into two groups. A control group of mice received distilled water and the experimental group received l-thyroxine dissolved in drinking water at a daily dose of 2 µg/ml, over 12 weeks. The paraffin sections were processed with the usual haematoxilin-eosin technique of staining. Qualitative histological analysis demonstrated: the presence of large distended follicles in the peripheral areas of the gland; fulfillment of the lumen of follicles with an ample amount of colloid; complete absence of resorptive vacuoles in the colloid; a flattened follicullar epithelium. Morphometric assessment showed a significant increase in the diameters of follicles in the peripheral areas of the gland and a significant decrease in the height of the follicullar epithelium (p < 0,001). Our results demonstrated that l-thyroxine causes characteristic morphological changes in the structure of the thyroid gland in the direction of the occurrence of hyperthyroidism. Key words: thyroid gland, ApoE KO(-/-) female mice, morphometric analysis, l-thyroxine. PMID:25725701

  1. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound. Thyroid screening participants were invited, with informed consent, from 6 exposed and 2 non-exposed villages of the Semipalatinsk region. Of those screened, 1320 were presumably exposed and 1678 presumably were not. This collaborative research project was supported by the CRDF, USA, International award no.KN2-434. Reconstructed average gamma dose was used as a preliminary index of total thyroid dose from internal and external sources of radiation exposure. Nodular thyroid gland was identified in 920 participants, of whom 500 were recommended for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). Nodule prevalence was 18% among men and 39% among women with a 3.5% per year positive gradient in prevalence overall by age at screening, and was significantly associated with estimated gamma radiation dose. Excess prevalence rate was approximately the same among men and women, with a 3-fold higher dose-specific relative risk among men compared to women. Prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased non-significantly with dose, but prevalence of follicular neoplasm was not associated with dose. Cytopathology review identified 30 papillary carcinomas in 27 cases and 10 follicular neoplasms in 10 cases. Some patients with thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer were referred to surgical department. They have been treated successfully by surgery or by percutaneus injection of erythrocyte pharmacocytes in accordance with our own procedure. Intraoperative thyroid tissue sampling was done to do some molecular and genetic investigation. Several aspects related to hormone status of thyroid patients, the thyroid gland function among various group of patients, morphological findings, surgical tactics and rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities living around the SNTS, will be presented. (author)

  2. The Effect of Methimazole on Thyroid Gland Uptake of Technetium in Hyperthyroid Patients

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    Farshid Gheisari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methimazole on Technetium-99m reabsorbing by thyroid gland , it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole. Patients and Methods: Among all the patients with hyperthyroidism who referred to nuclear medicine ward of Shiraz University of medical sciences, 50 patients were randomly selected. we asked the patients who were on Methimazole, to discontinue the usage of all drugs (not Methimazole and foods which are effective on thyroid gland for 1 week, after that thyroid scan was performed for these patients. In The other episode, we asked them to discontinue the usage of all drugs (also Methimazole and foods which are effective on thyroid gland for 1 week and then thyroid scan was performed again .Revealed data was analyzed under supervision of statistical specialist with descriptive methods on SPSS. Results: 34 patients were males (68% and other was females. Mean age of the patients was 53.5 years. (Min: 39 years and max: 75 years Although The ROI (Region of Interest of thyroid was increased in the patients who used methimazole before scan 398.72(SD: 191.73 than the patients who discontinued for one week 380.15 (SD: 112.49, but the difference wasn’t statistically significant. The ROI of peripheral tissue of the thyroid was decreased in the patients who used methimazole before scan 26.44(SD: 5.42 than the patients who discontinued for one week 27.0414 (SD: 5.57, but the difference wasn’t statistically significant. Discussion: In conclusion, we demonstrated that methimazole pretreatment does not interfere with either the efficacy of ROI and reabsorbing of Technetium-99m in thyroid gland and peripheral tissues. A possible limitation of this study is the number of patients in the sample.So it seems that it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole.

  3. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland. Clinical usefulness of dynamic study in thallium-201 chloride scintigraphy for differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, Toshihiro

    1987-07-01

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital ..gamma.. camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule.

  4. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Land, C.; Hartshorne, M. [and others

    2000-05-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound. Thyroid screening participants were invited, with informed consent, from 6 exposed and 2 non-exposed villages of the Semipalatinsk region. Of those screened, 1320 were presumably exposed and 1678 presumably were not. This collaborative research project was supported by the CRDF, USA, International award no.KN2-434. Reconstructed average gamma dose was used as a preliminary index of total thyroid dose from internal and external sources of radiation exposure. Nodular thyroid gland was identified in 920 participants, of whom 500 were recommended for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). Nodule prevalence was 18% among men and 39% among women with a 3.5% per year positive gradient in prevalence overall by age at screening, and was significantly associated with estimated gamma radiation dose. Excess prevalence rate was approximately the same among men and women, with a 3-fold higher dose-specific relative risk among men compared to women. Prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased non-significantly with dose, but prevalence of follicular neoplasm was not associated with dose. Cytopathology review identified 30 papillary carcinomas in 27 cases and 10 follicular neoplasms in 10 cases. Some patients with thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer were referred to surgical department. They have been treated successfully by surgery or by percutaneus injection of erythrocyte pharmacocytes in accordance with our own procedure. Intraoperative thyroid tissue sampling was done to do some molecular and genetic investigation. Several aspects related to hormone status of thyroid patients, the thyroid gland function among various group of patients, morphological findings, surgical tactics and rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities living around the SNTS, will be presented. (author)

  5. Cytohistopathological Study of Salivary Gland Lesions in Bundelkhand Region, Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Omhare; Sanjeev Kumar Singh,; Jitendra Singh Nigam; Ankit Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Background. FNAC is a useful method for evaluating suspicious salivary glands lesions due to its low cost, minimum morbidity, rapid turnaround time, high specificity, and sensitivity. Aim. To know the frequency of the salivary gland lesions and cytohistological correlation in the Jhansi region, Uttar Pradesh, India. Material and Methods. In present study 124 cases were included and cytohistological correlation was made in 86 cases only. FNA was performed by using a 23/24-gauge needle without ...

  6. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegue (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings.

  7. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  8. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  9. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles and parafollicular C-cells. A high degree of co-existence between PACAP and VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) was observed in the intrathyroid nerve fibres and cell bodies of the thyroid ganglion indicating a common origin for the two peptides. A minor population of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres with relation to blood vessels co-stored NPY (neuropeptide Y), whereas only a few fibres co-stored CGRP. PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptor mRNA's occurred in follicular cells and blood vessels, whereas the expression of the VPAC(2) receptor was low. The findings suggest that PACAP plays a role in the regulation of parathyroid and thyroid blood flow and hormone secretion.

  10. Use of 131-I metaiodinebenzylgunidine (131-I MIBG) in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most common problems of modern oncology practice and nuclear medicine is the treatment of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), which is considered to be the tumor of the APUD system. The neoplasm originates from C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland. The tumor is hormone-active and can produce calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland constitutes 3-13% of all malignant thyroid tumors. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes, mediastinum, lungs, liver, bones are frequent. The purpose of our work was to review the efficacy of MCT treatment done in our centre. Since 1999 131I-MIBG (Amersham-Nycomed) has been used in the treatment of MCT at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology. During 1999-2002, 131I-MIBG was administered in various doses (100 to 300 mCi) to 12 patients with different stages of MCT. Four non-radically operated patients with local dissemination of the tumor were cured following 131I-MIBG therapy (total activity 200-300 mCi, follow up period - 2 years). In four patients reduction in the tumor volume and/or disappearance of metastases in the cervical nodes (follow-up period 1.5 years, total activity of 131I-MIBG 100 - 200 mCi) was noticed. Three patients are still on follow up since 1.5 years (total activity of 131I-MIBG 100-200 mCi). One patient died due to the progression of disease. Myelosuppression was not observed in any of the treated patients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promiients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promising radiopharmaceutical for treatment medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  11. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  12. Phototherapeutic Effect of Low-Level Laser on Thyroid Gland of Gamma-Irradiated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Nadia; Omran, Manar; Ghanem, Hala; Elahdal, Mahmoud; Kamel, Nashwa; Attia, Elbatoul

    2015-07-01

    One inescapable feature of life on the earth is exposure to ionizing radiation. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to gamma-radiation and endocrine disrupters. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to stimulate tissue repair, and reduce inflammation. The aim of this study was to gauge the value of using Helium-Neon laser to repair the damaged tissues of thyroid gland after gamma-irradiation. Albino rats were used in this study (144 rats), divided into control, gamma, laser, and gamma plus laser-irradiated groups, each group was divided into six subgroups according to time of treatment (total six sessions). Rats were irradiated once with gamma radiation (6 Gy), and an external dose of laser (Wavelength 632.8 nm, 12 mW, CW, Illuminated area 5.73 cm(2) , 2.1 mW cm(-2) , 120 s, 1.4 J, 0.252 J cm(-2) ) twice weekly localized on thyroid region of the neck, for a total of six sessions. Animals were sacrificed after each session. Analysis included thyroid function, oxidative stress markers, liver function and blood picture. Results revealed improvement in thyroid function, liver function and antioxidant levels, and the blood cells count after LLLT. PMID:25975382

  13. Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

  14. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  15. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  16. Representation of medical concepts of the thyroid gland by physicians in anatomy and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, L; Bastien, C; Roux, M

    1994-10-01

    An experimental study in cognitive psychology is described, concerning the categorization of medical concepts into specific classes, expressed by physicians specialized in anatomic pathology consultations of the thyroid gland. This study belongs to a medical computer science project, called ARISTOTLE, concerning Natural Language Processing of specialized medical reports in anatomic pathology of the thyroid gland. This research has been done for two reasons; first, to specify the characteristics of human expert categorization in an area of medical knowledge and, secondly, to validate the hierarchical organization of a prototype declarative knowledge base. In this experiment, physicians were asked to categorize 121 concepts into 10 proposed classes. These classes and concepts belong to expert knowledge represented in a conceptual graph that was constructed before the experiment. Results show variable semantic distances between concepts of a same class, and dynamic variations of these distances due to contextual representation. PMID:7799814

  17. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3±11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1±10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2±12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2±1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  18. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  19. Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide / Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Augusto T., Bertelli; Luiz Cláudio Bosco, Massarollo; Erivelto Martinho, Volpi; Rubens Yassuzo Ykko, Ueda; Elci, Barreto.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e [...] podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento. Abstract in english Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may [...] be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

  20. Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto T. Bertelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento.Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

  1. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Iodine I 131 and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  2. Action of different doses of 131I on thyroid gland, its tissue distribution and elimination in adult male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult male Wistar rats were administered 4, 37, 74 or 185 MBq/kg 131I i.p. Activities were measured in the thyroid gland or region, blood plasma (total and protein bound), salivary glands, cerebral cortex, skin, liver, spleen, small intestine, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle after 1-30 (36) days. Beginning 8 days after radiothyroidectomy the remaining or possibly regenerated thyroid function was tested with a test dose of 185 kBq/kg i.p. After administration of 4 MBq/kg 131I the thyroid gland showed a regeneration within 30 days, but not after treatment with higher doses. The time course of tissue distribution of activity is dose dependent: after 4 MBq/kg 131I increasing activities after the 3rd-8th day are observed in skin, brain, salivary glands, intestine, spleen, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle. After 37 MBq/kg 131I only in skin, brain, liver and intestine increasing activities between the 8th and 30th day have been observed. After 185 MBq/kg 131I only in skin, spleen and intestine increasing activities after the 15th day were measured. Thyroid gland activity 24 hs after administration of 185 kBq/kg 131I showed during the experimental period of 50 days considerable variation with a factor of 4 for thyroid gland, 8 for protein-bound and about 10 for total plasma 131I activity. (author)

  3. Criteria to form a > of thyroid gland diseases appearance in those who took part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report and discuss the results of clinical study of the thyroid gland and hormonal thyroid state in 100 male patients who had taken part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects. The revealed changes in the thyroid homeostasis state depending the terms of observation and enlargement of the thyroid gland (stage 1 - 2) in 32% of the patients suggest of appearance of predisposing factors to development of the thyroid gland pathologic conditions. Criteria to form a > of thyropathy appearance in those who took part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects were determined

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ? 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

  5. A fatal case of an adrenal gland melanoma with a mysterious primary lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Ahmed; Engelbrecht, Matthys J.; Heerden, Izak J.

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal gland involvement by metastatic melanoma is a common finding in patients with cutaneous or ocular melanomas. We report on the presence of an adrenal gland melanoma in a young female, without a documented primary lesion. A diagnosis of a primary adrenal melanoma was considered and after applying diagnostic criteria, could not be established. An attempt at resection via a nephroadrenalectomy and bilateral pulmonary metastectomies were performed. At 6-month follow up the patient pr...

  6. Estereología de la Glándula Tiroides Humana / Stereology of the Human Thyroid Gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Salgado A; Bélgica, Vásquez; Mariano, del Sol.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La glándula tiroides es una glándula endocrina voluminosa, impar, mediana y simétrica, que ocupa la parte anterior del cuello, en la unión del tercio inferior con los dos tercios superiores. La unidad funcional y estructural de la glándula tiroides es el folículo tiroideo. Los folículos están separa [...] dos unos de otros por escaso tejido conectivo interfolicular. Se ha observado en modelos experimentales animales, diversos valores estereológicos de células foliculares, parafoliculares y coloide. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si existe un patrón estereológico en la glándula tiroides humana en un grupo etáreo y sexo definidos. Para ello, se ocupó una muestra de 6 glándulas tiroides humanas extraidas de cadáveres no fijados, de individuos adultos de sexo masculino, sin antecedentes de patología o alteración tiroídea.Se procesaron histológicamente con H-E para su estudio estereológico. Los resultados mostraron valores promedio para la densidad de volumen del tejido glandular (33,8%) y del coloide (63,17%), densidad de superficie del folículo tiroídeo (21,09 mm2/mm3), densidad de número de células foliculares (10,81 x 105 células/mm3) y parafoliculares (1,81 x 105 células/mm3). Conocido el volumen promedio de la glándula (21,3 mm3), se determinó el número total de células foliculares (230,22 x 105) y parafoliculares (38,33 x 105). Además, se determinó el número de folículos por mm2 (46,18 folículos/mm2). El conocimiento previo de los valores numéricos y proporciones normales estereólogicos permite establecer parámetros que determinen la alteración hiper o hipotrófica de origen endémico o exógeno que lleven a estratificar ciertas alteraciones, hecho observado en modelos experimentales donde las diferencias son significativas. Abstract in english The thyroid gland is a an extensive, medium and symmetrical endocrine gland situated on the anterior side of the neck at the lower third and the upper third junction. The thyroid follicle is the functional and structural unit of the thyroid gland. Follicles are separated from each other by narrow in [...] terfollicular connective tissue. Stereological values of follicular, parafollicular and colloid containing follicles have been observed in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of a stereological pattern in the human thyroid gland defined by age and sex. A sample of six human thyroid glands of adult males with no history of thyroid disease or disorder obtained from non fixed human cadavers; of these cadavers the gland was removed and processed for thyroid follicle density (21.09 mm 2/mm 3), follicular cell number density (10.81 x10 5 cells/mm3) and parafollicular (1.81 x 10 cells/mm 3). With the average gland volume (21.3 mm 3) we determined the total number of follicular cells (230.22 x 10 5) and parafollicular (38.33 x 105). The number of follicles per mm 2 (46.18 follicles/mm2) was also determined. Prior information and knowledge of numerical values and normal stereological proportions provides excellent parameters for determining hyper or hypotrophic endemic or exogenous alterations leading to stratification of certain disorders which was already observed in experimental models where differences amongst models were significant.

  7. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  8. Patología quirúrgica de la glándula tiroides / Surgical pathology of the thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Oré; José, Saavedra.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Debido a la gran diversidad de patología quirúrgica de la glándula tiroides y su alta frecuencia en nuestro medio, creemos conveniente presentar nuestra experiencia en esta patología. Objetivos: Conocer la incidencia de la patología quirúrgica de la glándula tiroides, según diagnóstico [...] anatomopatológico, en pacientes operados. Diseño: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional y descriptivo. Lugar: Servicio de cirugía de cabeza y cuello, Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima, Perú, hospital de enseñanza médica. Participantes: Pacientes operados de la glándula tiroides. Intervenciones: Se revisó las historias clínicas de pacientes operados de la glándula tiroides, desde enero de 1997 hasta diciembre de 2006. Principales medidas de resultados: Resultados anatomopatológicos en los especímenes de glándula tiroides. Resultados: Hubo 274 casos operados, de los cuales 81,4% del total correspondió al sexo femenino; 56,9% de los casos provenía de fuera de Lima y Callao, con edades que fluctuaban desde los 30 y 59 años. El tumor fue el signo predominante en 97,8% de los casos. La operación realizada más frecuente fue la tiroidectomía total (39,8%). La patología benigna representó 58% de los casos, con el adenoma folicular como principal patología benigna (23%); dentro de las neoplasias malignas (42% del total), 23,7% era carcinoma papilar. Conclusiones: La patología tumoral tiroidea presentó un marcado predominio en el sexo femenino, principalmente en los grupos etáreos de la 4a, 5a y 6a décadas. La patología glandular tiroidea fue en su mayoría benigna, y de la maligna, el carcinoma papilar. Con alto valor de especificidad (97,7%) y valor predictivo positivo (95,4%), la biopsia de aspiración por aguja fina de tiroides continúa siendo el examen auxiliar más importante en el estudio del paciente con patología tumoral tiroidea. Abstract in english Introduction: Due to the great diversity and variety of thyroid surgical pathology in our country, we review our experience with this pathology. Objectives: To determine the incidence of thyroid gland surgical pathology in patients undergoing surgery. Design: Descriptive and retrospective study. Set [...] ting: Head and neck service, Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima, Peru, a teaching hospital. Participants: Patients undergoing surgery of the thyroid gland. Interventions: Clinical histories and surgical reports involving the thyroid gland in the period January 1997 through December 2006 were reviewed. Main outcome measures: Pathology results of thyroid gland surgical specimens. Results: Two hundred and seventy four cases had thyroid surgery, 81,4% females; 56,9% of the cases corresponded to Lima, capital of Peru. Incidence was higher between 30 and 59 years of age. Growing tumor was the most frequent sign with 97,8%. Total thyroidectomy was the most frequent surgery (39,8%). Benign pathologies represented 58% of the cases, with follicular adenoma as the main pathology (23%); and for malignant tumors (42% from the total) papillary carcinoma was the main neoplasia (23,7%). Conclusions: Surgical pathology of the thyroid gland had higher incidence in women, mainly in the 4th, 5th and 6th age decades. Thyroid tumors were by far benign and the main malignant tumor was papillary carcinoma. Fine needle aspiration biopsy continues to be the most important auxiliary study in the patient with a thyroid tumor, with high specificity value (97,7) and positive predictive value (95,4).

  9. Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocyticsions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive control. BRAF T1799A mutation was detected in 7 of 26 PTCs included in the study but not in follicular or medullary carcinoma, benign tumors and thyroid tumor-like lesions. No mutations were found in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in all cases including those tested positive for BRAF T1799A. Histological analysis showed that among 26 PTCs studied, 18 had conventional papillary architecture and 8 cases were follicular variant of PTC. Mutations were detected in conventional type PTCs only (38.9%, 7/18), but not in follicular variant tumors. The occurrence of BRAF T1799A mutation did not correlate with tumor metastatic potential although such observation may be due in part to a relatively small number of appropriate cases available for the study. As a whole, our data demonstrate that BRAF T1799A mutation is a prevalent mutational event in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its presence strongly correlates with conventional PTC hypostat but not with follicular variant that is in line with results of other laboratories. The findings suggest that detection of BRAF mutation may be used for molecular diagnostic purposes both preoperatively (on fine needle aspiration biopsy material) and after surgical treatment for differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma to distinguish it from other histological types of thyroid cancer

  10. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Kyriakos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid metastases are rarely seen in clinical practice but should be considered particularly in patients with a history of non-thyroidal malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common tumor to metastasize to the thyroid gland and may present many years after a nephrectomy. Thus, patients require a long-term follow-up and, physicians should have a high index of suspicion particularly in patients with benign disorders of the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and thyroglobulin immunohistochemical staining are considered the most effective methods for diagnosis. Surgical treatment of solitary thyroid metastases is recommended and prolongs survival. Adjuvant medical treatment may also be useful in specific situations. We present the unusual case of a relative young patient with goiter who presented with an intrathyroidal metastasis of RCC. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 58-60

  11. Experimental investigation with 198Au colloid as to lymph communications between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of a direct connection of lymph drainage between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland was examined using the lymphotropic radioactive tracer 198Au colloid. Twelve rabbits were examined. Six animals were injected with 50 ?Ci198Au colloid into the right thyroid lobe and six animals into the right retrobulbar space. Distribution and total bodyradioactivity was measured in vivo using a scintillation camera with a computer. After 6 hrs tissue specimens of different organs were measured in a well-counter. The discharge of activity from the thyroid after 6hrs was significantly higher than that from the retrobulbar space (63% versus 33.5%). This was probably due to a higher vascularisation and to a higher degree of lymph drainage of the thyroid. The lymph drainage of the thyroid gland as well as of the retrobulbar space occured mainly via the lymphonodi cerv.proff. No significant activity was found in the retrobulbar space after thyroid injection or in the thyroid after retrobulbar injection. It may be concluded from these results that there are not direct lymph connections between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland. However, indirect communications via the deep cervical lymph nodes cannot be excluded in the event of reverse lymph flow. (orig.)

  12. USING A NON-RADIOACTIVE IODINE AS A GATEKEEPER SUBSTANCE FOR THE THYROID GLAND FROM THE RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine is essential for the formation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, the two thyroid hormones that are essential for maintenance of normal metabolic rates in all the cells. The workers who exposed to radioactive iodine are that workers using radioimmunoassay techniques and those at reactors. The thyroid gland is a target organ of iodine thus, when it captured radioactive iodine as 125I and 131I through inhalation or food contamination, the thyroidal cells will be destroyed and the thyroid hormones production will be decreased leading hypothyroidism. Also, the individual living at places suffering from dietary iodine deficiency will need a source of iodine to maintain a normal level of thyroid hormones in blood. The present study aims to evaluate the protective dose of non-radioactive iodine, which saturate the cells of the thyroid gland with iodine and prevent entrance and capture of radioactive iodine by the thyroid cells and acting as a gatekeeper of the thyroid gland during manipulation of radioactive iodine and radioactive accidents. This study also evaluated the expected dose of iodine intake for the people suffering from dietary iodine deficiency

  13. Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

  14. Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Chang Woo; Kim, Chang Woo; Sin, Se Kwon; Jang, Kyeung Jae [Dae Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yi Tae [Dong A Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63{approx}0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67{approx}1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03{approx}2.11), 2.71 (0.97{approx}4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5{approx}0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59{approx}1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

  15. Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

  16. A Calcitonin-Negative Neuroendocrine Tumor Derived from Follicular Lesions of the Thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Young; Park, Chul Yun; Cho, Chang Ho; Park, June Sik; Jung, Eui Dal; Jeon, Eon Ju

    2014-12-01

    Neuroendocrine lesions of the thyroid are rare. The most common types are medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) and C-cell hyperplasia. MTCs originate from thyroid parafollicular cells that secrete calcitonin which serves as a serum marker of MTCs. Here, the rare case of a calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor (NET) derived from follicular lesions of the thyroid is described. A 34-year-old man presented at our hospital for the surgical management of an incidental thyroid nodule that was observed on an ultrasound sonography (USG) of the neck. Initially, USG-guided aspiration cytology was performed, and a MTC was suspected. The expressions of thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1, which are thyroid follicular cell markers, and synaptophysin and chromogranin A, which are neuroendocrine markers, was confirmed following surgical pathology. However, the staining of calcitonin, a marker of MTCs, was not observed. A nonmedullary NET of the thyroid is uncommon, and the distinction between calcitonin-negative NETs and MTCs of the thyroid may be important due to differences in their clinical courses and management. PMID:25491784

  17. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. 99mTcO4? scintigraphic detection of follicular thyroid cancer and multiple metastatic lesions: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chang-yin; Xiao, Bang-ru; Shen, Mei-juan; Shen, Ying; Cui, Kun-wei

    2013-01-01

    99mTcO4? thyroid imaging is often used to detect thyroid diseases that are confined to the neck. However, this examination is not frequently used to detect metastatic lesions of thyroid cancer in the whole body, while 131I imaging is often used to detect the metastases of differentiated thyroid cancers. The present study performed 99mTcO4? thyroid imaging for a 69-year-old patient with a thyroid nodule and incidentally identified a lesion with abnormally increased 99mTcO4? uptake in the...

  20. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADRIANA P.S., OTERO; RICARDO V., RODRIGUES; LUÍS A., SAMPAIO; LUIS A., ROMANO; MARCELO B., TESSER.

    1507-15-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ontogenia dos folículos da tireóide em Rachycentron canadum. Larvas foram coletadas diariamente (n= 15 – 20) desde a eclosão até 15 dae (dias após eclosão). Posteriormente foram coletadas a cada dois dias até o 28 dae; uma nova amostragem ocorreu aos 53 dae. A [...] s larvas foram desidratadas e emblocadas em Paraplast e secções de 3 µm foram desparafinadas, reidratas e coradas com HE e PAS. Um folículo estava presente ao 1 dae e três foram encontrados aos 8 dae. O número de folículos aumentou até 19 aos 53 dae. O diâmetro dos folículos e a altura das células foliculares foram menores ao 1dae (68,3 ± 1,00 e 4,6 ± 0,01 µm), mas aumentou a partir do 8 dae (24,03 ± 0,46 µm e 6,43 ± 0,46 µm). A partir do 8 dae a presença de vesículas de reabsorção foi observada no colóide e a partir de 19 dae alguns folículos não apresentaram colóide. O surgimento precoce do folículo da tireóide no bijupirá assim como a grande quantidade de folículos sem colóide e/ou com a presença de vesículas mesmo após a metamorfose podem ser a explicação do rápido crescimento da espécie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were d [...] ehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  1. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in AIDS patients: CT characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast agent-enhanced CT scans in nine male patients with histologically proved benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the perotid gland were reviewed. All scans showed cystic-appearing masses with peripheral rim enhancement corresponding to the macroscopic appearance of the lesion. Five patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or had infections seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Three patients were members of high-risk groups. Only one patient had symptoms of the SICCA syndrome. Once a rare cause of parotid gland enlargement, benign lymphoepithelial lesions have recently been seen with increasing frequency in patients with HIV infection. Although the CT appearance is not pathognomic, correlation results of aspiration cytology and with clinical history can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion

  2. Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohbuchi Toyoaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and extending nearly to the anterior cervical skin. A migratory fish bone was suspected, and the foreign body was removed under general anesthetic, combined with a hemithyroidectomy. The injured esophageal mucosa was sutured and closed. Our patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and she was allowed oral food intake seven days after the surgery. No evidence of recurrence was seen over the postoperative follow-up period of 42?weeks. Conclusion We should be aware that fish bone foreign bodies may migrate out of the upper digestive tract and lodge in the thyroid gland.

  3. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  4. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ([125I]iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM]. Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status

  5. Incidence of malignant thyroid tumors in humans after exposure to diagnostic doses of 131I. II. Estimation of thyroid gland size, thyroid radiation dose, and predicted versus observed number of malignant thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size of the thyroid glands was analyzed for 10% of the patients in a selected group that had been exposed to diagnostic doses of 131I. The mean thyroid gland weight +- SD was 50 +- 33 g for patients 20 or more years of age and 10 +- 5 g for patients less than 20 years of age. With the present follow-up, diagnostic doses of 131I appeared not to be associated with an increased risk for later development of malignant thyroid tumors. Possible reasons for the difference between the observed number of such tumors and the number expected (47 to 124) on the basis of risk estimates of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation are discussed

  6. Body, heart, thyroid gland and skeletal muscle weight changes in rats with altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zacha?ová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Jirmanová, Isa

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 6 (2001), s. 619-626. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA304/00/1653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid state * skeletal muscles * body and organ weight Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  7. Comparison of three methods used for measurement of radioiodine fixation in thyroid gland of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremi? Marija Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare the results of estimation of radioiodine uptake using three methods in a study on mice, and to test reliability of the radioiodine uptake estimation by gamma camera. The study is conducted on 21 white, Swiss-type mice of both sex at age of 10 weeks, weighing between 25 g and 34 g. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.37 ± ± 0.03 MBq of radioiodine 131I. After 72 hours the mice were anesthetized, and radioactivity of thyroid region was measured by gamma camera (the 1st method, in situ. After the measurement, the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were carefully excised together with adjacent trachea and placed at the bottom of a test tube. The radioactivity of the excised tissue was then measured by both gamma camera (the 2nd method and gamma counter (the 3rd method. This method is treated as a standard and the most accurate. In the study we used Siemens e_cam gamma camera and Wallac Wizard 1470 Automatic Gamma counter. The radioiodine fixation determined using those three methods was 25.25 ± 7.32%, 26.08 ± ± 8.55% and 25.74 ± 7.18%, without statisticaly significant difference s between methods (p > 0.05. The high correlation between the three methods of measuring radioiodine fixation in thyroid gland was observed: (1 the correlation coefficient between the fixation rate obtained by gamma camera in situ and the fixation rate obtained by measuring the radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma camera was 0.869 (p < 0.01; (2 the correlation coefficient between fixation rate obtained by gamma camera in situ and the fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma counter was 0.890 (p < 0.01; (3 the correlation coefficient between fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma camera and the fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma counter was 0.835 (p < 0.01.

  8. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | ...

  9. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  10. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  11. Composite Follicular Variant of Papillary Carcinoma and Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Yong Han; Kang, Mi Seon

    2010-01-01

    A 50-yr-old male presented a thyroid mass with dysphasia and hoarseness. He underwent total thyroidectomy and neck node dissection. Pathologically, the tumor had two distinct tumor components with intermingled areas: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma composed of columnar cells, mucocytes, and squamoid cells showing solid and cystic lesion. Several small cysts lined by benign ciliated columnar epithelia suggesting that this tumor h...

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Basu S 1,*; Nair N; Borges A

    2005-01-01

    Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule), who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopa...

  13. Ionizing radiation effects on thyroid gland state and peroxidation of lipids in adult and old rats with a hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the results of studies of peculiarities of thyroid gland (TG) state and antioxidant/prooxidant balance in the organism of adult and old (4 and 22 months) rats with hyperthyroidism after a single X-ray irradiating at the dose of 4.3 Gy. On the data on the levels of thyroid hormones in blood, body and TG mass, the indices of specific secretion of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were calculated

  14. Synchronous Occurrence of Papillary Carcinoma in the Thyroid Gland and Thyroglossal Duct in an Adolescent with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    ??klar, Zeynep; Berbero?lu, Merih; Ya?murlu, Ayd?n; Hac?hamdio?lu, Bülent; Sava? Erdeve, ?enay; Fitöz, Suat; K?r, Metin; Öçal, Gönül

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma (TC) combined with congenital hypothyroidism is rare. The synchronous occurrence of these two conditions is even rarer. We describe a patient with congenital hypothyroidism in whom hyperthyroglobulinemia and nodules developed despite adequate replacement therapy. Papillary TC was detected at age 19 years. Postoperative diagnostic scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the thyroglossal duct region. Repetitive imaging of the thyroid gland can be useful in the early detection ...

  15. A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient's pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author)

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of parotid gland associated with concurrent lymphoepithelial cysts and lymphoepithelial lesion: case report and proposed histogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jane H; Christopher Holsinger, F

    2015-06-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst and lymphoepithelial lesion have similar histologic features and an affinity for the parotid gland. Though considered as different entities, both conditions arise from heterotopic salivary epithelial rests or inclusions in intra- or peri-parotid lymph nodes. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of parotid gland associated with concurrent lymphoepithelial cyst and lymphoepithelial lesion in a patient who was not infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We propose that lymphoepithelial cyst and lymphoepithelial lesion have a similar histogenesis. PMID:25284597

  17. Timing of metamorphosis and the onset of the negative feedback loop between the thyroid gland and the pituitary is controlled by type II iodothyronine deiodinase in Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haochu; Cai, Liquan; Remo, Benjamin F.; Brown, Donald D.

    2001-01-01

    Two important features of amphibian metamorphosis are the sequential response of tissues to different concentrations of thyroid hormone (TH) and the development of the negative feedback loop between the pituitary and the thyroid gland that regulates TH synthesis by the thyroid gland. At the climax of metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis (when the TH level is highest), the ratio of the circulating precursor thyroxine (T4) to the active form 3,5,3?-triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood is many times ...

  18. Comparison of skin absorbed radiation dose in thyroid gland area during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Akhlaghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid gland is one of the critical organs during radiation in the head and neck region. The aim of this study was to compare absorbed radiation dose by skin in the thyroid area during spiral tomography and panoramic radiography by means of thermoluminance dosimetry (TLD.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six LiF (TLD-100 thermoluminescence dosimetry chips were utilized in this experimental in vitro study. One TLD chip was placed on the tube side and another was placed on the opposite side of the thyroid gland of a sliced anatomic Alderson head and neck phantom during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography. The dosimeters were read by a SOLARO 2A TLD reader twice followed by calculation of the absorbed dose. The results were analyzed by Wilcoxon’s test at a confidence interval of 95%.Results: The mean dose for screen-film panoramic radiographs was 34 µGy in the left thyroid and 39 on the right side. With spiral tomography the thyroid gland received a mean dose of 30?71 µGy. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean thyroid doses between anterior and posterior spiral tomography and panoramic examination (p value > 0.05.Conclusion: Skin absorbed radiation dose of a tomographic examination, which includes four sections with a specific thickness, are almost comparable to that with a panoramic radiographic technique. Key words: Absorbed dose, Spiral tomography, Panoramic radiography.

  19. The value of calcification in CT differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the diagnostic value of calcification in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: CT images of 318 consecutive patients with pathologically proven thyroid lesions were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The following characteristics of calcification on CT images were evaluated: (1) size (? 2 mm indicating microcalcification and >2 mm or shelly and irregular shape indicating macrocalcification, and both features indicating mixed calcification), (2) number (single or multiple) and (3) location (internal or edge). X2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results Of the 318 cases, 48 were diagnosed as malignant (papillary carcinoma 26, follicular carcinoma 7, medullary carcinoma 3 and microcarcinoma 12) and 270 were benign (nodular goiter 36, adenoma 170, nodular goiter with adenoma 38 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 26). Calcification was found in 60 cases (18.9%). Among them 21 (papillary carcinoma 12, microcarcinoma 6, follicular carcinoma 2 and medullary carcinoma 1) were malignant (43.8%) and 39 (nodular goiter 6, adenoma 13, nodular goiter with adenoma 19 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1) were benign (14.4%) (P0.05). Internal calcification was found in 15 cases of malignant lesions (71.4%) and 12 of benign lesions (30.8%); Edge calcification was found in 6 cases of malignant and 27 of benign, (P<0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of internal calcification for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma were 71.4% (15/21) and 69.2% (27/39), respectively. Conclusion: Internal calcification or (and) macrocalcification of t he thyroid lesions may strongly suspect thyroid carcinoma and fine-needle aspiration or surgery should be further performed. (authors)

  20. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of atrophic orthotopic thyroid gland in a patient with acquired hypothyroidism: Evaluation with hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately one per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in one in 4,000 to 8,000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. Multiple ectopia in the presence of orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a 13-year-old boy with stunted growth and developmental delay caused due to a...

  1. Radiofrequency ablation under ultrasonic guidance for the treatment of thyroid space-occupying lesions: recent progress in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid diseases has been increasing with each passing year in China. The clinical therapies commonly employed for thyroid space-occupying lesions include medication, surgery, interventional management, etc. With the development of interventional techniques in recent years, interventional managements, especially with the help of ultrasonic guidance, have become the treatment of first choice for thyroid space-occupying lesions. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review of the clinical application of ultrasound-guided RFA in treating thyroid space-occupying lesions. (authors)

  2. Silent thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism , followed by hypothyroidism . ... earliest symptoms result from an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). These symptoms may last for up to 3 ...

  3. A THYROID GLAND SHOWING PYRAMIDAL LOBE WITH LEVATO R GLANDULAE THYROIDEA .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Literature is replete with wide range of common and rare variations of thyroid gland. The presence of pyramidal lobe (accessory lo be – a rostral directed stalk that results from the retention and growth of the caudal end of thyroglossal duct and fibrous or fibromuscular levator glandulae thyroidea (LGT ari sing from its apex are commonly occurring variations . A 50 yrs Old Male Cadaver showed leva tor glandulae thyroidea with cranio caudal extension from the body of the hyoid bone to the ap ex of pyramidal lobe which was projecting upwards from the left ¾ th of isthmus without any encroachment on the left lo be of the thyroid gland. In the groove clearly demarcating pyramidal lobe from the left lobe, a glandular branch of anterior branch of left superior thyroid artery w as seen. It entered the pyramidal lobe inferiorly, just above the lower border of the isth mus. Just adjacent to the right lobe a small portion of isthmus with prominent and free upper border and lower border is seen. Due its frequent presence it may not be fascinating to the Anatomists but can definitely challenge the skill o f operating neck surgeons performing thyroidectomies, lobectomies and isthmusectomies an d Otolaryngologists performing tracheostomies ,tracheotomies and laryngotomies. T he wide range of variations in the number, size, extent and consistency of the levator glandul ae thyroidea (LGT and pyramidal lobe necessitate the pre operative ultrasonographic examina tion or scintigraphical images or intense contrast enhancement on CT/MRI scan for total anato mical details enabling relatively a safer surgery.

  4. Initial experience with software system JODNEW for evaluation biophysical characteristics related to treatment of carcinoma of thyroid gland by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research tries to exploit sophisticated methods for a balancing of positive and negative consequences of radionuclide applications. We have tailored Bayesian data processing in order to support decision making during treatment of thyroid diseases with help of 131I. After successful experimental phase we have implemented them. This novel in-house developed software system JODNEW i now tested. It aim at: (1) increasing quality of raw biophysical data exploited in diagnostics and therapy of thyroid diseases; (2) estimating cumulated activity so that MIRD methodology can be well used; (3) decreasing working load on staff. JODNEW is an extensive data-base system co-operating with advanced estimation algorithms coded in C++. The Bayesian methodology adopted allows us to exploit expert knowledge, models of observed processes as well as measured data in a consistent way. This is important in the considered case when the number of measurements is quite limited and influence of biological and physical variations is high. Moreover, all estimates are qualified by the remaining uncertainty. During diagnostics> The (functioning) volume of thyroid gland and body mass are measured. A diagnostic amount of 131I is administered. Three whole body measurements of elimination rate by urine (excretions) are made within 2 days after administration. The accumulated activities above thyroid gland and other lesions are registered within several days. Evaluation and measurements during therapy are: The accumulation ability is evaluated using diagnostic data. Consequences of 131I administration are judged, then, the therapeutic activity is selected and administered. The accumulation dynamics is supervised and reaching radio-hygienic limits influencing patient regime is predicted. The common features of these steps are: (1) Individual measurements are corrupted by a high and varying uncertainty; (2) The number of measurements is limited; (3) A significant expert experience is available; (4) The subsequent medical decisions have to be supported also by information about uncertainty of data. (authors)

  5. Detection of numerical alterations for chromosomes 7 and 12 in benign thyroid lesions by in situ hybridization. Histological implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, B.; Barros, A.; Suijkerbuijk, R. F.; Weghuis, D. O.; SERUCA, R.; E. Fonseca; Castedo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Polysomies of chromosomes 7 and 12 have been frequently observed by conventional cytogenetics in a subgroup of thyroid follicular adenomas and in some cases of thyroid goiters. To further study possible cytogenetic similarities between these two types of thyroid lesions, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect polysomies of chromosomes 7 and/or 12 in isolated nuclei from frozen and paraffin-embedded material of goiters and thyroid follicular adenomas and compared resu...

  6. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland evaluations in patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic examinations during tuberculosis therapy: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary abnormalities was determined in 91 women who received an average of 112 fluoroscopic chest examinations during pneumothorax treatment for tuberculosis more than 40 yr previously and in 72 women treated for tuberculosis by other modalities. Thyroid abnormalities were determined by physical examination, scintiscans, and measurements of serum free T4 index, TSH, and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Thyroid nodules were diagnosed in 7.7% of the exposed and 4.2% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 1.8; 90% confidence interval 0.6-5.7). Autoimmune thyroid disease was diagnosed in 15.2% of the exposed and 6.9% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-6.2). No salivary tumors were detected. Two exposed women and 1 comparison woman had primary hyperparathyroidism. Although absorbed dose to the thyroid could not be precisely determined, approximately 60 rads would be expected to yield the observed excess of thyroid nodules. While the prevalence ratios were not significantly increased in the exposed group, the results suggest that susceptibility of the thyroid to nodules from cumulative radiation doses of this magnitude could be increased even when the doses are accumulated over years and that such x-ray exposure of the thyroid gland may predispose the patient to the development of autoimmune disease

  7. Bone and liver images in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four patients with surgically documented medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) and elevated serum calcitonin levels had Tc-99m phosphate bone and/or Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver images for suspected metastases. Liver images demonstrated metastatic lesions in nine of 32 patients (28%). Bone images were positive for metastases in eight of 30 patients (27%). Four of these eight abnormal bone studies detected only skeletal lesions, two demonstrated only extraosseous metastases, and two showed both kinds. This study demonstrates that radionuclide bone and liver images frequently detect metastatic lesions in patients with MCT and elevated serum calcitonin levels, and that some nonskeletal metastases in patients with this tumor display an unusual affinity for bone-seeking radiotracers

  8. Malignancy in solitary nodular lesions of thyroid : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the cases seen for thyroid disorders, 150 cases with solitary nodule were studied to find out the correlation between the histopathological features and the functional status of the nodules. 35-45 ?Cs of sup(131)I was given orally and thyroid uptake was measured at 2,4,24 and 48 hours after administration and thyroid scan was done at the end of 24 hours. On the basis of sup(131)I concentration found in the nodules, single nodules were classified as hyperfunctioning, functioning, hypofunctioning and nonfunctioning. The incidence of malignancy was high in nonfunctioning and hypofunctioning nodules, while no malingnancy was found in the functioning types of nodules. These results are compared with those of other such studies. (M.G.B.)

  9. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  10. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  11. Peculiarities of integral brain activity under compromised thyroid gland function of children and adolescent from radionuclide contaminated territories of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    80 children with thyroid gland hypertrophy (50 girls + 30 boys, 10 - 17 years old) from Luninets town, the Brest region, were investigated for integral brain activity. Quantitative determination of thyrotropic hormone level in blood serum was made by using enzyme immunodetection. Mentation, attention and memory were tested by questionnaire design. Results of experiments are given

  12. A Logistic Regression Model Predicting Malignancy in Follicular Thyroid Lesions Based on CD56 Expression and Patient's Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abdelzaher

    2014-08-01

    of follicular thyroid lesions. It also could be of value in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from other lesions of benign nature such as FA and HN. CD56 expression is significantly associated with malignant behavior in thyroid follicular lesions, which suggests a role for CD56 in tumorogenesis. More importantly, the developed model and equation based on CD56 expression and patients age might be of value in the prediction of malignancy in follicular thyroid lesions, but it needs to be validated on a large scale accompanied by follow-up. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 205-212

  13. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens.

  14. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens

  15. Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deveci M Salih

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN, follicular neoplasm (FON and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN. This study reports our experience with 339 cases diagnosed as FON and 120 as FDN. All cases were evaluated for histologic diagnosis, age, sex and size of the nodule. Histopathologic follow-up was available in all cases. The malignancy rate was 22% (74/359 and 72% (86/120 for cases diagnosed as FON and FDN, respectively. In the FON category almost half of the malignant cases were papillary carcinoma. The risk of malignancy was higher in patients younger than 40 yr (53% vs. 30% than in patients 40 year or more years old and greater in males (41% vs. 33% than females. No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis. According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%. In addition, clinical features, including gender and age can be part of the decision analysis in selecting patients for surgery.

  16. The role of technetium-99m sestamibi whole-body scans in diagnosing metastatic Huerthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland after total thyroidectomy: a comparison with iodine-131 and thallium-201 whole-body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-seven patients with Huerthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland underwent total thyroidectomy and then technetium-99m sestamibi (2-methoxy-isobutylisonitrile), iodine-131 and thallium-201 wholebody scans. Twenty-two of them had elevated human serum thyroglobulin (HTg) levels. Among these 22 patients, abnormal uptake of 131I was seen in four (18.1%), abnormal uptake of 201Tl chloride in 15 (68.1%), and abnormal 99mTc-sestamibi accumulation in 18 (81.8%). No patients with normal levels had a positive whole-body scan. In comparison with the 131I and 201Tl chloride images, the 99mTc-sestamibi images were of superior quality and detected significantly more (P < 0.05) metastatic lesions of Huerthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland in patients with elevated HTg after total thyroidectomy. A mechanism is proposed that may explain these findings. (orig.)

  17. Utility of immunohistochemical markers in diagnosis of follicular cell derived thyroid lesions.

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    Alshenawy, Hanan AlSaeid

    2014-10-01

    Differentiating the follicular derived lesions can be challenging. Although immunohistochemistry is generally accepted as a useful ancillary technique in the diagnosis, controversy exists regarding the best marker or combination of markers to distinguish each lesion from its mimics. In this study, we aimed at evaluating multiple markers to compare their sensitivity and usefulness, and to find out if a combination of the evaluated markers can be of additional value in discriminating thyroid lesions. The study included two groups of follicular derived thyroid lesions; benign group (Grave's disease, nodular goiter, Hashimoto's and adenoma) and malignant group (papillary, follicular carcinoma, well differentiated tumors of unknown malignant potential and follicular tumour of unknown malignant potential). Immunohistochemical evaluation of CD56, HBME-1, Gaectin-3 and CK19 were done. The sensitivity, specificity for each marker and their combination were calculated. Each marker was sensitive and specific for certain lesion but the sensitivity and specificity was increased when use combination of markers. Although no single marker is completely sensitive and specific for follicular thyroid lesions, the combination of CD56, HBME-1, Gaectin-3 and CK19 attains high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. PMID:24659044

  18. Clinical diagnostic study by means of magnetic resonance imaging for lesions of the major salivary gland region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lesions situated in the major salivary glands was clinically discussed in this study. A total of 46 patients with salivary gland disorders treated in our department over the past five years were assessed by mean of MRI, and in 11 patients the findings were compared with the histopathological features of lesions sectioned at the same level postoperatively. In addition, preliminary investigations to introduce a new qualitative diagnostic procedure for estimation of salivary gland function in geriatric patients were attempted. In this investigation, T1 and T2 values, and signal intensity ratios of the submandibular gland were measured in elderly patients complaining of dry mouth and in healthy controls. Likewise, salivary gland function was examined by taste stimulation induced by applying citric acid to the tongue surface just before starting MRI. MRI clearly demonstrated lesions in the salivary glands. The histopathological diagnosis could not be accurately predicted by signal intensity. However, benign tumors showed higher intensity signals than did malignant tumors on T2-weighted images. Cystic lesions could be differentiated from tumors by signal intensity. Histopathological features of salivary gland tumors corresponded to the MRI signal intensity. Relaxation times of T1 and T2 values and signal intensity in each major salivary gland were diminished iach major salivary gland were diminished in elderly patients in a resting condition. Only T1 values in healthy subjects remarkably responded to taste stimulation. These results suggest that MRI is useful and beneficial not only in the qualitative diagnosis of tumors arising from salivary glands but also in the estimation of salivary gland function. MRI should therefore be included in routine diagnostic examinations for salivary gland disorders. (author)

  19. Stromal modulation and its role in the diagnosis of papillary patterned thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Sahar Aly; Esmail, Reham Shehab El Nemr; Hareedy, Amal Ahmed; Khalil, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The papillary patterned lesion of thyroid may be challenging with many diagnostic pitfalls. Tumor stroma plays an important part in the determination of the tumor phenotype. CD34 is thought to be involved in the modulation of cell adhesion and signal transduction as CD34(+) fibrocytes are potent antigen-presenting cells. Smooth muscle actin (SMA) positivity could be diagnostic for fibroblast activation during tumorigenesis. We aimed to examine the expression of CD34 and alphaSMA in the stroma of papillary thyroid hyperplasia, papillary thyroid carcinoma and papillary tumors of uncertain malignant potential in order to elucidate their possible differential distribution and roles. A total number of 54 cases with papillary thyroid lesions were studied by routine HandE staining, CD34 and ASMA immunostaining. ASMA was not expressed in benign papillary hyperplastic lesions while it was expressed in papillary carcinoma, indicating that tumors have modulated stroma. Although the stroma was not well developed in papillary lesions with equivocal features of uncertain potentiality, CD34 was notable in such cases with higher incidence in malignant cases. So ASMA as well as CD34 could predict neoplastic behavior, pointing to the importance of the stromal role. Differences between groups suggest that the presence of CD34 + stromal cells is an early event in carcinogensis and is associated with neoplasia, however ASMA+ cells are more likely to be associated with malignant behavior and metastatic potential adding additional tools to the light microscopic picture helping in diagnosis of problematic cases with HandE. PMID:25921136

  20. The Role of Immunohistochemistry in Differential Diagnosis of Follicular Patterned Lesions of Thyroid

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    Gülçin YE?EN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study we aimed to assess the role of galectin- 3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular lesions.Material and Method: Fifty-four malignant and 50 benign lesions were evaluated and classified according to World Health Organization 2004 histological classification. Galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 were performed immunohistochemically and the slides were evaluated by two independent investigators. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed for each antibody tested.Results: Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were as follows respectively: Galectin-3: 59,25%, 84% and 71,15%; Cytokeratin 19: 70%, 82% and 75,4%; Thyroid peroxidase: 61%, 70% and 65,4%; CD44v6: 20,4%, 88% and 52,9%.Conclusion: The negativity for Galectin-3 and Cytokeratin 19 can not exclude malignancy but positivity can be thought as a sign of malignant feature or potential for lesions in which there is strong suspect of malignancy. Thyroid peroxidase immunostaining failed to differantiate benign from malignant oxyphilic tumors but decreased expression can be used as a malignancy marker together with Galectin-3 and/or Cytokeratin19 positivity in suspicious cases. CD44v6 does not seem to be reliable in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular patterned thyroid lesions.In conclusion, our approach is to take as much new samples or serial sections as possible in cases without clear-cut evidence of malignancy but with histological and immunohistochemical suspicion. Follicular variant papillary carcinoma has different criteria for malignancy and it should be always kept in mind while evaluating a benign-looking lesion with immunohistochemical signs that favor malignancy.

  1. Small thyroid nodules: ultrasonographic differentiation between benign and malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the differentiation between benignity and malignancy in the evaluation of small thyroid nodules (the longest diameter <10 mm). Fine needle aspiration or surgery was performed for the evaluation of seventy two (44 benign and 28 malignant) small thyroid nodules from fifty eight patients. Ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively reviewed for the margin, echogenecity, presence of microcalcification, intranodular cystic change and peripheral hypoechoic halo. Ill-defined margin was more common in malignant nodules (61% vs 11%, p<0.05). In internal echogenecity, either iso- or hyperechogenicity was more common in benign nodules (45% vs 18%, p<0.05) while malignant nodules were often markedly hypoechoic (39% vs 18%, p<0.05). Malignant nodules contained more microcalcifications (36% vs 9%, p<0.05) whereas benign nodules often showed intranodular cystic change(39% vs 7%, p<0.05) and hypoechoic halo (41% vs 18%, p<0.05). Ultrasonography can be useful in the differentiation between benign and malignant small thyroid nodules.

  2. Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis

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    de Matos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19, galectin-3 (Gal-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1. However, current results remain controversial. The aim of the present article was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CK-19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 markers, as well as their associations, in the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Methods A systematic review of published articles on MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library was performed. After establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 articles were selected. The technique of meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was employed and global values of sensitivity, specificity, area under the summary ROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (dOR were calculated. Results For the immunohistochemistry technique, the positivity of CK-19 for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions demonstrated global sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 73%; for Gal-3, sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 81%; and for HBME-1, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 83%. The association of the three markers determined sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 97%, and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.1. Similar results were also found for the immunocytochemistry assay. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that the three immunomarkers studied are accurate in pre- and postoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Nevertheless, the search for other molecular markers must continue in order to enhance this diagnostic accuracy since the results found still show a persistency of false-negative and false-positive tests. Virtual slides Http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3436263067345159

  3. Analysis of the behavior and characteristics of thyroid lesions identified by biopsy fine needle aspiration and gammagraphic diagnosis: Hospital Calderon Guardia: period 2004-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid lesions have meant one of the most important pathological entities in the Costa Rican population for many years, which have been increased by new diagnostic examinations and early detection and timely thanks to the preventive medicine that is exerted on the security of the country. After the nuclear accident Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union for several decades ago has shown an increase in neoplastic lesions as well as was appreciated after the implementation of the first atomic bomb in World War II, this behavior is the interest to see how thyroid pathology develops in the environment and what have been the Costa Rican experiences in correlation with the expected time to the global statistics. The behavior pattern observed of the lessons of the thyroid gland and based on clinical findings and in some cases together with scintigraphy have allowed to study the development seen through the ultrasound and cytopathological result. The behavior of the patients was similar to global statistics, being most frequent the benign lesions than malignant, and the scintigraphy correlation with lesions were found to be cold was significant for determination of malignant or suspicious for malignancy. Some of these lesions that were suspicious for malignancy scintigraphy and ultrasound were benign have been found to fall within the expected rate for this type of injury. The study consisted of sampling in 2023 noted that the prevalence was 9:1 in women compared with men, whice was 9:1 in women compared with men, which agrees as thyroid diseases are more common in women than in men as well as the expected results in malignant lesions that remained the same behavior. As expected in the age ranges of suffering from thyroid lesions remained between the fifth and sixth decade of life, which has allowed to observe the frequency of different benign and malignant lesions that occurred during this study in the decades and periods covered. While before the study of thyroid lesions was occupied by scintigraphy and endocrinological management has been viewed that incidentalomas appreciated by the teams high-resolution ultrasound bring a benefit in the care of the patient early and fast like its minimally invasive intervention to characterize the thyroid lesions that are suspicious of malignancy or indeterminate by clinical and other diagnostic methods, a fact that increases in the routine study of thyroid pathology. In fact in the cost benefit study of FNA for early patient care is relatively cheap with a great evaluation of lesions and is important for determination of injury, because if there were suspected, sonographically, it is easier to seek the consent from patient and treating physician to take the sample and lead to better clinical guidance, histological and radiological, fact that will allow the patient a concise definition of your case. (author)

  4. Effects of radiation on parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While radiation has well-recognized effects on follicular cells of the thyroid gland, those on parafollicular C cells are not yet established. Low-dose radiation that has been proved to be nonablative and carcinogenic to follicular cells was administered to 8-week-old Long-Evans rats to study the changes in C cell number and function. Circulating calcitonin levels were significantly reduced in animals that had undergone radiation at age 24 months. Mean calcitonin values were 0.66 (+/- 0.20) ng/ml and 1.64 (+/- 0.59) ng/ml for control males and females compared with 0.14 (+/- 0.06) ng/ml and 0.11 (+/- 0.01) ng/ml for males (P less than 0.05) and females (P less than 0.001) that had undergone radiation, respectively. These levels correlated well with C cell population density in thyroid glands in the control group and in the group that had undergone radiation as evidenced by light microscopy. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed C cell hyperplasia in 77% of control animals of both sexes compared with 4% in animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.005). Immunoperoxidase staining with an anticalcitonin antibody showed virtual absence of C cells in most animals that had undergone radiation compared with diffusely scattered cells in animals in the control group. Medullary carcinomas occurred in 14% of animals in the control group compared with 3% of animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that the radiation dosage thaata indicate that the radiation dosage that is carcinogenic to the follicular epithelium causes lethal injury to C cells and thus suggest that C cells are more sensitive to radiation than are follicular cells. This increased sensitivity could explain the virtual absence of C cells, decrease in calcitonin levels, and reduced numbers of medullary carcinomas in the animals that had undergone radiation

  5. Ga-67 positivity in sarcoidosis of the skin with coincident thyroid uptake of uncertain etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy of a 26-year-old woman with systemic sarcoidosis demonstrated abnormal radiotracer uptake within multiple biopsy-proven sarcoidal cutaneous lesions and within both lobes of the thyroid gland. The etiology of the thyroidal uptake of the Ga-67 was uncertain but it may represent sarcoidal involvement of the gland

  6. Diagnostic relevance of fine needle aspiration cytology in nodular thyroid lesions

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    Kneževi?-Ušaj Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been used as an initial investigative procedure of thyroid nodule(s in the Department of Pathology at the Institute of Oncology of Vojvodina for more than 20 years. This procedure is rapid, inexpensive and technologically simple, yet it has found only limited, albeit increasing acceptance in medical practice in Serbia. The aim of the study was to evaluate our FNAC findings by correlating cytological results with histological diagnosis and to define the sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy and positive predictive value of FNAC. Methods. A total of 266 patients with thyroid swellings were aspirated in one year investigated period at our Institute out of whom 69 underwent surgery between May 2008 and May 2009. The cytological results correlated with clinical features, ultrasound investigations (US and subsequent histopathological examination of the resected tissue. Results. By the use of cytology we found out thyroid carcinoma in 10 patients, and by histopathological examination in 12. We obtained 83% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 97% of diagnostic accuracy of FNAC. Conclusion. The obtained results confirm the importance of FNAC in preoperative assesment of thyroid nodule.

  7. Dental radiography technique and equipment: How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that collimator and technique choice had on the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, during intra-oral examinations of the upper and lower teeth. Radiation dose reduction from a different perspective, other than the application of lead-rubber shielding, was addressed. Methods: A study was performed at a regional dental school with the use of a phantom head/neck and a radiation dosemeter, to measure the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position. The radiation dose was assessed for two intra-oral techniques (paralleling and bisecting angle), and two collimators (rectangular and circular). The radiation dose was also assessed with and without the application of a thyroid shield. Standard descriptive statistics, followed by inferential statistics were applied to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, when employing the paralleling technique (66.7%) and rectangular collimator (45.5%). Other factors, for example the tooth/teeth under examination, were also found to influence the radiation dose detected. Conclusion: Radiation dose reductions using the paralleling technique and rectangular collimator were outlined. The use of this low dose combination within dental practices remains limited, therefore, continued awareness and acceptance of radiation hazards need to be addressed addressed

  8. Total thyroidectomy and intraoperative radioiodine localisation diagnostic with differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study on 103 patients, who between 1971 and 1979 because of differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas underwent thyroidectomies, it was investigated, which parameters lead to a reduction in the complications rate with a thyroidectomy. A division of the patients into two groups, namely, those operated on up until 1976 and those operated on from this point in time on using a new operative concept showed in the second group that there was no more recurrence paresis or remaining parathyroprivic tetani, but that the new operative procedure, however, had not brought any significant improvement with respect to favourable, respectively unfavourable, initial conditions and to the type of possible preoperations. Another new method which began in 1976, the intraoperative 131-iodine localisation measurement, is presented. It deals with a control of the storing remaining tissue. In comparison to the first group the storing remaining area was reduced significantly from 44% to 19%, such that the amount of radioiodine needed for the radioiodine therapy which is usually used to eliminate any remaining thyroid tissue could be reduced. This also reduced the radiation load. Thyroidectomy continues to be the therapy of choice. (TRV)

  9. Color doppler image of thyroid nodule : differentiation between benign and malignant lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the utility of color Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Fifty patients with thyroid nodules(10 cases of follicular adenoma, 12 of adenomatous hyperplasia, 21 of papillary adenocarcinoma, and 7 of follicular adenocarcinoma) were analyzed. Colour signal analysis was performed by inspecting the signals in and around the nodules, and these were graded from 0 to III according to the degree of vascularity in internal and marginal blood flow. Peak systoic velocity (PSV) and resisitive index (RI) in internal vascularity were used to analyse the flow signal. Internal color signals of malignant lesions tended to be high grade, whereas those of benign lesions tended to be low grade, with statistical significance(P<0.05). In spectral wave analysis, correlation between PSV and malignancy of thyroid nodules was statistically significant(P<0.05). The value of RI did not correlate with the malignancy of nodules, but tended to show a meaningful difference. Although further studies may be required, color Doppler sonography using color signal and flow signals analysis is a useful imaging modality for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid nodules

  10. Color doppler image of thyroid nodule : differentiation between benign and malignant lesion

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    Yoon, Jong Pil; Hong, Hyun Sook; Jeon, Young Tae; Kim, Seo Hee; Yoo, Myung Hee; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang [Soonchunhyang College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To assess the utility of color Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Fifty patients with thyroid nodules(10 cases of follicular adenoma, 12 of adenomatous hyperplasia, 21 of papillary adenocarcinoma, and 7 of follicular adenocarcinoma) were analyzed. Colour signal analysis was performed by inspecting the signals in and around the nodules, and these were graded from 0 to III according to the degree of vascularity in internal and marginal blood flow. Peak systoic velocity (PSV) and resisitive index (RI) in internal vascularity were used to analyse the flow signal. Internal color signals of malignant lesions tended to be high grade, whereas those of benign lesions tended to be low grade, with statistical significance(P<0.05). In spectral wave analysis, correlation between PSV and malignancy of thyroid nodules was statistically significant(P<0.05). The value of RI did not correlate with the malignancy of nodules, but tended to show a meaningful difference. Although further studies may be required, color Doppler sonography using color signal and flow signals analysis is a useful imaging modality for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid nodules.

  11. Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas. Treatment results of 268 patients after thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of radioiodine therapy on differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas was checked out based on the following criteria from 268 patients: Histology, tumor expanse, type of metastasis, survival rate of treated patients and the frequency of tumor remains, respectively metastases, removal. The 5-year survival rate of the whole group lay near 92%, those with regional and distant metastases near 70%. With differentiation according to different histological forms of the carcinoma there were only slight differences. The therapeutical response rate varied with the different metastasis forms. Regional lymph gland metastases responded best to radioiodine therapy (76%), lung and bone metastases not as well with 21% and 14%. The standardized radioiodine therapy with relatively low single doses of 70 resp. 100 mCi 131-iodine proved itself as most tolerable. Serious therapy-dependent complications or even deaths did not appear. A comparison of the treatment results in this paper with those of other authors shows that the survival rates of these patients were mostly higher than the ones they were compared to. (TRV)

  12. Abnormal Serum Thyroid Hormones Concentration with Healthy Functional Gland: A Review on the Metabolic Role of Thyroid Hormones Transporter Proteins

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    Azad Reza Mansourian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG, some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid.

  13. Role of monitoring in diagnostics of diseases of the thyroid gland at children at the moment of the disaster on ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking back on eighteen-year experience of liquidation of consequences of disaster on Chernobyl NPP shows the importance of monitoring in formation of pathology of a thyroid gland at children, undergone to radiating influence. (Authors)

  14. Ectopic thyroid in an adrenal mass: a case report

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    Ueno Munehisa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult to explain ectopic thyroid beneath the diaphragm because during the development the thyroid descends from the tongue to the anterior of the trachea. A few cases of ectopic lesions have been reported in the literature for abdominal organs including the adrenal glands, but the mechanism by which the thyroid components migrate into the abdomen has been poorly understood. Case presentation A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having an adrenal mass. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was carried out. Microscopically, the mass was composed of normal adrenal and ectopic thyroid tissues. Conclusion We herein describe the fourth case reported of ectopic thyroid in the adrenal gland.

  15. Evaluation of the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques

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    Hamid Badrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The use of sophisticated radiographic techniques is absolutely necessary in dentistry. The use of these techniques exposes the sensitive organs of head and neck to x-rays. The aim of the present study was to investigate the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 TLD GR-200 circular dosimeters (Thermoluminans Detector were used in male RANDO-like phantom (head and neck segment, i.e. the first 10 segments in order to determine the radiation dose absorbed by the thyroid gland. Then spiral computed tomographies were provided from the anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible along with a lateral Scout view as a guide. Conventional spiral tomographies were prepared from the maxilla, mandible and both jaws with a panoramic radiograph as a guide. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS 11.5 (a = 0.05. Results: The highest and lowest thyroid gland absorbed doses were observed with computed tomography of both jaws and conventional spiral tomography of the anterior maxilla, respectively (5.92 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ± 0.01 mSiv. The mean amount of the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland was lower in the conventional spiral tomography compared to computed tomography. The two techniques revealed significant differences in the absorbed doses except for conventional spiral tomography in the posterior and anterior regions of the mandible (p value = 0.276.Conclusion: According to results of the present study, the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in the conventional spiral tomography in different regions of the jaws was less than CT scan techniques. As a result, it appears the use of conventional spiral tomography is preferred over CT scans in limited regions where three-dimensional and cross-sectional views are required.Key words: Thyroid gland, Film dosimetry, Spiral Computed Tomography.

  16. Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphc Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate with the intensity of the administered activity of radioiodine, the previous condition of dental integrity and in patients living in the interior of our country in zones of 'bad' water containing tracers of arsenic and fluorine. In 13 patients submitted to intense treatment of dental problems posterior WBS showed a decrease of the positive maxilla areas or they were not found. The presence of metastasis in the active maxilla area was in all cases negative. Our observations confirm that radioiodine is deposited in maxillary bone in relation of dental lesions and that this 131-I move in a very slow place. This mechanism of fixation has to be determined. We fully recommended taking into account the existence of dental illness or incomplete dental treatments when the administration of higher activities than 3.7 GBq (150 mCi). (author)

  17. Abnormal Serum Thyroid Hormones Concentration with Healthy Functional Gland: A Review on the Metabolic Role of Thyroid Hormones Transporter Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Azad Reza Mansourian

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by ...

  18. [The reaction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus and diuresis during thyroid gland restitution following discontinuation of 6-methylthiouracil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Za? chenko, L A

    1975-01-01

    There is a marked reduction of diuresis (revealed by water load) during the action of 6-methylthiouracil (MTU). In the course of the thyroid gland restitution (after the discontinuance of the 6-MTU action) the diuresis at first becomes intensified and then it repeatedly either becomes diminished or enhanced. Secretory activity of the cells of the supraoptic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus also becomes alternately enhanced and diminished. Dynamics of the shifts in this activity failed to correlate with the "ricochet" enhancement of the thyrotropic function of the hypophysis, which occurred on the 11th restitution day and corresponded to the "ricochet" enhancement of iodine consumption by the thyroid gland. Thus, there was no association between the state of the cells of the supraoptic nucleus and the changes in the thyrotropic function of the hypophysis. PMID:1129244

  19. Radioimmunoimaging of metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland using an indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody to CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or calcitonin after surgical therapy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) indicate the presence of residual or metastatic disease. CEA elevations appear to be prognostically more reliable in patients with metastatic disease and suggest a more virulent tumor. Attempts to stage the disease with use of conventional imaging techniques are usually inadequate, as is the therapy for disseminated or recurrent MCT. An indium-111-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (ZCE-025) was used to image metastases in a patient with MCT. Potential applications of monoclonal antibody technology in the management of MCT would include (1) preoperative differentiation of unicentric from multicentric thyroid gland involvement, (2) detection of regional or distant metastases or both, (3) measurement of response to systemic therapy, and (4) the facilitation of radionuclide immunoconjugate therapy

  20. Thyroid lesions incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT ? a two centre retrospective study

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    Jamsek Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid on PET-CT examinations represents a diagnostic challenge. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax is one possible parameter that can help in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid PET lesions.

  1. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a granular cell tumor arising in the thyroid gland: a case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qijun; Li, Qianrui; Guo, Lixin; Li, Sheyu; Jiang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon tumor of soft tissue, and rarely occurs in thyroid. In this article, we report the FNAC results and pathological analysis of a 14-year-old female who presented with a painless mass in the right lobe of thyroid gland. A resection of the right lobe and isthmus of thyroid were applied after cells with abundant strong eosinophilic cytoplasma, indistinct border and inconspicuous nucleolus were found in the FNAC of the mass. Postoperative pathology and immun...

  3. Does amifostine have radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Guoming; Zuo, Shuyao [Qingdao University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Xie, Jiawei [Qingdao University, Medical College, Qingdao (China); Jiang, Zhongxin [Qingdao University, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao (China)

    2010-09-15

    To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled clinical trials which compared the effects of amifostine with those of placebo or acid-stimulating agents. Two randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 130 patients were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of amifostine and acid-stimulating agents on the incidence of xerostomia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01 to 9.52), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of {sup 99m}Tc by the parotid (RR 0.30, 95% CI -2.28 to 2.88) or submandibular glands (RR 1.90, 95% CI -1.46 to 5.26) at 12 months, or the reduction in blood pressure (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16). Neither of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. The results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The use of acid-stimulating agents to increase salivation should remain the first choice during radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients should also be well informed of the importance of hydration and acid stimulation. (orig.)

  4. Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujani M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult. Thus, additional diagnostic features that can assist in this distinction would have great clinical usefulness. Aims: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Settings and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Ki-67 immunostaining was performed by peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and compared with mitotic counts. Results: Ki-67 labeling index (LI showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms. A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05 and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05. The correlation between mitotic counts and Ki-67 LI was found to be significant. Conclusions: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

  5. Primary squamous cell carcinomas in the thyroid gland: an individual participant data meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas arising from the thyroid gland (SCCTh) is extremely rare diseases, which have never been fully studied. Thus, we performed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of published SCCTh cases, to understand the clinical characteristics and to identify the prognostic factors of primary SCCTh. A literature search was conducted within Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases and KoreaMed using the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: “primary,” “squamous,” “carcinoma,” “cancer,” and “thyroid.” Eighty-four patients' individual data from 39 articles and five patients' data in our institute were selected for analysis (N = 89). The mean age at diagnosis was 63.0 years (range, 24–90) and female preponderance (M:F = 1:2) was noted. The commonest complaint was the anterior neck mass, followed by dyspnea or dysphagia, and extension to the adjacent structure was found in 72%. The median survival was 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.0–23.0) and 3-year survival rate (3YSR) was 37.6% by Kaplan–Meier method, but only 20.1% by a shared frailty model for adjusting heterogeneity. Complete resection (R0) of tumors was the only significant prognostic factor in multivariable analysis, and the benefit of adjuvant treatment was not proved. The prognosis of patients with SCCTh is very poor (20% in 3YSR), but complete resection of disease is correlated with improved survival. To achieve complete surgical eradication of tumors, early detection and accurate diagnosis should be emphasized

  6. Quantitative comparison of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare the scintigraphic images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands obtained with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Forty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent 201Tl (74 MBq), 99mTc-pertechnetate (74 MBq) and 99mTc-tetrofosmin (555-740 MBq) scintigraphy in a single session. Image analysis included the computation of the thyroid/background ratio in the whole study population and the parathyroid/background ratio, parathyroid/thyroid ratio and diagnostic sensitivity in 17 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. The pertechnetate subtraction technique was used. 201Tl and 99mTc-tetrofosmin showed a similar thyroid/background ratio (1.79±0.41 and 1.81±0.47, respectively, P=NS); however, 99mTc-tetrofosmin showed a higher parathyroid/background ratio than 201Tl (2.06±0.54 vs 1.79± 0.50, P=0.007). Despite the superior quality of 99mTc-tetrofosmin images, both tracers showed identical sensitivity in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (89%) and in those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (50%). (orig.)

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland: a report of two cases with an analysis of their clinical and pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Daunia; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Toniato, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the thyroid gland are rare soft-tissue neoplasms and only 24 cases have been reported in the literature to date. We describe two patients who underwent surgery for rapidly growing thyroid nodes of uncertain nature on cytology. At the final histological examination, they proved to be fibrous tumors of the thyroid gland that were CD-34, BCL2, CD-99, and Ki-67 positive, like other known cases. Neither of these two cases have recurred so far. PMID:21818669

  8. FUNCIONAMIENTO NORMAL Y AUMENTADO DE LA GLÁNDULA TIROIDES EN EQUINOS / NORMAL AND INCREASED FUNCTIONING OF THYROID GLAND IN EQUINES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JÓSE HENRY, OSORIO; FELIPE, RAMÍREZ ECHEVERRY.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir y analizar el funcionamiento normal de la glándula tiroides en equinos y los factores que aumentan en ellos los niveles de hormonas tiroideas. Materiales y métodos: Mediante la revisión de la literatura disponible de los últimos 50 años en las bases de datos BBCS-LILACS, fuente a [...] cadémica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus y Scirus, al igual que artículos históricos, textos y referencias citadas en trabajos publicados. Resultados: la información obtenida relacionada con los objetivos propuestos en la presente revisión, permite clasificar en 4 secciones a saber: síntesis y secreción de hormonas tiroideas; transporte y metabolismo; funciones; hipertiroidismo en los equinos. Conclusión: La glándula tiroides juega un papel importante, como productora de hormonas tiroideas, las cuales son necesarias para la diferenciación celular y crecimiento del organismo. El buen funcionamiento de las vías metabólicas depende de estas hormonas, las que tienen efectos específicos sobre diferentes órganos, manteniendo la homeostasis en todos los tejidos. Abstract in english Objective: to describe and analyze the normal functioning of the thyroid gland in equines and the factors which increase the thyroid hormone levels. Materials and methods: information from the last 50 years included in the BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Sc [...] irus, data bases as well as historical articles, texts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results: important information related to the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into two sections as follow: synthesis, liberation and metabolism of thyroid hormones; factors that modify the thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: the thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends on these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all the tissues.

  9. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

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    Markovi? Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 ?g/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 ?g/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  10. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat

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    Chanif Mahdi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treated to give KIO3 and KI salt was intended to determine the level of supplementation of iodine (I2, the level of MDA in serum and histological rat thyroid gland. MDA levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the KIO3 and KI salt was significantly (p<0.05 reduce levels of MDA in the serum of treatment with KIO3 salt (33.62% and KI salt (37,02% and improving histological of the thyroid gland rats.

  11. Radioiodine Treatment Effects on Lacrimal Glands Function in Patients with Thyroid Cancer

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    A. Fard Esfahani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi of I-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient. Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light one patient (2 eyes revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation.

  12. Thyroid tumors following 131I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 ?Ci of Na 131I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for 131I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor

  13. Synchronous malignancies of breast and thyroid gland: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Dwarka; Soni Tej; Sharma Om; Sharma Shantanu

    2007-01-01

    The relationship and coincidence of breast cancer with thyroid disorders is a subject of extensive debate and controversy. Many studies have shown that thyroid diseases are common among women with breast cancer. We present a case of concomitant malignancy of breast and thyroid with review of literature on the association of breast with thyroid neoplasm. The potential association and plausible mechanisms of breast carcinoma development after or before the thyroid carcinoma should be evaluated ...

  14. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA ACCOMPANIED BY THYROID GLAND DISORDERS

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    I. A. Kamaeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  To reveal clinical and immunological features of bronchial asthma (BA combined with thyroid gland pathology,  sixty patients have been examined  in  five equal groups, i.e., BA; hypothyroidism;  thyrotoxicosis; BA + hypothyroidism; BA + thyrotoxicosis. We assessed serum IgE, IgG levels, as wekk as IL-4/IFN?, IL-4/IL-1, and IL-1/IL-6 ratios. Clinical exacerbations were observed more  frequently  in BA + hypothyroidism, as compared with BA patients. Remissions of BA were more prolonged  in BA patients,  than  in groups with BA + hypothyroidism, or BA + hyperthyroidism. Serum  IgE  levels were much  increased  in  the group with BA + hyperthyroidism. The  lowest IL-4/IFN? ratio was revealed  in BA + hypothyroidism group versus BA and BA + hyperthyroidism groups. IL-4/IL-1 ratio was higher  in BA + hyperthyroidism group,  than  in BA and BA + hypothyroidism. Co-existence of hyperthyroidism with BA seems to enhance Th2 immune reactions dominating  in BA, whereas concomitant hypothyroidism may cause  a  reduction of Th2  immune  response.

  15. MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Ivanova, T.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 {+-} 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 {+-} 25 ml, with 2.1 {+-} 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high. (orig.)

  16. Radiation damage to thyroid gland may be the reason of increase in frequency of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other hematological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of autoimmune thyroidities in the patients with diseases of blood system was investigated. Attribute of autoimmune thyroidities was revealed by the detection of antimicrosomal antibodies. It was established that the autoimmune thyroidities are more often in patients with various hematological diseases than in control group. It is supposed that the increase in frequency of some hematological diseases in residents suffered from the Chernobyl accident can be defined not only by the influence of the radiation on blood system, but also can be connected with damage to thyroid glands

  17. Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No siences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland

  18. Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Gjorceva, Daniela Pop

    2015-01-01

    Background Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. Case report A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No signs of metastatic disease are present up to date. Conclusions The differences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland. PMID:25810698

  19. Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis: Lung Carcinoma Metastasizing to Thyroid Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Shiuan-Li; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is extremely rare in the thyroid glands, and only seven cases of lung carcinoma metastasizing to thyroid tumors have been reported in the literature. We report another two cases of lung carcinoma metastasizing to thyroid neoplasms and review of the literature. The first case was a 64-year-old man presenting with neck mass, hoarseness, and easy choking for 2 months. Image studies showed several nodular lesions within bilateral thyroid glands. A histological examination after radical thyroidectomy revealed lung small cell carcinoma metastasizing to a thyroid follicular adenoma. The second case was a 71-year-old woman with a history of lung adenosquamous carcinoma. The PET/CT scan showed left lower lung cancer and a hypermetabolic area in the right thyroid lobe, highly suspicious for malignancy. Radical thyroidectomy and left lung lobectomy were performed, and the thyroid gland revealed lung adenosquamous carcinoma metastasizing to a papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:25685581

  20. Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

  1. Low dose radiation in the treatment of HIV related benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the effectiveness of Radiation Therapy (RT) in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related benign lymphoepithelial (BLL) of the parotid gland. Materials and Methods: The records of 16 patients treated between 1991 to 1995 with BLL were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had bilateral disease, thus 19 parotid glands were radiated. Only (2(16)) had AIDS. Virtually all patients were on antiretroviral therapy. There were 11 males and 5 females. The median age was 38 years (range 31 to 58 years). The median duration of parotid enlargement was 1.5 years (range 1 month to 6 years). All patients had biopsy prior to treatment. Histopathology revealed two patterns: solid or cystic. Patient were treated using electron beam RT. The beam energy was determined by computed transaxial tomography. The median dose delivered was 1000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days (range 600 cGy to 2160 cGy in daily fractions ranging from 180 cGy to 200 cGy). Results: Six parotid glands achieved a complete response (CR), 5 a partial response (PR), while 8 were non-responders (NR). Our overall response rate was therefore 58% Of the NR's, 3 patients were re-treated. Two achieved a PR, one was an NR. Toxicity was minimal and limited to mild xerostomia. Conclusion: RT in patients with HIV related BLL is well tolerated. Our preliminary results show that while this modality of treatment has marked activity in the solid pattern. Higher doses may be requiredolid pattern. Higher doses may be required for large lesions or cystic in nature

  2. CT-diagnosis for mass lesions in the parotid gland and cervical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients suffering from mass lesion in the parotid gland or cervical region were examined by computed tomography (CT). The photographed images were compared with the findings and pathological diagnoses obtained by surgical procedures. The conclusions were as follows: 1) Plain CT demonstrated the location of the parotid tumor. Contrast enhancement seemed to delineate the margin of the tumor more clearly. 2) By contrast enhancement, the branchiogenic cyst was differentiated from the parotid tumor, as a low density mass with an enhanced cyst wall. 3) Parotid tumors enhanced by contrast material did not always appear as solid tumors. 4) In some cases, CT numbers indicated the contents of the tumor. 5) The extension of the tumor to the parapharyngeal space was clearly depicted on CT. 6) It seemed to be difficult to evaluate the relationship of the parotid tumor to the facial nerve on plain CT. (author)

  3. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  4. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  5. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Seong; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on nitial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

  6. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions / Imaginologia das lesões das glândulas adrenais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Keith, Herr; Valdair F., Muglia; Walter José, Koff; Antonio Carlos, Westphalen.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O crescente uso da tomografia computadorizada e da ressonância magnética levou a um aumento na identificação de nódulos adrenais incidentais, também chamados de incidentalomas, gerando um impasse diagnóstico para o radiologista, bem como um número significativo de pesquisas a fim de caracterizar ess [...] as lesões como benignas ou malignas. Apesar de a maioria dos incidentalomas representar um processo benigno, geralmente um adenoma, a possibilidade de a lesão ser maligna requer suficiente acurácia dos métodos de imagem para que esses possam auxiliar no manejo dos pacientes. Neste artigo nós apresentamos uma revisão da literatura dedicada à investigação radiológica das lesões adrenais, com ênfase na tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética e tomografia por emissão de prótons, e discutimos como os achados de imagem relacionam-se com a prática clínica. Tecnologias recentes, como a ultrassonografia com uso de contraste, a tomografia computadorizada com dupla fonte de energia e a espectroscopia de prótons por ressonância magnética são brevemente discutidas. Abstract in english With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indet [...] erminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  7. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland and secundary hiperparathyroidism in patient on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdinovi? Boris Ž.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Association between non-medullar thyroid carcinoma and secondary hyperparthyroidism have been rarely reported in patients with renal failure. A few cases of micropapillary thyroid carcinoma have been reported in patients before and after renal transplantation. We present a case of incidental detection of thyroid carcinoma at the time of parathyroidectomy in patient on dialysis after cadaver renal transplantation.

  8. The clinicopothologic study of benign and malignant lesions of salivary glands in patients attending Shiraz dental school in 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Pardis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are malignant and benign intra-oral pathologic lesions of salivary gland. Reevaluation of paitants’ age, sex and location of lesions can help to have better diagnosis and accurate comparison with other studies in other countries.Materials and Method: In a retrospective study, cases of benign and malignant salivary gland during 1369 to 1385 retrieved from the files and histopathologic records of cases diagnosed at Shiraz School of Dentistry.Results: From 110 cases, 70 cases had mucocele, 15 had sialadenitis, 7 of pleomorphic adenoma, 3 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the remaining 3 cases had adenoid cystic carcinoma. The mean age for patients with mucoceles was 20. 8 and the most common site were mucosa of the lower lips. The mean age for patients with sialadenitis was 34. The most common sites were mucosa of the lips and submandibular gland. The mean age of pleomorphic adenoma was 32 and the most common site was hard palate. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was detected in 3 males at the ages of 44 to 54. Adenoidcystic carcinoma was seen in 3 patients at the ages of 18 to 32.Conclusion: Mucocele was the most common lesion (71% and pleomorphic adenoma constituted 70% of all salivary gland diseases and 53% of all neoplasms. Mucocele was the most common lesion in lower lip, in the second and third decades with equal gender distribution. Pleomorphic adenoma occurs more in third and fourth decades and the most common site was hard palate

  9. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with fluid. A third test is a thyroid scan. Your doctor will inject harmless radioactive iodine into a vein in your arm. The iodine is absorbed by your thyroid gland and makes it “glow” as your doctor ...

  10. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  11. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye Seong; Han, Boo-kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong

    2010-01-01

    A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on initial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgic...

  12. ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Sporea; Roxana Sirli; Simona Bota; Mihaela Vlad; Alina Popescu; Ioana Zosin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men): 44 (32.3%) without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3%) with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD), 37 (27.2%) with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests), 4 (2.9%) with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2%) cases with thyroid pathology induced by am...

  13. Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland and the thyroglossal duct remnant: a study using human fetal sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Honkura, Yohei; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the thyroglossal duct, we observed serial sagittal sections of eight embryos (crown-rump length (CRL) 6-12 mm; approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) as well as serial horizontal or cross-sections of 70 embryos and fetuses (CRL 15-110 mm; 6-15 weeks). In the sagittal sections, the thyroglossal duct was identified as a small sheet or mass of relatively large cells with vacuolization anterior, superior or inferior to the fourth pharyngeal arch artery. However, we found no continuous duct-like structure that reached the thyroid gland. Thus, previous classical schemes might have overestimated the continuity of the duct. Among cross-sections of 70 specimens, we found the thyroglossal duct remnant in only two specimens (CRL 15 mm and 100 mm), in contrast to the pyramidal lobe, which was seen in one-third of the specimens. The duct remnant ran downward along the lateral edge of the hyoid body to reach the anterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage. However, the connection between the pyramidal lobe and the duct remnant was interrupted by the anterior cervical muscles. Therefore, it was unlikely that the thyroglossal duct remnant would more frequently be evident in fetuses than in adults. The highly tortuous course of the duct along the lingual aspect of the hyoid body, which has been reported previously, appeared to become established near term. Descent of the thyroid gland was not evident after the CRL 20 mm stage (6 weeks): the gland appeared to retain its position at the level of the third-sixth cervical vertebrae. PMID:25458181

  14. Radiation exposure to the pediatric patient during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Emphasis on the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure the radiation exposure to the skin, thyroid and gonads in 50 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and angiocariography using cine photofluorography. Average exposures were 17.1 R to the skin, 2.3 R to the thyroid and 0.1 R to the gonads. Fluoroscopy accounted for approximately 80% of the skin and thyroid exposure and cine photofluorography for 20 to 25%. Occasional primary-beam irradiation was the major contributor to gonad exposure. Internal scatter of the incident x-ray beam was primarily responsible for thyroid exposure, so that infants received relatively high exposures; one receiving 7.3 R. The thyroid was not frequently in the primary beam. The significance of high radiation exposure to the thyroid, and in particular its relationship to thyroid carcinoma, are discussed. The results are compared with other series in the literature and relative exposures of cine photofluorography and serial filming are contrasted

  15. Coexisting iodine avid and iodine nonconcentrating lesions with multiple distant soft tissue metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Tushar; Arora, Abhishek; Bethune, Naidu N.

    2012-01-01

    Distant soft tissue metastasis and the simultaneous presence of iodine concentrating and nonconcentrating lesions in papillary thyroid cancer are extremely rare. The concerned patient, a histopathologically proven case of papillary thyroid cancer with nodal metastases treated with total thyroidectomy, bilateral cervical nodal dissection, and radioablation, subsequently developed lung, muscle, and liver metastasis. Triggered by increased thyroglobulin, the iodine-131 whole body scan and 200 mc...

  16. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  17. Calibration of a Ge-detector system for the quantitative measurement of I-125 incorporated in the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf equipped the new AKH Hospital in Vienna with a whole-body counter, essentially consisting of two detector systems: (1) 4 NaI(Tl) detectors within a shielded counting chamber for high sensitivity and (2) 1 HPGe-detector to achieve high resolution as well as low detectable radiation energy. This work describes the geometrical definition of a measuring equipment and the calibration of the HPGe-detector for the purpose of monitoring I-125 activity (radiation energy approx. 30 keV) incorporated in the thyroid gland

  18. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis of Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-il; Lee, Jong Jin; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    A 69-year-old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed, and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  19. Normal values of thyroid gland in Isfahan, an iodine replete area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Because of different values of thyroid volume in different populations, and the effects of different trace element and geographic substances on thyroid volume, we decided to evaluate thyroid volume and its determinants using ultrasound in healthy adults of Isfahan, a centrally located city in Iran, an iodine replete area.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 1500 healthy adults were enrolled by cluster sampling. Serum TSH level and morning urine iodine level were measured. Thyroid exam was performed according to WHO criteria and history of previous or present thyroid disease was taken. If all the mentioned results were normal they were considered clinically normal. One third of these normal subjects referred for thyroid ultrasonography. If ultrasonography of thyroid parenchyma texture was normal, and there was no nodule by sonography (thyroid incidentaloma, thyroid volume was measured using ellipsoid formula (X×Y×Z×8/6. Correlation between thyroid volume and age, sex, BMI, TSH level and urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient, t-Test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Thyroid volume more than 97% of this population was considered as goiter sonographically. Data expressed as mean ± SD, unless otherwise stated.
    • RESULTS: We finally studied 200 subjects (123 Males, 77 females, average age: 37.27 ± 11.80 Years. The overall thyroid volume was 9.53 ± 3.68 ml. Males thyroid volume (10.73 ± 3.44 ml was significantly higher than the females one (7.71 ± 2.63 ml (P < 0.001. The thyroid volume ranges were 3-23.9 ml, 3.6-23.9 ml and 3-14.3 ml in all, males and females, respectively. Thyroid volume values more than 97 percentile of this reference range were 10.14 ml, 11.48 ml and 8.37 ml in all, males and females respectively, and were considered goiter sonographically. Thyroid volume had a positive correlation with age (r = 0.163, P = 0.022, but did not have correlation with serum TSH, UIC, and BMI, in both sexes. There was a strong correlation between thyroid volume, and height and body surface area (r = 0.48, P < 0.001.
    • CONCLUSIONS: It was documented that thyroid volume is higher in male sex and increases with age, and have a positive correlation with body surface area and height.
    • KEY WORDS: Adult, thyroid, ultrasonography, volume.

  20. Identification and preservation of the parathyroid gland during total thyroidectomy in dogs with bilateral thyroid carcinoma: a report of six cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUKUI, Sho; ENDO, Yoshifumi; HIRAYAMA, Kazuko; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki; KADOSAWA, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous removal of bilateral thyroid tumors was performed while preserving the parathyroid gland in six dogs. At least one external parathyroid gland was identified in all dogs. In five cases, the external parathyroid gland and its blood supply were preserved intact. In one dog, the vessels supplying the external parathyroid gland had been invaded by the tumor, and the gland was thus removed and reimplanted into the sternohyoid muscle. That dog required postoperative treatment with oral calcium gluconate and vitamin D3. Local tumor recurrence was not observed in any of the cases. The mean survival time was 920 days. We found that the external parathyroid gland could be identified and preserved in most dogs undergoing total thyroidectomy. PMID:25716481

  1. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Diego Mendonça Uchôa; Vanessa Yépez

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellul...

  2. The effects of freezing and cryoprotectant exposure on adenylate cyclase activity in cell membranes of bovine thyroid gland and adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, L G; Gubina, N F; Schirova, V A; Kaprelyants, A S

    2001-01-01

    We present data on the effect of freezing with or without cryoprotectant (CPA) dimethyl sulphoxide (Me(2)SO), as well as effects of exposure to CPA alone on the activity of adenylate cyclase in cellular membranes of thyroid glands and adrenal cortex. Our results show that freezing without cryoprotectant increases unstimulated adenylate cyclase activity and decreases sensitivity to specific regulators. CPA at a concentration of 5% for adenylate cyclase in adrenal cortex tissue and of 10% in thyroid gland allowed preservation of the best responses to specific receptor agonists. PMID:11788863

  3. Primary paraganglioma of thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study with review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, E.; Manconi, R.; Armato, E.; Ianniello, F.

    2009-01-01

    Primary paraganglioma of the thyroid is a very rare neuroendocrine tumour. Only 24 cases have been reported in the Literature. A case of a primary paraganglioma of the thyroid is presented in order to provide a review of the Literature, an update on current knowledge and to emphasize the key diagnostic role of immunohistochemistry. A 63-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of right-sided solitary thyroid nodule. Ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy were not diagnostic...

  4. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor presenting as a parotid gland mass: Expanding the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Qasem, Shadi; Bergman, Simon; Salih, Ziyan T

    2014-01-01

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT) are rare benign soft tissue tumors affecting mostly young adults. The most common affected sites include the knee, ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers. The temporomandibular joint is occasionally affected. Herein, we report a case of a 31-year-old Caucasian male who presented clinically with a parotid gland mass. The initial clinical and radiological work-up failed to reveal any involvement of the adjacent temporomandibular joint. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a cellular tumor composed of mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells with fibrosis and hemosiderin deposition. This was subsequently found to be a TGCT arising from the temporomandibular joint. Giant cell-rich lesions are uncommon in salivary glands. Herein, we describe the cytomorphology and clinico-radiographic features of this tumor with emphasis on the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions presenting in salivary glands. Despite its rare occurrence, this entity should be considered when giant cells are prominent in specimens acquired from this location. PMID:25745294

  5. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas an...

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  7. Analysis of thyroid hormones in gland and serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (THs), which are critical for growth and development in all vertebrates, can be impacted through chemical perturbation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Amphibian and mammalian models are being used to address this research priority within US EPA...

  8. Effect of Exogenous Thyroxine on Mophology and Development of Thyroid Gland in Marble Goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus Bleeker Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Awang Soh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine effect of the exogenous thyroxine (T on ontogeny of thyroid 4 gland in marble goby larvae and to found out whether the exogenous T can alter the follicle structure and the 4 level of T in marble goby. The larvae were exposed for 1 h in T solution at 0.1 ppm. Untreated larvae (control 4 4 were not immersed in T hormone. It was found that T levels in treated larvae were higher than control, but the 44 development patterns in both treated larvae and control were similar in which occurred a decreasing of T levels 4 from 3-7 days after hatching (dAH, and then increased again from 10 dAH onwards. The histological evidences that the follicles structure in treated larvae were difference than control, in which suggested abundance of thyroid hormone. These findings suggested that thyroid hormones (THs may play an important role during early larvals life and metamorphosis period. High total T levels in the treated larvae suggested that exogenous 4T has a predictable role to increase T level, especially in early larval stage of marble goby.

  9. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.C., Lisbôa; F.H., Curty; R.M., Moreira; C.C., Pazos-Moura.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID), an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized [...] (OVX) rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days) were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I) and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary) activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P

  10. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  11. NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stimuli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant, follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001. A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas (P = 0.043. In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007 and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES high-risk group (P = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.

  12. LINGUAL THYROID OUR EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Karthikeyan Arjunan; Seethalakshmi Narashiman

    2011-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an uncommon congenital disorder of thyroid gland development, resulting in alack of descend of the gland from foramen caecum to its normal prelaryngeal location. In this paper we discuss a series of cases of ectopic thyroid gland its incidence, clinical presentation, sex ratio,age group, endocrine status, radiological features and appropriate surgical approaches.

  13. LINGUAL THYROID OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lingual thyroid is an uncommon congenital disorder of thyroid gland development, resulting in alack of descend of the gland from foramen caecum to its normal prelaryngeal location. In this paper we discuss a series of cases of ectopic thyroid gland its incidence, clinical presentation, sex ratio,age group, endocrine status, radiological features and appropriate surgical approaches.

  14. Morphological features of thyroid gland of children who have died aged till 6 months from a HIV-infected of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherstiuk S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a thyroid gland of children who have died aged till 6 months, from a HIV-infected of mothers thanks to morphological and morphometric researches it is taped reduction of internal diameter of follicles, heights follicular cells, and as increase the stromal and reduction colloid components, testifying about change secretion type, apparently, caused by influence antenatal and a postnatal hypoxia.

  15. Evaluation of digital subtraction angiography in preoperative differentiation of benign and malignant nodular lesions of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with 51 patients having benign and malignant nodular lesions of the thyroid. DSA studies were all performed before surgical intervention. Later, DSA imaging patterns were compared with histopathologic findings, retrospectively. The results of DSA technique showed that 3 out of 17 cases were nodules of papillary carcinoma which were blush at the lesion site, six cases were lucent, eight were unclear residuary cases. These DSA findings have indicated that diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were difficult because the DSA findings of papillary carcinoma have no special features. However, two follicular carcinoma and eleven follicular adenoma were all blush at the lesion site. Then, the selection of follicular carcinoma and adenoma from other thyroid nodules seemed possible, however the differentiation between follicular carcinoma and adenoma was impossible. Seventeen adenomatous goiters showed variegated DSA findings, characteristic findings showed lucent at the sites of the lesion which were degenerated enlarged cysts. Thus, it appears that DSA is not a suitable technique for the diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. The purpose of DSA imaging is to infer the compression, sift, obstruction of the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein owing to a tumor by a less invasive procedure. It would appear that the utilization of DSA must be chosen for the thyroid nodule. (author) (author)

  16. Modification of the activity of lymphocytes by xenotransplantation of thyroid gland tissue and by the transfer factor of immune reactivity in the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of a thyroid tissue is one of the possible methods for the curing of functional disorders of thyroid gland that appear due to the influence of insufficient environmental conditions on organism. By the micro method of lymphocyte blast transformation reaction, the functional activity of Wistar rat's splenocytes is studied. In the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis before and after xenotransplantation of the organic cell culture of thyroid gland of newborn pigs, the opportunities for correction of immunological disorders with the help of transfer factor preparations are investigated. The transfer factor is a low-molecular weight leukocyte extract (? 10kD) with immuno modulating activities. The reducing of self and PHA-stimulated proliferation of rat's splenocytes with [J131]-induced hypothyrosis is found. Bovine and human transfer factor preparations activate the proliferation of splenocytes from animals with hypothyrosis and animals with xenotransplantation

  17. An algorithm to estimate the volume of the thyroid lesions using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithm was developed to estimate the volume of the thyroid and its functioning lesions, that is, those which capture iodine. This estimate is achieved by the use of SPECT, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. The algorithm was written in an extended PASCAL language subset and was accomplished to run on Siemens ICON System, a special Macintosh environment that controls the tomographic image acquisition and processing. In spite of be developed for the Siemens DIACAN gamma camera, the algorithm can be easily adapted for the ECAN camera. These two Cameras models are among the most common ones used in Nuclear Medicine in Brazil Nowadays. A phantom study was used to validate the algorithm that have shown that a threshold of 42% of maximum pixel intensity of the images it is possible to estimate the volume of the phantoms with an error of 10% in the range of 30 to 70 ml. (author)

  18. Metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland: report of 3 cases and brief review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastases to the thyroid are encountered rarely in clinical practice, but the number of cases seems to have increased in recent years. The reason of this increase may be a more frequent use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and the use of more sophisticated, complicated imaging techniques in patients with thyroid masses. Also, in addition to these reasons, the use of more organo-specific immunohistochemical antibodies in the examination of surgical specimens may affect the differential diagnosis of malignant tumours. Three metastatic tumours to thyroid were found in the retrospective review of malignant thyroid tumours diagnosed between January 1993 and December 2007. The primary tumours were clear cell carcinoma of the kidney, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and breast carcinoma-ductal type. A detailed clinical history, careful histological examination and essential immunohistochemistry helped in attaining the correct diagnosis

  19. Using of oncomarkers in morphological diagnostics of epithelial tumors of thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko ?.?.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is dedicated to research molecular marker’s expression in the differentiated thyroid tumors for prognosis of subsequent clinical course. In this study thyroid tumors were analyzed for NIS, thyroglobulin, galectin-3, p53 expression as well as for proliferation activity (based on Ki-67 expression depending on the presence of metastases and invasion level. It was identified the prognostic value of each marker of biological properties. The immunophenotypes of thyroid cancers with high risk of tumor dissemination were established. The differential diagnostic marker of follicular tumors was proposed as well. These immunomorphology tumor profile based findings allow to predict the clinical course of thyroid cancer that make possible to separate the groups of patients, which need more careful clinical observing and examination, individualization of treatment as well as group of patients, which may get less invasive treatment methods.

  20. Variation of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) estimates of radiation-induced hypothyroidism in relation to changes in delineation of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RØnjom, Marianne Feen; Brink, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background. To examine the variations of risk-estimates of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (HT) from our previously developed normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in relation to variability of delineation of the thyroid gland. Patients and methods. In a previous study for development of an NTCP model for HT, the thyroid gland was delineated in 246 treatment plans of patients with HNSCC. Fifty of these plans were randomly chosen for re-delineation for a study of the intra- and inter-observer variability of thyroid volume, Dmean and estimated risk of HT. Bland-Altman plots were used for assessment of the systematic (mean) and random [standard deviation (SD)] variability of the three parameters, and a method for displaying the spatial variation in delineation differences was developed. Results. Intra-observer variability resulted in a mean difference in thyroid volume and Dmean of 0.4 cm(3) (SD ± 1.6) and -0.5 Gy (SD ± 1.0), respectively, and 0.3 cm(3) (SD ± 1.8) and 0.0 Gy (SD ± 1.3) for inter-observer variability. The corresponding mean differences of NTCP values for radiation-induced HT due to intra- and inter-observer variations were insignificantly small, -0.4% (SD ± 6.0) and -0.7% (SD ± 4.8), respectively, but as the SDs show, for some patients the difference in estimated NTCP was large. Conclusion. For the entire study population, the variation in predicted risk of radiation-induced HT in head and neck cancer was small and our NTCP model was robust against observer variations in delineation of the thyroid gland. However, for the individual patient, there may be large differences in estimated risk which calls for precise delineation of the thyroid gland to obtain correct dose and NTCP estimates for optimized treatment planning in the individual patient.

  1. Primary Malignant Teratoma with a Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Component in Thyroid Gland : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunyoung; Bae, Tae Seok; Kwon, Youngmee; Kim, Tae Hyun; Chung, Ki-wook; Kim, Sun Wook; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Eun Sook

    2007-01-01

    Teratomas comprise the most common extragonadal germ cell tumors in childhood. Most teratomas involving the thyroid are benign and occur in children. However, the adult cases reported are mostly malignant and commonly arise in the thyroid. We report a case of a 31-yr-old female with a huge neck mass. Pathologic examination revealed it to be malignant teratoma composed of primitive neuroepithelial tissue with primitive neural tubes and loose myxoid to fibrous immature mesenchymal stroma. The p...

  2. Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on the Morphology of Thyroid Gland in Male Wistar Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Onu*, B. O. Oke1, P. C. Ozegbe1 and J. O. Oyewale2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted to document the effect of alcohol on the morphology of thyroid gland of male rat offspring whose dams consumed alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. Seventy-five female rats divided into three groups, 1, 2, and 3, of 25 each and their offspring were used. Group 1 served as control (C, group 2 was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and lactation (APL while group 3 was exposed to alcohol during lactation only (AL. At day 35 and 49 postpartum 5 male rat offspring were randomly selected from the three groups and sacrificed. After the sacrifice, the thyroids were dissected out and their absolute and relative weights determined. Thereafter, the thyroid tissues were prepared for routine histological examination. The results of the investigation showed significant reduction (P<0.05 in the weights of the thyroid and thyroid follicles. There was also disorganization and desquamation of follicular cells. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake during pregnancy and/or lactation could be injurious to the thyroid glands of the offspring.

  3. Molecular testing for oncogenic gene mutations in thyroid lesions: a case-control validation study in 413 postsurgical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Thomas J; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie; Shinde, Rupali; Langfield, Laura; Vinco, Michelle; Laosinchai-Wolf, Walairat; Labourier, Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    Molecular testing for oncogenic gene alterations provides clinically actionable information essential for the optimal management of follicular cell thyroid cancer. We aimed to establish the distribution and frequency of common oncogenic gene mutations and chromosomal rearrangements in a comprehensive set of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. A case-control study was conducted in 413 surgical cases comprising 17 distinct histopathologic categories, 244 malignant, 169 benign, and 304 double-blinded specimens. Seventeen alterations of BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, PAX8, and RET genes were evaluated using a single validated technology platform. Following verification of analytical sensitivity, accuracy, and precision in model and surgical specimens, 152 molecular positive results were generated in lesions representing multiple stages of progression and epithelial differentiation as well as rare subtypes of primary, secondary, or recurring tumors. Single mutations were found in 58% of primary malignant lesions and 12% of benign (P papillary carcinomas. BRAF or RET-PTC was detected exclusively in malignant lesions but not in follicular carcinomas (P adenomas, and NRAS was found in a single nonneoplastic lesion (P = .0014). These data substantiate the diagnostic utility of molecular testing for oncogenic mutations and validate its performance in a variety of surgical specimens. Standardized and validated multianalyte molecular panels can complement the preoperative and postoperative assessment of thyroid nodules and support a growing number of clinical and translational applications with potential diagnostic, prognostic, or theranostic utility. PMID:24830619

  4. Differential expression of Galectin-3 in papillary projections of malignant and non-malignant hyperplastic thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Marija J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 is a a beta-galactoside binding protein recently proposed to be a promising presurgical molecular marker for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. We analyzed galectin-3 expression immunohistochemically in papillary areas of hyperplastic lesions of benign thyroid tissue in comparison with malignant papillary projections of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. A monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and ABC immunohistochemical technique were used to evaluate galectin-3 expression in 26 cases of benign papillary hyperplasia (8 cases of hyperplastic adenoma, 8 cases of hyperplastic colloid goiter, 10 cases of Graves disease in comparison with 25 cases of PTC. Immunohistochemical results showed no reactivity for galectin-3 in papillary areas of benign hyperplastic lesions. Strong cytoplasmic galectin-3 immunoreactivity was found in all 25 cases of PTC. These results show that galectin-3 expression is a feature of malignant papillary projections but not of benign papillary hyperplasia. Thus, the immunohistochemical evaluation of galectin-3 might contribute to differential diagnosis between malignant and benign thyroid lesions with papillary projections.

  5. Conduta conservadora no carcinoma papilífero da glândula tireóide Partial resection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

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    Josias de Andrade Sobrinho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento do carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo da glândula tireóide, através de tireoidectomia parcial com seguimento superior a cinco anos. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 105 prontuários de pacientes portadores de carcinoma diferenciado da glândula tireóidea operados no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo de 1977 a 1997 e selecionados 31 casos que apresentavam nódulos limitados a um lobo da glândula com seguimento superior a cinco anos e submetidos à lobectomia total mais istmectomia. RESULTADOS: Observamos somente um caso (3% de disfonia transitória com paresia de prega vocal unilateral que regrediu espontaneamente. Não houve casos de hipoparatireoidismo transitório ou definitivo. O seguimento médio foi de 12,6 anos, sendo todos com seguimento superior a cinco anos; 10 casos (32% com seguimento entre 10 e 15 anos e 10 casos (32% com seguimento além de 15 anos. Não foram observados casos com recorrência loco-regional ou metástase à distância, estando todos eles assintomáticos e sem doença. CONCLUSÃO: Nesta série, a tireoidectomia parcial para carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo, mostrou-se eficaz.BACKGROUND: To analyse the survival rate after partial resection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland. METHODS: After a retrospective study of 105 files of patients operated on at Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo from 1977 to 1997, 31 patients with a single node were selected. They were submitted to partial resection (total lobectomy plus istmectomy, and evaluated for five years or more postoperatively. RESULTS: It was observed one case of transitory disphony (3% with spontaneous regression.There were no cases of hypoparathyroidism. Medium follow up was of 12,6 years, with 10 (32% with follow up between 10 and 15 years and 10(32% with more than 15 years. No regional or distant recurrences were observed , and all patients are doing well. CONCLUSION: In this series, partial thyroidectomy was efficient as radical therapy for papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland.

  6. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. Ht day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  7. Comparative sonographic and scintigraphic investigations in autonomous adenomas of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of active thyroid tissue can be detected on scintigraphic images and consequently the diagnosis of an autonomous thyroid adenoma is established on the basis of scintigraphic examinations. The sonographic examination is considerably supplemented by scintigraphic information. Domain of sonography is the determination of size and structure of adenomas and of the extranodular tissue. In the primary diagnosis of a decompensated autonomous a adenoma, sonography permits the fast differential diagnostical delineation of a shape anomaly or an aplasia of the thyroid lobes and the detection of the contralateral lobe (for example due to a tumor, a focal inflammation, a cyst). When the diagnosis has been confirmed, besides in-vitro tests sonography is the preferential non-invasive follow-up technique which can be repeated at choice. One disadvantage of this method is that retrosternal parts of larger struma and adenomas cannot be imaged and detected sonographically. (orig./MG)

  8. Assessment of transcript polyadenylation by 3' RACE: the response of epidermal growth factor messenger ribonucleic acid to thyroid hormone in the thyroid and submaxillary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheflin, L G; Brooks, E M; Spaulding, S W

    1995-12-01

    The complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) indicates that its 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) is 745 bases long, with polyadenylation occurring at residue 4749. However, when we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with an anchored 3' primer [3'rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)] to amplify the 3' ends of cDNA, we actually detected two major products [800 and 600 base pairs (bp)] and a minor product (400 bp) in the thyroid or submaxillary glands (SMGs) of male mice. Analysis of genomic DNA with a battery of primer pairs gave only the predicted PCR products from the 3' UTR, demonstrating the lack of introns in this region of genomic DNA and eliminating alternate splicing as the explanation of the transcript diversity we detected. We confirmed that two potential polyadenylation sites proximal to residue 4749 are used in vivo by hybridizing the same 3' RACE products with probes specific for the 5' end of the 3' UTR, and also for poly-A tails. To assess the distribution of poly-A tail lengths on transcripts using the terminal polyadenylation site (4749), we used several different approaches to analyze 3' RACE products. Solution hybridization with 3' UTR probes revealed a striking difference between transcripts in SMG and thyroid: SMG contained two large 3' RACE populations (approximately 770 and 870 bp), whereas thyroid only contained one (approximately 770 bp). EGF transcript heterogeneity due to different poly-A tail lengths was confirmed using an upstream primer 400 bases closer to the 3' end of the 3' UTR, and TaqI digestion. Again we found two major populations in SMG (approximately 380 and 480 bp), but only one (380 bp) in thyroid, which upon TaqI digestion showed tissue-specific heterogeneity only in the 3' fragment. T4 treatment of male mice (0.25 microgram T4/gm ip) increased the intensity of both populations in SMG and the smaller population in thyroid within 24 h. However, after a week of T4 injections, only the intensity of the population with the longer poly-A tails in the SMG remained elevated, a finding consistent with tissue-specific enhanced stability of transcripts due to polyadenylation. Finally, to resolve poly-A tail lengths more precisely, we used an upstream primer that was specific for the 3' end of murine 3' UTR. This approach revealed that the thyroid contains three major populations of EGF transcripts, with poly-A tail lengths of approximately 20, 50, and 70 A's. After T3 treatment for 24 h, the intensity of transcripts containing 20 A's increased 52% (P or = 70 A's. On the other hand, there were no distinct bands in SMG samples, but rather a heterogeneous distribution of poly-A tail lengths from approximately 20-120 A's that showed an overall increase of approximately 60% in response to T3. PMID:7588322

  9. One-demensional echographic examination (A scan) in diagnosis of thyroid gland disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results were compared of A scan echography, scintiscanning and thin needle biopsy examinations in 115 eufunctional, mostly nodular, goiters. The objective was to assess the suitability of echographic examination for differentiating solid and cystic formations in the thyroid. The echography and scintiscanning results agreed in 88.7%, agreement for echography and biopsy was in 79.1%. The said figures are comparable with the degree of reliability of echographic examination as found in the literature (around 90%). Its value permits including this mode of echographic examination (A scan) in the differential diagnosis of solid and cystic formations of the thyroid. (author)

  10. Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Gland Volume in Schoolchildren 7-11 years from West Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh I Kudabayeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine thyroid volume by ultrasound in schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, from oil and gas areas of West Kazakhstan. Materials and Methods. During the period from May to December 2013 cross-sectional study was conducted on schoolchildren living in the oil and gas and clean areas of West Kazakhstan. A total of 815 schoolchildren aged 7-11 years who met the study criteria were included in the study. Anthropometry was measured before the ultrasound, then the expert radiologist conducted measurement of thyroid volume using a portable ultrasound machine according to recommendations of WHO. Urinary iodine was tested in 10% of students selected randomly. Results. The prevalence of goiter in our sample using the 97th percentile of the volume recommended by WHO / ICCIDD (2007 was 24.7 ± 1.50% (49.8% girls and 51.2% boys. Average thyroid volume measured by ultrasound in the oil and gas regions was 4.43 ± 1.66 ml, in a safe area of 2.9 ± 1.24 ml. The difference in thyroid volume was statistically significant p <0.0001. The difference in thyroid volume between boys compared areas was statistically significant ( p <0.0001: 4.62 ± 1.75 ml and 2.78 ± 0.93 ml; between girls 4.23 ± 1.53 ml and 3.05 ± 1.52 ml, respectively ( p <0.0001.Mean volume thyroid does not correlate with the age of the participants, but weakly correlated with BMI ( r = 0.3; p <0.0001. Median and 97th percentile thyroid volumes of our subjects were higher than the reference values reported to WHO. Median urinary iodine (UI was 193 mg/l. Conclusion. Thyroid size of schoolchildren in west region of Kazakhstan is higher than the reference values reported to WHO. The high prevalence of goiter in the areas of oil and gas on of versus iodine-replete conditions available to the regional populations according to urinary iodine (UI suggests the influence of other goitrogenic factors in the region and requires further study.

  11. Effects of metamorphosis and captivity on the in vitro sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was tested in vitro. Thyroids were taken from subjects representing metamorphic stages I (premetamorphic larvae), II (onset of climax), and VII (completion of gill resorption), as well as from captivity control larvae. Exogenous TSH reduced the cumulative uptake of 125I in vitro by thyroids from stage I larvae after 24 and 48 hr. The capacity of thyroids to release thyroxine (T4) in vitro was used subsequently as a measure of their responsiveness to TSH. Baseline levels of T4 release in vitro were variable but did not differ significantly among developmental stages. A low dose of bTSH (5 X 10(-6) IU/ml) did not increase in vitro T4 release compared with that of controls. A larger dose (5 X 10(-4) IU/ml) caused greater increases in T4 release from thyroids of stage II and VII subjects than from those of controls. This dose produced only a small response by thyroids from captivity-control subjects. The results suggest that the thyroids of Ambystoma increase in their capacity to respond to TSH during the process of metamorphosis

  12. Investigation of Susceptibility Genes Triggering Lachrymal/Salivary Gland Lesion Complications in Japanese Patients with Type 1 Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Takaya; Ota, Masao; Ito, Tetsuya; Hamano, Hideaki; Arakura, Norikazu; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Meguro, Akira; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a unique form of chronic pancreatitis characterized by high serum IgG4 concentration and a variety of complicating extra-pancreatic lesions. In particular, lachrymal/salivary gland lesions tend to manifest in a highly active AIP disease state, and several genes are speculated to be associated with the onset of this complication. We therefore searched for candidate susceptibility genes related to lachrymal/salivary gland lesions in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with the GeneChip Human Mapping 500k Array Set (Affymetrix, CA) that was followed by fine mapping of additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in strongly significant genes with TaqMan assays. Venous blood samples were obtained from 50 type 1 AIP patients with lachrymal/salivary gland lesions (A group) and 53 type 1 AIP patients without (B group). The mean values of IgG and IG4 were both significantly different (P<0.05) between the groups. SNPs that showed a significant association with the A group at the genome-wide level (P<0.0001) were identified and subsequently used in fine SNP mapping of candidate genes. In total, five SNPs had a positive association with complicated AIP (most notably rs2284932 [P=0.0000021]) and five SNPs possessed a negative association (particularly rs9371942 [P=0.00000039]). Among them, KLF7, FRMD4B, LOC101928923, and MPPED2 were further examined for complication susceptibility using additional SNPs that were not included in the GWAS. Individual genotyping of KLF7 rs2284932 revealed that the frequency of the minor C allele was significantly increased (P=0.00062, Pc=0.0018, OR=2.98, 95%CI=1.58-5.65) in group A. The minor T allele of rs4473559 in FRMD4 demonstrated a significant association in the A group (P=0.00015, OR=3.38, 95%CI=1.77-7.65). In the LOC101928923 gene, the frequency of the minor C allele of rs4379306 was significantly decreased in group A in both TaqMan and GWAS analyses. Lastly, the minor C allele of MPPED2 rs514644 carried a significantly increased risk of complications. These four genes may be linked with the onset of lachrymal/salivary gland lesions in type 1 AIP patients and require further study. PMID:25985088

  13. A review of risks of external irradiation of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This outline historical review claims that extensive studies from many centres world-wide indicate a linear dose response relationship between irradiation exposure and the induction of thyroid cancer with no clear threshold and extending through 700-1000 Rads. (UK)

  14. Malakoplakia of the thyroid gland: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkovski, Taisia; Costales, Cristina; Chen, Sheng; Saltman, Benjamin; Kahn, Leonard

    2015-06-01

    Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease that most commonly occurs in the urinary tract. It is characterized by sheets of histiocytes with granular basophilic inclusions and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. We present an exceedingly rare case of malakoplakia of the thyroid in a 54-year-old Caucasian woman on immunosuppressive therapy for renal transplant performed in 1994. PMID:25663335

  15. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Context: F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. Aims: The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson's correlation analysis. Results: Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 ?IU/ml, median: 7.37 ?IU/ml, range: 0.074-211 ?IU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Conclusions: Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules. PMID:25589800

  16. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 ?IU/ml, median: 7.37 ?IU/ml, range: 0.074-211 ?IU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum take value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  17. An assessment of the potential role of routine radionuclide thyroid scanning in the differentiation between solid and cystic lesions in the solitary thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of the conventional sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan, to differentiate cystic from solid solitary or dominant non-functioning nodules in the thyroid was investigated in 104 patients. Although these nodules are thought to be non-functioning, a low level of radioactivity can be detected in some of the nodules. The assessment was based on the level of radioactivity in the nodules. The nodules with higher activity were considered to have a higher probability of being solid. This diagnosis was confirmed either by ultrasound, or by histological examination, or both, and sensitivity and specificity evaluated with ROC curve analysis which reached 81% sensitivity with a specificity of 44%. The method was more reliable for larger than for smaller nodules reaching a sensitivity of 81% with a specificity of 84%. The results indicate that sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scanning can provide a useful procedure to distinguish between cystic and solid lesions in the thyroid. (orig.)

  18. Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis. Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers. We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years. The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma. The papillary carcinoma was continuous with the anaplastic carcinoma. The findings were supported by immunohistochemistry. The patient was managed by a total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection followed by chemotherapy. However, she died two months after surgery. The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers. This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children: normal variation or sign of a failing thyroid gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplowitz, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5-10 mU/L), is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH) is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH. PMID:20628588

  20. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplowitz PaulB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10?mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  1. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Kaplowitz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10?mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  2. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in a patient with a normal thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Shilo, S.; Hirsch, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism can develop even in the presence of an otherwise normal gland. One of the less common sources of iodine is tablets of seaweed, sold over the counter without prescription. We report the case of a 72 year old female who developed clinical and laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism while ingesting sea-kelp (Vitalia) tablets. Six months after stopping the tablets, the symptoms and laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism had disappeared. No evidence of pre-existing th...

  3. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauro, Ceccanti; Sara, De Nicolò; Rosanna, Mancinelli; George, Chaldakov; Valentina, Carito; Marco, Ceccanti; Giovanni, Laviola; Paola, Tirassa; Marco, Fiore.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to inve [...] stigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  4. The Rate of Metabolism and Performance of Broiler Who Gets Skin Treatment Rations Containing Cassava Flour and Injection Solution Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Windusari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research was to find out the effect of the thyroid gland flour given by injection and skin cassava flour given in the diet on metabolic rate and performance of broiler chickens. Feeds were arranged with protein content (18% and metabolism energy (2900 kcal/kg in accordance with recommendations of Nutrition Research Council (NRC. As many as 35 were one week old chicks used in this study. Completely random design was used in this research, with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. Each of these repeats was placed 3 ducks and kept for 3 months. The treatment consisted of P1 (control diet, P2 (70% basal diet + 30% cassava peel without steam, P3 (100% basal ration with treatment of the thyroid gland injection of starch solution as much as 10 mg per day in subcutaneous, P4 (100% basal ration with treatment of the thyroid gland flour solution injection of 20 mg per day in subcutaneous. The results showed that metabolic activity of broilers increased concurrently with the increasing age characterized by increased oxygen consumption, body heat production and basal metabolic rate

  5. A Study on the Radiation Dose of 131I in the Thyroid Gland during the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    53 patients with hyperthyroidism have been analyzed with special reference to therapeutic response to radioactive iodine(131I) treatment. Mean effective half-life, 24 hour uptake rate and radiation dose of 131I in hyperthyroid patients included in this study were respectively. 1) Mean effective half-life of 131I was 4.7±1.5 days in the trace dose and 5.0±1.5 days in the therapeutic dose. 2) Mean 24 hour uptake rate of 131I was 72.7±11.1% in the tracer dose and 73.4±12.3% in the therapeutic dose. 3) Mean radiation dose of 131I was 5319±2648 RAD as predicted and 5692±2843 RAD as actual. A single dose of radioactive iodine treatment was satisfactory in 34 patients (radioiodine resistant) A radioiodine resistant group of patients with hyperthyroidism was distinctively characteristic in the following aspects. 1) Mean thyroid weight calculated in the resistant group (63.9±14.0 gm) was significantly (p131I in the resistant group (3,684±1,745 RAD) was significantly (p131I in the resistant group (4,100±1,691 RAD) was significantly (p131I among the groups (p>0.05). 7) The average mean % difference of effective half-life, uptake rate and radiation dose measured following the tracer and therapeutic dose of 131I were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Therefore effective half-life, uptake rate and radiation dose of the therapeutic dose of 131I were readily predictable following the tracer dose of 131I. 8) It is concluded that the possibility of resistance to radioactive iodine treatment may be anticipated in patients with thyroid gland large in size and compromised 131I uptake rate.

  6. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  7. ACTUALIZACIÓN EN EL FUNCIONAMIENTO DE LA GLÁNDULA TIROIDES EN CANINOS.PRIMERA PARTE:: FUNCIONAMIENTO NORMAL / UPDATE OF THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTIONING IN CANINES. PART I:: NORMAL FUNCTIONING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Henry, Osorio; Catalina, López Salazar.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Actualizar conceptos sobre el funcionamiento normal de la glándula tiroides en caninos. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la literatura disponible de los últimos 50 años en las bases de datos BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus y Scirus, al igual que artíc [...] ulos históricos, textos y referencias citadas en trabajos públicos. Resultados. Se obtuvo información pertinente relacionada con los objetivos propuestos en la presente revisión, por lo cual puede clasificarse en 3 secciones a saber: síntesis de las hormonas tiroideas, transporte de las hormonas tiroideas, funciones de las hormonas tiroideas. Conclusión. La glándula tiroides juega un papel importante, como productora de hormonas tiroideas, siendo necesarias para la diferenciación celular y crecimiento del organismo. El buen funcionamiento de las vías metabólicas depende de estas hormonas, las que tienen efectos específicos sobre diferentes órganos, manteniendo la homeostasis entre todos los tejidos. Abstract in english Objective. To update concepts related to normal function of the thyroid gland in canines. Materials and methods. Information from the last 50 years including the BBCS-LILACS data bases, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Scirus, databases as well as historical articles, te [...] xts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results. Pertinent information related with the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into three sections as follows: synthesis of thyroid hormones, transport of thyroid hormones and functions of thyroid hormones. Conclusion. The thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends of these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all tissues.

  8. Entrance surface dose measurement on the thyroid gland in orthopantomography: The need for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid make it an organ of concern in dental x-ray examinations. A National Radiation Protection Department sponsored pilot study carried out in the Dental Radiology Department of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, to assess if the radiation dose in panoramic radiographies could be reduced without significant impairment of the subjective image quality. Materials and methods: Thermoluminescent dosimetry is widely acknowledged to be the recommended method for measuring entrance surface doses. In this study, entrance surface doses was measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) on the thyroid of 40 patients who had referred to the School of Dentistry, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Patients were no exposed to any additional radiation and the radiographs were used for diagnostic purposes. Thermoluminescent dosimetry were calibrated with radiation energies similar to those commonly used in orthopantomography. Results: The overall mean entrance surface doses on the thyroid in orthopantomography was 0.071±0.012 mGy (ranged from 0.01 to 0.40 mGy). The mean entrance surface doses for radiographies performed with 66 k Vp (20 patients) and 68 k Vp (20 patients) were 0.072± 0.016 respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between these means. Conclusions: The measured surface doses in our study are inconsistent with the only one already reported about the she only one already reported about the same experiment. However, due to lack of national diagnostic reference levels for orthopantomography, it is not clear whether in case of the Pm 2002 Cc unit used in this experiment, reducing the radiation dose to a level that still keeps a diagnostically acceptable image quality is necessary

  9. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using 124I PET(/CT) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after 131I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and ?96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq 124I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered 131I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup compa the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The 124I PET(/CT) salivary gland dosimetry indicated that lemon juice stimulation shortly after 131I administration in radioiodine therapy increases the absorbed doses to the salivary glands. (orig.)

  10. Profile of salivary gland flow dysfunctions in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma submitted to radioiodine therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Clara Fontes, Vieira; Aline Sampaio Lima, Rodrigues; Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira da, Cruz; Fernanda Ferreira, Lopes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effects of radioiodine therapy on salivary flow in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: A sample comprising 88 patients submitted to ablation with iodine 131 was included in the study. The patients were submitted to sialometry and evaluation of the presence of x [...] erostomia before, 10 days and 3 months after radioiodine therapy. RESULTS: Xerostomia was observed in 36.4% of the patients before radioiodine therapy, 59.15% at 10 days after therapy, and 25% at 3 months after therapy. Significant differences were observed in non-stimulated salivary flow rates between the second and third evaluations (p

  11. Comparison of three methods used for measurement of radioiodine fixation in thyroid gland of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Z?, Jeremic? Marija; Matovi? Milovan D.; Jankovi? Slobodan M.; Milošev Milorad Z.; Novakovi? Milan L.; Spasojevi?-Tišma Vera D.; Uroševi? Vlade D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the results of estimation of radioiodine uptake using three methods in a study on mice, and to test reliability of the radioiodine uptake estimation by gamma camera. The study is conducted on 21 white, Swiss-type mice of both sex at age of 10 weeks, weighing between 25 g and 34 g. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.37 ± ± 0.03 MBq of radioiodine 131I. After 72 hours the mice were anesthetized, and radioactivity of thyroid region was meas...

  12. Space-occupying lesions in the pineal gland region in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative CT and MRI studies of 24 patients with space occupying lesions of the pinealis region were analysed. MRI demonstrated all 24 lesions, whereas CT could detect only 20 out of 24. MRI was superior to CT in assessment of size, localisation and relation to adjacent structures. No significant difference was found between CT and MRI in preoperative prediction of tumour histology. (orig.)

  13. Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It usually is taken once a day before breakfast. Take thyroid at around the same time every ... control headache nausea vomiting diarrhea stomach cramps hyperactivity anxiety irritability or rapid changes in mood difficulty falling ...

  14. Diagnosing diseases of the thyroid gland by means of scintiscanning and puncture cytology taking into consideration the nodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains the results of scintigraphical and puncture-cytological examinations carried out during an observation period of appr. 3 years on 548 patients with goiters from the Upper-Bavarien endemis region. In total, we had 484 thyroid gland scintigrams which showed 335 uninodular, 71 multinodular, and 78 diffuse goiters. The 335 solitary nodular goiters were allocated 278 cold, 36 warm, and 18 hot nodes; in three cases, the scintigram could not be assessed due to exogenous iodine contamination. In the 71 multinodular goiters, we found 118 cold, 28 warm, and 9 hot nodes. Cytological findings were established in 548 patients. In 484 cases, the findings were negative, in 19 cases suspicious, and in 17 cases positive. The efficiency of cytological diagnosis of malignant tumours can be stated to be 87.5%. The rate of falsely negative smears was 12.5%; cytologically, in 10.9% of the preparations falsely suspicious diagnoses were established, and in 1.6% the diagnoses were falsely positive. (orig./MG)

  15. Radioimmunoassay of human calcitonin in serum and tissue from healthy individuals and patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific radioimmunological method for measurement of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) in human serum and tissue is described. Of healthy individuals of both sexes, 85 % had measurable iCT in serum (mean, 0.23 ng/ml). Of 29 patients who had received treatment for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), 19 had increased serum iCT (0-60 ng/ml to205 ng/ml). Elevated serum iCT was also found preoperatively in 2 MCT patients. Eleven of the patients with abnormal elevations of serum iCT were alive 4 to 13 years after the operation. Concentration of iCT in extracts from MCT varied from 0.5 to 540 ng/ml wet weight. The diagnostic value of this method and its importance for pre- and post-operative evaluation of these patients are improved by the use of selective venous catheterization in basal state and during stimulation of CT secretion. (Auth.)

  16. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Presenting as a Focal Uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Tae Seok; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Diffuse increased uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F FDG PET) is a well-known finding of the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Nevertheless, a pathologic confirmation is needed in cases of a focal 18F FDG uptake in the thyroid gland. This article reports a rare case of a focal 18F FDG uptake lesion by PET, which was revealed pathologically to be lymphocytic thyroiditis

  17. Principals of hormone substitution in thyrectomized patients with carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substitution of thyrectomized patients with carcinoma of the thyroid with L-thyroxin has advantages compared to a substitution with triiodothyronine. 200 ?g T4/d are sufficient to obtain a negative TRH test in most patients. For security it is suggested to performe a general substitution of these patients with 300 ?g T4/d. This dose is very well tolerated. To high doses of substitution cause a 'damage' of the thyreotrop in a part of the patients. This is demonstrated by a transient thyreotropic insufficiency after withdrawl of the substitution. The results demonstrated here suggest that the central suppression of TSH secretion is better correlated with plasma T4 than plasma T3 levels. (orig.)

  18. Development of an iodine captor for the study of the performance of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detection-measurement system (DETEC - PC) to be used in those studies of iodine reception in thyroid. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind module of measurement and the application software. The measurement module, communicates through an interface RS-232 series with the Personal Computer where the application software resides (DETEC). The software was designed chord with the principles from the Guided Programming to Objects and it was programmed in C++. The software besides the measurement of the patients, carries out the statistical processing of the lot of samples to use, fixed automatically the spectrometric parameters for the measurement, it possesses a database where it is stored the information of the studied patients and a help with the options of the system. (Author)

  19. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 is a natural chemopreventive agent against carcinogen induced precancerous lesions in mouse mammary gland organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinjian; Hawthorne, Michael; Vaishnav, Avani; St-Arnaud, René; Mehta, Rajendra G

    2009-01-01

    Despite the role of vitamin D(3) endocrine system in prevention of mammary gland transformation in animal models, use of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3 )in clinical settings is precluded due to its toxicity in vivo. Therefore much effort has been placed in developing relatively non-toxic vitamin D analogs. Recently, with the discovery of the expression of 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in multiple extrarenal organs, the functional role of prohormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)], has been redefined. Since 25(OH)D(3) does not cause hypercalcemia and maintains relative high concentration in serum, it is possible that the prohormone can be converted to active hormone in mammary epithelial cells to provide chemopreventive effects. In the present study, we evaluated its functional significance using mouse mammary organ culture (MMOC) system. We first showed that 25(OH)D(3) 1alpha-hydroxylase is extensively expressed in mammary ductal epithelial cells at both protein and mRNA levels, which is a prerequisite for 25(OH)D(3) to function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. However, we also observed that clotrimazol (1alpha-hydroxylase inhibitor) enhanced 25(OH)D(3) -induced CYP24 expression in breast cancer cells. In mammary glands derived from 1alpha-hydroxylase knockout mice, 25(OH)D(3) treatment in organ culture significantly induced CYP24 expression, indicating a potential direct effect of 25(OH)D(3). In MMOC, 100-250 nM 25(OH)D(3) suppressed both ovarian hormone-dependent and -independent mammary precancerous lesions (induced by DMBA) by more than 50%, while the active hormone 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (positive control) at 100 nM suppressed alveolar lesions by more than 80%. The inactive vitamin D(3) (negative control) at 100 nM suppressed alveolar lesions by only 20% (P>0.05). We found that 25(OH)D(3) inhibits DMBA-induced mammary alveolar lesions (MAL) in a stage-specific manner: 25(OH)D(3) mainly inhibits the promotion stage of lesion formation. We conclude that 25(OH)D(3) could serve as a non-toxic natural chemopreventive agent for further development for breast cancer prevention. PMID:18205042

  20. Correlação entre níveis de iodo na urina e alterações anatomopatológicas em tireoide / Correlation between iodine urinary levels and pathological changes in thyroid glands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo César Ribeiro, Boasquevisque; Robson Dettman, Jarske; Cleia Coelho, Dias; Isabela Passos Pereira, Quintaes; Maria Carmen Lopes Ferreira Silva, Santos; Carlos, Musso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o aporte nutricional de iodo na população estudada e correlacionar os níveis de iodo encontrados em amostras casuais de urina (iodúria) com alterações anatomopatológicas observadas nas tireoides dessa população. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Determinou-se a iodúria em 30 amostras casuai [...] s de urina e realizou-se o estudo anatomopatológico de 55 tireoides colhidas de cadáveres que deram entrada no Departamento Médico Legal de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil, no período de maio a agosto de 2011. RESULTADOS: Em 29 amostras de urina (96,7%) encontrou-se iodúria acima do limite máximo preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) de 300 µg/L. Em 14 tireoides (25,5%) foi identificada a presença de quadros histológicos compatíveis com tireoidite. Níveis mais elevados de iodo na urina foram observados no sexo feminino e nos casos de tireoides com presença de achados inflamatórios (tireoidites). CONCLUSÕES: Podemos concluir que na população estudada houve um excesso de iodo em seu aporte nutricional e uma maior incidência de quadros inflamatórios tireoidianos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To determine iodine nutrition in the population and to correlate levels of iodine found in random samples of urine with pathological changes observed in thyroids collected in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urinary iodine was determined in 30 random samples of urine and the patho [...] logical study was carried out in 55 thyroid glands from corpses received by the Department of Forensic Medicine of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil from May to August 2011. RESULTS: In 29 urine samples (96.7%) urinary iodine was above the maximum limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), of 300 mg/L. Fourteen thyroids (25.5%) showed the presence of histological changes compatible with thyroiditis. Higher levels of iodine in urine were observed in females and in of thyroid that showed inflammation (thyroiditis). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, in this population, there is excess iodine intake, and greater incidence of inflammatory thyroid disease.

  1. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma and its Osteoclastic Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is an uncommon highly malignant tumor. Osteoclastic type giant cell tumor of the thyroid is an extremely rare morphological variant of the undifferentiated carcinoma thyroid gland characterized by the presence of a large numbers of non-neoplastic multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts, containing many small round to oval, uniform benign appearing nuclei. Frequent association with preexisting thyroid lesion is seen. We report here this unusual aggressive tumor in a 70 year old female who presented with dysphagia, dyspnea and a progressively increasing swelling over the anterior aspect of the neck. Histologically, many multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells were seen accompanying the pleomorphic tumor cells and a diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with osteoclast like giant cells was made. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 98-100

  2. Stereotoracic skin biopsy in non-palpable woman mammary glands lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy stereotactic breast biopsies in non palpable lesions were performed in asintomatic patients, studied with mammography, physical examination and high-resolution ultrasonography. A 14-gauge cutting needle was used with excursion of 2 and 20 mm. in high likelihood probably benign lesions and low likelihood probably malignant lesions, not snographical evident and not less than 4 mm. in diameter. Long term follow-up or surgical correlation is available in only 46 biopsies, with 35 negative results and 11 positive results for cancer. Follow-up mammography was recommended in 34 of 35 negative results and one case showed mammographic lesion progression, a false negative result, with sensitivity 90.9% and NPV 97%. Needle wire localization and open surgery was recommended in 11 positive results, with total agreement between stereotactic core biopsy and open surgery, with specificity 100% and PPV 100%. The indication of stereotactic biopsy in non palpable lesions as an alternative to surgical biopsy in order to decrease the number of surgical biopsies with negative results and in consequence lowering costs of diagnosis of asintomatic malignant lesions, with error of 2.1% and 2.8% minor complications

  3. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP, antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA, p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1 e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido.

  4. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm / Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti, Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Karla Lais, Pêgas.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas [...] de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP), antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA), p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1) e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consi [...] sted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.

  5. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone rep%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  6. Dual thyroid ectopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-akeely, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare embryological fault of thyroid development. Dual ectopic thyroid is even more rare and only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. The author presents a case of dual ectopic thyroid in a 16-year-old boy with an anterior neck mass, which is gradually growing in size particularly in the last 2 years. The initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst. Thyroid function test revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did ...

  7. Image fusion analysis of 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide scintigraphy and CT/MRI in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy: the importance of the lacrimal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical structures that show uptake of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). The study population comprised a series of 20 TAO patients attending the out-patient thyroid clinic and 12 patients presenting head or neck tumours. Scintigraphy was carried out with our newly developed tracer, technetium-99m labelled EDDA-HYNIC-TOC (99mTc-TOC). Morphological imaging was done with either magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray computed tomography without contrast medium. Both imaging procedures were done within an interval of 3-4 weeks. For the image fusion procedure, specific external reference markers were used for each imaging modality. The markers were screwed onto a reference frame, which was held in place via a vacuum-fixed mouthpiece. The anatomical structure showing tracer uptake that was most frequently recognised was the lacrimal gland, followed by the retronasal area, cervical lymph structures, salivary glands, the anterior insertion points of the extra-ocular muscles and discrete areas of the neck extensor muscles. The lacrimal gland and the retronasal area showed the highest and most frequent uptake of 99mTc-TOC in TAO patients, whereas such uptake did not occur in the retrobulbar space. In spite of knowledge of these results of image fusion, no changes in the involved structures could be detected on morphological imaging. It is concluded that bindlogical imaging. It is concluded that binding of 99mTc-TOC is more frequently localised to the anterior compartment of the eye and to the neck. The previously used term ''orbital'' uptake should be abandoned and replaced by a descriptive term relating to the anatomically recognised structure showing tracer accumulation, i.e. the lacrimal gland. The uptake of octreotide by lymphoid and salivary glands opens a new field of investigation related to the physiology of somatostatin. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence of salivary glands lesions from histopathologic diagnosis of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of PUCPR in the period of 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre BETTIO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesions that affect salivary glands are a group of clinic entities ranging from local pathological alterations to the manifestation of systemic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of cases of lesions regarding salivary glands in patients of dental clinic of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR. Material and methods: A total of 1990 histopathologic reports was analyzed in data of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, in the period of 1999 to 2008. Seventy-three cases of salivary glands diseases were analyzed, according to sex, age and histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Mucocele was the most prevalent lesion, with 58 cases (2.9%. Others diseases were diagnosed, such as: pleomorphic adenoma (0.3%, cystic adenoid carcinoma (0.1%, sialoadenitis (0.1%, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (0.05%, Sjögren’s syndrome (0.05%, ranula (0.05% and adenomatoid hyperplasia (0.05%. No predilection for sex was observed, but the majority of diseases occurred principally during the three first life decades. Conclusion: These findings reinforce that the occurrence oflesions associated to the salivary glands is low when compared to others oral diseases. The more common pathological entities that affect salivary glands are associated to traumatic agents and affect adult male young patients.

  9. Evaluation of multiple-atlas-based strategies for segmentation of the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segmenting the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images is of vital clinical significance in designing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. In this work, we evaluate and compare several multiple-atlas-based methods to segment this structure. Using the most robust method, we generate automatic segmentations for the thyroid gland and study their clinical applicability. The various methods we evaluate range from selecting a single atlas based on one of three similarity measures, to combining the segmentation results obtained with several atlases and weighting their contribution using techniques including a simple majority vote rule, a technique called STAPLE that is widely used in the medical imaging literature, and the similarity between the atlas and the volume to be segmented. We show that the best results are obtained when several atlases are combined and their contributions are weighted with a measure of similarity between each atlas and the volume to be segmented. We also show that with our data set, STAPLE does not always lead to the best results. Automatic segmentations generated by the combination method using the correlation coefficient (CC) between the deformed atlas and the patient volume, which is the most accurate and robust method we evaluated, are presented to a physician as 2D contours and modified to meet clinical requirements. It is shown that about 40% of the contours of the left thyroid and about 42% of the right thyroid can id and about 42% of the right thyroid can be used directly. An additional 21% on the left and 24% on the right require only minimal modification. The amount and the location of the modifications are qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. We demonstrate that, although challenged by large inter-subject anatomical discrepancy, atlas-based segmentation of the thyroid gland in IMRT CT images is feasible by involving multiple atlases. The results show that a weighted combination of segmentations by atlases using the CC as the similarity measure slightly outperforms standard combination methods, e.g. the majority vote rule and STAPLE, as well as methods selecting a single most similar atlas. The results we have obtained suggest that using our contours as initial contours to be edited has clinical value. (paper)

  10. A Rarely Case: Symptomatic Ectopic Lingual Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan BÜYÜKKAYA, Melih Ergin ERKAN, Yusuf AYDIN, Ayla BÜYÜKKAYA, Sibel YAZGAN, Ömer YAZGAN, Alp Alper ?AFAK

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lingual thyroid tissue -totally or partially- occurs at the base of the tongue due to a defect ofembriological migration of thyroid tissue. It is rarely symptomatic and could mimic lingualtumor tissue. We aimed to present a rare case of symptomatic lingual thyroid tissue inconjunction with radiologic, scintigraphic findings and literature review. Case: A 45 year old woman had dyspnea and dysphagia for a long time. Contrast enhanced CTrevealed well shaped, dense homogen lesion with contrast enhancement, narrowwing air columnat the base of the tongue. The lesion was hyperdense when compared with the muscle tissue innon-contrast CT. Ultrasonography revealed hyperechogen lesion. Thyroid gland was not in itsnormal localisation. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with subclinicalhypothyroidism. The imaging findings of the patient which were consistent with ectopic lingualthyroid tissue has been reported and verified with scintigraphy. Discussion: ?f symptomatic ectopic thyroid tissue is not the only thyroid tissue in the body, itis surgically removed. In 75 % of lingual thyroid cases, ectopic tissue is the only functionalthyrod structure in the body, as in our case. Thus, clinicians should be vigilant before planningan operation for removal of the ectopic tissue. As a result, the certain diagnosis of ectopic thyroidtissue protects the patient from unnecessary surgery and possible in terms of early diagnosis ofmalignancy can develop useful.

  11. Statistical Data on 2556 Cases of Endocrine Glands Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BAHADORI

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a statistical and analytical review of endocrine glands disorders, seen in the Department of Pathology, Tehran University Medical School, and is based on approximately 40,000 surgical specimens and 2,500 autopsy cases. Of 42,500 combined routine surgical and autopsy cases reviewed, we had 2,556 cases of endocrine disorders of which there: thyroid 1,125 cases, ovary 970, testis 268, adrenal gland 170, pancreas 156, parathyroid 24 and pituitary gland 23. Principal lesions of each gland have been discussed, and in some cases attempt has been made to analyse and compare the clinical symptoms with the pathological findings.

  12. [Sonography of the thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachselt, K; Adolph, W

    1989-09-15

    The thyroid gland provides ideal anatomic conditions for sonographic investigations. Apart from the scintigraphy the sonography of the thyroid gland, therefore, stands in the first place as imaging procedure. After a short description of the investigation method and its ability of statement typical sonographic findings are demonstrated. The differentiation into diffuse or nodous strumata, the proof of typical focal findings such as autonomous adenomas or tumours or an increased vascularization in the region of the thyroid gland present an essential enlargement of the spectre of the modern diagnostics of the thyroid gland. PMID:2686230

  13. NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renê, Gerhard; Suely, Nonogaki; José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro, Fregnani; Fernando Augusto, Soares; Maria Aparecida, Nagai.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stim [...] uli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P

  14. Cirugía mayor ambulatoria de tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides / Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto Manuel, Luzardo Silveira; Juana Elisa, Eirin Arañó.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo sobre la ejecución de cirugía mayor ambulatoria para eliminar tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides, lo cual fue realizado en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany" de Santiago de Cuba dura [...] nte los años 1996-2008, ambos incluidos, previa valoración clínica de 74 pacientes en la consulta especializada de endocrinología, donde se decidió que podían ser operados con carácter definitivo. En la casuística predominaron el sexo femenino, los grupos etarios de 31-45 años, la hemitiroidectomía como técnica quirúrgica, la acupuntura como procedimiento analgésico y el adenoma folicular como resultado citohistológico. Se produjeron complicaciones leves en 5 integrantes de la muestra, pero la recuperación fue absoluta en todos, de manera que incluso 72 de ellos egresaron antes de las 24 horas. Este método operatorio, por la buena aceptación, es beneficioso para pacientes e instituciones hospitalarias. Abstract in english A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of "Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany" Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both in [...] cluded, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.

  15. Studies on the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland through foods contaminated by gaseous radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that iodine-131 released in the air is taken in the body through skin, inhalation and foods. Among them it is supposed that the path through foods such as milk and leaf vegetables must be critical. Because of the comparatively less consumption of milk in Japan, however, the leaf vegetables may be the most suspicious food followed by milk. This paper concerns the parameters used for the estimation of the oral intake of the nuclide discharged into the air. A specially designed exposure chamber was developed for the measurement of so-called velocity of deposition. The experiment was done by use of two chemical forms of stable iodine. The velocity of deposition obtained was 2.6 x 10-3 cm/sec for methyl iodine and 1.8 x 10-1 cm/sec for elemental iodine, respectively. The elemental iodine deposited easily onto inner wall of the chamber. And therefore space was allowed for the discussion how to identify the concentration of the elemental iodine circulating in the chamber. The yield of commercially available leaves of spinach was 1.7 to 2.0 kg/m2 of the field. Consumption of milk and leaf vegetables was surveyed in Tokai-mura. Infants of 6 months after birth ingested about 1000 ml of mother milk or powdered milk. Children upto 2 years old took about 500 ml of market milk and 15 g of leaf vegetables. Those of 2 to 5 years old had about 300 ml of market milk and 50 to 80 g of leaf vegetables. Estimation was done on the stable iodine intake which was one of the factors relating to the transfer rate of radioactive iodine to thyroid gland. It was conjected that at least more than 800 ?g of stable iodine could be ingested everyday by an adult inhabited there. As to infants, the work is now in progress. (author)

  16. Congenital thyroid hemiagenesis with multinodular goiter

    OpenAIRE

    Bhartiya, Sk; Verma, A.; Basu, S.; Shukla, Vk

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare form of thyroid dysgenesis characterized by an absence of half of the thyroid gland. Developmental hemi-thyroid anomalies can result from either an abnormal descent or an agenesis of one lobe of the thyroid gland. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman with history of a longstanding gradually progressive thyroid swelling without any complication. An ultrasonographic examination diagnosed the absence of the left thyroid lobe and enlargement of the right lobe, wh...

  17. Detection for residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between Tc-99m pertechnetate scan and high dose I-131 therapy scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of nuclear imaging in the detection of residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion, we have compared neck scintigrams with Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m scan) and high dose I-131 iodide (I-131 scan) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. One hundred thirty-five thyroidectomized patients for differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three had a previous history of radioiodine therapy. Planar and pin-hole images of anterior neck with Tc-99m were acquired at 20 minutes after injection, followed by I-131 scan three days after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 7 days interval. Patients were asked to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement more than 4 weeks. All subjects were in hypothyroid state. Seventy out of 135 patients (51.9%) showed concordant findings between Tc-99m and I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan did not show any uptake in thyroid bed in 11 of 112 patients without previous history of radioiodine therapy, but 9 of them showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan showed no bed uptake in all of the 23 patients with previous history of radioiodine therapy, in contrast 14 of them (60.9%) showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. These results suggest that Tc-99m scan has poor detectability for residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesion in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients, compared to high dose I-131 therapy scan. Tc-99m scan could not detect any remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patiemnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, especially

  18. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  19. Co-existent parathyroid adenoma and thyroid carcinoma. Nonspecificity of dual tracer parathyroid imaging for parathyroid lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intenzo, C.; Park, C.H.

    1985-08-01

    Dual tracer parathyroid imaging (DTPI) using Tc-99m and TI-201 has a reported sensitivity of 92% for the detection of parathyroid adenomas. A patient with biopsy-proven parathyroid adenoma as well as papillary thyroid carcinoma is presented. To date, this is the first such case ever to be reported and implies that DTPI, although a sensitive diagnostic modality for parathyroid adenoma detection, is not specific. The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism has recently been established more frequently than in the past due to detection of elevated serum calcium levels on routine blood samples, relatively sensitive parathormone (PTH) assays, and noninvasive imaging modalities such as nuclear medicine, CT scanning, and ultrasonography. At our institution, we have successfully detected the location of parathyroid adenomas in many cases, using the dual tracer method with TI-201 and Tc-99m, confirmed at surgery. We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism in which two distinct lesions were detected by nuclear imaging: one lesion was proven at surgery to be a parathyroid adenoma, while the other represented thyroid carcinoma.

  20. Co-existent parathyroid adenoma and thyroid carcinoma. Nonspecificity of dual tracer parathyroid imaging for parathyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual tracer parathyroid imaging (DTPI) using Tc-99m and TI-201 has a reported sensitivity of 92% for the detection of parathyroid adenomas. A patient with biopsy-proven parathyroid adenoma as well as papillary thyroid carcinoma is presented. To date, this is the first such case ever to be reported and implies that DTPI, although a sensitive diagnostic modality for parathyroid adenoma detection, is not specific. The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism has recently been established more frequently than in the past due to detection of elevated serum calcium levels on routine blood samples, relatively sensitive parathormone (PTH) assays, and noninvasive imaging modalities such as nuclear medicine, CT scanning, and ultrasonography. At our institution, we have successfully detected the location of parathyroid adenomas in many cases, using the dual tracer method with TI-201 and Tc-99m, confirmed at surgery. We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism in which two distinct lesions were detected by nuclear imaging: one lesion was proven at surgery to be a parathyroid adenoma, while the other represented thyroid carcinoma

  1. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland: is the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 or galectin-3 in primary tumour an indicator of metastatic disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow an indolent course with an excellent prognosis. However, a more aggressive behaviour with regional and distant metastases does occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the immunohistochemical markers cyclin D1 or galectin-3 might indicate the presence of metastatic disease in patients with PMC at the time of diagnosis.

  2. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland : is the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 or galectin-3 in primary tumour an indicator of metastatic disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow an indolent course with an excellent prognosis. However, a more aggressive behaviour with regional and distant metastases does occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the immunohistochemical markers cyclin D1 or galectin-3 might indicate the presence of metastatic disease in patients with PMC at the time of diagnosis.

  3. Radiation doses delivered to lens, thyroid gland, bone marrow and brain during radiologic work-up of chronic sinusitis. Comparison between plain radiographs and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for exact delineation of inflammatory sinus disease, especially before endoscopic surgical treatment. Thermoluminescent dosimetry studies were performed on a Rando humanoid phantom to compare radiation doses used in sinus examinations. Radiation doses were determined for lens, thyroid gland, condylar marrow and brain. Studies included standard sinus views (Waters, Caldwell, Hirtz and lateral), CT scan in axial and coronal planes and in planes determined by the axis of the naso-frontal duct, CT low-dose. (authors). 11 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  5. Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on the Morphology of Thyroid Gland in Male Wistar Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Onu*, B. O. Oke1, P. C. Ozegbe1 and J. O. Oyewale2

    2011-01-01

    The investigation was conducted to document the effect of alcohol on the morphology of thyroid gland of male rat offspring whose dams consumed alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. Seventy-five female rats divided into three groups, 1, 2, and 3, of 25 each and their offspring were used. Group 1 served as control (C), group 2 was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and lactation (APL) while group 3 was exposed to alcohol during lactation only (AL). At day 35 and 49 postpartum 5 male rat ...

  6. Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Parenchymal impairment of salivary glands following high-dose radioiodine treatment is a well-known side effect in general caused by free radicals. Therefore, the radioprotective effect of the radical scavenger amifostine was evaluated prospectively in patients receiving high-dose radioiodine treatment. Patients and methods: Parenchymal function was assessed by quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy performed in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment with either 3 GBq 131I (n=21) or 6 BGq 131I (n=29) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-five patients treated with 500 mg/m2 amifostine intravenously prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment were compared to 25 control patients receiving physiological saline solution. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO-criteria. Results: In 25 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced parenchymal function of parotid and submandibular glands by 40.2±14.1% and 39.9±15.3%, respectively. Nine out of these 25 patients developed Grade I and 2 Grade II xerostomia. In contrast, in 25 amifostine-treated patients there was no significant (p=0.691) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage of salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can bby high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.)

  7. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma: A rare tumor of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Can

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma is a rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with favorable prognosis. The tumor is named “Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma” because of bearing a striking morphological resemblance to Warthin’s tumor occurring in the salivary glands. Thyroid ultrasonography of 65 years old female patient with a history of bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy 30 years ago in another center with unknown histopathological diagnosis revealed a 20 mm isoechoic solid nodule in the left lobe and this nodule was hypoactive in thyroid scintigraphy. Grossly, a grey-tan colored, solid nodule with 1 cm diameter was seen in the left lobe. Histologically, the tumor was composed of papillary structures surrounded by marked lymphocytic stroma and oncocytic cells with papillary carcinoma’s nuclear features were lining the papillae. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was present throughout the thyroid. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells exhibited cytokeratin 19, Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, Galectin-3, HBME-1(Mesothelioma antibody and thyroglobulin positivity, proliferative index with Ki-67 was low. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma is a rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and other oncocytic cell lesions especially Hurthle cell carcinoma should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of this neoplasm.

  8. Diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marchisotta, Stefania; Pacini, Furio

    2009-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. The majority of medullary thyroid cancers are sporadic, but 25% of cases are inherited as a result of germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. In sporadic cases MTC presents as a thyroid nodule discovered at palpation or at thyroid ultrasonography, and is indistinguishable from thyroid nodules of different histology. Since effective treatment of MTC is only possible when the tumour is limited to the thyroid gland, ...

  9. Comparison of Thin-Prep and cell block preparation for the evaluation of Thyroid epithelial lesions on fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammoud Jamal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare the utility of Thin-Prep (TP cytologic preparation with that of Cell Block (CB preparation in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, mainly follicular epithelial lesions, by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. Feasibility of using the TP slides for immunocytochemical stains is also discussed. Methods A total of 126 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with TP slides and 128 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with CB slides were reviewed blindly by two cytopathologists. The presence of colloid, follicular cells, macrophages and lymphocytes/plasma cells were recorded and scored 0–4 on each case based on TP or CB slide review. The cytologic diagnoses were grouped as follows: cyst, colloid nodule, colloid nodule with cystic change, chronic thyroiditis, atypical/neoplastic and non-diagnostic. Results The TP slides had higher diagnostic rate than CB slides. The diagnostic yield was 68% of the TP slides whereas only 24% of the CB slides were diagnostic. Also, only 4 atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the TP slides and the corresponding direct smears, while 5 cases of atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the smears but could not be diagnosed on the corresponding CB slides. Additionally, the TP slides revealed cytologic features that were not observed on the direct traditional smears of the same case. Conclusion In thyroid FNAB cases, TP slide preparation is superior to CB slide preparation and is more likely to have greater cellularity for diagnosis and detect atypical/neoplastic thyroid lesions, particularly those of follicular cell origin. Furthermore, TP slides appear to detect helpful diagnostic cytologic features and should be considered complementary to, rather than replacing, direct smears.

  10. Estimation of the risk of secondary cancer in the thyroid gland and the breast outside the treated volume in patients undergoing brain, mediastinum and breast radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to measure the peripheral dose which is the absorbed dose in organs located outside the treatment volume such as the thyroid gland and the breast in patients undergoing radiotherapy, utilising the MOSFET dosemeters, as well as to estimate the probability of secondary cancer. The thyroid gland doses, expressed as a percentage of the prescribed dose (%TD), were measured to be 2.0±0.3 %, in whole brain irradiation, 10.0±8.0 % in mediastinum treatment and 8.0±2.0 and 2.0±0.8 % in breast treatment, with and without the supraclavicular irradiation, respectively, with a corresponding risk of 0.2, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.3 %. The dose to the breast was 7.0±2.0 %, in the mediastinum treatment, and 4.0±1.0 and 2.0±0.8 %, in the breast treatment, with and without supraclavicular irradiation, respectively, with a corresponding risk of 4.0, 2.0 and 1.0 %. Although the results indicate that the risk is not negligible, its significance should be considered in conjunction with the existing pathology and age of the patients. (authors)

  11. Two-orthogonal-view method for quantification of rad dose to neck lesions in thyroid cancer therapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique is described for the determination of the dose in rad to metastatic lesions in the neck following administration of 131I for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. The technique utilizes a high-energy pinhole collimator mounted on an Anger camera which can be rotated to record lateral and anterior views from known positions relative to the patient. A new algorithm is derivedfor the determination of lesion location in three dimensions, utilizing the distance of closest approach between back-projected rays from the two views. In addition, a new derivation is presented for the estimation of ellipsoid volume from two pinhole projections. The method makes use of a computer edge detection program to delineate the projected lesion boundaries. The output is either a mean estimate from one view or a more definitive upper bound derived from both views. The uptake in counts is determined from daily anterior images which are corrected for pinhole efficiency falloff with distance. This uptake is converted into microcuries by use of an in- air calibration curve. An attenuation correction is applied using the calculated lesion depth and an assumed attenuation coefficient. The dose rate is calculated using standard assumptions and is integrated graphically over the first few days when the rate peaks and by utilizing a single- decaying-exponential fit to the data over the remaining days. Illustrative patient data are presented in which doses are calculated for esented in which doses are calculated for three neck lesions after an administration of 175 mCi of 131I. These doses include a lower bound of 2400 rad and estimates of 5300 and 9500 rad

  12. Ocular surface and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease / Superfície ocular e envolvimento da glândula salivar em pacientes com tireoidite autoimune

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavia Pelinsari, Lana; Carolina Ramos, Mosena; Maria Emilia Xavier dos Santos, Araújo.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Muitos trabalhos mostraram uma associação entre doenças da tireoide e síndrome de Sjögren primária (pSS) . O objetivo do nosso estudo foi avaliar os resultados dos testes utilizados para o diagnóstico de olho seco e envolvimento das glândulas salivares em pacientes com tireoidite autoimun [...] e. Métodos: Quarenta e dois pacientes (grupo 1) com doença autoimune da tireoide e 30 controles (grupo 2 ) foram selecionados. Nos dois grupos foi realizada a mesma sequência de exames: tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, teste de Schimer I, teste de Schirmer II, avaliação da córnea e conjuntiva com corante de Rosa Bengala. Também foi realizado cintilografia da glândula salivar para avaliar seu envolvimento. Resultados: Em relação aos danos na superfície ocular observado pelo teste rosa bengala não houve diferença entre os grupos (p=0,77), o mesmo ocorrendo no tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal (p=0,46) e na cintilografia da glândula salivar (p=0,99). Apenas no teste de Schirmer II houve diferença estatística significante (p=0,0009). Conclusão: Nenhum paciente cumpriu todos os critérios para a síndrome de Sjögren. É possível que este resultado esteja subestimado. Abstract in english Purpose: Many reports have indicated an association between thyroid dieases and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of the tests used for dry eye diagnosis and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods: Forty-two pati [...] ents (group 1) with autoimmune thyroid disease and 30 controls (group 2) were selected. Tear film break up time, Schirmer I test, Schirmer II test, ocular staining with 1% rose Bengal and salivary gland cintilography were performed in both groups. Results: Regarding the ocular surface damage observed by Rose Bengal test there was no difference between groups (p=0.77). For tear film break up time the groups did not differ statistically (p=0.46). There was no statistical difference between groups 1 and control in scintigraphy of the salivary gland (p=0.99). A statistical difference between the patients with thyroid disease and the control group was seem only in the Schirmer II test (p=0.0009). Conclusions: No patients fulfilled all criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. It is possible that it could be underestimated.

  13. Relações anatômicas das glândulas paratireóides cervicais com a tireóide: estudo em 53 tireoidectomias Anatomical relationships of the cervical parathyroids glands with the thyroid: study in 53 thyroidectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Botelho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo foi transversal e retrospectivo por meio dos registros fotográficos, nos transoperatórios de 53 tireoidectomias totais e parciais, realizadas entre janeiro de 2002 a agosto de 2006, em pacientes portadores de doenças benignas e malignas da tireóide. RESULTADOS: Foram obtidas imagens de 111 glândulas paratireóides. Das 67 superiores, 65 (97% estavam envolvidas pelo fino e irregular tecido adiposo peri-glandular. Das 44 inferiores, 41 (93,1% estavam parcial ou totalmente envoltas pela esparsa gordura aderida à cápsula tireóide. A escolha da via de acesso e o cuidado para evitar hemorragias são dois itens que evitam maiores dificuldades. Acrescem-se os rigores da técnica com a ligadura do pedículo superior, sendo realizada em primeiro lugar, seguida da mobilização do lobo tireóideo em sentido medial. Esses gestos possibilitam a melhor identificação das paratireóides. CONCLUSÃO: É indispensável conservar o tecido adiposo aderido à cápsula tireóidea, onde se alojam mais de 90% das paratireóides. O manuseio cirúrgico dessa delgada lâmina adiposa provoca a mudança da cor das paratireóides, tornando-as amarronzadas, destacando-as entre o amarelo-ouro da gordura e impondo maior atenção ao cirurgião.BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to establish an anatomical surgical protocol to guide on parathyroid identification. METHOD: This was a transversal and retrospective study using intraoperative photographic register of 53 total and partial thyroidectomies, done through January 2002 and August 2006, with benign and malignant thyroid patients. RESULTS: Pictures of 111 parathyroids glands have been taken. From 67 superior parathyroids, 65 (97% were surrounded by a thin and irregular adipose tissue; from 44 inferior parathyroids, 41 (93.1% were partially or totally surrounded by fat adhered and spread to the thyroid capsule. The access and care to prevent hemorrhages are both items which prevent the surgeon from having greater difficulties. Furthermore, it is necessary to follow a rigid technique with ligature of the superior pedicle, carried out as the first step, followed by dislocation of thyroid lobe into a medial position to identify safely the parathyroids glands. CONCLUSION: It is mandatory to preserve the adipose tissue intact adhered to the thyroid capsule, where parathyroids glands are localized more than 90%. The surgical handling of this thin adipose lamina provokes parathyroid color changes transforming them from yellow-gold fat to brownish and imposing bigger attention to the surgeon.

  14. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Measurement of thyroid autoantibodies may aid in the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease (enlargement of...

  15. Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma). Imaging is performed using an integrated OCT and OCM system, with thyroid tissues. With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

  16. Orbital metastasis as initial manifestation of a widespread papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagsisihan, Daveric Ablis; Aguilar, Anthony Harvey Isabelo; Maningat, Ma Patricia Deanna Delfin

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), particularly microcarcinomas, rarely metastasise to the orbit. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman with a right supraorbital mass and unremarkable physical examination of the thyroid gland region. Orbital CT scan showed an expansile lytic lesion in the orbital plate of the frontal bone with a soft tissue component. An incision biopsy revealed metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid ultrasound was normal except for a subcentimetre nodule in the right lobe. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy where histopathology showed a subcentimetre follicular variant PTC. She subsequently received radioactive iodine therapy. Post-therapy whole body scan revealed metastatic thyroid tissues in the right orbital and posterior parietal, and left shoulder and hip areas. Although infrequent, metastatic thyroid carcinoma should be considered in patients with orbital metastasis even when neck examination is normal. In rare cases, this may be the initial manifestation of a widely metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. PMID:25819821

  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in intrathoracic goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokun Radojka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic goiter (more than 80% of tissue in the thoracic cavity represents very rare clinical entity (less than 1% of total number of thyroid gland surgical procedures. Cancer incidence in these goiter is 0-5%. The aim of this article is to present a case report of intrathoracic thyroid papillary carcinoma with multiple compressive syndrome and review of compressive intrathoracic syndrome of thyroid etiology. In our patient we have found: tracheal and oesophageal deviation and compression, superior vena cava syndrome, downhill varices, chylothorax, pericardial effusion, compress of the left a. subclavia, unilateral lesion of recurrent and phrenic nerve, and brachial plexopathy. This was a unique case with multiple compressive syndrome between 3000 patients surgically treated for all kinds of thyroid deceases. Intrathoracic goiter can cause all the known symptoms and syndromes of intrathoracic compression with possibility of rapid deterioration and fatal end.

  18. Lesion dose in differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases after rhTSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal: {sup 124}I PET/CT dosimetric comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, Lutz Stefan; Jentzen, Walter; Brandau, Wolfgang; Bockisch, Andreas [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Petrich, Thorsten; Knapp, Wolfram H. [Hanover University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hanover (Germany); Froemke, Cornelia [Hanover University School of Medicine, Institute of Biometry, Hanover (Germany); Marlowe, Robert J. [Spencer-Fontayne Corporation, Jersey City, NJ (United States); Heusner, Till [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Renal radioiodine excretion is {proportional_to}50% faster during euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. We therefore sought to assess lesion dose/GBq of administered {sup 131}I activity (LDpA) in iodine-avid metastases (IAM) of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in athyreotic patients after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). We retrospectively compared mean LDpA between groups of consecutive patients (N = 63) receiving {sup 124}I positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 124}I PET/CT) aided by rhTSH (n = 27) or THW (n = 36); we prospectively compared LDpA after these stimulation methods within another individual. Data derived from serial PET scans and one CT scan performed 2-96 h post-{sup 124}I ingestion. A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) calculated the treatment groups' mean LDpAs adjusting for statistically significant baseline intergroup differences: non-IAM were more prevalent, median IAM count/patient lower in cervical lymph nodes and higher in distant sites, median stimulated thyroglobulin higher, mean cumulative radioiodine activity greater and prior diagnostic scintigraphy more frequent in the rhTSH patients. Mean LDpAs were: rhTSH group (n = 71 IAM), 30.6 Gy/GBq; THW group (n = 66 IAM), 51.8 Gy/GBq. The difference in group means (rhTSH less THW), -21.2 Gy/GBq, was statistically non-significant (p = 0.1667). However, the 95% confidence interval of that difference (-51.4 to + 9 Gy/GBq) suggested a trend favouring THW. The within-patient comparison found 2.9- to 10-fold higher LDpAs under THW. We found some suggestions, but no statistically significant evidence, that rhTSH administration results in a lower radiation dose to DTC metastases than does THW. A large, well-controlled, prospective within-patient study should resolve this issue. (orig.)

  19. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the 131 I accumulated in her thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of 131 I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with 131 I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of 131 I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  20. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  1. Occult papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis to the sacrum and the skull: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhar, Fatima S; Quadri, Asif; Afandi, Bachar; Al Rawi, Sadir

    2014-01-01

    This case represents occult follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) with large metastasis to the sacrum. The patient, a 42-year-old female, presented after hemithyroidectomy for benign follicular adenoma with lower back pain associated with fever and sweating. A lytic lesion of the left sacral bone was found on the CT with biopsy showing metastatic carcinoma with morphology and immunophenotype of thyroid gland primary tumor proven to be FVPTC. The patient had completion thyroidectomy with benign pathology. PMID:25544844

  2. The prevalence of incidentaloma - asymptomatic thyroid nodules in the Tricity (Gdansk, Sopot, Gdynia) population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The increased sensitivity of imaging devices raised number of incidentally discovered lesions in various organs of the human body. Thyroid gland is one of them. Reported prevalence of ultrasonographically detected thyroid nodules (incidentalomas) in general population ranges from 5.2 to 67.0%. Our study demonstrated occurrence of this clinical problem in the general population of the Tricity. Material and methods: 135 healthy adults (95 women and 40 men) were examined. Neck palpation, ultrasonographic examinations of thyroid gland and serum tyreotropin (TSH) level measurement were made. Results: In 8.9% of examine (12/135) persons nodules were palpable whereas in 14.8% (20/135) they were detectable only in ultrasonographic examination. Altogether thyroid ultrasound and palpation revealed nodules in 23.7% (32/135) of all cases. Multiple nodules were present in 12.0% of the cases. The pathology was more common in the elderly and in women. TSH serum level was within normal range in all cases of incidentaloma with otherwise normal thyroid gland. Conclusions: Prevalence of thyroid gland nodules (palpation - 8.9% plus ultrasonography - 14.8%) in healthy population of Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot is close to data reported in southern Finland (27.0%) and Belgium (19.0%), where iodine deficiency is small, like in the Tricity area. The revealed lesions were over two times more frequent in the female population. Most of the nodules were not palpable. (author)ules were not palpable. (author)

  3. A novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 differentiates between neoplastic lesions in follicular thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Annukka; Fermér, Christian; Hagström, Jaana; Louhimo, Johanna; Mäenpää, Hanna; Siironen, Päivi; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Nilsson, Olle; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj

    2015-07-01

    Follicular thyroid lesions are the bane of cytopathology. Differentiation between adenoma and carcinoma is impossible, and often these neoplasms are indistinguishable even from uninodular goitre. In other cancers as well, a theory of stem cells as the origin of cancer has been discussed in thyroid carcinogenesis. We aimed to examine a novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 in follicular lesions in an attempt to find a marker for differential diagnosis in thyroid cytopathology. HESC5:3 was raised against and is specific for undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. The epitope of this novel antibody is to be defined. Immunohistochemical expression of HESC5:3 was examined in clinical material comprised of follicular neoplasms (83 adenomas, 43 carcinomas) and non-neoplastic lesions (41 goitrous, 22 hyperplastic, 23 normal tissue specimens). Staining differed significantly between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Nuclear staining was increased in non-neoplastic cells, whereas in neoplastic cells expression was mainly cytoplasmic. There was no difference between benign and malignant lesions, suggesting a role in early tumourigenesis. In conclusion, the HESC5:3 epitope may be of benefit as a neoplasia marker in distinguishing between uninodular goitre and neoplasia. Characterization of the epitope would increase the interest in this promising new stem cell associated marker. PMID:25960045

  4. Thyroid cancer and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Guarino, Valentina; Castellone, Maria Domenica; Avilla, Elvira; Melillo, Rosa Marina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Some cancer types are strongly associated with chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases whereas others are not, but an inflammatory component is present in most human neoplastic lesions. This review focuses on various aspects of thyroid cancer and inflammation. The incidence of thyroid cancer, in particular of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), is increased in autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid cancer often has an ...

  5. Factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides en mujeres: Risk Factors Associated With Thyroid Cancer Gland in Women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabio Eduardo, Bosso; Vinícius, de Oliveira Boldrini.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: El cáncer como factor de estudio en el escenario mundial, la transición epidemiológica y la incidencia de la enfermedad en países emergentes. Objetivo: hacer un levantamiento bibliográfico sobre los factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de tiroides en mujeres. Material e Métodos: Fue real [...] izada una búsqueda en el primer semestre del 2011 en la base de datos virtual Embase utilizando tres escritores en ingles thyroid cáncer, risk factors y women. La búsqueda fue reducida para artículos publicados en los años 2010 y 2011 y estudios controlados. Fueron seleccionados trece artículos y fueron incluidos diez. Resultados: Fue posible agrupar los factores de riesgo presentados en los estudios incluidos en tres grupos: factor ambiental (n = 4), fármaco o tratamiento utilizado (n = 3) y, por fin, características de los individuos y sus hábitos cotidianos (n = 3). Conclusión: Mujeres, bajo IMC, edad de inicio del cáncer, obesidad, tiroiditis de Hashimoto y hábito de alimentarse con un consumo excesivo de vegetales crucíferos, son factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides Abstract in english Background: The cancer study as a factor in the global scenario, the epidemiological transition and the incidence of disease in developing countries. Objective: To review the literature on risk factors associated with thyroid cancer in women. Methods: We performed a search in the first half of 2011 [...] in virtual database EMBASE using three key-words in English: thyroid cancer, risk factors and women. The search was refined to articles published in the years 2010 and 2011 and controlled studies. We selected thirteen articles and ten were included. Results: Is possible cluster the risk factors presented in included studies into three groups: environmental factors (n=4), drug use or treatment (n = 3) and, finally, characteristics of individuals and their daily habits (n = 3). Conclusion: Women, low BMI, age at onset of cancer, obesity, Hashimoto’s thyroidits and eating habits with excessive consumption of cruciferous plants, are risk factors associated with thyroid cancer gland

  6. Factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides en mujeres: Risk Factors Associated With Thyroid Cancer Gland in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Eduardo Bosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: El cáncer como factor de estudio en el escenario mundial, la transición epidemiológica y la incidencia de la enfermedad en países emergentes. Objetivo: hacer un levantamiento bibliográfico sobre los factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de tiroides en mujeres. Material e Métodos: Fue realizada una búsqueda en el primer semestre del 2011 en la base de datos virtual Embase utilizando tres escritores en ingles thyroid cáncer, risk factors y women. La búsqueda fue reducida para artículos publicados en los años 2010 y 2011 y estudios controlados. Fueron seleccionados trece artículos y fueron incluidos diez. Resultados: Fue posible agrupar los factores de riesgo presentados en los estudios incluidos en tres grupos: factor ambiental (n = 4, fármaco o tratamiento utilizado (n = 3 y, por fin, características de los individuos y sus hábitos cotidianos (n = 3. Conclusión: Mujeres, bajo IMC, edad de inicio del cáncer, obesidad, tiroiditis de Hashimoto y hábito de alimentarse con un consumo excesivo de vegetales crucíferos, son factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroidesBackground: The cancer study as a factor in the global scenario, the epidemiological transition and the incidence of disease in developing countries. Objective: To review the literature on risk factors associated with thyroid cancer in women. Methods: We performed a search in the first half of 2011 in virtual database EMBASE using three key-words in English: thyroid cancer, risk factors and women. The search was refined to articles published in the years 2010 and 2011 and controlled studies. We selected thirteen articles and ten were included. Results: Is possible cluster the risk factors presented in included studies into three groups: environmental factors (n=4, drug use or treatment (n = 3 and, finally, characteristics of individuals and their daily habits (n = 3. Conclusion: Women, low BMI, age at onset of cancer, obesity, Hashimoto’s thyroidits and eating habits with excessive consumption of cruciferous plants, are risk factors associated with thyroid cancer gland

  7. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  8. Tumor trabecular hialinizante de glándula tiroides: un reto diagnóstico, a propósito de un caso / Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of thyroid gland: diagnostic challenge, case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio Cesar, Díaz Acosta; Pedro Luis, Forero Porras; Diego Andrés, Guarín Supelano; Martha Liliana, Alarcón Tarazona; Diego, Rangel Cantillo.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El tumor trabecular hialinizante de tiroides es una condición clínica incidental, infrecuente, de comportamiento incierto, representa un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico debido a que es difícil diferenciarlo de otros tumores tiroideos como el carcinoma papilar y medular por sus similitud [...] es histológicas. Reporte de caso: Paciente de 53 años quien acudió a consulta por crecimiento de la glándula tiroidea y disfagia. Se realizaron estudios diagnósticos previos los cuales orientaron hacia una condición benigna sin embargo por progresión de síntomas se decidió realizar tiroidectomía total. La histopatología de la masa reportó carcinoma medular y en la inmunohistoquímica como hallazgo incidental se realiza diagnóstico final de adenoma trabecular hialinizante de tiroides. Discusión: El tumor trabecular hialinizante de tiroides presenta un desafío continuo, por lo cual es necesario realizar pruebas inmunohistoquímicas que permitan realizar la diferenciación. El abordaje quirúrgico no es claro debido a su comportamiento incierto y a que las publicaciones que existen no son claras acerca del pronóstico y manejo. Conclusiones: El tumor trabecular hialinizante de tiroides es una enfermedad con bajas tasas de incidencia, frecuentemente mal diagnosticado y sobre el cual no existe información clara acerca de su manejo. El seguimiento clínico de estos pacientes y futuros estudios observacionales nos permitirá obtener conclusiones a futuro sobre su comportamiento y pronóstico. Abstract in english Introduction: The hyalinized trabecular tumor of thyroids is a clinical condition, rarely frequent of uncertain behavior and difficult diagnosis due to the fact that is hard to differentiate it from other thyroid tumors such as the papillary and medullar carcinoma due to its histological similaritie [...] s. Case report: 53 year old patient who attended medical consult because of an irregular growth in the thyroids gland and the dysphagia, previous diagnose studies were made and led to a benign pathology, but for symptomatology it was decided to make a total thyroidectomy. The histopathology of the mass reported a medullar carcinoma and in the immune-histo-chemistry as an incidental finding a final diagnose was made, showing a hyalinized trabecular adenoma of thyroids. Discussion: The hyalinized trabecular tumor of thyroids presented diagnosis and therapeutic challenges. Duo to is necessary necessary to make immune-histo-chemistry tests. The surgical approach is not clear because of its uncertain behavior and the lack of studies that report its forecast and treatment. Conclusions: The hyalinized trabecular tumor of thyroids is a disease with low rates of incidence, usually badly diagnosed, over which there is no clear existing information for its treatment. The clinical surveillance of these patients and future observational studies will allow us to make some conclusions in the future regarding its behavior and forecast.

  9. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeri H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Warthin tumor- like papillary carcinoma of thyroid is a rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. It is characterized by distinct papillary structures lined by oncocytic tumor cells with nuclear features of papillary carcinoma and marked lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate in the papillary stalks. This tumor derives its name from its resemblance to Warthin tumor of major salivary glands.Case presentation: We report a 54- year- old man presented with bilateral thyroid masses. Histopathological study showed papillary structures lined by cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and ground- glass nuclei with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the stalks.Conclusion: Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma could be mistaken for benign lymphoepithelial lesions such as Hashimoto thyroiditis, Hurthle cell tumors and tall cell variant of papillary carcinoma. Follow- up information on the previously reported cases has suggested that these tumors behave similarly to usual papillary carcinoma.

  10. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Iksan (Korea); See-Sung, Choi [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Iksan (Korea); Kim, Jong Duck [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Iksan (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  11. Surgical Treatment for Unexplained Severe Pain of the Thyroid Gland: Report of Three Cases and Concise Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Hans Morreau; Romijn, Johannes A.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Kleij-corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Jan van Schaik

    2011-01-01

    Painful thyroid has a limited differential diagnosis. In rare cases, no clear cause can be found after careful clinical, biochemical, and radiological analysis. This may lead to extensive patient morbidity and frustration when symptomatic treatment proves insufficient. Hemithyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy may then be the last resort for doctor and patient. Three cases of unexplained painful thyroid which were successfully treated with hemi or total thyroidectomy are presented. In two case...

  12. Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid gland and immunohistochemical analysis of expression of p53 protein in papillary microcarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal Ali R; Kamel Nuri; Tonyukuk Vedia; Delibasi Tuncay; Sak Serpil D; Corapcioglu Demet; Kocak Savas; Aydintug Semih; Erdogan Gurbuz

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPM) is defined according to WHO criteria as a thyroid tumor smaller than 1–1.5 cm. TPMs are encountered in 0.5–35.6 % of autopsies or surgical specimens where carcinoma had been unsuspected. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients who had TPMs in terms of clinical findings, histopathological features and immunohistochemical evidence of expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Methods A total of 44 patients with T...

  13. Lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study over a period of five years in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Anjit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary Thyroid Lymphoma (PTL is uncommon, accounting for only 5% of thyroid neoplasms and less than 2.5 to 7% of extranodal lymphomas. The study aims to analyze the histopathological findings and to correlate it with clinical features. Methods: This study includes cases of PTL received in the department of pathology in a tertiary care center, Kerala, south India over a period of 5 years. Patient details and follow up data were obtained by communication with treating doctors and reviewing the hospital records. All cases had a minimum follow up of 6 months. Results: 15 cases of PTL were diagnosed over the five year period. In total 72 cases of extranodal lymphomas were diagnosed, thus forming 20.83% of extra nodal lymphomas. Lymphocytic thyroiditis was present in 93.3%. Most of the cases were Extranodal Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma (EMZBCL and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL. Conclusion: It is important to consider the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma in patients presenting with an enlarging neck mass especially with the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Random microscopic foci of DLBCL or small areas of MZBL could be overlooked examination or missed with limited sampling. The distinction between MZBL and DLBCL in the thyroid is clinically significant. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 579-582

  14. F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and MALT lymphoma recurrence of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the case of a 86-year-old male patient with a rapidly growing nodule within the right lobe of the thyroid gland, which after hemithyroidectomy, turned out to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland. In addition, Hashimoto's thyroiditis was reported in the thyroid tissue adjacent to the MALT lymphoma. During follow-up a second nodule emerged within the left lobe and, because of evidence of MALT lymphoma recurrence, F-18-FDG-PET was performed. F-18-FDG-PET imaged a clearly in-creased accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus. Thus, no differences in the degree of hypermetabolism could be imaged between the nodule and the adjacent thyroid tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report about F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with MALT lymphoma of the thyroid. Literature search revealed only a few cases of MALT lymphomas in locations other than the thyroid gland that were studied with F-18-FDG-PET. In no case was F-18 FDG accumulation seen in the MALT lesions. However, clear F-18 FDG accumulation was reported in some patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is concluded that the intensive F-18-FDG accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus of the presented case was due to the coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Consequently, F-18-FDG-PET imaging does not seem to be indicated in a patient with MALT lymphoma and known Hashimoto's thyroiditis in order to evaluate the status of the MALT lymphoma. (author)tus of the MALT lymphoma. (author)

  15. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient\\'s age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with \\'red flag\\' symptoms.

  16. THE SURGERY OF THE THYROID GLAND IN THE FIRST SURGICAL CLINIC IA?I – A RETROSPECTIVE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Niculescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different studies reported an increase rate of the thyroidian pathology incidence and thyroidian cancer prevalence, in the last years. Aim: to evaluate the surgical indications, procedures and results for thyroid pathology. Methods: retrospective study performed in First Surgical Clinic Ia?i. Results: During the last 15 years, 2212 patients with different thyroid diseases were operated in our clinic. From these, 53.97% (N=1194 were operated for nodular goiter, 29.97% (N=663 for hyperthyroidism, 10.31% (N=228 for thyroid neoplasm and 6.2% (N=137 for thyroiditis. Differentiated thyroid cancer represents 62% from all the thyroid cancers and occult carcinoma frequency was 5.2%. Total or near total thyroidectomies were performed at 81% of the patients with thyroid cancer. The postoperative morbidity consisted in hemorrhage (3 cases and recurrent nerve palsy (7 cases. The most common form of hyperthyroidism was Graves’ disease - 50% (N=331, followed by multinodular toxic goiter – 32.65 (N=220 and functional autonomus nodule – 17.4% (N=112. Total and near total thyroidectomies were performed in 228 cases (34.4% and subtotal thyroidectomies in 349 cases (52.64%. Postoperative hemorrhage was noted in 10 cases and recurrent nerve palsy in 6 cases. Conclusions: Differentiated thyroidian cancer has a significantly increasing rate, in the last years, due to occult carcinoma. Fine needle biopsy and frozen section exam are very useful and have to be performed in all the cases. The correct treatment is a single definitive operative approach – total or near total thyroidectomy.

  17. Studies on the iodine supply of the inhabitants living around the Paks Nuclear Power Plant by determining the iodine concentration of thyroid gland and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make a general survey about the iodine supply of the inhabitants living in the vicinity of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, the iodine concentration of the thyroid gland of deceased persons was determined by means of x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis, and the iodine content of urine was measured using ion selective electrodes. Significant differences in the iodine supply of the inhabitants of Paks and its neighbourhood compared to the control group could not be detected, though the consumption of iodine containing salt was suggested to increase the measured low values, i.e. 347-457 ?g I-/g wet tissue and 56-90 ?g I-/l urine, respectively. (V.N.)

  18. Accidental finding of Hashimoto-like thyroiditis in male B.U.T. 6 turkeys at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesch, P; Schade, B; Breithaupt, A; Bellof, G; Kienzle, E

    2014-10-01

    In the context of a study on the tolerance of rapeseed meal in B.U.T. 6 turkeys, thyroid glands were histologically and immunohistochemically examined because of potential thyreostatic effects. In all groups including the controls with no rapeseed meal in their food, there was a high incidence of lymphocytic infiltration and thyroiditis (14% of thyroids with moderate to severe lymphocytic thyroiditis). Thirty per cent of mononuclear inflammatory cells were immunohistochemically identified as T cells. There were occasional accumulations of PAX-5 labelled cells, indicating germinal centre development. These lesions resemble Hashimoto's disease in humans. The effect on thyroid function is unknown. Mild hypothyreosis might enhance productivity but also explain dispositions towards diseases seen in context with thyroid dysfunction such as skin diseases (foot pad disease?) and cardiovascular problems. Further studies on thyroid function in these turkeys are needed. PMID:24313909

  19. Xenotransplantation of a thyroid gland organ culture as the method of hormonal compensation of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reestablishment of the thyroid function in rats with radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The serum total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) values in male Wistar rats, weighing of 100-150 g, fell to low levels by 2 weeks after 2.775 MBq 131-iodine administration. The values of serum TT4 in rats were generally in the euthyroid range by the 17th day after xenotransplantation (XTP) of 3-day old newborn pig thyroid organ culture by injection into the fat tissue of anterior abdominal wall. The serum TT3 values rose rapidly and reached normal levels by the 7th day after XTP. 7 days after XTP, all newborn pig thyroid xenografts showed 131-iodine uptake, and four of five xenografts were still functional bu the 17th day. These results indicate that the xenografted newborn pig thyroid organ culture allows a restoration of the thyroid function in rats with post radioiodine hypothyroidism

  20. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia / Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Diego Mendonça, Uchôa; Vanessa, Yépez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP) são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfa [...] gia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME), cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1). O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination [...] and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME), kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1). The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.

  1. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME, kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1. The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfagia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME, cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1. O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido.

  2. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The xic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy

  3. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain. PMID:25251231

  4. Sprouty1 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Macià, Anna; Gallel, Pilar; Vaquero, Marta; Gou-Fabregas, Myriam; Santacana, Maria; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Robledo, Mercedes; Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Basson, M Albert; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Encinas, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignancy derived from the calcitonin-producing C-cells of the thyroid gland. Oncogenic mutations of the Ret proto-oncogene are found in all heritable forms of MTC and roughly one half of the sporadic cases. However, several lines of evidence argue for the existence of additional genetic lesions necessary for the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Sprouty (Spry) family of genes is composed of four members in mammals (Spry1-4). Some Spry family ...

  5. Thyroid stem cells: lessons from normal development and thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Dolly; Friedman, Susan; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing advances in stem cell research have opened new avenues for therapy for many human disorders. Until recently, however, thyroid stem cells have been relatively understudied. Here, we review what is known about thyroid stem cells and explore their utility as models of normal and malignant biological development. We also discuss the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells and explore the clinical implications of cancer stem cells in the thyroid gland. Since thyroid cancer is the most...

  6. Expressão de galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 nas neoplasias epiteliais da glândula tireóidea e correlação histopatológica Expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19 in the epithelial neoplasm of the thyroid gland and histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Paladino Rosa

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer da glândula tireóidea é caracterizado pela sua variedade clínica e patológica. O difícil diagnóstico pré-operatório das lesões foliculares induz a mais procedimentos cirúrgicos de caráter diagnóstico do que propriamente terapêutico. A proposta deste estudo foi identificar a expressão imuno-histoquímica das neoplasias epiteliais tireóideas utilizando anticorpos monoclonais para galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 e correlacioná-la com variáveis histopatológicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A expressão da galectina-3 e da citoqueratina 19 foi estudada imuno-histoquimicamente em 84 casos com diagnóstico de tecido normal (n = 10, bócio adenomatoso (n = 8, adenoma folicular (n = 12, adenoma de célula de Hürthle (n = 3, carcinoma papilífero (n = 29, carcinoma folicular (n = 8, carcinoma insular (n = 4, carcinoma de células de Hürthle (n = 4 e carcinoma indiferenciado (n = 6, selecionados a partir de pacientes operados no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital Heliópolis (HOSPHEL, no período de 1984 a 1995. RESULTADOS: A expressão da galectina-3 foi observada em bócio adenomatoso (12,5%, adenoma folicular (16,7%, carcinoma papilífero (96,6%, carcinoma folicular (12,5%, carcinoma insular (50%, carcinoma de célula de Hürthle (100% e carcinoma indiferenciado (50%. Nossos resultados confirmaram a expressão significativa da galectina-3 no grupo das neoplasias malignas, principalmente no carcinoma papilífero. O padrão de expressão da citoqueratina 19 foi diferente entre os tipos de lesão: enquanto nos bócios e adenomas mostrou-se fraco, nos carcinomas papilíferos foi forte e difuso. CONCLUSÃO: Associadas, a galectina-3 e a citoqueratina 19 auxiliam o diagnóstico histopatológico, principalmente nas lesões de interpretação duvidosa, além de evidenciarem atipias e, com isso, determinarem uma lesão suspeita.BACKGROUND: The cancer of the thyroid gland is characterized by its clinical and pathological variety. The difficult preoperative diagnosis of the follicular lesions lead to more surgical procedures of diagnostic characteristic than therapeutic. The aim of this study was to identify the immunohistochemical expression of the thyroid epithelial neoplams using monoclonal antibodies for galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, and correlate them with pathological variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, was immunohistochemically studied in 84 cases with diagnosis of normal tissue (n = 10, adenomatoid goiter (n = 8, follicular adenoma (n = 12, Hürthle cell adenoma (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 29, follicular carcinoma (n = 8, poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 4, Hürthle cell carcinoma (n = 4, anaplastic carcinoma (n = 6, which were selected from patients treated at the Head and Neck Surgery Department of Hospital Heliópolis, from 1984 to 1995. RESULTS: The expression of galectin-3 was observed in the cases of adenomatoid goiter (12.5%, follicular adenoma (16.7%, papillary carcinoma (96.6%, follicular carcinoma (50%, Hürthle cell carcinoma (100% and anaplastic carcinoma (50%. Our results confirmed the significant expression of galectin-3 in the group of the malignant neoplasms, mainly in the papillary carcinoma. The expression pattern of cytokeratin 19 was different among the types of lesions; whereas in the goiters and adenomas it was weak, in the papillary carcinomas it was strong and diffuse. CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, associated, help the histopathological diagnosis, mainly in the lesions of difficult interpretation; besides they highlight atypical conditions and, thus, determine a suspicious lesion.

  7. Expressão de galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 nas neoplasias epiteliais da glândula tireóidea e correlação histopatológica / Expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19 in the epithelial neoplasm of the thyroid gland and histopathological correlation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marilene Paladino, Rosa; Cristina T., Kanamura; Marcos Brasilino de, Carvalho.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer da glândula tireóidea é caracterizado pela sua variedade clínica e patológica. O difícil diagnóstico pré-operatório das lesões foliculares induz a mais procedimentos cirúrgicos de caráter diagnóstico do que propriamente terapêutico. A proposta deste estudo foi identificar a expr [...] essão imuno-histoquímica das neoplasias epiteliais tireóideas utilizando anticorpos monoclonais para galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 e correlacioná-la com variáveis histopatológicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A expressão da galectina-3 e da citoqueratina 19 foi estudada imuno-histoquimicamente em 84 casos com diagnóstico de tecido normal (n = 10), bócio adenomatoso (n = 8), adenoma folicular (n = 12), adenoma de célula de Hürthle (n = 3), carcinoma papilífero (n = 29), carcinoma folicular (n = 8), carcinoma insular (n = 4), carcinoma de células de Hürthle (n = 4) e carcinoma indiferenciado (n = 6), selecionados a partir de pacientes operados no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital Heliópolis (HOSPHEL), no período de 1984 a 1995. RESULTADOS: A expressão da galectina-3 foi observada em bócio adenomatoso (12,5%), adenoma folicular (16,7%), carcinoma papilífero (96,6%), carcinoma folicular (12,5%), carcinoma insular (50%), carcinoma de célula de Hürthle (100%) e carcinoma indiferenciado (50%). Nossos resultados confirmaram a expressão significativa da galectina-3 no grupo das neoplasias malignas, principalmente no carcinoma papilífero. O padrão de expressão da citoqueratina 19 foi diferente entre os tipos de lesão: enquanto nos bócios e adenomas mostrou-se fraco, nos carcinomas papilíferos foi forte e difuso. CONCLUSÃO: Associadas, a galectina-3 e a citoqueratina 19 auxiliam o diagnóstico histopatológico, principalmente nas lesões de interpretação duvidosa, além de evidenciarem atipias e, com isso, determinarem uma lesão suspeita. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The cancer of the thyroid gland is characterized by its clinical and pathological variety. The difficult preoperative diagnosis of the follicular lesions lead to more surgical procedures of diagnostic characteristic than therapeutic. The aim of this study was to identify the immunohistoc [...] hemical expression of the thyroid epithelial neoplams using monoclonal antibodies for galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, and correlate them with pathological variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, was immunohistochemically studied in 84 cases with diagnosis of normal tissue (n = 10), adenomatoid goiter (n = 8), follicular adenoma (n = 12), Hürthle cell adenoma (n = 3), papillary carcinoma (n = 29), follicular carcinoma (n = 8), poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 4), Hürthle cell carcinoma (n = 4), anaplastic carcinoma (n = 6), which were selected from patients treated at the Head and Neck Surgery Department of Hospital Heliópolis, from 1984 to 1995. RESULTS: The expression of galectin-3 was observed in the cases of adenomatoid goiter (12.5%), follicular adenoma (16.7%), papillary carcinoma (96.6%), follicular carcinoma (50%), Hürthle cell carcinoma (100%) and anaplastic carcinoma (50%). Our results confirmed the significant expression of galectin-3 in the group of the malignant neoplasms, mainly in the papillary carcinoma. The expression pattern of cytokeratin 19 was different among the types of lesions; whereas in the goiters and adenomas it was weak, in the papillary carcinomas it was strong and diffuse. CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, associated, help the histopathological diagnosis, mainly in the lesions of difficult interpretation; besides they highlight atypical conditions and, thus, determine a suspicious lesion.

  8. [Encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Particular histological aspect of a case with review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouziani, A; Bassoumi, T; Zidi, B; Miled, I; Kammoun, N; Ben Ayed, M

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a case of encapsulated papillary neoplasm in the right lobe of the thyroid of a 36-year-old woman. This neoplasm was a papillary encapsulated carcinoma with variable histologic patterns not properly described in the literature. In the light of a review of the literature, the authors stress the macroscopic and histologic aspects of this tumor and they discuss the prognosis and therapeutic tools used to cure this neoplasm. PMID:7811114

  9. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of thyroid gland: Report of two cases with follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Azizun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE is a rare malignant thyroid tumor showing thymic or related branchial pouch differentiation. The tumors are composed predominantly of spindle cells along with focal epithelial component and ductular formations. SETTLE occurs in young patients, with indolent growth and a tendency to develop delayed blood-borne metastases. We herein report two cases of SETTLE with a follow-up period of 64 months and 30 months, respectively.

  10. Study of thyroid gland cancer incidence in the Republic of Moldova population in relation with the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of analysis of the morbidity frequency of thyroid cancer oncology disease in the Republic of Moldova population for the period 1986-2009 are presented in this paper. The computer software package was used for database creating and were calculated the intensive and extensive indicators for every district, for R. Moldova in total, by territorial geographical areas, by gender and by age groups. (authors)

  11. Accuracy of intraoperative consultation in lesions of the salivary glands: analysis of 748 cases / Acurácia da consulta intraoperatória em lesões das glândulas salivares: análise de 748 casos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Theresinha C., Fonseca; Ana Lúcia A., Eisenberg.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As lesões das glândulas salivares são incomuns, representando de 2% a 6,5% de todas as neoplasias da região da cabeça e do pescoço. Devido à diferença de tratamento entre elas, é fundamental um diagnóstico preciso. O estudo citológico por meio de punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF) [...] é um método com alta acurácia utilizado para o diagnóstico das lesões das glândulas salivares; já a consulta intraoperatória (CIO) é um exame que oferece o diagnóstico no decorrer da cirurgia, tendo como objetivo diferenciar as lesões malignas das benignas e possibilitar a conduta cirúrgica mais adequada. Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia da CIO nas lesões das glândulas salivares realizadas em uma instituição. Material e métodos: Realizou-se uma pesquisa sobre as CIOs realizadas para diagnóstico nas lesões das glândulas salivares no Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Inca) no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2012, sendo encontrados 748 casos. Os diagnósticos de CIO foram comparados com o diagnóstico histopatológico (DHP), considerado padrão-ouro, e classificados em: 1) concordantes, 2) discordantes e 3) indeterminados. A partir desses dados, foram calculadas sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia. Resultados: Das 748 CIOs realizadas, os resultados foram concordantes em 656 casos (88%), discordantes em 56 (7%) e indeterminados em 36 (5%). A sensibilidade foi de 78%; a especificidade, de 99%; e a acurácia, de 92%. Conclusão: Nossos resultados indicam que a CIO em lesões das glândulas salivares tem alta acurácia, podendo contribuir para a conduta cirúrgica. Abstract in english Introduction: Lesions of the salivary glands are uncommon, representing 2% to 6.5% of all neoplasms of head and neck, and because of the difference in treatment between them, an accurate diagnosis is essential. The cytological study by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is a highly accurate method [...] used to diagnose lesions of the salivary glands. Intraoperative consultation (IOC), in its turn, is a test that provides diagnosis during surgery, aiming to differentiate malignant from benign lesions and to enable the most appropriate surgical approach. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of IOC in salivary gland lesions. Material and methods: A survey was conducted in the database of Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Inca) into IOC for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions from January 2001 to December 2012, and found 748 cases. Diagnosis made at IOC (IOCD) was compared with the gold standard histopathological diagnosis and classified into: 1) consenting; 2) discordant; and 3) indeterminate. From these data, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. Results: Among the 748 IOCs, results were concordant in 656 cases (88%), discordant in 56 (7%), and indeterminate in 36 (5%). Sensitivity was 78%, specificity 99% and accuracy 92%. Conclusion: Our results indicate that IOC in salivary gland lesions is highly accurate and can contribute to the surgical approach.

  12. Coexistence of Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Carcinoma and Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba?ak Karbek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant lesion of a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC is an extremely rare entity. Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. Diagnosis is commonly made after pathological examination of the surgical specimen. A 41-year-old male patient with a midline neck mass was initially diagnosed with a thyroglossal duct cyst and underwent a Sistrunks procedure. Histopathologic examination revealed a papillary thyroid car¬cinoma within the thyroglossal duct cyst. Ultrasound elastography of the thyroid gland was performed. We have detected a hypoechoic hypervascular thyroid nodule measuring 3 mm in diameter that appeared completely blue in B-mode ultrasonography, and hard tissue was visualized by elastosonography (ES. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The final pathological finding showed papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland without cervical lymph node metastasis. When a thyroglossal duct cyst is excised using Sistrunk’s procedure and when the definitive hystological analysis depicts malignancy, the thyroid gland must be studied carefully with radiological examinations. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 127-8

  13. The analysis of morbidity by a cancer of a thyroid gland of children on the moment of an exposure I131 owing to Chernobyl accident, registered in the Uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of cohort of the observation generated by indicated criteria: number 65575 person, including in the Gomel area 25215, in Bryansk - 40360, number of the registered cases of disease 226, including 132 in the Gomel area and 94 in Bryansk area, number of person-years of observation 1021229, including in the Gomel area 391363 of observation, in Bryansk - 629866, average exposure dose of a thyroid gland by radioisotopes of 131I in cohort 0,71 Gy, in the Gomel area 1,5 Gy, in Bryansk area - 0,2 Gy. Estimated a role of radiation and various not radiation risk factors, such as a sex, age on the moment of an exposure. The analysis of not radiation risk factors is spent separately for the Gomel area, Bryansk area and joined cohort. Among the persons irradiated in children's age in the Gomel area, the risk of disease by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the boys and girls was identical (RR=1,02, 95 % CI 0,72-1,44), in too time in Bryansk area the risk of disease of the girls in 3,4 times was higher (95 % CI 2,0-5,6), than among the boys. In joined cohort the girl in 1,5 times more often were sick of a cancer of a thyroid gland (95 % CI 1,16-2,0) in comparison with the boys. The analysis dose of dependence of a case rate by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the persons irradiated in children's age, has shown presence of a linear relation dose - effect, and in joined cohort this dependence most statistically is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, Rlly is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, R2=0,99). The value of exuberant relative risk on a dose 1 Gy has made 4,54 (95 % CI 2,43-9,78). (author)

  14. Anatomic relation between the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the thyroid gland / Relação anatômica entre o ramo externo do nervo laríngeo superior e a glândula tireoide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiana, Estrela; Henrique, Záquia Leão; Geraldo, Pereira Jotz.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever, prospectivamente, a relação anatômica entre o ramo externo do nervo laríngeo superior (RENLS), a artéria tireoidea superior (ATS) e a glândula tireoide em cadáveres humanos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram dissecados 22 cadáveres humanos com idade superior a 18 anos, com menos de 24 ho [...] ras de pós-morte. RESULTADOS: A medida entre o RENLS e o polo superior da glândula tireoide foi 7,68 +/- 3,07mm; entre o RENLS e a ATS foi de 4,24 +/- 2,67mm numa linha tangente ao bordo inferior da cartilagem tireoide; entre o cruzamento da ATS com o RENLS e o polo superior tireoidiano foi 9,53 +/- 4,65mm; entre o RENLS e a linha mediana do pescoço no ponto mais caudal da cartilagem tireoide foi 19,70 +/- 2,82mm; e entre o RENLS e a linha mediana do pescoço no ponto mais cranial da cartilagem cricoide foi 18,35 +/- 3,66mm. CONCLUSÕES: Há uma relação de proximidade variável entre o RENLS e o polo superior da glândula tireoide, variando de 3,25 a 15,75mm. Não constatou-se variações significativas entre as medidas para as diferentes etnias que compõem a amostra. Abstract in english AIM: This prospective study investigated the anatomic relations between the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN), the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the thyroid gland in human cadavers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two human cadavers aged over 18 years old, less than 24 hours a [...] fter death. RESULTS: The mean distance between the EBSLN and the superior pole of the thyroid gland was 7.68 ±3.07 mm. A tangent to the inferior edge of the thyroid cartilage between the EBSLN and the STA measured 4.24 ±2.67 mm. A line from the intersection of the EBSLN - related to the STA - to the superior pole of the thyroid gland measured 9.53 ±4.65 mm. A line from the EBSLN to the midline of the most caudal point of the thyroid cartilage measured 19.70 ±2.82 mm. A line from the RENLS to the midline on the most cranial point of the cricoid cartilage was 18.35 ±3.66 mm. CONCLUSION: There is a variable proximity relation between the EBSLN and the superior pole of the thyroid gland; this distance ranges from 3.25 to 15.75 mm. There was no evidence of significant variation between the measures in the ethnic groups comprising the sample.

  15. [Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in intrathoracic goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatovi?, M; Cerovi?, S; Stani?, V; Cuk, V; Kosti?, Z; Bokun, R

    2003-01-01

    Intrathoracic goiter (more than 80% of tissue in the thoracic cavity) represents very rare clinical entity (less than 1% of total number of thyroid gland surgical procedures). Cancer incidence in these goiter is 0-5%. The aim of this article is to present a case report of intrathoracic thyroid papillary carcinoma with multiple compressive syndrome and review of compressive intrathoracic syndrome of thyroid etiology. In our patient we have found: tracheal and oesophageal deviation and compression, superior vena cava syndrome, downhill varices, chylothorax, pericardial effusion, compress of the left a. subclavia, unilateral lesion of recurrent and phrenic nerve, and brachial plexopathy. This was a unique case with multiple compressive syndrome between 3000 patients surgically treated for all kinds of thyroid diseases. Intrathoracic goiter can cause all the known symptoms and syndromes of intrathoracic compression with possibility of rapid deterioration and fatal end. PMID:15179761