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1

Immunohistochemical expression of CD44 in thyroid gland lesions  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD44 is a polymorphic family of cell surface proteoglycans and glycoproteins implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion interactions and tumor metastasis. Its expression appears to be an indicator of invasive and metastatic behavior in carcinomas. The purpose of our study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CD44 protein in thyroid lesions and its association to other histopathological parameters. METHODS: Samples from thyroid lesions were obtained from 40 patients treated in our hospital. The material consisted of 5 cases of multinodular goiter, 7 cases of thyroiditis (Hashimoto type, 5 cases of follicular adenoma, 4 cases of Hurthle cell tumor, 15 cases of thyroid carcinoma (11 papillary carcinomas, and 4 myeloid tumors, and 4 cases of normal thyroid tissue. Immunostaining was performed using the Ventana ES automated immunostainer. A monoclonal antibody was used and avidin-biotin method was applied to paraffin-embedded samples. A membranous immunostaining pattern was considered positive. RESULTS: CD44 expression was detected in three adenomas (60%, mostly of follicular type, and in eight carcinomas (72%. The CD44 immunostaining was especially apparent in papillary type of carcinomas which showed high expression. In normal thyroid tissue, a reduced CD44 expression was observed. CONCLUSION: The results of our study indicate that deregulated expression of CD44 contributes to the ability of thyroid carcinomas for invasion and metastasis and may constitute a prognostic factor for malignant biological behavior.

Kiziridou Anastasia

2003-01-01

2

Thyroid gland biopsy (image)  

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The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

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Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT is an unusual and controversial lesion of the thyroid gland. Some have considered it a unique entity, some have considered it a variant of papillary carcinoma, and still others have considered it a nonspecific pattern that may be seen with a variety of thyroid lesions. The histological and ultrastructural characteristics of this thyroid neoplasm are well documented; however, its cytological diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC remains challenging. The cytomorphological features of this entity overlap with both papillary and medullary carcinoma to a varying extent. We report a case of HTT with cytological evaluation by FNAC in a 28-year-old male.

Gupta Sumiti

2010-01-01

4

Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.  

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Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography. PMID:24504764

Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

2014-08-01

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Thyroid gland pigmentation and minocycline therapy.  

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Thyroid pigments in black thyroid glands from minocycline-treated patients were compared by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis with minocycline-induced pigment in thyroid glands of laboratory animals, and with naturally occurring lipofuscins in untreated laboratory animals and humans. All thyroid samples examined contained nonbirefringent, Schmorl-positive pigment. However, the pigments in black thyroids from minocycline-treated patients resemb...

Gordon, G.; Sparano, B. M.; Kramer, A. W.; Kelly, R. G.; Iatropoulos, M. J.

1984-01-01

6

Ectopia of thyroid gland  

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A case of ectopic thyroid is presented. The differential diagnosis of this pathology with the tumors in the base of the tongue, including euthyroid patients is related. The most outstanding feature is that the diagnosis is easily made by cintilography with iodine or technetium. The hormonal studies (T3, T4) usually are inefficient to establish the diagnosis. (Author)

7

Scintigraphic Diagnosis of Ectopic Thyroid Gland  

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Ectopic thyroid gland is a relatively rare condition and developmental anomaly characterized by an aggregates of thyroid tissue in the midline anywhere from the base of the tongue to the mediastinum. The role of ectopic thyroid in the pathogenesis of nongoitrous sporadic cretinism and primary hypothyroidism has been emphasized. Since previous case report of sublingual thyroid, we have recently experienced additional two cases of sublingual thyroid and one case of prelaryngeal thyroid gland, which were diagnosed by scintigraphic method. We wish to report these four cases of primary hypothyroidism with ectopic thyroid with emphasis on role of scintigraphy in detection of these unusual condition.

Lee, Sun Wha; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jin Woo [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1988-03-15

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Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect  

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Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

9

Cystic parotid gland lesion evaluation  

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We evaluated differential diagnoses of cystic parotid gland lesions and the efficacy of preoperative diagnosis. Of 191 parotid gland nodules resected between January 2003 and October 2008, 167 (87%) were benign and 24 (13%) malignant. Thirty-five parotid gland nodules whose components were almost cystic were enrolled in this study. All cystic lesions were retrospectively evaluated with respect to preoperative diagnostic examinations and histopathological confirmed diagnosis. Cystic components in surgical specimens were also evaluated histopathologically. The relationships with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological confirmed diagnosis were studied. Of 35 cystic lesions, 11 were complete cystic masses and had no mural nodules, while remaining 24 were incomplete and had mural nodules. Histopathological examinations showed that 5 were nonneoplastic, 27 were cystic degenerations of benign tumors, and 3 were cystic degenerations of malignant tumors. In the 11 complete cysts, preoperative diagnosis could not be made using any modality, whether with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), salivary scintigraphy, or 67-gallium citrate scintigraphy. Of 24 incomplete cysts, only 9 cystic Warthin tumors were diagnosed correctly before surgery. Studies of cystic components in MRI and histopathology suggested that hemorrhagic degeneration of malignant tumors should be kept in mind for cystic lesions showing hemorrhagic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly before surgery, but the evaluation of cystic components by MRI and FNAC is helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

10

Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland  

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Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collecticancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

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Effect of iodine-137 on sex and thyroid hormone binding to blood plasma proteins in children with functional lesions of the thyroid gland as a result of Chernobyl disaster  

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In studying characteristics of specific interaction of estradiol-, testosterone- and thyriod-binding blood globulins with the corresponding ligands in children from Gomel region with with endemic swelling of the thyroid gland (degrees 1 and 2) affected by iodine-131 revealed were a reduced cooperativity in estradiol T-3 binding and a halved affinity to androgens and thyroids as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a drastic decline in the binding capacity of estradiol- and testosterone-binding globulins in the blood plasma. The endemic thyroid gland swelling is supposed to be due to sexual malfunction in teenagers

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... assistant, with good clinical results. The incisions are plastic closure. The patients recover very nicely. The robotic ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ... what does that do? In certain types of cancers if there is concern that there may be ...

14

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... anesthesia. Now specific for this surgery, thyroid surgery, parathyroid surgery, endocrine surgery in general, what we use ... out something. We’ve identified, one of the parathyroid glands, we’ve got actually a beautiful shot ...

15

Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands  

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The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

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Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available Introduction Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland can be defined as a lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland. Lymphomas of the thyroid gland represent less than 5% of primary thyroid neoplasms and are two to three times more common in women than in men, whereas the median age is usually close to 60 years. Majority of thyroid lymphomas are diffuse, large-cell lymphomas. The incidence of thyroid lymphomas in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis has markedly increased and this phenomenon is probably related to their pathogenesis. Clinical presentation Unlike most other thyroid neoplasms, lymphomas are usually rapidly enlarging masses and local symptoms are common: pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea or stridor. Diagnosis To evaluate the extent of disease, a chest x-ray and CT scans of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are necessary. An excisional or large-needle biopsy may also be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. Occasionally, these tumors can be confused with anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which can lead to serious mistakes in management. A gallium scan or a positron emission tomography (PET scan can help later to establish whether any residual abnormality, observed on x-ray studies after treatment, contains active lymphoma or scar tissue. After diagnosis, patients are clinically staged (without surgery using appropriate computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy Assessment of the extent of thyroid lymphomas is crucial for prognosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy may improve the prognosis in patients with intrathyroidal disease only. It is very important to identify patients with favorable prognostic factors and to treat them with standard chemotherapy (CHOP and radiotherapy protocols. Patients with diffuse large-cell primary thyroid lymphomas should not be treated with radiation therapy alone. Conclusion The best treatment results for malignant lymphomas of the thyroid gland are achieved using a combined-modality therapy.

?aparevi? Zorica

2002-01-01

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Lesions of the bartholin gland: a review.  

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Most lesions of the Bartholin gland are cysts or abscesses. Clinicians are taught that lesions of the Bartholin gland occurring in older women should raise the differential diagnosis of malignancy, although these are uncommon. A variety of more unusual and rare lesions of the Bartholin gland have been reported. This review focuses on these less common entities, which must be considered as well when encountering pathology of the Bartholin gland. PMID:24914884

Heller, Debra S; Bean, Sarah

2014-10-01

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Contribution of thyroid gland ultrasound for screening of patients with suspected subclinical thyroid gland disorders.  

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Thyroid gland ultrasonography is recommended in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, amnesic symptoms, depression, bradycardia, abnormal myocardial contractility, increased diastolic pressure, hypercholesterolemia, menstrual abnormalities, infertility, fibrocystic breast disease, anxiety, insomnia, tachycardia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. Subclinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism can cause any of the above mentioned symptoms. Diffusely decreased, decreased and inhomogenous thyroid gland echogenicity requires laboratory examination. Thyroid gland ultrasonography is recommended also in patients with type I. diabetes mellitus and vitiligo because of increased incidence of thyroid disorders in these patients. Clinical observation of patients treated with Lithium, Amiodaron or Interferon is also recommended. (Tab. 2, Fig. 6, Ref. 18.) PMID:10914142

Tajtakova, M; Langer, P; Semanova, Z; Tomkova, Z

1999-04-01

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Estrogen receptors in human thyroid gland. An immunohistochemical study  

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The objective of this study is to determine the estrogen receptors (ER) status (present in the nucleous of cell) in the thyroid gland tissues. For this purpose 50 previously diagnosed cases of various thyroid lesions were selected from the Surgical Pathology Records of Pathology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute,Jinnah Postgraduate. Medical Center,Karachi,Pakistan between March and August 2000.The staining was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embeded tissues using monoclonal anti-ER anti-body (clone1D5).Out of 50 cases,8 were noduler goiter,9 cases of adenoma 19 papillary carcinoma, 10 follicular and 4 cases were of medullary carcinoma. Surrounding normal tissue was available in 25 (50%) cases, 4 non-neoplastic and 21 neoplastic lesions.Out of 50 cases ,10(20%) and 40(80%) were females, the youngest patient was a 15-year-old female and the eldest patient was a 56-years-old male. Despite the availability of normal thyroid tissue and a wide range of lesions, none of our cases showed the positive staining. In contrary to many earlier reports by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibody (clone1D5) on formalin- fixed praffin-embedded thyroid tissues, the ER is not detectable. The effect of Estrogen on thyroid gland may be indirect one. (author)

20

Historical review of the thyroid gland surgery  

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Full Text Available Thyroid gland surgery passed through history from the suggestions for prohibition, during middle of XIX century due to unacceptable mortality even for mediaeval conditions, to highest level of surgical art later, as W. Halsted sad. First thyreoidectomy was done by Albucasis (El Zahrawi in 925 A.D, and after him by Roger from Salerno. While Pierre-Joseph Desault in 1791 has done first operation on thyroid gland that can fulfill today’s criteria, Theodor Billroth gave scientific grounds of thyroid surgery. Genius attitude and surgical talent of Theodor Kocher raised thyroid surgery on scientific level, brought surgical skills on the top of surgical art pyramid, and brought him personally to the Nobel Prize in 1909. Very important contribution to development of thyroid surgery gave its giants: Johann von Mikulicz, William Halsted, Charles Mayo, George W. Crile and Frank Lahey. Thomas P. Dunhill, F. A. Coller, A. M. Boyden, and many others did important contribution, too. Development of thyroid surgery was constant to nowadays, with tendention for multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers. Thyroid surgery in Serbia followed this world trends, in spite of great problems in this area during history.

Ignjatovi? Mile D.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions  

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To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates vas. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

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A retrospective analysis of thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the lesions containing mature adipose tissues in surgical materials of the patients who underwent thyroidectomy operation owing to the diagnosis of nodular goiter. Methods: A total of 2800 pathologic specimens of thyroidectomies stained with hematoxylin-eosin were collected between January 2010 and November 2013 in Recep Tayyip Erdogan University School of Medicine. Pathologic sections were selected from pathology archive and re-examined. Upon examination, we determined 10 lesions with mature adipose tissue within thyroid parenchyma. Results: Thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue were observed in 10 (0.004 % of 2800 thyroidectomy materials. Eight of the patients were female and two of them were male. Minimum, maximum and median age of the patients were found to be 31, 74 and 52 years respectively. All of the cases had underwent a bilateral total thyroidectomy operation. In macroscopic examination of the only one cases, a homogenous yellow-gray color was observed. In other cases a large number of colloid-rich nodules of various sizes were observed. On microscopic examination, five adipose tissues in the nodules (adenolipoma-thyrolipoma, four scattered foci of mature adipose tissues (heterotopic adiposis and one diffuse infiltrating mature adipose tissue on entire thyroid gland (diffuse thyrolipomatosis were determined among mature adipose tissue containing lesions. A follicular variant of papillary microcarcinoma was found in two of thyrolipoma cases. Conclusion: Nodular thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue, as a result of particularly on the outer surface of the gland and parathyroid glands containining mature adipose tissue may mimic parathyroid gland lesion. Therefore, to prevent from inappropriate treatments, pathologists should be aware of these kinds of lesions, especially when they are investigating the lesions of parathyroid glands during an intraoperative consultation.

Recep Bedir

2014-06-01

23

Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland  

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Ewing sarcoma of the bone is a highly malignant round-cell tumor that typically presents between 10 to 20 years of age and is more common in boys. It can have an extraosseous origin, although it is rare. We report a case of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the thyroid gland in a 9-year-old girl. (orig.)

Adapa, Pavani [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chung, Tae-Woong [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gwangju (Korea); Popek, Edwina J. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States); Hunter, Jill V. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Pediatric Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

2009-12-15

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Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland  

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... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) ... uptake test. top of page • Video Thyroid Ultrasound (Sonography) Explained placeholder Locate an ACR-accredited provider: ACR- ...

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Neuroendocrine tumors presenting with thyroid gland metastasis: a case series  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autopsy series have shown that metastasis to the thyroid gland has occurred in up to 24% of patients who have died of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors may metastasize to thyroid gland. Case presentations Case 1 was a 17-year-old Turkish woman who was referred from our Endocrinology Department for a thyroidectomy for treatment of neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination results were consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor; neoplastic cells showed strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin, but the immunohistochemical profile was inconsistent with medullary thyroid carcinoma in that the tumor was negative for calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Case 2 was a 54-year-old Turkish woman who presented with a 3-cm nodule on her right thyroid lobe. She had undergone surgery for a right lung mass four years previously. After a right pneumonectomy, thymectomy and lymph node dissection, a typical carcinoid tumor was diagnosed. Under ultrasonographic guidance, fine needle aspiration biopsy of her right thyroid pole nodule was performed and the biopsy was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination indicated three nodular lesions, 5 cm and 0.4 cm in diameter in her right lobe and 0.1 cm in diameter in her left lobe. The tumors were consistent with a neuroendocrine phenotype, showing strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Conclusion Thyroid nodules detected during follow-up of neuroendocrine tumor patients should be thoroughly investigated. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid confirms the diagnosis in most cases and leads to appropriate management of those patients and may prevent unnecessary treatment approaches.

Sivrikoz Emre

2012-02-01

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SCHWANNOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND – A CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an infrequent site for the occurrence of a Schwannoma. These tumours most often mimic a thyroid nodule. A case of Schwannoma of the thyroid gland which was diagnosed on histopathological examination after a hemithyroidectomy is reported here.

V. Subramaniam

2010-11-01

27

Colon cancer metastasis to the thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available Thyroid metastasis originating from colon cancer is an uncommon clinical entity. We present a case of a 40-year-old Saudi male patient that was known to have metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon, and who presented initially with hoarseness of voice. A left thyroid lesion was found and fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed that it was a colon cancer metastasis. His condition later deteriorated with development of stridor. Tracheostomy was performed and the diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. A high index of suspicion is required to consider colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid

Ameen Z. Alherabi

2014-08-01

28

Squamous metaplasia in thyroid gland as histologic diagnostic pitfall: a case report  

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Full Text Available Background: It is rare to find squamous metaplasia in the thyroid gland. Its existence is usually seen in association with a pathological lesion such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In most cases the squamous cells are few in number and squamous metaplasia is focal and small in size. Extensive squamous metaplasia of the thyroid gland is a very rare finding.Case Presentation: We report a case of massive squamous metaplasia in Hashimoto thyroiditis in a 53 year-old- male with a four year history of hypothyroidism. Also seen in the history is impaired thyroid function tests of low T3 and T4 levels with rise in TSH. The patient currently presented with neck discomfort and a somewhat firm nodular neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous nodular enlargement of both thyroid lobes and a calcified nodule of the left lobe. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule was performed which reported findings suspicious for malignancy. Based on these findings the patient underwent total thyroidectomy.Conclusion: In this article we address the causes and sources of massive squamous metaplasia in the thyroid gland. We also discuss the histopathologic differential diagnostic lesions which could be the cause of potential pitfalls encountered in the interpretation of the cytopathology and histopathology of such lesions arising in this gland.

Haideh Haeri

2013-10-01

29

Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

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The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thyroid Hormones Concentration and Histopathological Changes of Thyroid Gland in Sheep  

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Full Text Available To identify the thyroid histological and hormonal changes in response to ambient temperature variations, thyroid glands and blood samples were randomly collected from 410 indigenous sheep of either sex and different age groups from municipal Ahvaz slaughter house. The extent of fluctuations in triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, T3 uptake and Free Thyroxin Index (FTI and thyroid histopathological lesions were scrutinized in 2 months in year 2003, viz February (the coldest month and August (the hottest month. A marked decline was discernable in T3, T4 and FTI in August compared to February, but mean value for T3 uptake increased. Out of 410 pairs of thyroid glands, 169 (41.2% had lesions in which histopathological changes were categorized as follicular atrophy (43.6%, ultimobranchial cyst (30.2%, paranchymal cyst (6.4%, lymphocytic thyroiditis (6.2%, hyperemia/hemorrhage (5.5%, follicular cell hyperplasia (4%, C cell hyperplasia (1.4%, colloid goiter (1.1% and adenoma (1.1. Mean of thyroidal parameters for T4 and FTI was higher in lesioned group (p<0.05. The frequency of lesioned thyroid was higher in summer than winter (p<0.05. The result of this study showed that high ambient temperature has profound effect on thyroid function, secretion and pathological changes in sheep.

M. Nouri

2006-01-01

31

Oxyphilic carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available Oxyphilic tumors of the thyroid gland are rare tumors characterized by the presence of Hürthle cells - mitochondrion-rich, eosinophilic epithelial cells. Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCC of the thyroid behave in a more aggressive fashion as compared to other well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Many recent studies have been focused on the further elucidation of pathogenesis and the role of mitochondrial hyperplasia in carcinogenesis of these neoplasms. The importance of combining morphological and genetic approaches in the study of HCC has been emphasized by the difficulties encountered in establishing adequate differential diagnostic criteria between benign and malignant forms, as well as by the resistance of HCC to radio and chemotherapy. It has been well documented that the Hürthle cells are characterized by profound aberrations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genome and by alterations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other key genes involved in energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis.

Stankov Karmen

2003-01-01

32

[Effect of heparin on the thyroid gland].  

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Effect of heparin on the white rat thyroid gland has been studied in vivo and in vitro by means of light microscopy, electron microscopy and radiometry methods. Heparin is injected subcutaneously (1,000 units per 100 g of the body mass) once in 24 h. In the in vitro experiments heparin contents in medium is 10 units/ml and 10 units/ml. Heparin produces a decrease in thyrocyte height (control--12.6 +/- 0,5, experiment--10.4 +/- 0.6 mcm), a decrease in the number of folds on the basal surface of thyrocytes, changes in Golgi complex and an increase in electron density of the mitochondrial matrix. In endotheliocytes of the perifollicular blood capillaries the number of fenestrae decreases. Iodine accumulation in the thyroid is lowered under the effect of heparin. The thyroid gland blood stream (estimated by accumulation of 86Rb) decreases by 35%. The data obtained support the previous suggestion of the authors on a system-forming role of the tissue basophils in the thyroid micro-region. PMID:6639382

Gerbil'ski?, L V; Ma?le-Avgustinovich, S G; Chernenko, Iu P

1983-08-01

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9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.  

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...2010-01-01 false Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15...INSPECTION § 310.15 Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not...

2010-01-01

34

Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

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In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a pows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

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Ultrasonographic examinations of the thyroid gland in women at confirmed risk of familial neoplasm  

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Detection of new gene mutations, which increase the risk of neoplasm (e.g. breast and thyroid gland) improves the examinations that can help in early diagnosis and quick treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of asymptomatic focal lesions in ultrasonographic examinations of women at confirmed risk of family neoplasm aggregation. A total of 445 women aged 25-60 years were examined in 2004-2005. 278 patients descended from families with higher frequency of confirmed risk of familial neoplasm (I group), 167 belonged to the control group. Ultrasonographic examinations of the breast and thyroid gland were performed in all women. Patients were divided into selected groups depending on the kind of changes. In the analyzed material asymptomatic focal changes in the thyroid gland were found in 46, 5% of the first group and 61,6% of the control group. The solid-cystic lesions in this material were ascertained in 36% of the first group and 51% of the second group. A large frequency (almost 50%) of the asymptomatic focal changes in thyroid glands were found. Detections of lesions were similar in both groups: the confirmed risk of familial neoplasm group and the control group. On the basis of these findings we can conclude, that it is reasonable to perform screening examinations of thyroid glands in connection with breast's diagnostics. (author)

36

Thyroid gland. TNM classification of malignant tunours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Head and Neck sites were classified between 1954 and 1973, some of them being amended. The classifications now published will remain unchanged until at least 1986. The classifications for Oro-, Naso- and Hypo- pharynx are based on data developed and analysed by the Task Forces on Head and Neck Cancers of the American Joint Committee (AJC) and by the German-Austrian-Swiss Study Group on Maxillofacial tumours. The classification for Larynx has not changed since 1972. The proposed classification for Thyroid Gland is based on that recommended by the European Organisation for Research on Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)

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The theoretical and palomporphological aspects of cancerogenesis and anticancerogenesis in the thyroid gland.  

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Full Text Available A number of theoretic and pathomorphologic postulates are offered for creation of the integrated concept of morphological mechanisms of cancero- and anticarcinogenesis in the thyroid gland. These postulates developed on the basis of long-term researches of this organ. The problems of system formation with new properties (neosystemogenesis which are the important philosophical and theoretical problem of oncology are introduced in the article.The new view of sight on a function – morphogenetic and morphodynamic- of hemocapillars in the thyroid gland is offered. These mechanisms provide the coordina-tive change of the spatial-time ratio, by which adaptive change of a qualitative condition of thyroid gland is reached without change of quantitative characteristics, and also realize morphogenetic processes - formation of new follicles by their fragmen-tation by hemocapillars. We insist, that the failure of morphogenetic and morphodynamic function of hemocapillars of a thy-roid gland bases a pathogenesis of the majority diseases of this organ, including tumors. The conception about pretumoral and intratumoral dysplasia, mechanism of their formation and role in formation of blastomas are offered. An experimental model of carcinogenesis from C-cells by long-term lesion of structural homeostasis of thyroid gland by hypercalcemia is developed. The problem of existence of anticarcinogenesis is analyzed in the article. The phenomenon of elimination of follicles of a central zone of the thyroid gland is determined as a specific mechanism of the thyroid gland during long-term stimulation of prolifera-tive activity of C-cells. This phenomenon can be explained as the mechanism of anticarcinogenesis in the thyroid gland. It is necessary to search for similar phenomenon in other organs for creation of a new trend in medicine - therapeutic surgery, which is extirpation of pathological neoplasms on early stages of their formation without a classic surgical intervention.

Fedchenko M.P.

2007-01-01

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Histological investigations on the thyroid glands of marine mammals (Phoca vitulina, Phocoena phocoena) and the possible implications of marine pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1988 and 1989, thousands of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) died in the North Sea from phocine distemper infection. The morphology of thyroid glands from 40 harbor seals found dead on the North Sea coastlines of Schleswig-Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany, during an epizootic of phocine distemper, was compared with the morphology of thyroid glands from five healthy harbor seals collected in Iceland. Thyroid glands from seven harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) found dead in 1990 on the North Sea coastlines also were evaluated. Colloid depletion and fibrosis were found in the thyroid glands of harbor seals which died during the epizootic, but not in animals from Iceland. Thyroid glands of the porpoises showed similar lesions, but to a lesser degree, than those observed in the North Sea seals. PMID:8445768

Schumacher, U; Zahler, S; Horny, H P; Heidemann, G; Skirnisson, K; Welsch, U

1993-01-01

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Sonography of the thyroid gland with high resolution real time apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of sonography of thyroid glands in 131 patients were compared with the findings on palpation and from scintigrams. High resolution sonography is the most accurate method of examination for demonstrating changes in the thyroid. In 40% cases sonography demonstrated lesions additional to the single abnormality found clinically. In 10% cases a suspected thyroid abnormality on palpation proved to be due to extra thyroid disease. Evaluation of the number, size and localisation of space-occupying lesions by means of sonography is superior to all other kinds of investigation. It is, however, not possible to determine whether a lesion is benign. An attempt has been made to define the usefulness of thyroid sonography and its place during routine diagnosis. (orig.)

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Granular cell tumour of the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature.  

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Granular cell tumours of the thyroid gland are rare, with only six previously reported cases in the English literature. Current histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic evidence favours a neural/Schwannian relationship. A case of a granular cell tumour of the thyroid gland in a healthy 36-year-old woman is described. The tumour was found incidentally following a right thyroid lobectomy for symptoms from an asymmetric multinodular goitre. Macroscopically, the lesion resembled a papillary microcarcinoma. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of nests of epithelioid cells with abundant granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm. The nests were divided by fibrous septa and peripherally interdigitated with surrounding thyroid follicles. Immunohistochemistry helped to distinguish the lesion from other neoplasms such as Hurthle cell tumour, medullary carcinoma or metastasis, and also from a histiocytic reaction to previous fine needle aspiration. On the basis of this diagnosis, no further intervention was required, and the patient was discharged following post-operative review. PMID:21240570

Bowry, Meera; Almeida, Bernice; Jeannon, Jean-Pierre

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Ranking of sonography in the diagnosis of the decompensated autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland  

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In 30 patients with decompensated autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland, the possibility was investigated whether sonography of the thyroid gland could replace the thyroid stimulation scintigram or a diagnostically insufficient, saturated scintigram. It was found that the thyroid sonogram - which has a lower specificity - has a markedly higher sensitivity than the saturated scintigram of the thyroid gland. (orig.)

42

Study of histopathological changes in thyroid gland in buffaloes  

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Full Text Available Present Study is observarionf Histopathological changes of Thyroid Gland In Buffaloes. Tissue samples i.e.thyroid glands were collected from the 300 buffaloes slaughtered at Municipal Slaughter House, Balapur Akola. Thyroid glands were cut in to small pieces for further histopathological processing. They were dehydrated in ascending (50%, 70, 95, 100% order of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin and sections of 4-6 micro diameter were obtained and stained with haematoxylin and eosin stain. The animals slaughtered were certified as non-productive. During present study mean, standard deviation and standard error were calculated as per the standard procedure. Microscopically 76.96% glands were normal, incidence of colloid goitre was recorded in 11.72% thyroid, parenchymatous goitre in 1.89% thyroid, increased interfollicular spaces and fibrotic condition in 9.66% glands. Haemorrhages and congestion was observed in 2.75% thyroid glands. Conclusion of this study is colloid goitre due to distention and enlargement of number of follicles, congestion in the thyroid gland occurs as the part of more general syndrome and Interfollicular hemorrhages occurs due to distribution of RBCs, escaped from blood vessels. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 387-389

V. M. shelke

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Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's try carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

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Interactive MR-guided biopsies of the thyroid gland: validation of a new method  

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The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility and utility of an interactive MR-guidance system to target and biopsy thyroid lesions, and to compare resolution between ultrasound and interventional MR imaging in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Twenty thyroid lesions of 18 patients were interactively biopsied using a 0.5-T superconducting open magnet system. Stereotactic localization of the needle and imaging was accomplished using T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images. Representative cytological material was retrieved in 16 of 20 lesions (benign cystic or colloid goiter: n = 14; one de Quervain`s thyroiditis and one follicular neoplasia). Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm detected by ultrasound could not be visualized adequately on GRE images. Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm were successfully biopsied by ultrasound (three colloid and haemorrhagic goiters and one adenoma). Magnetic-resonance-guided interactive biopsies and positioning of non-ferromagnetic needles in the thyroid gland are technically feasible and safe. Compared with high-resolution ultrasound, lesions larger than 1.5 cm can be adequately visualized and biopsied. Magnetic-resonance-guided placement of non-ferromagnetic needles is no substitute for high-resolution ultrasound in clinical work-up of thyroid lesions. (orig.) With 8 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

Kacl, G.M. [Department of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)]|[Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Bicik, I.; Schulthess, G.K. von [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Schoenenberger, A.W.; Steiner, P.; Romanowski, B.; Debatin, J.F. [Department of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

1998-09-01

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Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction, is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consequences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

Kova?ev-Zaviši? Branka

2012-01-01

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Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

47

Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions  

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With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2014-07-15

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Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital ? camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na+, K+-ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na+, K+-ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na+, K+-ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na+, K+-ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na+, K+-ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na+, K+-ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

49

Genetic aspects of etiology and development of thyroid gland cancer  

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Full Text Available Recent studies on thyroid gland cancer development and progression have identified new classes of tumor markers, proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressing genes, cell receptor genes, identified genetic tumor-predisposing polymorphism and some other significantly important segments of genome. The identification has been based mainly on revealing of DNA abnormal consequences, specific for occurrence of thyroid gland cancer and its progression.

Kovalenko Yu.V.

2012-09-01

50

Present trends in laboratory diagnosis of thyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief survey is presented of the main in vitro methods presently used in the diagnosis of disorders of the thyroid gland. Next to the determination of total thyroxine, the determination of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) has come to the fore as a test used for verifying hypothyrosis and hyperthyrosis. Modern methods for the so-called direct determination of free thyroid hormones, primarily free thyroxine which in recent years aroused great hopes as a means of rapid and accurate assessment of the function of the gland also have their limitations and do not resolve controversial problems related to the accurate determination of total free thyroxine. The direct determination of concentrations of TBG (thyroxine-binding globulin) is a complement of thyroid function tests only in case of suspect abnormality of TBG concentration. The determination of thyroglobulin is considered to be useful in differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland as an indicator of relapse and the new early incidence of metastases in patients following surgery and isotope destruction of the thyroid gland and metastases. Next to radioisotope methods (radioimmunoassay and the radioimmunometric method) enzyme immunoassay methods are being used in in vitro diagnostics of the thyroid gland. (author). 1 tab., 20 refs

51

Some findings on the fine structure of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the site of iodination of thyroglobulin, electron microscopic autoradiography of 125I was made using in vitro mouse thyroid gland. The effect of TSH and dbcAMP on fine structure was also examined in cultured mouse thyroid gland and compared with those on in vivo mouse thyroid. When cultured in the medium containing TSH, the thyroid gland showed numerous pseudopods on the cell surfaces of the follicular epithelial cells and increase of colloid droplets in the follicular epithelial cells. Similar changes were also noted in the mouse thyroid gland stimulated by TSH in vivo. dbcAMP also caused pseudopod formation and increase in intracellular colloid droplets in cultured mouse thyroid gland but did not cause these changes in mouse thyroid gland in vivo. In the thyroid gland incubated in the medium containing 125I, silver grains appeared over the periphery of the follicular lumen at 30 seconds. With lapse of time, grains over the follicular lumen increased very rapidly until the lumen was filled with numerous grains at 60 minutes of incubation. Grains over the follicular epithelial cells were always scanty and showed no constant localization on the specific intracellular organelle. Since it has been known that the synthesis and release into the follicular lumen of the thyroglobulin is a process requiring at least 15 to 40 minutes, the appearance of silver grains over the follicular lumen at 30 seconds seemed to indicate the follicular lumonds seemed to indicate the follicular lumen as the principal site of thyroglobulin iodination. When TSH was added to the culture medium containing 125I for 60 minutes, grains were found over the follicular lumen and intracellular colloid droplets. (author)

52

Sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates  

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The purpose of this study was to establish the sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in the first week of life in 107 term neonates. The serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was normal in all neonates. Their gestational age at birth was range from 37 to 41 weeks and birth weight was 3305 ± 457.74 g. Sonography was performed with 7.5 MHz linear array transducer (SA-8800 MT, Medison, Korea) within the first week of postnatal age. Maximal transverse (T), anteroposterior (AP), and longitudinal (L) dimensions of thyroid gland were measured. The volume of each lobe was estimate by using standard geometric formula; volume of a prolate ellipsoid = T X AP X L X ?/6. The total volume of the thyroid gland was calculated as the sum of the each lobe. The correlations with total thyroid volume and weight, height, the body surface area, gestational age of the neonate were estimated by Pearson's coefficient and p volume on Bivariate correlation analysis. Total thyroid volume was 0.68 ± 0.23 cm3, left and right lobe volumes of thyroid gland were 0.32 ± 0.12 cm3 and 0.36 ± 0.14 cm3, respectively. T, AP, and L dimension of right lobe were 0.69 ± 0.14 cm, 0.71 ± 0.13 cm, 1.37 ± 0.22 cm respectively. And those of left lobe were 0.70 ± 0.11 cm, 0.65 ± 0.13 cm, 1.31 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. The Pearson's coefficients for total thyroid volume with the weotal thyroid volume with the weight, and body surface area of neonate were 0.385, 0.395 (p3 and was significantly correlated with the weight and body surface area.

53

Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland  

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Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

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Warthin-like papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman and a review of the literature on the topic. The patient had the occasional discovery of a hypoechoic thyroid nodule of approximately 18?mm, characterized by irregular margins, hyperechoic spots, rich intra- and perilesional vascularization, and a suspicious enlarged right laterocervical lymph node. Fine-needle aspiration was performed for both lesions and the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymph node involvement was made. The patient underwent thyroidectomy and central neck lymphadenectomy without complications. Histopathological examination suggested a Warthin-like papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, with all the removed lymph nodes being free of disease. The patient subsequently underwent iodine ablative therapy and she remains free of disease one year after surgery. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma is a recently described variant of papillary thyroid cancer that is frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morphologically, it resembles Warthin tumors of the salivary glands, with T and B lymphocytes infiltrating the stalks of papillae lined with oncocytic cells. Surgical and postoperative management is identical to that of classic differentiated thyroid cancer, while prognosis seems to be favourable. PMID:23243533

Paliogiannis, Panagiotis; Attene, Federico; Trogu, Federica; Trignano, Mario

2012-01-01

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Indications for sonography in the investigation of the thyroid gland  

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The indications for using sonography in the investigation of the thyroid gland are discussed. Correlation of echo patterns and thyroid disease has shown that sonography deserves a place in the diagnosis of thyroid disease in the same way as the classical methods, such as clinical examination, scintigraphy, laboratory investigations and aspiration biopsy. The indications for sonography, which are illustrated by a number of examples, include: 1) when scintigraphy cannot be used, 2) pre-operative demonstration, 3) disagreement between clinical findings and the scintigram, 4) diagnosis of cysts, 5) suspicion of thyroiditis. (orig.)

56

Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (<50, 51–500 or >500 cells, cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation, cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin, and background (colloid-like material and macrophages. Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51–500 cells with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma. Immunocytochemical analysis for PHT was performed for 14 cases (6 destained smears and 8 cell blocks which showed distinct cytoplasmic positivity. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland. Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin. Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology. Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

Dimashkieh Haytham

2006-01-01

57

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... an underactive thyroid, the symptoms would be what? Fatigue, feeling cold, having no energy, listless. And is ... protocol for heading off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... let people know they might be having a problem with their thyroid? Well outside of a goiter ... who have hypo-functioning thyroids can actually have problems with mentation, with fatigue, with normal function. They ...

59

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... a thyroidectomy, in this case, the removal of an enlarged thyroid from this female patient. As you ... t there with someone who doesn’t have an enlarged thyroid; correct? That is correct. We’ve ...

60

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as papillary, is extraordinarily marvelous. Surgery cures ... t here are certain thyroiditis’ that are more common in women. There is one that happens postpartum. ...

 
 
 
 
61

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... the removal of an enlarged thyroid from this female patient. As you can see, we are already ... team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female patient, she’s 65 years old, and she presented ...

62

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... has thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as papillary, is extraordinarily ... be protocol for heading off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters ...

63

Improvement of 131 I - radiotherapy on thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study aims to evidence the effect of ascorbic acid administration on the radioactive iodine retention in thyroid gland and thigh-bone by supplying '131 I for thyroid cancer treatment. It may be considered that the results obtained from thigh-bone zone indicate, with a good confidence, the iodine circulation in blood and in the body. The measurements were carried out with a NaI (Tl) detector on patients who received only '131 I and also on patients who received 131 I associated with ascorbic acid. In the last case the data indicate the increase of radioactivity in thyroid gland and a decrease in the body. This result points out that the administration of ascorbic acid leads to a higher retention of 1'3'1 I radioisotope in the thyroid gland and on the other hand denotes a radioprotection effect concerning the body. The time dependence of 1'3'1 I radioactivity in both thyroid gland and thigh-bone is characterized by the same rate regardless of the presence of ascorbic acid in the applied radiotherapy. (author)

64

Isolated submandibular gland metastasis from an occult papillary thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available A case of an isolated submandibular gland metastasis from a clinically occult papillary thyroid carcinoma is described in a 46-year old lady. Initial surgery was done based on the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC report of adenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland. Histopathologic examination of the specimen suggested a metastatic papillary carcinoma. Occult papillary carcinoma in the thyroid was found by multiple blind FNACs. Subsequently to near-total thyroidectomy, no other site of metastasis was found on radio-iodine scanning.

Sarda A

2004-01-01

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The Radioimmunoassay in the diagnostic of thyroid gland disorders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this research was to study the value of Radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the thyroid gland disorders in practical health persons. Quantitative criteria have been worked for estimation of thyroid gland function for the population of Belarus Republic in according with region ecological situation, on basis concentrations of Thyrotropin, Thyroxine, Triiodothyronine, Thyroglobulin, Thyroxine binding globulin have been determined by RIA in blood samples. The analysis of the data obtained has given to reveal latent forms of hyperthyroidism and latent forms of hypothyroidism, what authors regard as remote medical consequences of the Chernobyl Reactor accident

66

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... endotracheal tube that we put in a routine patient undergoing general endotracheal anesthesia. Now specific for this surgery, thyroid surgery, parathyroid surgery, endocrine ...

67

Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions  

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To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Young Ha; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Soo Kyo [Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-12-15

68

A CASE REPORT OF WELL DIFFERENTIATED CHONDROSARCOMA OF THYROID GLAND  

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Full Text Available We report a 75 year - old man who presented with a cervical mass, dysphagia anil hoarseness, CT - xcan of neck showed a large cold nodule in the right lobe of thyroid gland, which was followed by surgical excision and its histopathologic exam revealed well-differentiated chondrosarcoma.

H. Haeri.

1999-09-01

69

[Electroglottography in patients operated for thyroid gland malignancies].  

Science.gov (United States)

Electroglottography (EGG) was performed in 9 patients with vocal fold paresis (VFP) arisen after thyroid gland surgery performed for malignant tumours. Clinical symptoms, EGG waveforms and % Irregularity were analysed and correlation between dysphonia and % Irregularity computed. % Irregularity proved to be an effective measure of vocal fold dysfunction, significantly correlated with dysphonia. PMID:15518323

Zagólski, Olaf

2004-01-01

70

Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT scan showed left lobe thyroid tumor with tracheal deviation on the right site. Extended total thyroidectomy was done. Intraoperative consultation with the pathologist confirmed thyroid cancer. The pathologist diagnosed thyroid paraganglioma on the base of immuohistochemical investigation. This thyroid paraganglioma was positive for neuron-specific enolase, chomogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein highlighted the sustentacular cells. Tumor cells were nega-tive for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic. After the surgery the patient was treated with chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of thyroid hormone and serum neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A level, every 6 months. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest and abdomen CT scan as well as further tests (chest x-ray, ultrasound of the neck, and whole body octreotide scintigraphy were done. No primary neuroendocrine tumor in digestive sistem or in the chest was found. After more than 3 years the patient has no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of thyroid paraganglioma, followed by chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with thyroid gland paraganglioma.

Filipovi? Aleksandar

2014-01-01

71

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... thyroid; correct? That is correct. We’ve already cut the skin here. Now we’re just goin ... a transient or temporary hoarseness. If you actually cut it or if you burn it, then that ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will offer to answer as many of those ... is up. Let’s begin now by introducing our doctor. Dr. T, can we ask you to come ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... for a goiter. Recently there has been substantial growth in one of the nodules, going from 2. ... to intervene with special medications to slow the rate down. And what about an underactive thyroid, the ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ... destroy the other living cells that are too small to remove surgically that are not seen. So ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... of the surgery. This shows some of the structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, ... that you can visualize all the important anatomic structures. And people at home may be hearing a ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... some greater explanations once we get in. All right. The patien t’s thyroid is much larger than ... for the surgery today. That is correct. All right. Let me just go to our second diagram ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... would take place had she been given a diagnosis of a cancerous thyroid? Correct. Although, the procedure ... women as well. So if you have a diagnosis of Hashimoto’s Disease you would b e on ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... phenomenon that is caused sometimes by diet, and other times by environment. And what are the symptoms, ... thyroid? Well outside of a goiter there are other conditions, there are hyper and hypo metabolic states ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... that patients will become symptomatic. They can have fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel ... thyroids can actually have problems with mentation, with fatigue, with normal function. They gain weight and really ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters of the way ... we’re going to put this little fuzzy material here, and what it d oes is that ...

 
 
 
 
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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... get started and move over to your surgical team. And if you’d be so kind as ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters of the way ... if you will, if you became upon an accident scene and someone had difficulty breathing from facial ...

83

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... and ask for the blood test that would check the thyroid? Well, clearly, the doctor would need ... to their endocrinologist in about 30 days to check the level of hormone to be certain that ...

84

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... most effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think ... unilateral cyst or a benign adenoma, or sometimes even just a unilateral goiter, you can just do ...

85

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... removed. You talked about an overactive thyroid producing too much hormone, and the symptoms of that, once again, ... actually go into (INAUDIBLE). When you squeeze it, too much of the hormone may actually go into the ...

86

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... also, during that time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid- ... the “Ask” icon on your screen. You can send in your questions live via the web to ...

87

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead ... you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will ...

88

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... involved in this procedure and how the thyroid functions in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a ... you today and tell us what each person’s function is in the o perating room. OR Live ...

89

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... surgery at Homestead Hospital, a thyroidectomy, in this case, the removal of an enlarged thyroid from a 65-year-old patient. This is happening live on the web and we do encourage you to ...

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Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia / Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptiv [...] o de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000). RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %), seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente). Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 %) y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %). La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of st [...] ructural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000). RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5%) followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively). There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%), and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%). Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

Caridad, Verdecia Cañizares; Andrés, Portugués Díaz; Marta, Longchong Ramos.

2009-03-01

91

Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000. RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %, seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente. Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 % y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea.INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of structural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000. RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5% followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively. There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%, and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%. Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

Caridad Verdecia Cañizares

2009-03-01

92

Thyroid gland function during the systemic graft versus host reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the present investigation were as follows: to determine the level of thyroid hormones and thyrotrophin (TSH) at various times after induction of graft versus host reaction (GVHR); to study the degree of 125 I uptake by thyroid gland tissue at the same times of the GVHR, and to determine correlation between the hormone levels and weight of the gland in the animals and also the body weight of the recipients. Serum levels of tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay. 125 /SUB I/ was injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 3-4 microCi/100 g body weight. During the development of a systemic GVHR marked inhibition of thyroid function was discovered

93

Alterations within the rat thyroid gland during vitamin A deficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid glands from female rats kept vitamin A deficient for one, two, and three months were examined by electron microscopy. After one month on the diet, no consistent alterations were noted. After two months, the colloid in some follicles displayed a peripheral zone of decreased density. In addition, ultimobranchial follicles within the gland had become keratinized. After two to three months on the diet, cells were seen entering the colloid. Many of these cells were identified as follicular cells. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies indicated that thyroids of vitamin A deficient rats took up less radioiodide than thyroids of control rats. It's possible that the presence of follicular cells in the colloid reflects an accelerated turnover of these cells and could indicate an early pathological sign

94

Role of metallothioneins in benign and malignant thyroid lesions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Recent findings in the past two decades have brought many insights into the biology of thyroid benign and malignant lesions, in particular the papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Although, much progress have been made, thyroid cancers still pose diagnostic problems regarding differentiation of follicular lesions in relation to their aggressiveness and the treatment of advanced and undifferentiated thyroid cancers. Metallothioneins (MTs were shown to induce cancer cells proliferation, mediate resistance to apoptosis, certain chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. Therefore, MTs may be of utility in diagnosis and management of patients with benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid.

Pula Bartosz

2012-12-01

95

Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities in western Canadian foals: reexamination of a previously described syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A syndrome of neonatal foals characterized by hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities (TH-MSD) has been described in western Canada and may be increasing in incidence. In an attempt to improve recognition and understanding of this syndrome, 2946 records of equine abortuses, stillborns, and dead neonatal foals were examined to determine the laboratory involved, the year and month of submission, the breed and sex of the fetus or foal, the type of perinatal loss, the length of gestation, and whether or not the submission had evidence of a lesion of the thyroid gland, the musculoskeletal system, or other abnormal clinical or postmortem findings. One hundred and fifty-four (5.2%) records indicated the presence of an abnormal thyroid gland. Of these, 79 (2.7%) had additional lesions consistent with the TH-MSD syndrome described in the 1980s, while 75 (2.5%) were without these additional lesions. Comparisons among these two groups and a third group of fetuses and foals without lesions of the thyroids glands are described. The results confirm that the TH-MSD syndrome is a specific and unique disease with no breed or sex predilection. It is argued that there may be an "exposure-related" cause, and based on a review of similar disease syndromes of the horse, it is suggested that an examination of the feed is indicated in outbreaks of the TH-MSD syndrome. PMID:8044756

Allen, A L; Doige, C E; Fretz, P B; Townsend, H G

1994-01-01

96

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

97

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... actually cause the muscles to seal. Taking a big gland out, like we did, creates a lot ... Okay, but so that would be about this big. So we’re talking about something about like ...

98

False positive uptake of I-131 during a I-131 whole body follow up scan in a patient with differentiated thyroid cancer and chronic inflammation of parotid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unusual high uptake of I-131 was detected in a parotid gland during a routine I-131 whole body scan in a patient of papillary carcinoma thyroid, raising the suspicion of functioning metastasis from the primary lesion in the thyroid. A review of the clinical history and additional scintigraphic evaluation revealed this to be of inflammatory origin. (author)

99

[Adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland origin: a recently described lesion. A case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin is a rare and recently described lesion. In spite of the high incidence of metastatic spread, the prognosis remains very good. We report a case of a 64-year-old man with cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin of the ventral tongue without locoregional or distant metastasis. The patient is currently 43-month post treatment without any local or regional recurrence of the disease. This entity should be kept in mind regarding its good prognosis and its resemblances with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and adenoid cystic carcinoma with which it should not be confused. PMID:24331721

Advenier, Anne-Sophie; Poupart, Marc; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Barnoud, Raphaëlle

2013-12-01

100

Development of Thyroid Gland Specific Markers of Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid Axis Disruption in the Amphibian Model Species Xenopus laevis  

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The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis....

 
 
 
 
101

Sonography and scintiscanning of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is intended as a synopsis of diseases of the thyroid, dealing with the sonography, scintiscanning, cytomorphology and histomorphology of the various diseases, as well as with clinical examination and therapy. The material presented is a textbook and an atlas, reviewing the current state of knowledge and skill in the application of the various imaging methods available at present, their clinical value and restraints with regard to optimised thyroid diagnosis. The many illustrations and drawings explain the potentials and limits of structural and functional examination techniques, with the sonograms being accompanied by schematic drawings in order to facilitate image analysis. (orig./MG) With 124 figs., 43 tabs

102

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... that case, would need to be monitoring the heart and may have to intervene with special medications to slow the rate down. And what about an underactive thyroid, the symptoms would be what? Fatigue, feeling cold, having no energy, listless. And is surgery usually the protocol for both or do you ...

103

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... have something to do with hormonal changes during menopause? That, and also not even just menopause, but t here are certain thyroiditis’ that are ... esophagus, and, again, the nerve, and we’ll test the nerve one last time before we flip ...

104

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... symptoms she was experiencing? Sure, this was a 65-year- old patient who’s been following by a ... an enlarged thyroid from their female patient, she’s 65 years old, and she presented with problems swallo ...

105

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... Sure. That is part of the geologist’s important role in this procedure, and I think our patient’s ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

106

Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland  

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Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin`s tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

Takahashi, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Takenori; Adachi, Tosihide; Enomoto, Kenichi; Ishii, Hidenori [Asahikawa Medical School, Hokkaido (Japan); Yoshida, Chikako; Hokunan, Kazuhiko; Bando, Nobuyuki; Shigyo, Hiroshi

1997-09-01

107

131I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Therapeutic doses of 131I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of 131I (64-277 µCi). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (u [...] ntreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before 131I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following 131I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 ± 8.16 to 55.0 ± 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 ± 6.9 to 25.4 ± 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after 131I administration to rats, which was not 131I dose dependent.

V., Torlak; T., Zemunik; D., Modun; V., Capkun; V., Pesutic-Pisac; A., Markotic; M., Pavela-Vrancic; A., Stanicic.

1087-10-01

108

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... platy sma, and then close the wound, and we’ll show you that. All right. In the meantime, let me bring the gland over to you. Sure. We’re just going to walk around here and ...

109

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... that monitor will be checking that the nerv es to the vocal cords are not in harm’s ... An enlarged gland like this, identifying the nerv e oftentimes can’t be done until you’ve ...

110

Phenotype of blood lymphocytes in correlation with histological picture in thyroid gland of rats treated with potassium iodide  

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Full Text Available Having in mind the former results which confirmed the functional relationship between the thyroid and the immune system, and the administration of potassium iodide (KI in the therapy of auto-immune diseases, we considered it of interest to investigate the pathogenesis of KI induced experimental thyroiditis, by studying the morphology of thymus, thyroid gland and spleen, as well as the phenotype of lymphocytes in the thymus and peripheral blood in relation to the expression of CD4 and CD8 molecules. The experiments have been carried out on 30 male Wistar rats, divided in 3 groups. The first group (n=10 received KI (225 ?g/g, i.p., the second group (n=10 received KI (675 ?g/g, i.p., while the third group (n=10 received sodium chloride (0.9%, i.p.. The intensity of histological lesions in the thyroid gland, was statistically significant (p<0.01 in KI treated groups, compared to the controls. KI also significantly decreased rat body mass, and increased masses of thymus and thyroid gland (p<0.05. No statistically significant difference was found in thymocyte and peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulation numbers between the groups. Our experiments suggest that KI, at least in some doses could induce mild lymphocytic thyroiditis in rats, and that this simple, practical and non-expensive model of experimental thyroiditis could be of importance for further research.

Markovi? Ljiljana

2011-01-01

111

Lectin histochemistry of papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lectin-binding properties of human follicular and papillary carcinoma were studied histochemically and compared with lectin binding to normal or goitrous thyroid tissue. Well-differentiated minimally invasive follicular carcinoma showed a lectin-binding pattern essentially identical to those of the normal thyroid gland and benign adenomatous lesions. Overtly invasive follicular carcinoma showed focal reactivity with some lectins that were nonreactive with normal follicular thyroid cells (Solanum tuberosum and soybean in three of three cases; Ulex europaeus in two of three cases; and Dolichos biflorus, Laburnum alpinum, and peanut in one of three cases). In papillary carcinomas, the cells lining the papillary structures reacted focally with some lectins that did not bind to normal thyroid cells (S tuberosum and U europeaus in seven of seven cases; Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa, and soybean in four of seven cases; and peanut, Griffonia simplicifolia, D biflorus, and Vicia villosa in one of seven cases). All these lectins, as well as those reacting with normal thyroid cells, reacted more strongly with cells of papillary structures than with those forming solid nests and follicles. Despite these lectin-defined differences in the composition of glycoconjugates of benign and malignant thyroid cells, the inconsistent and focal nature of the changes precludes the use of lectins in diagnostic histopathology. PMID:3089192

Sobrinho-Simões, M; Damjanov, I

1986-08-01

112

The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

113

Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

y (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were carried out on ultrasonic apparatus Aloka SSD-630, Toshiba-220A, Sonoscop-20 electronic sensor with 7.5 MHz using adapter or by the 'free hand' method. Preparations for cytological examination were prepared according to the common procedure with the coloration after Papanikolou and Pappenheim. Diagnostic methods of thyroid gland node formation changed. The main doctor's problem is to distinguish good-quality and malignant formations because their treatments are diametrically opposite. Between laboratory methods applied for differential diagnostic of good-quality and malignant thyroid gland nodes is used scanning of thyroid gland by I-123 and Tc-99 radio isotopes, but it has lost its meaning for diagnostic of malignant new formations. Nevertheless, the method is still applied for the metastasis of high-differentiated thyroid cancer revealing. Now ultrasonic scanning with following TNAB under the control of ultrasonic beam and cytological examination of the bioassays received is the most effective, high informational and reliable method. Node formations revealing with size of 0.3 cm can be done by ultrasonic method. Screening must be done at first among people whose age at the moment of disaster was 0-19 years. Early ultrasonic feature of thyroid cancer is appearing of focal formation in its parenchyma. Most often locus has low echo (75%), irregular contours (80%), impure structure (97%). Precise correlation between types of vascular net on ultrasonic angiographies and echo structure of node formations has not been found. The main role of ultrasonic examination is in revealing of the focal alterations in the parenchyma of gland, visualization of regional lymph nodes and TNAB applying. The introduction of TNAB to the clinical practice with the following bioassays cytology has raised the efficiency of early thyroid gland cancer diagnostic and has given the possibility to choose patients, who can be operated in occasion with nodal craws, more accurate. Since 1993 in diagnostic centre were made 10739 TNAB and revealed 445 cases of thyroid gland cancer. Four hundred forty five thyroid carcinomas were revealed including papillary carcinoma, medullar carcinoma, no differentiated carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and others (lymphomas, metastasis tumours). Sensitivity of the cytological method was 96,6% in case of a papillary carcinoma, 76,9% - in case of a medullar carcinoma

114

Differential diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions by CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We designed this study to determine the potentiality of the conventional CT in the diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions, especially in solving the diagnostic difficulty between neoplasm and inflammation. We performed retrospective study of 35 patients and 2 of them had bilateral lesion of chronic inflammation, hence we analysed 37 cases of submandibular gland lesions. There were 9 cases of tumor (including 1 basal cell carcinoma, and 8 pleomorphic adenomas), 22 cases of chronic inflammation, and 6 cases of acute inflammation. CT scans were evaluated for the degree of enlargement (graded as iso, mild or marked enlargement), pattern of contrast enhancement, contour deformity of the gland, and several other items. Neoplastic masses showed more marked enlargement of the gland (77%) than chronic inflammation (22%). Degree of enhancement showed no difference among the lesions. Enhancement pattern was more inhomogeneous in neoplasm (80%) than in chronic inflammation (5%). Deformity of the natural contour of the gland was more frequent in neoplasm (all of 9 cases) than in chronic inflammation (32%). Acute inflammation showed internal low attenuation probably by abscess formation (3/6 cases) and overlying soft tissue swelling (all of 6 cases), and the age of patients was characteristically younger than other disease (mean, 9 years). Several findings were more specific to disease, such as dystrophic calcifications to pleomorphic adenoma (37%) and calculi with or without ductal dilatation to chronic inflammation (45%). Pre and postcontrast enhanced CT scan can serve as a predictor of pathologic nature of the submandibular gland lesions.

Yoh, Kyu Tong; Park, Chan Sup [College of Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Songnam (Korea, Republic of)

1994-07-15

115

Expression of hepatocyte growth factor in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with nodular lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT is an autoimmune thyroid disease frequently associated with hyperplastic nodules (HNs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is expressed in benign thyroid nodules and over-expressed in malignant thyroid nodules, particularly in papillary thyroid carcinomas. To elucidate the role of HGF in the development of HNs in association with HT we evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of HGF in both nodular and extranodular tissues, obtained from 30 HTs and 15 goiter samples. Six normal thyroid glands were used as controls.All normal control tissue samples exhibited no evidence of HGF immunoreaction. HNs showed weak to moderate HGF immunoreaction,which was located exclusively in the cytoplasm of stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells. However, the percentage of positive cases was higher in HNs arisen in the context of HT, compared to HNs not associated with HT (30/30 or 100% vs 4/15 or 40%; p<0.001. HGF immunoreactivity was also detected in all extranodular tissues from HT specimens (30/30 or 100%, but we found some significant differences. In fact, while in HNs observed in the context of HT lesions HGF was expressed only in stromal cells, in the extranodular tissues from the same thyroid gland affected by HT it was also detected in the cytoplasm of the epithelial follicular cells. Furthermore, HTs showed a much higher HGF staining grade in the extranodular tissue compared to HNs. Finally, a clear positive correlation was observed in HT between the proportion of HGF expressing follicular cells and the grade of lymphoid aggregates of the thyroid gland. In conclusion, HGF is much more frequently and highly expressed in thyroid tissue with HT, compared to goiter. In HT glands HGF can be detected in both follicular thyroid cells and stromal cells, while in HNs, either from goiters or associated with HT, its expression is restricted only to the stromal cells.These data indicate that HGF may play a role in cell proliferation processes occurring in thyroid glands affected by HT, probably under the regulation of the lymphoid infiltrate.

M Trovato

2007-09-01

116

Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was unknown) were nearly twenty-times the average background concentration, while the concentration in the person who ingested Ra-226 in a medicinal preparation was about two-hundred times our background concentration. A variety of studies of small cohorts of persons either occupationally exposed to Ra-226, given Ra-224 as part of medical treatments, or among beagle dogs given Ra-226 in long-term health studies, has shown evidence of a small but significant increase in thyroid cancer rates. The findings presented here have implications for improving dosimetry models of Ra-226 in soft tissues and for projecting health risks from natural radium intake. (author)

117

Colour-coded Doppler sonography in thyroid gland diagnosis: Preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid gland was investigated in 43 persons (12 healthy volunteers, 31 patients with diseases of the thyroid gland) with a new colour Doppler system (angiodynography). In euthyreotic persons (normal thyroid gland, diffuse or multinodular goitre) only a few vessels were detected. In cases with Graves' disease however, hypervascularisation was evident. Autonomus adenomas had a hypervascular periphery, whereas our two carcinomas showed a high vascularisation in the nodule. Angiodynography might become an important diagnostic tool for the evaluation of thyroid glands. The number of radionuclide studies and punctures might be limited. (orig.)

118

Lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence rate, distribution, patient characteristics and indications for surgical intervention of lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007. Material and methods: All biopsied/surgically removed lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark during the period 1974-2007 were identified by searching two population-based registries. Specimens were collected and re-evaluated. The following data were collected: age, gender, indications for surgical intervention and local recurrence. Results: A total of 232 lesions from 210 patients with a histologically verified lesion of the lacrimal gland were included. The incidence rate of lacrimal gland lesions was 1.3/1 000 000/year. The overall annual age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate more than doubled during the study period, owing to an increase in non-malignant lesions. Approximately half of the lesions were neoplasms (119) and 55% (66) of these were malignant. Dacryops constituted 10% (24), inflammatory lesions 27% (62), normal tissue12% (27), benign tumours 23% (53) and malignant tumours 29% (66). Patients with malignant neoplasms were significantly older than patients with benign neoplasms (63 versus 48 years, p

von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

2013-01-01

119

Involvement of the thyroid and the salivary glands in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas at initial diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: The clinical spectrum of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is different from that in adults, with frequent extranodal involvement. We searched the incidence and radiological appearance of the secondary involvement of the thyroid and salivary glands by ultrasonography (US) to assess its importance for staging of the disease. Materials and methods: We examined the thyroid, parotid and submandibulary glands of 43 children with NHL, age ranging between 9 months and 17 years, by US. Results: According to US findings, involvement of the parotid gland was very common as detected in 18 of the cases with NHL (41%). It was the most common organ involved in lymphoma. Lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland, with bilateral multiple focal lesions, was detected in two patients and proved by fine needle aspiration biopsy in all cases (5%). Salivary gland and thyroid involvement changed staging in three (6%) of the patients, however, the treatment plan was unchanged. Conclusions: This study shows that anatomic sites, known to be very rarely involved at the initial presentation of the disease is actually more commonly involved in childhood NHL. However, it does not cause any significant change in the treatment planning or in the survival.

Akata, Deniz; Akhan, Okan; Akyuez, Canan; Oezmen, Mustafa N.; Yalcin, Bilgehan

2002-12-01

120

Involvement of the thyroid and the salivary glands in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas at initial diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The clinical spectrum of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is different from that in adults, with frequent extranodal involvement. We searched the incidence and radiological appearance of the secondary involvement of the thyroid and salivary glands by ultrasonography (US) to assess its importance for staging of the disease. Materials and methods: We examined the thyroid, parotid and submandibulary glands of 43 children with NHL, age ranging between 9 months and 17 years, by US. Results: According to US findings, involvement of the parotid gland was very common as detected in 18 of the cases with NHL (41%). It was the most common organ involved in lymphoma. Lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland, with bilateral multiple focal lesions, was detected in two patients and proved by fine needle aspiration biopsy in all cases (5%). Salivary gland and thyroid involvement changed staging in three (6%) of the patients, however, the treatment plan was unchanged. Conclusions: This study shows that anatomic sites, known to be very rarely involved at the initial presentation of the disease is actually more commonly involved in childhood NHL. However, it does not cause any significant change in the treatment planning or in the survival

 
 
 
 
121

Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

Gary L., Ellis.

122

Iodide transport and its regulation in the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to examine the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide induced suppression of subsequently determined iodide transport activity in the thyroid gland. Two model systems were developed to identify the putative, transport-related, iodine-containing, inhibitory factor responsible for autoregulation. The first system was a maternal and fetal rabbit thyroid tissue slice preparation in which iodide pretreatment inhibited the maternal 125I-T/M ratio by 30% and had no significant effect on fetal iodide transport. In the second system, the role of protein synthesis in the autoregulatory phenomenon was studied. Cat thyroid slices pretreated with0.1 mM cycloheximide for 60 min prior to preexposure to excess iodide demonstrated a significant reduction in the degree of iodide included autoregulation. In both of these systems iodide induced suppression of cAMP accumulation remained intact. These findings suggest (1) fetal rabbit thyroid lacks the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide transport and (2) protein synthesis is involved in the mechanism of thyroid autoregulation of iodide transport

123

Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

124

Chemical homeostasis of thyroid gland under modelling microelementosis influence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work presents the results of the research of a thyroid tissue of 36 laboratory rats of different ages which have been drinking water with salts of zinc, cooper, iron, manganese, chrome and lead within 60 days. By means of anatomical, histological and spectrochemical methods it was established: the most significant morphological changes was increase with the growing terms of the experiment, concentration of ions in 30 days of experiment was the highest in the thyroid gland of young aged rats, at the end of the experiments the decreasing of the speed of their accumulation was observed. This work consideres the influence of ions of heavy metals on apoptosis of thyrocytes.

Moskalenko R.A.

2009-01-01

125

Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie externe sur la glande thyroide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto`s disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

Monnier, A. [Centre Hospitalier general A-Boulloche, 25 - Montbeliard (France)

1997-12-01

126

Differential diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions by CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We designed this study to determine the potentiality of the conventional CT in the diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions, especially in solving the diagnostic difficulty between neoplasm and inflammation. We performed retrospective study of 35 patients and 2 of them had bilateral lesion of chronic inflammation, hence we analysed 37 cases of submandibular gland lesions. There were 9 cases of tumor (including 1 basal cell carcinoma, and 8 pleomorphic adenomas), 22 cases of chronic inflammation, and 6 cases of acute inflammation. CT scans were evaluated for the degree of enlargement (graded as iso, mild or marked enlargement), pattern of contrast enhancement, contour deformity of the gland, and several other items. Neoplastic masses showed more marked enlargement of the gland (77%) than chronic inflammation (22%). Degree of enhancement showed no difference among the lesions. Enhancement pattern was more inhomogeneous in neoplasm (80%) than in chronic inflammation (5%). Deformity of the natural contour of the gland was more frequent in neoplasm (all of 9 cases) than in chronic inflammation (32%). Acute inflammation showed internal low attenuation probably by abscess formation (3/6 cases) and overlying soft tissue swelling (all of 6 cases), and the age of patients was characteristically younger than other disease (mean, 9 years). Several findings were more specific to disease, such as dystrophic calcifications to pleomorphic adenoma (37%) and calculi with or without ducnoma (37%) and calculi with or without ductal dilatation to chronic inflammation (45%). Pre and postcontrast enhanced CT scan can serve as a predictor of pathologic nature of the submandibular gland lesions

127

Long-term effects of external radiation on the pituitary and thyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic damage following external irradiation of the normal pituitary and thyroid glands, delivered incidentally during radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck may be more common than has been appreciated in the past. A case of a child who developed pituitary dwarfism 51/2 years after radiation therapy had been delivered for an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx is described. A review of similar cases from the literature is presented. Likewise, external irradiation of the normal thyroid gland produces a spectrum of radiation-induced syndromes. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands is usually manifested months to years after treatment and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. A careful exclusion of these glands from radiation treatment fields is recommended whenever possible. An early detection of endocrine function abnormalities in patients receiving radiation to these glands is desirable, since appropriate treatment may prevent the late deleterious effects of external irradiation of the pituitary and thyroid glands

128

Comparative studies on the activity of the thyroid gland in black Bengal and Barbari goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the thyroid activity in two Indian breeds of goats viz. the Black Bengal and Barbari.was compared. This investigation included two different in vivo isotopic approaches; the uptake of the sup(131)I by the thyroid gland and measurement of the PB-sup(131)I conversion ratio. Both the approaches reflected that the thyroid gland in the Barbari goats was more active than in the Black Bengal goats. Significance of these findings is discussed. (auth.)

129

Clinicopathological study of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventeen cases (5 males and 12 females) of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland treated at the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kurume University School of Medicine, between January 1999 and January 2009 were reviewed. Ages of the patients ranged from 54 to 94 years. Six cases were treated by radical surgery. All cases were treated by radiotherapy and 5 cases received additional chemotherapy. The 6 cases treated by radical surgery were able to experience home life. Survival time of the radical surgery cases ranged from 8 to 36 months, with a median of 17 months. In cases without surgery, the survival time ranged from 1 to 8 months, with a median of 4 months. As the final outcome, only 1 case is alive after 36 months; 8 cases died by primary tumor, 7 by lung metastasis and 1 by suicide. Although the prognosis of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland is generally poor, radical surgery, if possible, may provide better survival results. (author)

130

The clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background Incidental focal fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid is not uncommon. A significant proportion is due to intercurrent thyroid cancer on further evaluation. Purpose To investigate and discuss the clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy. Material and Methods We investigated 188/7896 (2.4%) patients who had incidental focal thyroid uptake on FDG PET/CT in an oncology population over a 45-month period. Diagnosis was confirmed in 63 patients of whom 59 patients had histopathological verification. Results Thirty-two percent of confirmed cases were malignant comprising intercurrent thyroid cancer in three-quarters of these patients. Maximum standardized uptake values of the thyroid lesions and SUV ratios compared with background thyroid and mediastinal uptake were not predictive of a benign or malignant etiology. In patients with incidental thyroid cancers, more than half had non-papillary and intermediate to high-risk pathology. Conclusion Focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on PET/CT showed a malignancy risk of 32%. The intensity of uptake does not predict histology and underpins the importance of further investigations to exclude intercurrent thyroid cancer in suitable patients

131

The clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background Incidental focal fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid is not uncommon. A significant proportion is due to intercurrent thyroid cancer on further evaluation. Purpose To investigate and discuss the clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy. Material and Methods We investigated 188/7896 (2.4%) patients who had incidental focal thyroid uptake on FDG PET/CT in an oncology population over a 45-month period. Diagnosis was confirmed in 63 patients of whom 59 patients had histopathological verification. Results Thirty-two percent of confirmed cases were malignant comprising intercurrent thyroid cancer in three-quarters of these patients. Maximum standardized uptake values of the thyroid lesions and SUV ratios compared with background thyroid and mediastinal uptake were not predictive of a benign or malignant etiology. In patients with incidental thyroid cancers, more than half had non-papillary and intermediate to high-risk pathology. Conclusion Focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on PET/CT showed a malignancy risk of 32%. The intensity of uptake does not predict histology and underpins the importance of further investigations to exclude intercurrent thyroid cancer in suitable patients

Wong, Christine (Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)); Lin, Michael (Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Liverpool (Australia)), email: Michael.lin@swsahs.nsw.gov.au; Chicco, Andrew; Benson, Rhonda (Liverpool Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Liverpool (Australia))

2011-10-15

132

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 ± SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 ± SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

133

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 {+-} SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 {+-} SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland.

Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee [Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-15

134

Thyroid/parotid ratio a new cost effective parameter for assessment of functional status of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This prospective study was under-taken to evaluate the efficacy of a new parameter for the assessment of thyroid function, During routine thyroid scan under the Gamma Camera ratio of activity in the thyroid and parotid gland (T/P ratio) was calculated using ROI technique. Sensitivity and specifications of this T/P ratio was analyzed in 455 non selected and fully worked up patients after standardising the normal value in 20 voluntaries who had no thyroid diseases . The overall sensitivity was found to be 93.7 % and specificity 85.5%. This parameter could also be used to differentiate borderline hyperthyroidism from thyroiditis

135

Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the associatilts have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

136

Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

137

Fine needle aspiration cytology--a reliable diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of thyroid gland enlargements.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of Thyroid gland enlargements. A retrospective analysis was done at Department of Pathology, Government Medical College and General Hospital, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. One hundred and fifty cases were included in this study. However in 10 cases aspirate was unsatisfactory and in 20 cases surgery was not performed and these cases were excluded from study. A total of 120 cases included in the final study. Detailed history, physical examination, routine investigations and other details of 120 patients were collected. FNAC with minimum two passes were performed in each case. Staining done with Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and Papanicolaou stains. FNAC smears and histopathology slides were reviewed. Among 120 cases 100 (83.66%) were reported cytologically as benign and 20 (16.66%) were malignant. But histologically 98 (81.66%) were benign and 22 (18.33%) were malignant. Commonest benign lesion of thyroid in both cytology and histology was nodular colloid goiter. Follicular adenoma was the second commonest one. Among malignant conditions papillary carcinoma was the commonest one in our FNAC samples, follicular carcinoma was the commonest in our histopathology samples. Four cases of false positive and 6 cases of false negative were observed. Sampling errors were mainly responsible for these false negative diagnoses. FNAC showed an accuracy of 96.6%, sensitivity 75%, specificity 95.83%, positive predicative value (PPV) 81.81% and negative predicative value (NPV) of 93.81%. Our results were similar to other international studies and suggest that FNAC is more specific and sensitive in detecting thyroid malignancy. Therefore its useas a reliable diagnostic test cannot be over emphasized. FNAC is an accurate and reliable diagnostic tool to evaluate the cause of Thyroid gland enlargements provided strict adherence to adequacy criteria are maintained. PMID:23016483

Swamy, G G; Madhuravani, S; Swamy, G M

2011-12-01

138

Inmunohistochemical profile of solid cell nest of thyroid gland.  

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It is widely held that solid cell nests (SCN) of the thyroid are ultimobranchial body remnants. SCNs are composed of main cells and C cells. It has been suggested that main cells might be pluripotent cells contributing to the histogenesis of C cells and follicular cells, as well as to the formation of certain thyroid tumors. The present study sought to analyze the immunohistochemical profile of SCN and to investigate the potential stem cell role of SCN main cells. Tissue sections from ten cases of nodular hyperplasia (non-tumor goiter) with SCNs were retrieved from the files of the Hospital Infanta Luisa (Seville, Spain). Parathormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT), thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid transcription factor (TTF-1), galectin 3 (GAL3), cytokeratin 19 (CK 19), p63, bcl-2, OCT4, and SALL4 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Patient clinical data were collected, and tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological examination. Most cells stained negative for PTH, CT, TG, and TTF-1. Some cells staining positive for TTF-1 and CT required discussion. However, bcl-2, p63, GAL3, and CK 19 protein expression was detected in main cells. OCT4 protein expression was detected in only two cases, and SALL4 expression in none. Positive staining for bcl-2 and p63, and negative staining for PTH, CT, and TG in SCN main cells are both consistent with the widely accepted minimalist definition of stem cells, thus supporting the hypothesis that they may play a stem cell role in the thyroid gland, although further research will be required into stem cell markers. Furthermore, p63 and GAL-3 staining provides a much more sensitive means of detecting SCNs than staining for carcinoembryonic antigen, calcitonin, or other markers; this may help to distinguish SCNs from their mimics. PMID:21234707

Ríos Moreno, María José; Galera-Ruiz, Hugo; De Miguel, Manuel; López, María Inés Carmona; Illanes, Matilde; Galera-Davidson, Hugo

2011-03-01

139

The state of thyroid and calcium-regulated function of thyroid and parathyroid glands under gamma-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of acute irradiation on thyroid hormones, calcitonin content and some parameters of calcium metabolism (activity of alkaline phosphatase and content of vitamine D) in rat blood and liver homogenates was studied. It was established that irradiation in 1 Gy dose decreased level of T3 and T4, increased calcitonin level and altered calcium metabolism. Effect of radiation on thyroid and calcium-regulated metabolisms is realized, probably, by means of central mechanisms in hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid gland system

140

Computed tomography imaging of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland is a normal anatomical variant found frequently in the general population. This structure consists of normal thyroid tissue located in the upper part of the thyroid isthmus, extending upward in the form of a fibrous chord that connects it to the foramen caecum at the bottom of the tongue. This paper reviews thyroid anatomy and embryology, and highlights the main features of the pyramidal lobe, including the anatomy, epidemiology and computed tomography imaging.

 
 
 
 
141

IL-10 expression in thyroid glands: protective or harmful role against thyroid autoimmunity?  

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IL-10 is a cytokine which not only suppresses cellular immunity but also stimulates the humoral response. In certain animal models of autoimmunity, IL-10 exerts a protective effect against autodestruction. This study was to ascertain whether there could be a role for IL-10 in human autoimmune thyroid disease. Total RNA was extracted from snap-frozen thyroid blocks from surgical specimens. Five 'normal', five multinodular, six Graves and two Hashimoto thyroids (one euthyroid and one hypothyroid) were studied. Approximately 7 microg of total RNA from each gland were reverse transcribed with oligo-dT primers. Pre-plateau semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with specific IL-10 primers. PCR products were run on a 1-5% agarose gel, blotted onto a N-hybond nylon membrane, hybridized with a specific internal probe labelled with gamma-32P-ATP and autoradiographed. Statistical analysis of densitometric values showed significantly higher IL-10 levels in the autoimmune than in the non-autoimmune glands. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that the IL-10 message was located within the infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells. Histological analysis revealed that the autoimmune thyroids with the highest IL-10 levels were characterized by relevant degrees of B and T cell infiltration and also exhibited the greatest percentage of spontaneous HLA class II expression on thyrocytes. IL-10 and neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibodies were not able to regulate in vitro spontaneous or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)/phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced HLA class II on thyrocytes. We conclude that in active autoimmune thyroiditis, in addition to the well documented production of Th1 cytokines, Th2-related lymphokines can be detected simultaneously. It can be envisaged that in this condition the role of IL-10 might be directed to the stimulation of B cell proliferation and antibody production rather than to the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine release. PMID:9697995

de la Vega, J R; Vilaplana, J C; Biro, A; Hammond, L; Bottazzo, G F; Mirakian, R

1998-07-01

142

Radiation dose to the ocular lens and thyroid gland during high resolution CT of the teeth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation dose to the ocular lens and thyroid gland during high resolution CT of the jaw was measured in a head phantom and in 9 patients. The dose for the lens and thyroid gland resulting from 10 cuts was 0.7 and 0.9 mGy, respectively. By shielding the thyroid gland against scatter a reduction of 20% is possible. Radiation exposure is considerably higher than during conventional dental X-ray examinations. Compared with CT examinations of the head and neck region, radiation exposure of both organs is about the same. (orig.)

143

Early thyroid gland dysfunction and biorhythmic activity disturbance in patients with cardiovascular pathology and atrial fibrillation  

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Full Text Available The review deals with the problem of combined pathology of the thyroid gland and cardiovascular system, the state of thyroid homeostasis in atrial fibrillation. The main mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on the heart and blood vessels, particularly changes in the cardiovascular system with hypo-or hyperthyroidism; the possibility of substitution therapy in subclinical disease have been presented in the article. Characteristics of daily rhythmic activity of thyroid gland in normal and various pathological conditions with persistent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation have been considered.

Shvarts Yu.G.

2012-12-01

144

Thyroid Hormone Levels in Foals with Congenital Musculoskeletal Lesions  

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Fourteen foals with congenital or neonatal musculoskeletal abnormalities are described. Ten of the fourteen foals had abnormally low total serum T3 and/or T4 concentrations suggesting hypothyroidism. Response to thyroid-stimulating hormone was determined in two foals and found to be poor. Seven of the foals were necropsied and six of these had histological evidence of thyroid hyperplasia. These findings suggest hypothyroidism as a cause of congenital musculoskeletal lesions. PMID:17422675

McLaughlin, B. G.; Doige, C. E.; McLaughlin, P. S.

1986-01-01

145

The Effects of Neck Irradiation on Thyroid Gland for Tumors of the head and Neck  

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Seventy-five patients with tumors of the head and neck treated with either radiation therapy alone or combined with surgery or chemotherapy were studied prospectively to evaluate the effects of radiation therapy to the neck on thyroid gland between September 1986 and October 1992. All patients were serially monitored for thyroid function tests before and after radiation therapy. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 35 to 60 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Median follow-up time was 30 months with a range of 11 to 85 months. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction was 40%; forty-five patients (60%) euthyroid, 2 patients (3%) clinical hypothyroidism, 27 patients (36%) subclinical hypothyroidism and 1 patient (1%) hyperthyroidism. No thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer were detected in any patients. Thyroid dysfunction appeared earlier in patients who underwent surgery than in those patients treated with radiation therapy alone or combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p=0.0013). By multivariate analysis, risk factors that significantly influenced a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction were female sex (p=0.0293) and combination of total laryngectomy and radiation therapy (p=0.0045). In conclusion, evaluation of thyroid function before and after radiation therapy with periodic thyroid function tests are recommended to detect thyroid dysfunction in time and thyroid hormone replacement therapy is recommended whenever thyroid dysfunction develops.

Park, In Kyu; Kim, Sang Bo; Yun, Sang Mo; Park, Jun Sik; Jun, Su Han; Kim, Bo Wan [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

1994-02-15

146

The Effects of Neck Irradiation on Thyroid Gland for Tumors of the head and Neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-five patients with tumors of the head and neck treated with either radiation therapy alone or combined with surgery or chemotherapy were studied prospectively to evaluate the effects of radiation therapy to the neck on thyroid gland between September 1986 and October 1992. All patients were serially monitored for thyroid function tests before and after radiation therapy. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 35 to 60 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Median follow-up time was 30 months with a range of 11 to 85 months. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction was 40%; forty-five patients (60%) euthyroid, 2 patients (3%) clinical hypothyroidism, 27 patients (36%) subclinical hypothyroidism and 1 patient (1%) hyperthyroidism. No thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer were detected in any patients. Thyroid dysfunction appeared earlier in patients who underwent surgery than in those patients treated with radiation therapy alone or combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p=0.0013). By multivariate analysis, risk factors that significantly influenced a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction were female sex (p=0.0293) and combination of total laryngectomy and radiation therapy (p=0.0045). In conclusion, evaluation of thyroid function before and after radiation therapy with periodic thyroid function tests are recommended to detect thyroid dysfunction in time and thyroid hormone replacement therapy is recommended whenever thyroid dysfunction develops

147

A prospective study on histochemical observation of thyroid gland at prepubertal Black Bengal goat.  

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In the present study, Period Acid Schiff (PAS), Verhoeff's and Van Gieson stains were used in the Department of Anatomy and Histology to observe the histochemical architecture of thyroid gland at prepubertal Black Bengal goat. Thyroid follicular cells were cuboidal in prepubertal goats. These cells showed moderate PAS-positive reaction in prepubertal group. PAS activity in the basement membrane of the thyroid follicles was mild in prepubertal Black Bengal goats. The lumen of the thyroid follicles contained homogenous intense PAS positive colloid materials in prepubertal goats. Parafollicular cells showed intense PAS positive reaction for glycogen in prepubertal goats. Capsule, connective tissue septa, interfollicular connective tissue of the thyroid gland mainly composed of collagen fiber. The wall of blood vessels in the capsule and interfollicular blood capillaries was composed of collagen fiber and elastic fiber. Elastic fiber formed the inner layer of the blood vessels showed blue black to black color. Inner layer of the capsule penetrated the gland parenchyma divided the gland into indistinct lobe and lobules. Collagen fiber distributed around the thyroid follicle formed the interfollicular stroma of the thyroid gland. The results of the present study can also be used to compare with that of human specially in AutoImmune Thyroiditis (AIT). PMID:12894043

Adhikary, G N; Quasem, M A; Das, S K; Khalil, M

2003-07-01

148

Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer  

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Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

2014-11-21

149

First description of papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland of a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans ).  

Science.gov (United States)

Postmortem examination of the carcass of an approximately 10-year-old male Red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans ) was performed. The thyroid gland was enlarged, showed follicular structure, and shifted the base of the heart caudally. Histology revealed differently shaped and sized follicles in the thyroid gland. Based on the macroscopic appearance and histopathological changes of the thyroid gland, the pathological process was established as a papillary-cystic carcinoma. Neoplasia of the endocrine organs, especially of the thyroid gland, is rare in reptiles. The current case seems to be the first report of thyroid carcinoma in a Red-eared slider. PMID:20159740

Gál, János; Csikó, György; Pásztor, István; Bölcskey-Molnár, Antal; Albert, Mihály

2010-03-01

150

Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

Yokoyama Junkichi

2012-04-01

151

Scintiscan characteristics of normal thyroid gland in a region of known iodine intake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Morphological features of a normal thyroid gland in a geographical region where the daily iodine intake is about 1 mg are established. The mean weight of the thyroid gland is 31.3 gm with a range from 19 to 43 gm. Oblique length of the right lobe is 5.0 cm and that of the left lobe 4.8 cm. The surface area of the right and left lobes is 9.7 and 9.1 cm2, respectively. The weight of the thyroid gland calculated on the basis of the scan obtained with sup(99m)TcO4 is quite variable and shows poor correlation (? = 0.40) with the weight obtained on the basis of I-131 scan. It is suggested that the criteria of normalcy be established regionally based on iodine intake, and that an isotope of iodine be used in calculating the weight of thyroid gland for dosimetry purposes. (orig.)

152

Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions  

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Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US) guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years...

Dimashkieh Haytham; Krishnamurthy Savitri

2006-01-01

153

Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT. Methods and materials In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50 together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy. The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy and the absolute volumes (cm3 receiving respectively Results No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (? = 0.003, with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving Conclusions We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

Knutstad K

2011-06-01

154

Various somatostatin receptor expression in thyroid gland carcinomas and carcinoids showed with scintigraphy with various somatostatin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various neuroendocrine tumors and tumors of the thyroid gland exprime somatostatin receptors in high density. OctreoScan is used for the diagnosis of SSTR positive tumors. OctreoScan is an 111In marked Octreotid-derivative. In this study the applicability of the various tracers for the diagnosis of carcinoids and thyroid gland carcinomas was tested. With planar scintigraphy the results was evaluated. (boteke)

155

Effect of vertical angulation to dose of thyroid glands in periapical radiography  

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Much attention has been given to reducing the dose of radiation in dental radiography in terms of the highest risk for the head and neck. Organ doses in intraoral radiography vary greatly with subtle differences in vertical angulation. Quantitative determination of doses delivered to the thyroid gland is thus necessary in determining adequate doses and risk for dental radiography. A personal computer program, prepared for estimating organ doses under various radiographic conditions, was used to evaluate the effect of vertical angulation on the dose delivered to the thyroid gland in radiography of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Review of the literature revealed that the calculated dose delivered to the thyroid gland is approximately in accordance with the data of the actual determination under the same radiographic conditions. The dose-dependence of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland on vertical angulation of the maxilla was much more than that of the mandible. In the mandible, the dose delivered to the thyroid gland increased about three fold at a field size of 6 cm[phi] and about 1.5 fold at 8 cm[phi] when the vertical angulation changed from -40deg to 0deg. In the maxilla, the delivered dose increased about 480 times at a field size of 6 cm[phi] when vertical angulation changed from 0deg to 50deg and rapidly increased about 280 times at 8 cm[phi] when the angulation changed from 0deg to 40deg. The dose of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland was evaluated as a function of product of the irradiated volume within the primary beam directed at the thyroid gland and the inverse square of the distance between a subject's surface and the thyroid gland. (N.K.).

Hosoi, Keitaro; Satoh, Keiji; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

1992-10-01

156

Tuberculous abscess of the thyroid gland : A case report of CT demonstration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of tuberculous abscess of thyroid gland in 32-years old female. On CT scan, multiple peripheral enhancing low density abscess were found in the right thyroid gland. Abscess cavity with skin and subcutaneous manifestations were also noted in the right anterior neck. This was confirmed as chronic granulomatous caseous necrosis and acid-fast bacilli were identified by Ziehl-Neelsen stain

157

Tuberculous abscess of the thyroid gland : A case report of CT demonstration  

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We report a case of tuberculous abscess of thyroid gland in 32-years old female. On CT scan, multiple peripheral enhancing low density abscess were found in the right thyroid gland. Abscess cavity with skin and subcutaneous manifestations were also noted in the right anterior neck. This was confirmed as chronic granulomatous caseous necrosis and acid-fast bacilli were identified by Ziehl-Neelsen stain.

Kim, Young Ju; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Joon; Kim, Myung Soon; Hong, In Soo [Yonsei Univ. College of medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

1996-02-01

158

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... including medications and surgery. Thyroid Gland Anatomy and Function The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland ... known as the “recurrent laryngeal nerves.” The main function of the thyroid gland is to make the ...

159

Metabolic Pathways of Tetraidothyronine and Triidothyronine Production by Thyroid Gland: A Review of Articles  

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Full Text Available Tetraidothyronine (T4 and Triiodothyronine (T3 are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT and diiodothyrosine (DIT on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction , or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO, which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin to show themselves.

A.R. Mansourian

2011-01-01

160

Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism  

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A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

2009-04-15

 
 
 
 
161

Interferon-induced progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with enlarged thyroid glands in gynecological patient: A case report and literature review  

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Full Text Available A case report presents a progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid glands and increased thyreotropin hormone concentration-associated with interferon treatment in human papillomavirus infected patient with the autoimmune thyroiditis and a daily L-thyroxin hormone replacement therapy background. Observation was supplemented with a brief review of literature and discussion. On the basis of this observation and a brief review of literature authors suggested that the potential adverse effects of interferon therapy are overbalanced than its benefits for gynecological patients, therefore any interferon treatment should be recommended with strict indications as well as after screening of conditions and functions of thyroid glands and other interferon target organs to avoid interferon treatment side effects. Practitioners especially gynecologists should inform their patients about pleiotropic interferon effects and its high frequent and wide range side effects before to start such kind of treatment.

Andrea Tinelli

2013-03-01

162

Oncocytic tumours of the salivary gland, kidney, and thyroid: nuclear DNA patterns studied by flow cytometry.  

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Nuclear DNA ploidy studies were performed by flow cytometry on extracted nuclei from 12 oncocytic tumours of the salivary gland, 65 oncocytic tumours of the kidney, and 37 oncocytic tumours of the thyroid gland from the pathology archives of the Mayo Clinic. In order to provide an interesting clinical spectrum, three different classes of well-differentiated oncocytic tumours were selected for examination. Salivary gland oncocytic tumours were chosen for their generally benign behaviour. Oncoc...

Rainwater, L. M.; Farrow, G. M.; Hay, I. D.; Lieber, M. M.

1986-01-01

163

Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 ? 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 ? 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall. In summary, the radiofrequency ablation therapy for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules located in anterior aspect (within a 5 mm radius) of the thyroid gland in human suggests this is an effective treatment, though this was an animal study performed on dogs

164

Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

165

Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common finding in Nuclear Medicine in this patient population. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

166

Ultrasound examination of the thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland. (orig.)

167

The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?  

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Full Text Available Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attributed to normal aging. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, as well as thyroid neoplasms, require special attention in elderly subjects. Intriguingly, decreased thyroid function, as well as thyrotropin (TSH levels – progressively shifting to higher values with age – may contribute to the increased lifespan. This short review focuses on recent findings concerning the alterations in thyroid function during aging, including these which may potentially lead to extended longevity, both in humans and animals.

Gesing Adam

2012-11-01

168

Incidental thyroid lesions detected by FDG-PET/CT: prevalence and risk of thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidentally found thyroid lesions are frequently detected in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of incidentally found thyroid lesions in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT and determine the risk for thyroid cancer. Methods FDG-PET/CT was performed on 3,379 patients for evaluation of suspected or known cancer or cancer screening without any history of thyroid cancer between November 2003 and December 2005. Medical records related to the FDG-PET/CT findings including maximum SUV(SUVmax and pattern of FDG uptake, US findings, FNA, histopathology received by operation were reviewed retrospectively. Results Two hundred eighty five patients (8.4% were identified to have FDG uptake on FDG-PET/CT. 99 patients with focal or diffuse FDG uptake underwent further evaluation. The cancer risk of incidentally found thyroid lesions on FDG-PET/CT was 23.2% (22/99 and the cancer risks associated with focal and diffuse FDG uptake were 30.9% and 6.4%. There was a significant difference in the SUVmax between the benign and malignant nodules (3.35 ± 1.69 vs. 6.64 ± 4.12; P max and the size of the cancer. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that incidentally found thyroid lesions by FDG-PET/CT, especially a focal FDG uptake and a high SUV, have a high risk of thyroid malignancy. Further diagnostic work-up is needed in these cases.

Kim Sung

2009-08-01

169

Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T3-RU, T3, T4, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

170

An Abattoir Study of Thyroid Histopathology in Ewes and their Fetus in Ahvaz City of Iran  

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Full Text Available The thyroid structural changes in pregnant ewes and their fetuses were investigated. Out of 100 pairs of thyroid glands collected from ewes and their fetuses at the local municipal abattoir in Ahvaz city of Khuzestan province, multiple lesions were seen in 59% and 21% of the thyroid glands of ewes and fetuses, respectively. Histologically, ninety nine lesions in the ewes and twenty two lesions in the fetuses’ thyroid glands were noticed.

Reza Pourjamshid

2010-06-01

171

Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients  

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Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3% se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73% correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27% a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total, 4 (36,3% con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18% con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18% con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9% con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9% con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9% con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología.Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81% had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%. were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36% had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18% had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18% had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

MARÍA ANGÉLICA MATAMALA S

2012-08-01

172

Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores / Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósi [...] to de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología. Abstract in english Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical [...] service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

MARÍA ANGÉLICA, MATAMALA S; MIGUEL, GONZÁLEZ P; GONZALO, ROSSEL D; CONSTANZA, NIEME S.

173

Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores / Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósi [...] to de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología. Abstract in english Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical [...] service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

MARÍA ANGÉLICA, MATAMALA S; MIGUEL, GONZÁLEZ P; GONZALO, ROSSEL D; CONSTANZA, NIEME S.

2012-08-01

174

Galectin-3 Immunostaining in Cytological and Histopathological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Ga lectin-3 is a human lectin linked to malignant transformation in different organs including thyroid gland. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions in cytological and histological samples. Material and Methods: This study included a total of 79 cases; 19 multi nodular goiter (MNG), 19 follicular adenoma (FA), 13 follicular carcinoma (FTC) and 28 papillary carcinoma (PTC). Galectin-3 immunostaining was applied on histological sections from all the cases (retrospective analysis) as well as for the available preoperative FNAC (28 cases) (prospective analysis). Results: Retrospective analysis: The positivity percentage of galectin-3 was 10.5%, 92.3%, 93% for non-malignant, FTC and PTC respectively. According to H score, glaectin-3 immunostaining was significantly lowered in FA) 1±2.8 as compared to papillary (158.5±88.6) and follicular carcinoma (150±83.9) (p>0.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between FTC and PTC (p=0.56) or between classic and follicular variants of PTC (p='0.51). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for galectin-3 staining were 93%, 89.5%, 90.5% and 92% respectively. Prospective analysis: There were five benign, six malignant and 17 indeterminate cytology cases. Galectin-3 immunostaining was able to detect the benign nature of 11/17 indeterminate cytology. Combination of standard cytological evaluation with galectin-3 immunostaining markedly improved sen¬sitivity (71% versus 85%), specificity (75% versus 94%), positive predictive value (83% versus 92%) negative predictive value (60% versus 87.5%) and diagnostic accuracy (72% versus 90%). Conclusion: We suggest Galectin-3 as a supplementary immunostaining in histological diagnosis of difficult thyroid follicular lesions and in preoperative evaluation of indeterminate thyroid cytology to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical interference in benign lesions.

175

Histological Observation of Thyroid Gland at Prepubertal, Pubertal and Castrated Black Bengal Goat  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy and Histology with an aim to observe the histological architecture of thyroid gland at prepubertal, pubertal and castrated Black Bengal goat with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. The thyroid gland was covered by a three-layered capsule, an outer, the middle and an inner layer. The connective tissue capsule was rich in blood vessels, some times accompanied with lymphocytic infiltration also some fibroblasts. From the capsule, connective tissue septa penetrated the gland parenchyma forming indistinct lobe and lobules of the gland. The thyroid gland was consisted of numerous follicles with interfollicular stroma. The follicle consisted of follicular epithelium and intrafollicular substances. Usually, small sizes follicle were near the capsule and active, whereas, large sizes follicle were towards the center of the gland. The thyroid follicles were lined by cuboidal epithelium in prepubertal Black Bengal goats, cuboidal to columnar in pubertal group. Follicular epithelium becomes squamous or flattened in castrated group. The thyroid follicle contained amber-colored homogenous, solid, lightly eosinophilic colloid material. In the active follicle the colloid was thinner and less in amount, whereas, in inactive follicle it was thicker and more quantity. The colloid materials mostly cracked at castrated group but cracked colloidal materials were found in few large follicles or absent in prepubertal and pubertal group of Black Bengal goats. Parafollicular cells or interfollicular cells were arranged singly or grouped within the basal lamina or interfollicular space. The parafollicular cells were significantly decreased in the adult castrated Black Bengal goats than prepubertal and pubertal group. The inetrfollicular spaces were significantly decreased in castrated Black Bengal goats when compared to prepubertal and pubertal group. Thus it can be assumed that histoarchitectures of the thyroid gland of Black Bengal goat changed at different stages with their activity.

G. N. Adhikary

2003-01-01

176

An Abattoir Study of Ovine Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Lesions and the Respective Serum T3 andT4 Levels in an Endemic Goiter Region in Iran  

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Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of histologic thyroids lesions and the respective thyroid hormones changes of ewes in an endemic goiter region and to find out any impact of this condition on the fetal thyroid structures and serum thyroid hormones. In the present study a total number of 100 pregnant ewes and their fetuses slaughtered at slaughterhouse were selected for the study. The sera were prepared from the jugular vein blood of ewes and fetuses umbilical cords. The ewes and fetuses thyroids subjected to histopathological examination and radioimmunoassay procedure was used for sera T3 and T4 assay. The results showed a high prevalence of thyroid lesions in ewes and their fetuses. The different kinds of lesions including cysts, follicular hyperplasia, hemorrhage and inflammation were seen in ewes. In the fetuses thyroid structural changes were cysts resemble structures; hemorrhage and hyperemia. Mean T4 concentration was significantly higher in the ewes with pathologic thyroid compared to normal animals. However, there was not any significant difference between pathologic and normal ewes’ thyroids on serum T3. Although, existence of lesions on fetal thyroids did not affect the serum concentrations of T4 and T3, there was a significant correlation between T4 and T3 serum concentrations of fetuses and their age. In conclusion, the significant prevalence of fetal and maternal thyroid pathological changes in the endemic goiter region raises a question about probable congenital source of these variations. The thyroid lesions significantly influenced the functions of mothers' gland but not fetuses.

Farid Barati

2011-09-01

177

Right thyroid hemiagenesis with adenoma and hyperplasia of parathyroid glands -case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare anomaly, more commonly seen on the left side (ratio 4:1 and in females (ratio 3:1. The first to describe this anomaly was Handfield Jones in 1852. Case presentation We present a 66 year old female patient with right thyroid hemiagenesis, parathyroid adenoma on the side of hemiagenesis and parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side. The patient had neck pain and was diagnosed as Hashimto thyroiditis with hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid hormone, thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab were elevated. Neck ultrasound and technetium 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI scintigraphy confirmed the right thyroid hemiagenesis, but not adenoma of parathyroid glands. Intraoperatively, right thyroid hemiagenesis was confirmed and left loboistmectomy was performed with removal of left inferior hyperplastic parathyroid gland. Postoperative PTH (parathyroid hormone levels were within normal range. Five months after the operation PTH level was elevated again with calcium values at the upper limit. MIBI scintigraphy was performed again which showed increased accumulation of MIBI in the projection of the right parathyroid gland. Surgical reexploration of the neck and excision of the right upper parathyroid adenoma was performed which was located behind cricoid laryngeal cartilage. After surgery a normalization of calcium and PTH occured. Conclusion From available literature we have not found the case that described parathyroid adenoma on the side of thyroid hemiagenesis,with parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side.

Oruci Merima

2012-11-01

178

Endocrine glands  

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The endocrine system is primarily composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the thymus, ...

179

An immunohistochemical and histological study of the influence of the thyroid gland on epidermal growth factor-containing cells in the submandibular salivary glands of mice.  

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Whilst the content of epidermal growth factor in the submandibular salivary glands has been considered to be controlled primarily by the hormonal secretions of the testes, our previous studies indicated that the adrenal glands also affect the cellular content of epidermal growth factor in these glands. In the present study, the influence of the thyroid gland was investigated. One hundred and ten males Swiss White mice were subjected to orchidectomy and/or bilateral adrenalectomy, or thyroidec...

Steidler, N. E.; Reade, P. C.

1983-01-01

180

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available Thyroid Surgery Introduction The thyroid gland is an important gland that helps regulate the way the body works. Different diseases can affect the thyroid gland. These diseases ...

 
 
 
 
181

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the thyroid are other small glands known as parathyroid glands. Two important nerves pass through the thyroid ... reviewed: 04/25/2013 1 thyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands produce the parathyroid hormone or PTH, which ...

182

The Effect of Methimazole on Thyroid Gland Uptake of Technetium in Hyperthyroid Patients  

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Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methimazole on Technetium-99m reabsorbing by thyroid gland , it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole. Patients and Methods: Among all the patients with hyperthyroidism who referred to nuclear medicine ward of Shiraz University of medical sciences, 50 patients were randomly selected. we asked the ...

Farshid Gheisari; Gholamreza Pishdad; Mehrdad Emami; Kasra Behdad; Aida Karimpour; Maryam Sharifian

2012-01-01

183

Prevention pathways of thyroid gland diseases under the radiation impact and endemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant increase in thyroid gland diseases as a result of radiation, endemic factors and unbalanced nourishment needed for the development of effective prophylactic measures. The scientists of Research Center for Radiation Medicine have realized a complex approach to the solution of microelement deficiency problem, i.e. creation of food substance, medications enriched with both iodine and a complex of microelements, vitamins, polysaccharide and other nutrients for prophylaxis of thyroid, erythroid, immune system diseases and minimization of internal irradiation dose

184

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland arising from a papillary epithelial neoplasm.  

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We report a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland. The simultaneous association of papillary and mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a Hashimoto's thyroiditis makes the present observation unusual. Surgery was limited due to local extension of the neoplasm. The patient consequently underwent external radiotherapy followed by radiometabolic therapy. The patient survived 11 months after diagnosis. As far as the histogenesis of the neoplasm is concerned, we believe that mucoepidermoid ar...

Arezzo, Alberto

1998-01-01

185

Late morphological and functional changes in thyroid gland following radioiodine damage and associated with external radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The late morphologic and functional changes in the thyroid gland after iodine-131 injury alone and in combination with external irradiation were studied. Different activities of the radionuclide were introduced in groups of experimental animals for 30 days, in the form of nuclear division products. External irradiation was applied with a single dose of 300 r. The kinetics of the radioisotope in the gland showed a decrease in the iodine-fixing function, under the influence of the radiation factor. In the later terms the impairement in the functional activity of the thyroid gland was demonstrated by changes in the gas exchange level, the changes being more pronounced after combined external and internal radiation treatment. The morphologic investigations showed increased hazard of development of tumors after irradiation of the gland with 1000 rad from incorporated iodine-131 and 300 rad external irradiation. Malignant neoplasms may equally develop after isolated external treatment with the afore-mentioned radionuclide doses. (author)

186

Submicroscopic ?hanges in the thyroid gland of rats after the immunosuppression  

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Full Text Available Background. A significant number of patients receive immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of autoimmune, allergic diseases, organ and tissue transplantation. In this regard, the study of reactivity of the thyroid gland during immunosuppression caused by the introduction of cyclophosphamide is of current interest. Objective. To investigate the submicroscopic changes in the thyroid gland at the single administration of cyclophosphan in high doses. Methods. The research was conducted on 24 male rats with an initial body weight of 180±10, which were divided into 4 groups. The animals of 1st and the 2nd groups received cyclophosphan in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The 3rd and the 4th groups included control (intact animals. The material was taken on 3rd and 30th days after the injection of cyclophosphan in accordance with the immune response phases. Results. The conducted electron microscopy research revealed significant changes of thyrocyte organelles and thyroid gland stroma during the short term of observation (3 days. After 30 days of cyclophosphan injection reactive changes directed at the normalization of the gland structure took place. Conclusion. It is planned further to investigate the ultrastructure of the thyroid gland of animals after correction of cyclophosphan-inducted immunosuppression with imunofan.

Kashchenko S.A.

2013-01-01

187

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood to make the thyroid hormone. A small gland ... the levels of the thyroid hormone in the blood. It secretes a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating ...

188

Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

189

Nonpalpable solid thyroid nodules : Is FNAB necessary in all lesions?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide new US criteria for the indication of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in nonpalpable solid thyroid nodules. The US scans of 155 non-palpable thyroid nodules in 132 subjects were prospectively classified as benign or malignant. Malignant findings included microcalcifications, irregular or microlobulated margin, marked hypoechogenicity and taller than wider shape. If even a single malignant feature was present, the nodule was classified as malignant. If nodules didn't have any malignant features, they were classified as benign. Final diagnosis of benign (n=106) or malignant (n=49) was obtained by means of FNAB and follow-up (>6 months) in 83 benign nodules, by FNAB and surgery in 44 malignant and 15 benign lesions, and by surgery alone in 5 malignant and 8 benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated using our proposed classification method. Considering the high level of sensitivity of our proposed US classification, fine-needle aspiration biopsy should be performed on thyroid nodules classified as malignant category, although nonpalpable.

190

Morphological and functional changes in the thyroid gland of methyl thiophanate-injected lizards, Podarcis sicula.  

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The thyroid has been shown to be a target organ for environmental chemicals, specifically endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Reptiles are particularly suitable as contaminant biomonitors due to their persistence in a variety of habitats, wide geographic distribution, longevity, and, in many cases, site fidelity. Methyl thiophanate is a systemic broad-spectrum fungicide used to prevent and control plant diseases caused by various fungi. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated biological model for monitoring the ecotoxic effects of thiophanate-methyl fungicide on the thyroid of the lizard Podarcis sicula. The results of this study indicate that both structural and functional differences in the thyroid gland of the lizard exist in the animals exposed to methyl thiophanate. Structurally, animals exposed to methyl thiophanate showed decreased epithelial cell height; the nuclei of the thyroid cells were small and elongated with dense chromatin and a greatly reduced cytoplasm. The colloid was retracted with few reabsorption vacuoles. Functionally, the same animals exhibited decreased T4 and T3 plasma levels compared to control animals. Methyl thiophanate administration produced statistically significant inhibition on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and this is the mechanism for altering thyroid function. This study highlights how thyroid gland disruption, both structural and functional, in lizard and other nontarget organisms might also have an environmental aetiology. PMID:18196192

Sciarrillo, Rosaria; De Falco, Maria; Virgilio, Francesca; Laforgia, Vincenza; Capaldo, Anna; Gay, Flaminia; Valiante, Salvatore; Varano, Lorenzo

2008-08-01

191

A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T4) and/or triiodothyronine (T3). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism

192

Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author)

193

"THYROID GLAND INVOLVEMENT IN CANCER OF THE LARYNX: A FIVE-YEAR MULTICENTER STUDY"  

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Full Text Available Intra-operative management of thyroid gland in laryngeal cancer is controversial. To determine the rate of thyroid involvement in patients with laryngeal cancer treated by radical surgical excision, we reviewed the records during 1996-2000 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Cancer Institute, and Amir Alam Hospital.We studied several factors such as age, gender, and tumor location, presence of thyroid involvement, tumor staging and tumor grading. Thyroid involvement was confirmed by pathologic findings. Two hundred and eighty patients were included in this study. The results showed that only 4.64% of patients (13 cases of 280 treated by laryngectomy had thyroid involvement. Direct invasion was responsible for thyroid involvement in all cases. It was most prevalent in the sixth decade of life and seen in stages 3 and 4 of laryngeal cancer. Thyroid involvement appeared more in men, and in all cases cancer was squamous cell carcinoma. We recommend limited indications for laryngectomy and thyroid lobotomy, including glottic tumor with subglottic invasion, subglottic tumor, intralaryngeal tumor with transcartilage invasion, tumor of sinus piriformis (in stage 4, glottic and supraglottic tumors stage III or IV, which should be individualized. In suspected cases such as those with abnormal thyroid consistency, the decision should be made during laryngectomy .

B. Naghibzadeh J.Mehdizadeh

2004-08-01

194

Effect of laser treatment on thyroid gland hormones in female rabbits  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of laser treatment on thyroid functions and hormones in female rabbits. A total of 18 female rabbits were used in this investigation. Six rabbits were used for examining the thyroid gland location and dissected to be sure that laser therapy will be directed to this gland. Twelve female rabbits were used in this experiment to study the physiological effect of laser therapy (4J/cm2 on normal thyroid function they were divided into two equal groups, six used as control and the others were exposed to laser therapy at the thyroid gland region for three successive days for 5 minutes on each side. Then blood was collected for hormonal assay from ear vein at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after the last dose of laser treatment. The results revealed a gradual decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels with a concomitant increase in TSH level at the first eighteen days of laser treatment, then normalization of hormones level were take place to be normal after thirty days. More work is needed on this subject to examine the specific role of laser on glands.

N. S. AL-Mustawfi

2011-01-01

195

Effect of medical external exposure on thyroid gland's function in early stage after therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The changes in thyroid gland function of the patients with head and cervix tumor after therapy by local external exposure are discussed. The results indicated that the concentrations of T3, T4 decreased in early stage (5-7 weeks) after treating by local external exposure, the hypothyroidism could be found after several months or several years following the local external exposure. (authors)

196

Comparative radioisotope study on the function of the thyroid gland of some farm animal species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotope functional investigations of the thyroid gland were carried out with weaned lambs and pigs. The 131I captation capacity of the thyroid gland was studied to characterize the inogranic phase of iodine exchange. The evaluation of the hormone producing function of the thyroid gland required the determination of the level of the protein-bound 131 I (PB 131 I), T3-binding capacity of the thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) and the ratio of the T3-binding capacity of TBG and the free thyroxine (T4) calculated as the FT4 index.Established was the species peculiarity of the 131 I captation capacity of the thyroid gland in weaned lambs and pigs in the early phases of investigation. At the second hour the percent captation was calculated as 7.2+-0.8 and 1.11+-0.21%, respectively. The values of PB 131 I, T3-binding capacity of TBG and FT4 of pigs varied within the limits of 1.20+-0.05%, 0.605+-0.012, and 0.976+-0.015 and of weaned lambs they were 0.954+-0.009%, 0.912+-0.017 and 0.890+-0.03. (authors)

197

Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis

198

Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease  

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A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

1986-04-01

199

Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

200

Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report  

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Full Text Available Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial.Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its clinical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

Gustavo Soares Corrêa Silva

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso / Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idad [...] e, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial. Abstract in english Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its cl [...] inical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

Gustavo Soares Corrêa, Silva; Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro, Chagas; Maurício Buzelin, Nunes; Rodrigo Assis de, Paula.

2012-06-01

202

The Effect of Methimazole on Thyroid Gland Uptake of Technetium in Hyperthyroid Patients  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methimazole on Technetium-99m reabsorbing by thyroid gland , it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole. Patients and Methods: Among all the patients with hyperthyroidism who referred to nuclear medicine ward of Shiraz University of medical sciences, 50 patients were randomly selected. we asked the patients who were on Methimazole, to discontinue the usage of all drugs (not Methimazole and foods which are effective on thyroid gland for 1 week, after that thyroid scan was performed for these patients. In The other episode, we asked them to discontinue the usage of all drugs (also Methimazole and foods which are effective on thyroid gland for 1 week and then thyroid scan was performed again .Revealed data was analyzed under supervision of statistical specialist with descriptive methods on SPSS. Results: 34 patients were males (68% and other was females. Mean age of the patients was 53.5 years. (Min: 39 years and max: 75 years Although The ROI (Region of Interest of thyroid was increased in the patients who used methimazole before scan 398.72(SD: 191.73 than the patients who discontinued for one week 380.15 (SD: 112.49, but the difference wasn’t statistically significant. The ROI of peripheral tissue of the thyroid was decreased in the patients who used methimazole before scan 26.44(SD: 5.42 than the patients who discontinued for one week 27.0414 (SD: 5.57, but the difference wasn’t statistically significant. Discussion: In conclusion, we demonstrated that methimazole pretreatment does not interfere with either the efficacy of ROI and reabsorbing of Technetium-99m in thyroid gland and peripheral tissues. A possible limitation of this study is the number of patients in the sample.So it seems that it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole.

Farshid Gheisari

2012-09-01

203

Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site  

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From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound. Thyroid screening participants were invited, with informed consent, from 6 exposed and 2 non-exposed villages of the Semipalatinsk region. Of those screened, 1320 were presumably exposed and 1678 presumably were not. This collaborative research project was supported by the CRDF, USA, International award no.KN2-434. Reconstructed average gamma dose was used as a preliminary index of total thyroid dose from internal and external sources of radiation exposure. Nodular thyroid gland was identified in 920 participants, of whom 500 were recommended for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). Nodule prevalence was 18% among men and 39% among women with a 3.5% per year positive gradient in prevalence overall by age at screening, and was significantly associated with estimated gamma radiation dose. Excess prevalence rate was approximately the same among men and women, with a 3-fold higher dose-specific relative risk among men compared to women. Prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased non-significantly with dose, but prevalence of follicular neoplasm was not associated with dose. Cytopathology review identified 30 papillary carcinomas in 27 cases and 10 follicular neoplasms in 10 cases. Some patients with thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer were referred to surgical department. They have been treated successfully by surgery or by percutaneus injection of erythrocyte pharmacocytes in accordance with our own procedure. Intraoperative thyroid tissue sampling was done to do some molecular and genetic investigation. Several aspects related to hormone status of thyroid patients, the thyroid gland function among various group of patients, morphological findings, surgical tactics and rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities living around the SNTS, will be presented. (author)

Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Land, C.; Hartshorne, M. [and others

2000-05-01

204

Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound. Thyroid screening participants were invited, with informed consent, from 6 exposed and 2 non-exposed villages of the Semipalatinsk region. Of those screened, 1320 were presumably exposed and 1678 presumably were not. This collaborative research project was supported by the CRDF, USA, International award no.KN2-434. Reconstructed average gamma dose was used as a preliminary index of total thyroid dose from internal and external sources of radiation exposure. Nodular thyroid gland was identified in 920 participants, of whom 500 were recommended for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). Nodule prevalence was 18% among men and 39% among women with a 3.5% per year positive gradient in prevalence overall by age at screening, and was significantly associated with estimated gamma radiation dose. Excess prevalence rate was approximately the same among men and women, with a 3-fold higher dose-specific relative risk among men compared to women. Prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased non-significantly with dose, but prevalence of follicular neoplasm was not associated with dose. Cytopathology review identified 30 papillary carcinomas in 27 cases and 10 follicular neoplasms in 10 cases. Some patients with thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer were referred to surgical department. They have been treated successfully by surgery or by percutaneus injection of erythrocyte pharmacocytes in accordance with our own procedure. Intraoperative thyroid tissue sampling was done to do some molecular and genetic investigation. Several aspects related to hormone status of thyroid patients, the thyroid gland function among various group of patients, morphological findings, surgical tactics and rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities living around the SNTS, will be presented. (author)

205

High incidence of thyroid gland abnormalities in children and high school students in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An increased incidence of thyroid pathology noticed in Lithuania in 1989 is still increasing. The findings of about 1300 children and young persons thyroid glands examination are presented. The results are oppressive. The incidence of thyroid pathology is alarmingly high (up to 75-80-90%). TTH level increased at 9.3 % of secondary school pupils in Dievenishkes (near Byelorussia). The cause of the situation is unknown. It may be Chernobyl tragedy or Ignalina NPP influence (in Zarasai). It is necessary to investigate the problem without delay, to find the cause of the situation and to take measures for prevention of the disease. To define the underlying pathology is the foremost task in the management of thyroid patients. The therapy is to be started as soon as the diagnosis is determined. (author). 1 tab

206

Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats  

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Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

Nasseer Ahmad Shah

2014-02-01

207

Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

208

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report  

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We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings.

Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegue (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-15

209

Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry  

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Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2011-07-01

210

Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

211

Use of 131-I metaiodinebenzylgunidine (131-I MIBG) in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: One of the most common problems of modern oncology practice and nuclear medicine is the treatment of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), which is considered to be the tumor of the APUD system. The neoplasm originates from C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland. The tumor is hormone-active and can produce calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland constitutes 3-13% of all malignant thyroid tumors. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes, mediastinum, lungs, liver, bones are frequent. The purpose of our work was to review the efficacy of MCT treatment done in our centre. Since 1999 131I-MIBG (Amersham-Nycomed) has been used in the treatment of MCT at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology. During 1999-2002, 131I-MIBG was administered in various doses (100 to 300 mCi) to 12 patients with different stages of MCT. Four non-radically operated patients with local dissemination of the tumor were cured following 131I-MIBG therapy (total activity 200-300 mCi, follow up period - 2 years). In four patients reduction in the tumor volume and/or disappearance of metastases in the cervical nodes (follow-up period 1.5 years, total activity of 131I-MIBG 100 - 200 mCi) was noticed. Three patients are still on follow up since 1.5 years (total activity of 131I-MIBG 100-200 mCi). One patient died due to the progression of disease. Myelosuppression was not observed in any of the treated patients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promiients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promising radiopharmaceutical for treatment medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

212

Improved abnormal parathyroid gland detection using Tc-99m Sestamibi with simultaneous I-123 thyroid imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tc-99m Sestamibi imaging has become the most sensitive test for localizing abnormal parathyroid glands (PTG) prior to surgery in patients being evaluated for primary hyperparathyroidism. Larger volume PTG and those lying distant from the thyroid in the upper neck or thorax can be imaged with Sestamibi alone. Comparison with a functional thyroid scan would improve the sensitivity of the imaging in patients with smaller volume PTG, those lying within or near the thyroid and in patients with thyroid nodules or prior thyroid surgery. Methods: We have performed simultaneous I-123 (NaI) and Tc-99m Sestamibi imaging for PTG scanning with dual-window gamma camera acquisition in 450 patients with hypercalcaemia and elevated serum PTH. Patients were given 18.5 - 37 MBq I-123 orally and 740 MBq Sestamibi IV. Planar imaging of the anterior neck obtained with asymmetric windows of -5% to +9% around 159 keV (I-123) was subtracted from a -10% to +4% window around 140 keV (Tc-99m Sestamibi). Planar and SPECT imaging allows for detection of very small abnormal PTG (as small as 50-60 mg) and localization of PTG lying adjacent or within the thyroid. Conclusion: Simultaneous imaging of I-123 and Tc-99m Sestamibi is possible using asymmetric acquisition windows avoiding the patient motion with sequential Tc-99m pertechnetate and Tc-99m Sestamibi imaging. This technique allows detection of very small PTG in or near the thyroid

213

MRI-based three-dimensional thermal physiological characterization of thyroid gland of human body.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is dedicated to present a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) based three-dimensional finite element modeling on the thermal manifestations relating to the pathophysiology of thyroid gland. An efficient approach for identifying the metabolic dysfunctions of thyroid has also been demonstrated through tracking the localized non-uniform thermal distribution or enhanced dynamic imaging. The temperature features over the skin surface and thyroid domain have been characterized using the numerical simulation and experimental measurement which will help better interpret the thermal physiological mechanisms of the thyroid under steady-state or water-cooling condition. Further, parametric simulations on the hypermetabolism symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thermal effects within thyroid domain caused by varying breathing airflow in the trachea and blood-flow in artery and vein were performed. It was disclosed that among all the parameters, the airflow volume has the largest effect on the total heat flux of thyroid surface. However, thermal contributions caused by varying the breathing frequency and blood-flow velocity are negligibly small. The present study suggests a generalized way for simulating the close to reality physiological behavior or process of human thyroid, which is of significance for disease diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:23999383

Jin, Chao; He, Zhi Zhu; Yang, Yang; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01

214

Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

215

Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification. Mature bone formation is a rare phenomenon, but extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH has also been rarely reported in thyroid gland. The combination of mature bone formation and EMH is rarer and has been reported, in a single case report, in a multinodular goitre. We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle-?aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature.

Harsh Mohan

2009-07-01

216

Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)  

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We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

Herman, M.; Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Gool, S. van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Pediactrics, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Ophthalmology, Leuven (Belgium)

2007-12-15

217

Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

acitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125I-hGH or 125I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

218

The effect of low-level radiation on the cAMP system of chick embryo thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content were studied in the thyroid gland of intact and irradiated (0.029 Gy given before incubation) embryos and chickens. The enzyme activity was stimulated and the nucleotide content increased on the 18th day of the embryo development. It is suggested that the observed stimulation of the cAMP system is associated with the increased secretion of the thyreotropic hormone which controls the functional activity of the thyroid gland

219

Differentiation of thyroid lesion detected by FDG PET/CT using SUV ratio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the usefulness of SUV ratio to discriminate focal thyroid lesion incidentally detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET) in patients with malignant disease. A total of 2167 subjects with malignant tumor underwent PET/CT for staging. Forty-five of 2167 subjects (2.1%) showed hypermetabolic thyroid lesions on FDG PET. Of 45, 21 lesions were confirmed by pathology (n = 16) or follow up exam (n=5). Seventeen patients had focal FDG uptakes, while 4 patients had diffuse thyroid uptakes. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured by drawing region of interest (ROI) on bilateral thyroid lobes and liver. From 21 patients, 12 thyroid lesions were confirmed as malignant lesions and 9 lesions as benign lesions. All of bilateral thyroid FDG uptakes were determined as benign disease such as thyroiditis. From seventeen focal thyroid incidentaloma, FDG PET had 100 % (12/12) of sensitivity and 60 % (3/5) of specificity, retrospectively. Malignant nodules had a significantly higher lesion to liver ratio than those of benign nodules (2.10.9 vs. 1.20.6, p=0.029). With ROC curve, the best cut-off value of lesion to liver was 1.0 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 60 % (area under the curve=0.783). The SUV ratio of lesion to contralateral lobe do not have statistical significance to determine malignancy (3.72.1 vs. 2.61.7, p=0.079). This study showed that focal thyroidal FDG uptake detected by FDG PET could be differentiated with best performance by SUV ratio of lesionth best performance by SUV ratio of lesion to liver

220

Differentiation of thyroid lesion detected by FDG PET/CT using SUV ratio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the usefulness of SUV ratio to discriminate focal thyroid lesion incidentally detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET) in patients with malignant disease. A total of 2167 subjects with malignant tumor underwent PET/CT for staging. Forty-five of 2167 subjects (2.1%) showed hypermetabolic thyroid lesions on FDG PET. Of 45, 21 lesions were confirmed by pathology (n = 16) or follow up exam (n=5). Seventeen patients had focal FDG uptakes, while 4 patients had diffuse thyroid uptakes. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured by drawing region of interest (ROI) on bilateral thyroid lobes and liver. From 21 patients, 12 thyroid lesions were confirmed as malignant lesions and 9 lesions as benign lesions. All of bilateral thyroid FDG uptakes were determined as benign disease such as thyroiditis. From seventeen focal thyroid incidentaloma, FDG PET had 100 % (12/12) of sensitivity and 60 % (3/5) of specificity, retrospectively. Malignant nodules had a significantly higher lesion to liver ratio than those of benign nodules (2.10.9 vs. 1.20.6, p=0.029). With ROC curve, the best cut-off value of lesion to liver was 1.0 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 60 % (area under the curve=0.783). The SUV ratio of lesion to contralateral lobe do not have statistical significance to determine malignancy (3.72.1 vs. 2.61.7, p=0.079). This study showed that focal thyroidal FDG uptake detected by FDG PET could be differentiated with best performance by SUV ratio of lesion to liver.

Kim, Bom Sahn; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Follicular lesion of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

Controversy exists regarding the validity of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), an indeterminate diagnostic category of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). According to BSRTC, FLUS carries a 5-15% risk of cancer. This study was designed to determine if cytomorphology could stratify FLUS into subgroups with different risks of malignancy. Reports of 127 consecutive FNAs reported as FLUS with subsequent tissue diagnoses were evaluated for the presence of various cytologic features and the results were correlated with histological diagnoses. FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia (nuclear overlap/crowding, nuclear grooves/membrane irregularities, nuclear enlargement, and/or nuclear pseudoinclusions) were more frequently malignant on excision whereas those with architectural atypia (microfollicles) were more often benign on excision (P < 0.05). The presence of any one or more of these nuclear features increased the risk of carcinoma in subsequent thyroid resection. Papillary carcinomas predominated in excised FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia whereas most FLUS with architectural atypia were adenomas or hyperplastic nodules on histological evaluation. BSRTC recommends that thyroid aspirates containing follicular cell nuclear and/or architectural atypia insufficient for a diagnosis of suspicious for follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy or malignant be classified as FLUS. Our findings indicate that FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia carry a risk for malignancy that is substantially higher than that assigned to FLUS and are best classified as suspicious. FLUS cases lacking these atypical nuclear features have a risk for malignancy that approximates the risk BSRTC has assigned to FLUS. PMID:23894017

Walts, Ann E; Mirocha, James; Bose, Shikha

2014-01-01

222

Influence of the spleen on hydrocortisone receptors in thyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sup (3)H-hydrocortisone is able to interact with homogenized glycocorticoid receptors of the thyroid cells of female rats. Five days old female rats were submitted during four days to subcutaneous treatment with 3,3 mg/kg b.w. of protein, extracted from the spleen of normal and schistosomotic animals, and were killed at 18 days old. Using the Scatchard analysis of the saturation curve, it was observed that the maximum number of hydrocortisone receptors (Bmax), changes as a function of treatments with the extracted protein from both normal and schistosomotic animals. An increase of 65% in Bmax for such animals relative to control occurred. Those results are in agreement with other studies [1, 2, 7] showing that the spleen of schistosomotic animals is able to inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, possibly acting on the hormonal regulation of growth and on the basic metabolism, with the ability of changing the number of the hydrocortisone receptors. (author)

223

Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34?E-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34?E-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

Cassali Geovanni D

2010-02-01

224

Iodine-131 in milk 1961-62 and in thyroid glands of cattle and sheep 1962  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cases of late effects from radioactive iodine uptake in children have renewed interest in this contaminant. I-131 data collected in Norway during periods following the nuclear weapons test series in 1961 and 1962 have been re-examined and collated with more recent data on natural iodine in the milk and thyroid glands from domestic animals. Some of the measured values may be interpreted as indications of an inverse relationship between the level of natural iodine and the uptake of I-131, but the material is too small and inconsistent to draw any conclusions. Obviously the uptake and concentration of I-131 in animal milk and thyroid glands are influenced by many factors besides the fallout amounts; at present it is not possible to determine their relative importance and set up a satisfactory model for the I-131 uptake. (Auth.)

225

Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml. The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3, thyroxine (T4, thyrotrophin (TSH, interleukin 6 (IL6, tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001 were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001 of serum (T4 & T3 with Concomitant suppression of (TSH (P<0.001. Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001. Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of epithelial hyperplasia with atypical nuclear features. Thyroid tissue damage with haemorrhage and necrosis. Electron microscopic examination showed a remarkable cellular changes in the form of dilated rouph endoplasmic reticulum, inclusion lysosomes, dilated Golgi bodies, mitochondrial distension and nuclear degeneration. In both treated groups these changes were dose related.

Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

2007-12-01

226

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Thyroid Surgery Introduction The thyroid gland is an important gland that helps regulate the way the body works. Different ... be treated with medications or radioactive iodine therapy. Surgery Thyroid surgery is done under general anesthesia. The ...

227

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is known as metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood to make the thyroid hormone. ... Hypothyroidism can be caused by a lack of iodine, which can cause the thyroid gland to swell ...

228

The effect of MR contrast medium dose on pituitary gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and pituitary gland-to-lesion contrast conspicuity  

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The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and gland-lesion contrast ratio in patient groups in which half-dose (HD), standard-dose (SD) and double-dose (DD) contrast medium was used in pituitary MR imaging. Pituitary gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement were measured and gland-lesion contrast ratios were calculated in 18 patients receiving HD (0.05 mmol/kg), 9 receiving SD (0.1 mmol/kg) and 13 receiving DD (0.2 mmol/kg) contrast medium. Gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement over baseline were determined employing DICOM region of interest measurements and compared after normalization to temporal lobe white matter. Contrast ratios and differences were also calculated and compared. Gland enhancement and lesion enhancement were greater with larger contrast medium doses (gland: HD 50%, SD 99%, DD 132%; microlesion: HD 19%, SD 54%, DD 86%). The gland-lesion contrast ratios were similar with the three doses (25.6%), reflecting expected similar fractional contrast medium distributions in spite of different doses. The signal difference between gland and microlesion, therefore, was a fixed percentage of gland enhancement ({delta}S approximately 26%) with greater signal differences with larger contrast medium doses. Greater gland-to-lesion signal differences with larger contrast medium doses would likely improve pituitary microlesion visualization and margin characterization aiding in microlesion detection as well as preoperative planning. (orig.)

Bartynski, Walter S.; Boardman, John F. [University of Pittsburgh, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Presbyterian University Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Grahovac, Stephen Z. [University of Pittsburgh, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Presbyterian University Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christiana Hospital, Department of Radiology, Newark, DE (United States)

2006-07-15

229

Studies on 129I in bovine thyroid glands and investigations on revolatilization of iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study fall out effect, deposition and revolatilization of iodine in the field and 129I activity in bovine thyroid glands were studied. Deposition velocity of I2 was 0.15 to 7 cm/sec, which was 100 times higher than that of CH3I. Biological half-life of iodine was 7.5 +- 0.5 d. In the contaminated plants, indifferent to the environmental conditions. However, the decrease of iodine concentration was not observed when the plants were cut off immediately after deposition of iodine. A sample of soil with or without plants was contaminated with iodine and re-emitted iodine was trapped by a charcoal filter. Iodine concentration was determined by I-specific electrodes after 1, 2, 4, and 8 hrs. In any case, I2 was re-emitted immediately after the contamination. Bovine thyroid glands were dried by deep freezing and ground after the addition of KOH. Organic compounds were decomposed by stepwise heating up to 6000C. Then iodine was extracted by concentrated H2SO4 and heated at 1100C. Evaporating iodine was adsorbed by a pure charcoal filter. By neutron activation analysis of the filter the activity of 129I was 1.2 pCi/g iodine, which would be about 5 times higher than that measured in animals living far from nuclear installations. The distribution of stable iodine in thyroid gland was inhomogeneous. (Nakanishi, T.)

230

Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma  

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Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento.Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

Antonio Augusto T. Bertelli

2010-03-01

231

Developmental Defects of the Thyroid Gland: Relationship with Advanced Maternal Age  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Developmental defects of the thyroid gland are the most frequent causes of permanent congenital hypothyroidism. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of patients with thyroid dysgenesis (TD). Methods: Medical records of 234 patients with TD followed between the years 2008 and 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography. Results: Of 234 patients, 120 (51.3%) were male and 114 (48.7%) were female. Male to female ratio was 1.08 and there were no significant differences in epidemiologic and clinical findings between girls and boys. One hundred eighty-three patients (78.2%) were diagnosed as hypoplasia, 35 (14.9%) as thyroid agenesis, 4 as ectopic thyroid gland and 12 as hemiagenesis. The mean maternal age of the group was 28.9±0.4 years (range 18 to 45 years), which is significantly higher than the recently reported mean maternal ages for Turkish women. Conclusions: Advanced maternal age was more prevalent in patients with TD. Our clinical and epidemiologic findings suggested no evidence of sexual dimorphism. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22672863

Guven, Ayla; Y?ld?z, Metin; Cebeci, Ayse Nurcan; Dursun, Fatma

2012-01-01

232

Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ? 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

233

Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function  

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To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-12-15

234

Intercalated duct lesions of salivary gland: a morphologic spectrum from hyperplasia to adenoma.  

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Intercalated duct lesions (IDLs) are rare, poorly understood and not well-studied lesions that have been associated with a small number of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas (EMC) and basal cell adenomas. To examine the nature of IDLs and their association with salivary gland tumors, we reviewed 34 lesions in 32 patients. The IDLs were stained with CK7, estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors, lysozyme, S100, calponin, and CK14. The patients ranged in age from 19 to 80 years (mean 53...

Weinreb, I.; Seethala, Rr; Hunt, Jl; Chetty, R.; Dardick, I.; Perez-ordon?ez, B.

2009-01-01

235

Fucus vesiculosus Ameliorates Histological and Biochemical Changes in Thyroid Gland and Ovary of Irradiated Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of Fucus vesiculosus, a brownish-green seaweed, against gamma- radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland and ovary tissues of female albino rats. Fucus vesiculosus (100 mg/kg body weight/ day) was given to rats, via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4 Gy) and the last dose of Fucus vesiculosis was administered 60 minutes before irradiation. Thyroid gland and ovary were taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15th day post irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm, and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Observations of ovary sections showed dissolution of the majority of primary follicles, immature follicles and increased fibroblasts and inflammatory cells surrounded the dissolved follicles. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed a significant decrease in serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. Moreover, blood glutathione (GSH) content was decreased. Treatment with Fucus vesiculosus (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation-induced toxicity in the tissues, which was evident by improved status of most investigated parameters. These results suggest that Fucus vesiculosus could increase the antioxidant defense systems and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation

236

Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study, study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants, exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid, language (German and English. The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive, work experience (junior and senior surgeons,distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation, more in-depth studies are required on the variations of radiation dose in orthopaedic staff, at different anatomical locations and situations.

Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair

2012-10-01

237

Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice  

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DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

1984-08-01

238

USING A NON-RADIOACTIVE IODINE AS A GATEKEEPER SUBSTANCE FOR THE THYROID GLAND FROM THE RADIOACTIVE IODINE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine is essential for the formation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, the two thyroid hormones that are essential for maintenance of normal metabolic rates in all the cells. The workers who exposed to radioactive iodine are that workers using radioimmunoassay techniques and those at reactors. The thyroid gland is a target organ of iodine thus, when it captured radioactive iodine as 125I and 131I through inhalation or food contamination, the thyroidal cells will be destroyed and the thyroid hormones production will be decreased leading hypothyroidism. Also, the individual living at places suffering from dietary iodine deficiency will need a source of iodine to maintain a normal level of thyroid hormones in blood. The present study aims to evaluate the protective dose of non-radioactive iodine, which saturate the cells of the thyroid gland with iodine and prevent entrance and capture of radioactive iodine by the thyroid cells and acting as a gatekeeper of the thyroid gland during manipulation of radioactive iodine and radioactive accidents. This study also evaluated the expected dose of iodine intake for the people suffering from dietary iodine deficiency

239

Experimental investigation with 198Au colloid as to lymph communications between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of a direct connection of lymph drainage between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland was examined using the lymphotropic radioactive tracer 198Au colloid. Twelve rabbits were examined. Six animals were injected with 50 ?Ci198Au colloid into the right thyroid lobe and six animals into the right retrobulbar space. Distribution and total bodyradioactivity was measured in vivo using a scintillation camera with a computer. After 6 hrs tissue specimens of different organs were measured in a well-counter. The discharge of activity from the thyroid after 6hrs was significantly higher than that from the retrobulbar space (63% versus 33.5%). This was probably due to a higher vascularisation and to a higher degree of lymph drainage of the thyroid. The lymph drainage of the thyroid gland as well as of the retrobulbar space occured mainly via the lymphonodi cerv.proff. No significant activity was found in the retrobulbar space after thyroid injection or in the thyroid after retrobulbar injection. It may be concluded from these results that there are not direct lymph connections between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland. However, indirect communications via the deep cervical lymph nodes cannot be excluded in the event of reverse lymph flow. (orig.)

240

Determination of the iodine concentration of the thyroid gland in an endemic goiter area by computed tomography (CT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determined the CT density of the thyroid gland in 60 patients with normal thyroids and 176 patients with various thyroid disorders. The density was 75±6.2 H.U. in normal thyroids, which was markedly higher than in goiters (66±6.0 H.U.), while there was a considerable further decrease in patients with immunogenic hyperthyrodism, the density being 48.5±7.9 H.U. The thyroids of patients with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism differed from these by virtue of a significantly greater density, 79.8±12.5 H.U. The clinical importance of CT investigation of the thyroid is its ability to distinguish rapidly between immunogenic hyperthyroidism without ocular symptoms and the (mostly iodine induced) nonimmunogenic form. There is a linear correlation between CT density and iodine concentration in the thyroid tissue; this was determined in surgical specimens from 17 patients. Iodine concentration in the thyroid, as well as the iodine content of the whole gland, can thus be calculated from the measured CT density at any time by estimating the volume of the gland with ultrasound and combining this value with the measured iodine concentration. The results correlate well with those found using the X-ray fluorescence method. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
241

Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

242

Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ontogenia dos folículos da tireóide em Rachycentron canadum. Larvas foram coletadas diariamente (n= 15 – 20) desde a eclosão até 15 dae (dias após eclosão). Posteriormente foram coletadas a cada dois dias até o 28 dae; uma nova amostragem ocorreu aos 53 dae. A [...] s larvas foram desidratadas e emblocadas em Paraplast e secções de 3 µm foram desparafinadas, reidratas e coradas com HE e PAS. Um folículo estava presente ao 1 dae e três foram encontrados aos 8 dae. O número de folículos aumentou até 19 aos 53 dae. O diâmetro dos folículos e a altura das células foliculares foram menores ao 1dae (68,3 ± 1,00 e 4,6 ± 0,01 µm), mas aumentou a partir do 8 dae (24,03 ± 0,46 µm e 6,43 ± 0,46 µm). A partir do 8 dae a presença de vesículas de reabsorção foi observada no colóide e a partir de 19 dae alguns folículos não apresentaram colóide. O surgimento precoce do folículo da tireóide no bijupirá assim como a grande quantidade de folículos sem colóide e/ou com a presença de vesículas mesmo após a metamorfose podem ser a explicação do rápido crescimento da espécie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were d [...] ehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

ADRIANA P.S., OTERO; RICARDO V., RODRIGUES; LUÍS A., SAMPAIO; LUIS A., ROMANO; MARCELO B., TESSER.

1507-15-01

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Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ontogenia dos folículos da tireóide em Rachycentron canadum. Larvas foram coletadas diariamente (n= 15 – 20) desde a eclosão até 15 dae (dias após eclosão). Posteriormente foram coletadas a cada dois dias até o 28 dae; uma nova amostragem ocorreu aos 53 dae. A [...] s larvas foram desidratadas e emblocadas em Paraplast e secções de 3 µm foram desparafinadas, reidratas e coradas com HE e PAS. Um folículo estava presente ao 1 dae e três foram encontrados aos 8 dae. O número de folículos aumentou até 19 aos 53 dae. O diâmetro dos folículos e a altura das células foliculares foram menores ao 1dae (68,3 ± 1,00 e 4,6 ± 0,01 µm), mas aumentou a partir do 8 dae (24,03 ± 0,46 µm e 6,43 ± 0,46 µm). A partir do 8 dae a presença de vesículas de reabsorção foi observada no colóide e a partir de 19 dae alguns folículos não apresentaram colóide. O surgimento precoce do folículo da tireóide no bijupirá assim como a grande quantidade de folículos sem colóide e/ou com a presença de vesículas mesmo após a metamorfose podem ser a explicação do rápido crescimento da espécie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were d [...] ehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

ADRIANA P.S., OTERO; RICARDO V., RODRIGUES; LUÍS A., SAMPAIO; LUIS A., ROMANO; MARCELO B., TESSER.

244

Thyroid gland exposure of Bulgarian population from radioactive contamination of the country after the Chernobylsk accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on data for radiation background in Bulgaria in the first two months after the accident at Chernobylsk Nuclear Power Plant, assessment of thyroid gland exposure of different population groups was made. The thyroid gland exposure was determined by direct measurement of thyroid gland activity and indirect (computing) methods as well. Both methods show that children under school age are the group at highest dose burden. The average doses equal 10 mGy and vary from 7.5 to 20 mGy for direct measurement and indirect methods respectively, and the maximum doses range from 100 mGy to 96.5 mGy. The doses for other age groups are average 3.2±1.5 mGy and maximum 25±10 mGy. The primary source of exposure is Iodine-131 and the other Iodine and Tellurium radionuclides have an insignificant impact. The main share in thyroid gland exposure has the consumption of milk, esp. sheep's milk, and green foliar vegetables. The contribution of inhaled Iodine and both internal and external exposure from other sources is up to 10-15%. Highly exposed is the population living in the mountain regions of Southern Bulgaria (Middle and West Rhodopes) and the epidemiological studies for thyroid gland pathology should be targeted at these regions

245

Dynamic MR imaging for diagnosis of lesions adjacent to pituitary gland  

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In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of dynamic studies for the preoperative diagnosis of tumor lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland. We examined 13 tumors. We obtained pre- and post-contrast thin slice T1-weighted images of the sellar regions. FSE sequences were used for dynamic study. The capability to distinguish the tumor from the pituitary gland and additional information obtained from the dynamic study were evaluated. Two meningiomas were identified more clearly on the dynamic than on the delayed study. In two cavernous hemangiomas, the peripheral nodular stains gradually increased during the dynamic study. For the preoperative evaluation of lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland, the dynamic study can often identify the lesions more clearly and may provide additional information.

Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Matsushita, Tsuyoshi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Kobayashi, Keiko; Horichi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Tachibana, Osamu; Yamashita, Junkoh

2005-02-01

246

Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocyticsions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive control. BRAF T1799A mutation was detected in 7 of 26 PTCs included in the study but not in follicular or medullary carcinoma, benign tumors and thyroid tumor-like lesions. No mutations were found in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in all cases including those tested positive for BRAF T1799A. Histological analysis showed that among 26 PTCs studied, 18 had conventional papillary architecture and 8 cases were follicular variant of PTC. Mutations were detected in conventional type PTCs only (38.9%, 7/18), but not in follicular variant tumors. The occurrence of BRAF T1799A mutation did not correlate with tumor metastatic potential although such observation may be due in part to a relatively small number of appropriate cases available for the study. As a whole, our data demonstrate that BRAF T1799A mutation is a prevalent mutational event in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its presence strongly correlates with conventional PTC hypostat but not with follicular variant that is in line with results of other laboratories. The findings suggest that detection of BRAF mutation may be used for molecular diagnostic purposes both preoperatively (on fine needle aspiration biopsy material) and after surgical treatment for differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma to distinguish it from other histological types of thyroid cancer

247

Incidence of malignant thyroid tumors in humans after exposure to diagnostic doses of 131I. II. Estimation of thyroid gland size, thyroid radiation dose, and predicted versus observed number of malignant thyroid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The size of the thyroid glands was analyzed for 10% of the patients in a selected group that had been exposed to diagnostic doses of 131I. The mean thyroid gland weight +- SD was 50 +- 33 g for patients 20 or more years of age and 10 +- 5 g for patients less than 20 years of age. With the present follow-up, diagnostic doses of 131I appeared not to be associated with an increased risk for later development of malignant thyroid tumors. Possible reasons for the difference between the observed number of such tumors and the number expected (47 to 124) on the basis of risk estimates of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation are discussed

248

Comparison of three methods used for measurement of radioiodine fixation in thyroid gland of mice  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare the results of estimation of radioiodine uptake using three methods in a study on mice, and to test reliability of the radioiodine uptake estimation by gamma camera. The study is conducted on 21 white, Swiss-type mice of both sex at age of 10 weeks, weighing between 25 g and 34 g. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.37 ± ± 0.03 MBq of radioiodine 131I. After 72 hours the mice were anesthetized, and radioactivity of thyroid region was measured by gamma camera (the 1st method, in situ. After the measurement, the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were carefully excised together with adjacent trachea and placed at the bottom of a test tube. The radioactivity of the excised tissue was then measured by both gamma camera (the 2nd method and gamma counter (the 3rd method. This method is treated as a standard and the most accurate. In the study we used Siemens e_cam gamma camera and Wallac Wizard 1470 Automatic Gamma counter. The radioiodine fixation determined using those three methods was 25.25 ± 7.32%, 26.08 ± ± 8.55% and 25.74 ± 7.18%, without statisticaly significant difference s between methods (p > 0.05. The high correlation between the three methods of measuring radioiodine fixation in thyroid gland was observed: (1 the correlation coefficient between the fixation rate obtained by gamma camera in situ and the fixation rate obtained by measuring the radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma camera was 0.869 (p < 0.01; (2 the correlation coefficient between fixation rate obtained by gamma camera in situ and the fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma counter was 0.890 (p < 0.01; (3 the correlation coefficient between fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma camera and the fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma counter was 0.835 (p < 0.01.

Jeremi? Marija Ž.

2013-01-01

249

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) inhibits in vivo iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in rat thyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decreased serum concentrations of T3 and T4 occur in patients treated with the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ), but with rare exception, these patients remain euthyroid. The mechanism that accounts for diminished hormone levels is unknown, and our objective was to study the direct effect of CBZ on iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in thyroid glands of CBZ-treated and pair-fed control rats. Chronic ingestion (per os) of CBZ in male rats reduced the four hour thyroid 131I-iodide uptake by approximately 60%. This inhibition occurred after the animals had received sufficient CBZ to attain plasma CBZ concentrations of 0.8 microgram/ml. Continued treatment with CBZ ranging from 560 to 800 mg/kg/day for 14 days did not result in further inhibition of iodide uptake even though the plasma CBZ concentrations had increased 6-20 fold. No inhibition of iodide uptake was apparent when the animals initially received CBZ ranging from 40 to 152 mg/kg body weight for 22 days when there were no detectable levels of plasma CBZ. Overall growth rates of CBZ-treated rats were slightly (6-10%) less than the pair-fed control animals. Plasma T4 concentrations were reduced by 18% (p less than 0.05) in the CBZ-fed animals, while T3 concentrations were diminished by 53% (p less than 0.01). CBZ appeared to alter thyroidal iodide transport because the thyroid:plasma iodide ratios were decreased by 26% in the drug-treated rats. The distribution of radioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids wradioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids was essentially the same in both groups of rats but the absolute quantities of radioiodine were more than 2.5 times greater in the control rats. CBZ failed to inhibit peroxidase-catalyzed iodide and guaiacol oxidation in vitro

250

Effect of reserpine on salivary gland radioiodine uptake in thyroid cancer  

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Nine patients with thyroid cancer were treated with reserpine in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure to the salivary glands from 100-150 mCi doses of I-131 therapy to thyroid remnants or metastases. Three control patients were not treated with reserpine but did receive 100-150 mCi of I-131. Parotid/background ratios of activity after radioablative doses of I-131 in patients not treated with reserpine were significantly higher than the patients treated with reserpine, and this was also true seven days after the radioablative dose. Combined therapy with reserpine, chewing gum, lemon candies, and hydration is suggested for the prevention of sialadenitis and xerostomia due to large doses of radioiodine.

Levy, H.A.; Park, C.H.

1987-04-01

251

Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

Ja yoon Jang

2014-04-01

252

Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Evaluation of radiation dose to the radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues - ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands - during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty (DCP). Method: Radiation dose was determined in an Alderson Rando phantom and in 13 patients. Radiation dose was measured directly using Ca-F2-thermoluminescent dosimetry crystals (TLD) which were placed on each eyelid, parotid gland and thyroid gland. Results: The mean radiation dose to the lens placed next to the path of radiation was 6.58 mGy in the Alderson-Rando phantom and 5.43 mGy in patients during DCP. The mean radiation dose to the contralateral lens was 1.37 mGy and 1.7 mGy to the parotid gland placed next to the X-ray tube. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland was max. 0.4 mGy during DCP. Conclusion: Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid gland and throid gland during fluoroscopy-guided DCP was 25 times higher than during diagnostic dacryocystography. The radiation dose to radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues during fluoroscopy-guided DCP is much below the threshold dose for ocular lens cataract. (orig.)

253

Postnatal fate of the ultimobranchial remnants in the rat thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ultimobranchial follicles (UBFs) are considered embryonic remnants from the ultimobranchial body (UBB). They are follicular structures that vary in size and appearance depending on the age of the rat. The main objective of this article was to study the progressive changes in shape, size, and frequency of the UBFs in the postnatal rat, from birth to old-age. To accomplish that objective, a systematic morphometric and incidental study of the UBF has been carried out in 110 Wistar rats of different ages and both sexes, divided into three groups: 1) young rats (5-90-day-old); 2) adult rats (6-15-month-old), and 3) old rats (18-24-month-old). The glands were serially sectioned and immunostained for calcitonin at five equidistant levels. According to our results, UBFs were observed in all thyroid glands but a more exhaustive sampling was occasionally necessary in male rats. In young rats, immature UBFs predominantly appeared whereas in adult rats, mature UBFs with cystic appearance and variable luminal content prevailed. We frequently found spontaneous anomalous UBFs in old rats, which we have termed as "ultimobranchial cystadenomata." Additionally, in young rats, UBF areas significantly increased with age and they were larger when compared to that of normal thyroid follicles. Likewise, in adult rats, UBFs were significantly larger than normal thyroid follicles but only in female rats. In general, UBFs in females were also significantly larger than those found in male rats. Finally, all these differences related to UBFs together with a higher incidence in females of UB cystadenomata suggest a sexual dimorphism in regard to the destiny of these embryonic remnants during postnatal thyroid development. PMID:23355409

Vázquez-Román, Victoria; Utrilla, José C; Fernández-Santos, José M; Conde, Esperanza; Bernabé, Reyes; Sampedro, Consuelo; Martín-Lacave, Inés

2013-07-01

254

Salivary gland protection by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy using 100 to 120 MBq Tc-99m-pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after radioiodine treatment with 6 GBq I-131. Eight patients were treated with 500 mg/m2 amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment and compared retrospectively with 9 control patients. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO criteria. In 9 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced Tc-99m-pertechnetate uptake by 35.4±22.0% and 31.7±21.1% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Of these 9 patients, 3 exhibited xerostomia Grade I (WHO). In contrast, in 8 amifostine-treated patients, there was no significant (p=0.878) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. (orig.)

255

Facial basal cell carcinoma with successive metastases to the neck, thyroid gland and lung.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basal cell carcinoma of the skin is the most common malignancy in the head and neck area. Regional and distant metastases rarely occur with this type of tumour. We report an uncommon case of a sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma of the facial skin in which metastases developed several years after the primary tumour. The metastases occurred in the soft tissue of the neck, the thyroid gland and the lung. This is the first case of BCC with triple metastases which were histologically confirmed. PMID:23849247

Thiele, Oliver C; Mertens, Christian; Bacon, Claire; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Zaoui, Karim; Mischkowski, Robert A

2014-07-01

256

Investigation of the results of therapy of anaplastic thyroid gland carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the treatment of 28 patients with an anaplastic thyroid gland carcinoma are investigated, to see whether an optimal therapy is indicated. The execution of an operation before radiotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis (statistically this conclusion is not wholly justified). The presence of metastases at the beginning of the therapy gave rise to a worse prognosis than the absence of metastases. The combination treatment of chemotherapy and either surgery or radiotherapy was only applied to two patients so no conclusions can be made about its benefit. (C.F.)

257

Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

258

Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

2007-07-15

259

Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in Treatment.  

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Full Text Available Thyroid surgeons are becoming increasingly more aware of a histologically distinct subset of thyroid carcinoma whose classification falls between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas with respect to both cell differentiation and clinical behavior. This subtype of tumors has been categorized as poorly differentiated or insular carcinoma, based on its characteristic cell groupings. Although the differentiation of insular carcinoma from other thyroid carcinomas has important prognostic and therapeutic significance, relatively little about insular carcinoma has been published in the otolaryngology literature. In this article, we discuss a case of insular carcinoma of thyroid presenting with concurrent distant metastasis to skull, lung, ribs, and inguinal region with review of the literature. We conclude that insular thyroid carcinoma warrants aggressive management with total thyroidectomy and excision of accessible giant lesion followed by radioactive iodine ablation of any remaining thyroid tissue.

Bhattacharya A

2013-01-01

260

MRI of mass lesions of the salivary gland  

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The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors was studied in 20 salivary tumors, 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 5 Warthin's tumors, 3 adenocarcinomas, and leach of adenoma and acinar cell carcinoma. We examined 9 tumors by dynamic MRI, after a bolus intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA. Pleomorphic adenoma showed continuous enhancement on dynamic MRI, and good enhancement on enhanced MRI. One of the adenocarcinoma showed marginal enhancement on dynamic MRI and enhanced MRI and the center of the tumor showed low signal intensity. Warthin's tumor showed poor enhancement on dynamic MRI and enhanced MRI. (author).

Inoue, Singo; Paku, Jinho; Takano, Youichi (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)) (and others)

1994-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

MRI of mass lesions of the salivary gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors was studied in 20 salivary tumors, 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 5 Warthin's tumors, 3 adenocarcinomas, and leach of adenoma and acinar cell carcinoma. We examined 9 tumors by dynamic MRI, after a bolus intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA. Pleomorphic adenoma showed continuous enhancement on dynamic MRI, and good enhancement on enhanced MRI. One of the adenocarcinoma showed marginal enhancement on dynamic MRI and enhanced MRI and the center of the tumor showed low signal intensity. Warthin's tumor showed poor enhancement on dynamic MRI and enhanced MRI. (author)

262

Radio-in-vitro investigation of the thyroid gland situation of fullterm newborn babies immediately post partum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

145 cord sera from fullterm, vital eutrophic newborn babies of uncomplicated pregnancies have been tested for the thyroid gland parameters RT3-U, ST3-U, T4, T3, T4/T3-ratio, total balance of free iodine-hormone indices and TSH to answer the questions of the thyroid gland situation. In the fullterm newborn baby an euthyroid metabolic balance was found on comparison with the simultaneously determined thyroid specific situation of the adult. The T3-situation is identical with that of the euthyroid adult. Thyroid levels, the conversion of T4 to T3 as well as the values of the total balance are slightly elevated, like in women under contraceptive hormone therapy. The basal TSH secretion immediately post partum is similar to the one on day 5 post partum. (orig.)

263

Distinct immunological and biochemical properties of thyroid peroxidase purified from human thyroid glands and recombinant protein produced in insect cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biosynthesis of thyroid hormone from thyroglobulin is catalysed by thyroid peroxidase (TPO), an integral membrane protein. TPO is also a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid disease and autoantibodies to TPO are markers for disease activity. Large quantities of purified TPO are essential for elucidating its structure and understanding its role in disease activity. We describe the high yield purification of full-length recombinant human TPO from baculovirus infected insect cells and compare it to purified native TPO from human thyroid glands. In contrast to native human TPO, the human TPO produced in insect cells as a recombinant protein was insoluble and resistant to solubilisation in detergents. Reversible substitution of lysine residues with citraconic anhydride led to increased solubility of the recombinant TPO, allowing high-yield purification by monoclonal antibody chromatography. The purified enzyme preparation was shown to be TPO by its reactivity with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Both the human and recombinant purified TPO preparations also react with sera from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, although the binding of conformational dependent autoantibodies was considerably lower to the recombinant TPO than to the native TPO. This suggests that the recombinant TPO may differ in some aspects of its tertiary structure. The purified recombinant TPO was devoid of enzyme activity, in contrast to the enzymatically active, purified human TPO preparations. Both preparations contained comparable amounts of haem (R(z)=0.269), but a shift in the Soret band of recombinant TPO (402 nm) from that of natural TPO (409 nm) indicates that the lack of enzymatic activity of the recombinant enzyme may be due to changes in the protein backbone surrounding the haem. Both the purified native and recombinant TPO, under non-denaturing conditions, show evidence of high molecular mass oligomers, although the latter preparation is prone to a greater degree of aggregation. In conclusion, our studies indicate that recombinant TPO generated in insect cells is conformationally distinct from the native TPO, is insoluble and enzymatically inactive, consistent with the difficulties associated with its purification and crystallisation. PMID:10446374

Gardas, A; Sutton, B J; Piotrowska, U; Pasieka, Z; Barnett, P S; Huang, G; McGregor, A M; Banga, J P

1999-08-17

264

Study of the condition of thyroid glands of cattle that was kept in the alienated zone of the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A condition of the thyroid gland of a cow that liver in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for 14 years (since the moment of the accident till the death) is investigated. we atrophy of the gland and its substitution by fat and connective tissues. Nevertheless, there are found small islets of a glandular tissue with normal follicles, which contained colloid. According to our evaluations, the animal has received a dose of about 100 Gy/thyroid gland from an internal exposure of radioiodine disregarding the inhalation component. Such a dose was sufficient for the beginning of series disturbances, but was not thyroidectomy. Long life and ability to normal reproduction are connected, most likely, with the regeneration and compensating processes in the gland of the animal

265

A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient's pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author)

266

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... thyroid hormones and the patient will have hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism When the thyroid gland produces extra hormone, hyperthyroidism develops. “Hyper” means more. hyperthyroidism causes patients to ...

267

The effect of HeNe laser radiation on the thyroid gland of the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although laser irradiation is becoming common practice in medicine, there is not always a clear understanding of the possible side-effects. The present report is a light and electron microscopic study of the effects of fixed low intensity doses of soft HeNe laser on the thyroid of Wistar rats. The immediate effects are mild multifocal degenerative changes; these lesions recover in less than 3 months. Long-term lesions are identified only by electron microscopy; they consist of an increased number of peroxisomes and free or intramitochondrial crystalline structures. We discuss the laser's hypothetical functions. Images Fig. 3 PMID:1883738

Lerma, E.; Hevia, A.; Rodrigo, P.; Gonzalez-Campora, R.; Armas, J. R.; Galera, H.

1991-01-01

268

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) inhibits in vivo iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in rat thyroid glands  

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Decreased serum concentrations of T3 and T4 occur in patients treated with the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ), but with rare exception, these patients remain euthyroid. The mechanism that accounts for diminished hormone levels is unknown, and our objective was to study the direct effect of CBZ on iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in thyroid glands of CBZ-treated and pair-fed control rats. Chronic ingestion (per os) of CBZ in male rats reduced the four hour thyroid 131I-iodide uptake by approximately 60%. This inhibition occurred after the animals had received sufficient CBZ to attain plasma CBZ concentrations of 0.8 microgram/ml. Continued treatment with CBZ ranging from 560 to 800 mg/kg/day for 14 days did not result in further inhibition of iodide uptake even though the plasma CBZ concentrations had increased 6-20 fold. No inhibition of iodide uptake was apparent when the animals initially received CBZ ranging from 40 to 152 mg/kg body weight for 22 days when there were no detectable levels of plasma CBZ. Overall growth rates of CBZ-treated rats were slightly (6-10%) less than the pair-fed control animals. Plasma T4 concentrations were reduced by 18% (p less than 0.05) in the CBZ-fed animals, while T3 concentrations were diminished by 53% (p less than 0.01). CBZ appeared to alter thyroidal iodide transport because the thyroid:plasma iodide ratios were decreased by 26% in the drug-treated rats. The distribution of radioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids was essentially the same in both groups of rats but the absolute quantities of radioiodine were more than 2.5 times greater in the control rats. CBZ failed to inhibit peroxidase-catalyzed iodide and guaiacol oxidation in vitro.

Villa, S.M.; Alexander, N.M.

1987-01-01

269

Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on serum levels of LH and testosterone and weights of testes and thyroid gland in rat  

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Introduction: Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of metabolism, maturity and reproduction. Thyroid dysfunction affects almost all endocrine glands such as pituitary and testis. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) serum levels as well as weights of thyroid gland and testes in methimazole (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism. Methods: Twenty-one adult male rats weighing 185 g were divided into 3 groups. The control gro...

Esmaeil Mohamadizadeh; Namdar Yousofvand; Maryam Kazemi

2011-01-01

270

Automatic removal of manually induced artefacts in ultrasound images of thyroid gland.  

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Manually induced artefacts, like caliper marks and anatomical labels, render an ultrasound (US) image incapable of being subjected to further processes of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD). In this paper, we propose a technique to remove these artefacts and restore the image as accurately as possible. The technique finds application as a pre-processing step when developing unsupervised segmentation algorithms for US images that deal with automatic estimation of the number of segments and clustering. The novelty of the algorithm lies in the image processing pipeline chosen to automatically identify the artefacts and is developed based on the histogram properties of the artefacts. The algorithm was able to successfully restore the images to a high quality when it was executed on a dataset of 18 US images of the thyroid gland on which the artefacts were induced manually by a doctor. Further experiments on an additional dataset of 10 unmarked US images of the thyroid gland on which the artefacts were simulated using Matlab showed that the restored images were again of high quality with a PSNR > 38 dB and free of any manually induced artefacts. PMID:24110458

Narayan, Nikhil S; Marziliano, Pina; Hobbs, Christopher G L

2013-01-01

271

Quiste linfoepitelial intratiroideo: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura / Lymphoepithelial cyst of the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Describimos un caso de quiste linfoepitelial intratiroideo en un varón de 31 años con tiroiditis linfocítica crónica y diagnosticado previamente de bocio multinodular. La lesión fue extirpada e histológicamente estaba tapizada por epitelio escamoso y/o cilíndrico y subyacentemente presentaba celular [...] idad linfoide con patrón folicular. Según la literatura revisada, tan sólo hay veinte casos descritos en la literatura médica y en diez casos estaban asociados a tiroiditis crónica. Abstract in english We report a case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the thyroid gland in a 31 year-old-man with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and history of multinodular goiter. The lesion was resected and the histopathologic examination showed that the cystic mass was lined by squamous and focally columnar epithelium, [...] an it was surrounded by follicular lymphoid tissue. To our knowledge only twenty cases of this lesion have been reported in the medical literature. An association with chronic thyroiditis has been noted in 10 cases.

P., San Miguel Fraile; G. C., Fernández Pérez; J. A., Ortiz Rey; C., Rivas Barros; J. S., Rouco Rouco.

2006-05-01

272

Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of salivary gland lesions: A study with histologic comparison  

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Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been employed in pre-operative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions for many years. Various studies in the existing literature have shown a wide range of sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of cytologic diagnosis. This study was aimed at evaluating salivary gland FNAC for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This study included 80 patients who underwent pre-operative FNAC followed by surgical procedure and histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was considered as the gold standard. FNAC diagnosis was compared with the final histologic impression and concordance assessed. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant lesions were calculated. Results: Of the 80 cases, majority (67.5%) involved the parotid gland. Eight cases (10%) were non-neoplastic lesions, comprised of sialadenitis, retention cyst and sialadenosis. Of a total of 72 neoplasms, 58 were benign and 14 were malignant salivary gland tumors. A cyto-histologic concordance of benign diagnosis was achieved in 85.7% of cases and for malignant lesions in 92.8% of the malignant tumors. FNAC showed a sensitivity of 92.8%, specificity of 93.9%, a positive predictive value of 81.2% and negative predictive value of 98.4% for malignant salivary gland tumors. There was one false-negative diagnosis and four false-positive cases diagnosed on FNAC. Conclusion: FNAC continues to be a reliable diagnostic technique in hands of an experienced cytopathologist. The sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant lesions is high, though the rate of tumor type-specific characterization is lower, due to variable cytomorphology. In difficult cases, histologic examination may be employed for accurate diagnosis. PMID:23599724

Jain, Ritu; Gupta, Ruchika; Kudesia, Madhur; Singh, Sompal

2013-01-01

273

21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.  

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...the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease (enlargement of the thyroid gland with...

2010-04-01

274

Thermal effect of microwave antenna radiation on a generic model of thyroid gland  

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The rapid diffusion of wireless communication systems has caused an increased concern for the potential detrimental effects on human health deriving from exposure to electromagnetic field. It penetrates the body and acts on all the organs, altering the cell membrane potential and the distribution of ions and dipoles. The thyroid gland is one of the most exposed vital organs and may be a target for electromagnetic radiation. This paper presents the computed temperature and specific absorption rate inside to a generic model of a human thyroid using signals radiated by an antenna operating in the 2450 MHz band and the power density levels up to 100 W/cm2. Calculations were carried out using the Finite Difference Time Domain method for the solving of two coupled differential equations, Maxwell and Pennes. The results show that the temperature can rise up to very dangerous levels, i.e., 46 °C, in a very short time. The estimated temperature distribution in the human thyroid due to exposure from microwave signals can be used to design the dangerous aria for personal working around high power emitted antenna and for medical applications.

Gavriloaia, Gheorghe; Gavriloaia, Mariuca-Roxana; Ghemigean, Adina-Mariana

2010-11-01

275

Impact of siRNA transfection on tumor development under experimental pathology of thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available Aim. To assess the impact of siRNA transfection on the tumor development under experimental pathology of the thyroid gland. Methods. Experiments were performed on rats weighing 180 ± 20 g, which were divided into five groups: IA and IB – animals with simulated hypo- and hyperthyroid states and transplanted Guerin’s carcinoma; IIA and IIB – animals with simulated hypo- and hyperthyroid states and transplanted Guerin’s carcinoma in combination with siRNA transfection; III – control group with transplanted Guerin’s carcinoma in combination with siRNA transfection. Orthogonal dimensions of the tumor were measured. Histological and immunohistochemical researches of tumor samples were performed. Results. It has been shown that the inhibitory effect of short interfering RNA is realized to a greater extent in the hypothyroid state, indicating an important role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of expression of genes that control the cell cycle. We discuss a possible dependence of necrobiotic processes prevalence and characteristic changes in the blood vessels on the effects of thyroid hormones on angiogenesis and proliferative processes. Conclusions. siRNA trasfection leads to inhibition of tumor growth in animals with both hypo- and hyperthyroidism, but it is more pronounced at hypothyroidism.

Zaporozhan V. M.

2013-11-01

276

Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland evaluations in patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic examinations during tuberculosis therapy: a pilot study  

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The prevalence of thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary abnormalities was determined in 91 women who received an average of 112 fluoroscopic chest examinations during pneumothorax treatment for tuberculosis more than 40 yr previously and in 72 women treated for tuberculosis by other modalities. Thyroid abnormalities were determined by physical examination, scintiscans, and measurements of serum free T4 index, TSH, and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Thyroid nodules were diagnosed in 7.7% of the exposed and 4.2% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 1.8; 90% confidence interval 0.6-5.7). Autoimmune thyroid disease was diagnosed in 15.2% of the exposed and 6.9% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-6.2). No salivary tumors were detected. Two exposed women and 1 comparison woman had primary hyperparathyroidism. Although absorbed dose to the thyroid could not be precisely determined, approximately 60 rads would be expected to yield the observed excess of thyroid nodules. While the prevalence ratios were not significantly increased in the exposed group, the results suggest that susceptibility of the thyroid to nodules from cumulative radiation doses of this magnitude could be increased even when the doses are accumulated over years and that such x-ray exposure of the thyroid gland may predispose the patient to the development of autoimmune disease

277

Vitiliginous lesions during contact immunotherapy for alopecia in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis  

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Full Text Available Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE is frequently used for the treatment of alopecia, but sometimes unwanted side effects occur. Herein we report a case which developed vitiliginous lesions induced by topical SADBE application in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis. A 60-year-old female visited our department, complaining of diffuse alopecia of the scalp. She was suffering from chronic autoimmune thyroiditis over several years, and taking thyradin (90mg per day.

Yasunobu Kato

2014-07-01

278

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... can affect the thyroid gland. These diseases are common and affect many people. Most of these diseases ... to treat. This reference summary explains the most common diseases that can affect the thyroid gland. It ...

279

Peculiarities of integral brain activity under compromised thyroid gland function of children and adolescent from radionuclide contaminated territories of Belarus  

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80 children with thyroid gland hypertrophy (50 girls + 30 boys, 10 - 17 years old) from Luninets town, the Brest region, were investigated for integral brain activity. Quantitative determination of thyrotropic hormone level in blood serum was made by using enzyme immunodetection. Mentation, attention and memory were tested by questionnaire design. Results of experiments are given

280

Effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the thyroid gland structure and function of ovariectomized rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen therapy is widely used nowadays in women to treat many postmenopausal symptoms but it may have some undesirable effects due to multiple organs affection. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in ovarictomized rats as a model simulating menopause. Findings Thirty adult female Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in this study; the first group was sham-operated, while the second and third groups were ovariectomized. The first and second groups were injected with olive oil while the third group was injected with estradiol dipropionate daily for three months, after that; hormonal assay for T3, T4, TSH and specimens of the thyroid were taken and processed to be examined by light and electron microscopy. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of T3 and T4 decreased in ovariectomized animals and significantly increased after estradiol treatment, while TSH increased in ovariectomized animals and decreased with estradiol treatment. Histological and morphometric study in ovariectomized group revealed marked accumulation of colloid in follicular lumens with decreased epithelial height in addition to increased connective tissue amount. After estradiol treatment the follicles became smaller in size, having small amount of colloid with increased epithelial height in addition to decreased connective tissue content. Ultrastructural study supported these results in addition to the presence of large amount of intracytoplasmic colloid vesicles after estradiol treatment. Conclusion Low estrogen level may lead to mild thyroidal hypofunction while estradiol treatment may lead to hyperactivity so it should be used very cautiously in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms to avoid its undesirable stimulatory effect on the thyroid.

Elgendy Mohamed S

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Thyroid  

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In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

282

Evaluation of FAK and Src expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions.  

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Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src have been reported to regulate tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. The present study aimed to evaluate by immunohistochemistry the clinical significance of FAK and Src expression in 108 patients with benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Total FAK expression provided a distinct discrimination between malignant and benign (p = 0.00001), as well as between papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules thyroid lesions (p = 0.00005), being also associated with follicular cells' proliferative capacity (p = 0.0003). In malignant thyroid lesions, total FAK expression was associated with tumor size (p = 0.0455), and presence of capsular (p = 0.0102) and lymphatic (p = 0.0173) invasion. Total Src expression was borderline increased in cases of papillary carcinoma compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0993), being also correlated with tumor size (p = 0.0169). FAK and Src expression was ascribed to a significant extent to the phosphorylated forms of the enzymes, which provided a better discrimination between malignant and benign thyroid lesions. The current data revealed that FAK and to a lesser extent Src expression could be considered of clinical utility in thyroid neoplasia with potential use as therapeutic targets. PMID:20405349

Michailidi, Christina; Giaginis, Costas; Stolakis, Vassilios; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Klijanienko, Jerzy; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Chatzizacharias, Nicolaos; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Theocharis, Stamatios

2010-12-01

283

Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland: our experience over the last 20 years.  

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Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland are uncommon, often presenting with nonspecific clinical and radiologic findings, and are thus underrecognized. They are occasionally associated with malignant neoplasms, which can greatly mimic benign lesions and carry detrimental clinical consequences if misdiagnosed. Here we present our 20-year experience (1992-2012) with these lesions at an academic medical center. Among more than 4500 adrenal gland specimens, 31 cases of adrenal lesions with a predominant cystic component were identified in 30 patients with an age range of 34 to 86 years (median, 55.5 years) and a male/female ratio of 13:17. Macroscopic descriptions, available histologic and immunostain slides, and available radiologic records were reviewed for all included cases. Radiologic studies and gross examination correlated well, and hemorrhage (26 cases; 84%) and encapsulation (25 cases; 81%) appeared to be nonspecific radiologic/gross features shared across histologic subtypes. Microscopic review identified 12 cases (39%) of pseudocysts, 2 cases (6%) of endothelium-derived cysts, and 17 cases (55%) of epithelium-derived cysts. Among these 31 cystic adrenal lesions, 2 cases (6%) were malignant neoplasms (1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma). Radiologic impression and histopathologic diagnosis were concordant in 11 (73%) of the 15 cases for which radiologic records were available. This study represents the second largest case series to date on cystic adrenal lesions and presents a comprehensive review on their demographic, clinical, radiologic, and gross and microscopic pathologic features, as well as their differential diagnoses. PMID:23618356

Sebastiano, Christopher; Zhao, Xiangrong; Deng, Fang-Ming; Das, Kasturi

2013-09-01

284

Malignancy in solitary nodular lesions of thyroid : a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of the cases seen for thyroid disorders, 150 cases with solitary nodule were studied to find out the correlation between the histopathological features and the functional status of the nodules. 35-45 ?Cs of sup(131)I was given orally and thyroid uptake was measured at 2,4,24 and 48 hours after administration and thyroid scan was done at the end of 24 hours. On the basis of sup(131)I concentration found in the nodules, single nodules were classified as hyperfunctioning, functioning, hypofunctioning and nonfunctioning. The incidence of malignancy was high in nonfunctioning and hypofunctioning nodules, while no malingnancy was found in the functioning types of nodules. These results are compared with those of other such studies. (M.G.B.)

285

Application of Liquid-Based Cytology to Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Thyroid Gland  

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Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is regarded as an important tool for diagnosing thyroid lesions because of its simplicity, safety, and cost–effectiveness. Its role in correctly characterizing the group of indeterminate lesions or follicular-patterned neoplasms (FN) might be more decisive. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a technique based on the use of a semi-automated device that has gained popularity as a method of collecting and processing both gynecologic and non-gynecologic cytologic specimens. It achieves a diagnostic sensitivity as accurate as conventional preparations especially for its excellent cell preservation and for the lack of background which decrease the amount of inadequate diagnoses. Moreover, the cellular material which has been stored in the preservative solution could be effectively used for the application of immunocytochemical and molecular techniques especially for the Follicular proliferations. In many cases the cytologic features are similar in both methods but the colloid film and the lymphocytic component are more easily evaluated on direct smears whereas nuclear details and colloid globules are better evaluated in LBC slides. The LBC-processed biopsies represent a valid alternative to conventional cytology. The possibility of applying special techniques enhance the efficacy of the cytological diagnosis of thyroid lesions. PMID:22654875

Rossi, Esther Diana; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Moncelsi, Stefania; Stigliano, Egidio; Santeusanio, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Fadda, Guido

2012-01-01

286

Relationship between {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina  

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{sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that {sup 129}I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the {sup 129}I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total {sup 129}I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

Negri, A.E., E-mail: negri@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wallner, A. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

2013-01-15

287

Elastographic presentation of synchronous renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland.  

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Synchronous metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are extremely uncommon with only few sporadic cases published in the literature and data on their elastographic appearance are lacking. Here we described a case of woman with multinodular goiter bearing a RCC metastasis, in which exhaustive ultrasonographic and qualitative elastographic evaluation were performed. The metastatic lesion presented some suspicious ultrasonographic features but was mainly "soft" at qualitative elastographic evaluation, suggesting that RCC metastasis may represent a possible pitfall for the qualitative elastographic evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:24366638

Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

2014-09-01

288

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... produced by the thyroid gland. Diagnosis Diagnosing thyroid problems includes examining the patients’ medical history, as well as family history. Some thyroid problems run in families. A physical examination is important ...

289

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... decrease in thyroid hormones slows metabolism. This can lead to a feeling of fatigue, slow thinking, and ... to destroy the hyperactive thyroid tissue. This can lead to the total destruction of the thyroid gland, ...

290

Value of routine frozen section diagnosis of thyroid lesions.  

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The inability to diagnose follicular carcinoma intraoperatively with frozen section is the most significant factor accounting for the relatively low sensitivity of frozen section diagnosis of thyroid malignant neoplasm. In our institution, frozen section is considered a complementary investigation to emerging fine needle cytopathology in the region.

D. M. Tamimi

2001-11-01

291

Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

292

Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule verses biopsy in thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FNA biopsy of thyroid is a rapid, minimally invasive, and cost effective first line procedure in the evaluation of thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytological accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration (FNA) of solitary thyroid nodules in correlation with post-surgical histological findings. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Department of Pathology, Abbottabad International Medical College, Abbottabad from January 2009 to December 2010. A total of 81 patients with clinically palpable solitary thyroid nodule were included in the study. Thyroid function tests were initially performed followed by FNA of thyroid nodules later operated and histopathological examination was conducted on the excised nodules. FNA diagnoses were correlated with the histological findings. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the procedure were determined. Results: Out of 81 cases, 5 (6.2%) were unsatisfactory and 76 cases were satisfactory for cytological evaluation. Cyto-histopathological correlation was carried out for these cases. The study showed a diagnostic accuracy of 93% with sensitivity and specificity rates of 75% and 96% respectively. Positive predictive value is 81% and negative predictive value is 95%. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has evolved as an accurate and sensitive diagnostic tool for the initial screening of patients with thyroid nodules, and has reduced the need for unnecessary surgery. (author)

293

Reliability of fine needle aspiration and ex tempore biopsy in the diagnosis of salivary glands lesions  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Interpretation of cytological material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA of salivary glands is one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. FNA is performed easily, it is minimally invasive, inexpensive, fast, reliable and provides valuable information to clinicians about the nature of the lesion and therapeutic modalities. Ex tempore diagnosis, frozen section (FS is a diagnostic tool that is essential in determining the modalities of surgical treatment of lesions of the salivary glands. Today this method is used in determining the status of resection margins and infiltration of adjacent anatomical structures. The aim of this study was to present our experiences in the application of FNA and FS in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and diagnostic reliability of these methods. Methods. The study included 36 patients. In all the patients, cytological analysis was done before surgery and histological analysis of the surgical material. In 23 of the patients the FS diagnostics was done. Then we compared FNA and FS findings with histopathological findings. Results. Correlation of cytological and histological diagnosis showed sensitivity of 83.3%, specificity 96.67%, positive predictive value 83.3%, negative predictive value of 96.77% and diagnostic accuracy of 97.2%. Based on the relationship between FS diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 96.67%, while positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 100% each. Conclusion. The study confirmed that FNA is a sensitive, reliable diagnostic method for differentiation of lesions of the salivary glands. In cases with no posibility to definite differentiation in FNA samples, and with the need to assess the resection margins and invasion of anatomical structures, it is recommended to use FS diagnostics.

Gajanin Radoslav

2014-01-01

294

Congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters obtained from mothers subjected to immunization and the action of I13+H1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I131 injected to rabbits immunized with homologous thyroid gland on the 19th - 20th day of pregnancy led to congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters in the first and second generations. The functional activity and the activity of proteolytic enzymes of the thyroid gland descreased by the 30th day of the postnatal development. A distinct correlation was revealed between the contents in the thyroid gland of the experimental litters of DIT+MIT and of organic forms -T3+T4. During the first days after birth the DIT+MIT content showed a sharp fall and increased by the 30th day; on the contrary, iodine binding into organic forms decreased with the age. Histological examination of the thyroid glands in the experimental litters demonstrated lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration, along with connective tissue proliferation, which led to a marked sclerosis and fibrosis of tissues, hypofunction. Beginning with the age of one month there was observed an extensive nodular proliferation, which possibly served as the beginning of the parenchymatous goiter formation. The appearance of lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland of the second generation could be considered as the result of a congenital predisposition to the autoimmune thyroiditis inlaid in the memory cells and intensified during birth

295

Total thyroidectomy and intraoperative radioiodine localisation diagnostic with differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a retrospective study on 103 patients, who between 1971 and 1979 because of differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas underwent thyroidectomies, it was investigated, which parameters lead to a reduction in the complications rate with a thyroidectomy. A division of the patients into two groups, namely, those operated on up until 1976 and those operated on from this point in time on using a new operative concept showed in the second group that there was no more recurrence paresis or remaining parathyroprivic tetani, but that the new operative procedure, however, had not brought any significant improvement with respect to favourable, respectively unfavourable, initial conditions and to the type of possible preoperations. Another new method which began in 1976, the intraoperative 131-iodine localisation measurement, is presented. It deals with a control of the storing remaining tissue. In comparison to the first group the storing remaining area was reduced significantly from 44% to 19%, such that the amount of radioiodine needed for the radioiodine therapy which is usually used to eliminate any remaining thyroid tissue could be reduced. This also reduced the radiation load. Thyroidectomy continues to be the therapy of choice. (TRV)

296

The Dysfunction of the Thyroid Gland and Opportunities for the Homeopathic Treatment of Dogs  

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Full Text Available The low levels of T4 (thyroxine and T3 (triiodothyronine can be observed in the dogs with hypothyroidism, but it could also reflect some other illness, in which the function of the thyroid gland is not disturbed. This phenomenon is called "sick euthyroid syndrom" (SES and it is mainly associated with the existence of the other endocrinopathies (Cushing`s syndrome, hyperestrogenism. The other endocrinopathies could be clinically manifest by very similar chronic changes in the skin and hair as those manifested in hypothyroidism. There are two cases of German shepherd dogs which were manifested by obesity, lethargy, infertility and chronic dermal findings. The level of T4 in the blood serum was very low in the first bitch T4 = 4.53 n mol l-1 and in the second bitch T4 = 12.84 n mol l-1. Diagnostic biochemical blood examination revealed results indicating the possibility of hypothyroidism, but at the same time also the possibility of another non- thyroid disease. Homeopathy can help to solve the problem of theraphy in such complicated cases. After homeopathic therapy the results of the biochemical and endocrinological examinations repeatedly showed the restored conditions of the patient. The level of the T4 in the blood serum was in the first bitch T4 = 27.31 n mol l-1 and in the second bitch T4 = 26.28 n mol l-1. This study presents the possibility to use homeopathic treatment in chronic dermatologic cases.

M. Fialkovi ova

2003-01-01

297

Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas. Treatment results of 268 patients after thyroidectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effectiveness of radioiodine therapy on differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas was checked out based on the following criteria from 268 patients: Histology, tumor expanse, type of metastasis, survival rate of treated patients and the frequency of tumor remains, respectively metastases, removal. The 5-year survival rate of the whole group lay near 92%, those with regional and distant metastases near 70%. With differentiation according to different histological forms of the carcinoma there were only slight differences. The therapeutical response rate varied with the different metastasis forms. Regional lymph gland metastases responded best to radioiodine therapy (76%), lung and bone metastases not as well with 21% and 14%. The standardized radioiodine therapy with relatively low single doses of 70 resp. 100 mCi 131-iodine proved itself as most tolerable. Serious therapy-dependent complications or even deaths did not appear. A comparison of the treatment results in this paper with those of other authors shows that the survival rates of these patients were mostly higher than the ones they were compared to. (TRV)

298

Abnormal serum thyroid hormones concentration with healthy functional gland: a review on the metabolic role of thyroid hormones transporter proteins.  

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Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG), some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid. PMID:21874823

Azad, Reza Mansourian

2011-03-01

299

Application of nano-carbon in lymph node dissection for thyroid cancer and protection of parathyroid glands.  

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Background The aim of this study was to explore a new method to identify and protect parathyroid glands in neck lymph node dissection for patients with thyroid cancer. Material and Methods One hundred patients with thyroid cancer underwent total thyroidectomy combined with central neck lymph node dissection. During the operation, 50 patients receiving nano-carbon suspension were included in the experiment group, and 50 patients without nano-carbon suspension were included in the control group. We compared changes in parathyroid hormone levels before surgery and at 48 h after surgery between the 2 groups and of serum Ca^2+ level within 48 h after surgery, as well as postoperative parathyroid pathological and lymph node dissection results. Results Eight and 1 parathyroid glands were detected pathologically in the control and experimental group, respectively. Decrease in parathyroid hormone level at 48 h occurred in 7 patients in the control group and 1 patient in the experimental group. Hypocalcemia was found at 48 h after surgery in 10 patients in the control group and 2 patients in the experimental group. Conclusions Nano-carbon suspension can cause development of the thyroid gland and the central lymph node and a negative development of parathyroid glands. Careful identification and removal of black-stained lymphatic tissues in the process of total thyroidectomy with neck lymph node dissection can ensure a complete lymph node dissection and prevent parathyroid damage, thus effectively reducing the incidence of hypoparathyroidism. PMID:25311844

Tian, Wuguo; Jiang, Yan; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Shu; Zhao, Jianjie; He, Yujun; Luo, Donglin

2014-01-01

300

Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

Gunnarsdóttir Anna

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS. Methods We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and total thyroxine (TT4 levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Results TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area. Conclusions An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.

Iwata Tomoyuki

2011-06-01

302

Evaluation of the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques  

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Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The use of sophisticated radiographic techniques is absolutely necessary in dentistry. The use of these techniques exposes the sensitive organs of head and neck to x-rays. The aim of the present study was to investigate the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 TLD GR-200 circular dosimeters (Thermoluminans Detector were used in male RANDO-like phantom (head and neck segment, i.e. the first 10 segments in order to determine the radiation dose absorbed by the thyroid gland. Then spiral computed tomographies were provided from the anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible along with a lateral Scout view as a guide. Conventional spiral tomographies were prepared from the maxilla, mandible and both jaws with a panoramic radiograph as a guide. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS 11.5 (a = 0.05. Results: The highest and lowest thyroid gland absorbed doses were observed with computed tomography of both jaws and conventional spiral tomography of the anterior maxilla, respectively (5.92 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ± 0.01 mSiv. The mean amount of the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland was lower in the conventional spiral tomography compared to computed tomography. The two techniques revealed significant differences in the absorbed doses except for conventional spiral tomography in the posterior and anterior regions of the mandible (p value = 0.276.Conclusion: According to results of the present study, the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in the conventional spiral tomography in different regions of the jaws was less than CT scan techniques. As a result, it appears the use of conventional spiral tomography is preferred over CT scans in limited regions where three-dimensional and cross-sectional views are required.Key words: Thyroid gland, Film dosimetry, Spiral Computed Tomography.

Hamid Badrian

2012-01-01

303

Functional activity of the thyroid gland in patients with malignant neoplasms of the head and neck following remote gamma-therapy  

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In 20 patients with malignant tumours of the head and neck the functional activity of the thyroid gland was investigated by the method of dynamic radioisotopic analysis. Test-sets ''Tri-Tab'' and ''Tetra-Tab'' enabled one to determine thyroxin-binding capacity, total thyroxin, index of free thyroxin. The studies were conducted before, immediately after, and (in 7 patients) 18 months following the completion of the radical course of remote gamma-therapy. Integral doses absorbed by the thyroid gland amounted to 9.000-45.000 rad. A decrease in the functional activity as low as the lower border of the normalcy was observed in all patients following the radiation therapy. No clinical symptoms of the hypofunction of the thyroid gland were noted. A statistically significant tendency to higher indices of the functional activity of the thyroid gland in the periods up to 18 months following the end of the remote gamma-therapy has been revealed

304

The Role of Immunohistochemistry in Differential Diagnosis of Follicular Patterned Lesions of Thyroid  

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Full Text Available Objective: In the present study we aimed to assess the role of galectin- 3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular lesions.Material and Method: Fifty-four malignant and 50 benign lesions were evaluated and classified according to World Health Organization 2004 histological classification. Galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 were performed immunohistochemically and the slides were evaluated by two independent investigators. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed for each antibody tested.Results: Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were as follows respectively: Galectin-3: 59,25%, 84% and 71,15%; Cytokeratin 19: 70%, 82% and 75,4%; Thyroid peroxidase: 61%, 70% and 65,4%; CD44v6: 20,4%, 88% and 52,9%.Conclusion: The negativity for Galectin-3 and Cytokeratin 19 can not exclude malignancy but positivity can be thought as a sign of malignant feature or potential for lesions in which there is strong suspect of malignancy. Thyroid peroxidase immunostaining failed to differantiate benign from malignant oxyphilic tumors but decreased expression can be used as a malignancy marker together with Galectin-3 and/or Cytokeratin19 positivity in suspicious cases. CD44v6 does not seem to be reliable in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular patterned thyroid lesions.In conclusion, our approach is to take as much new samples or serial sections as possible in cases without clear-cut evidence of malignancy but with histological and immunohistochemical suspicion. Follicular variant papillary carcinoma has different criteria for malignancy and it should be always kept in mind while evaluating a benign-looking lesion with immunohistochemical signs that favor malignancy.

Gülçin YE?EN

2009-09-01

305

Clinical diagnostic study by means of magnetic resonance imaging for lesions of the major salivary gland region  

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The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lesions situated in the major salivary glands was clinically discussed in this study. A total of 46 patients with salivary gland disorders treated in our department over the past five years were assessed by mean of MRI, and in 11 patients the findings were compared with the histopathological features of lesions sectioned at the same level postoperatively. In addition, preliminary investigations to introduce a new qualitative diagnostic procedure for estimation of salivary gland function in geriatric patients were attempted. In this investigation, T[sub 1] and T[sub 2] values, and signal intensity ratios of the submandibular gland were measured in elderly patients complaining of dry mouth and in healthy controls. Likewise, salivary gland function was examined by taste stimulation induced by applying citric acid to the tongue surface just before starting MRI. MRI clearly demonstrated lesions in the salivary glands. The histopathological diagnosis could not be accurately predicted by signal intensity. However, benign tumors showed higher intensity signals than did malignant tumors on T[sub 2]-weighted images. Cystic lesions could be differentiated from tumors by signal intensity. Histopathological features of salivary gland tumors corresponded to the MRI signal intensity. Relaxation times of T[sub 1] and T[sub 2] values and signal intensity in each major salivary gland were diminished in elderly patients in a resting condition. Only T[sub 1] values in healthy subjects remarkably responded to taste stimulation. These results suggest that MRI is useful and beneficial not only in the qualitative diagnosis of tumors arising from salivary glands but also in the estimation of salivary gland function. MRI should therefore be included in routine diagnostic examinations for salivary gland disorders. (author).

Iihama, Tsuyoshi; Mataga, Izumi; Kato, Joji (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata)

1994-08-01

306

Thyroiditis  

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... should. Symptoms What are the clinical symptoms of thyroiditis? There are no symptoms unique to thyroiditis. If ... in patients with subacute thyroiditis Causes What causes thyroiditis? Thyroiditis is caused by an attack on the ...

307

The Role of Elastosonography in the Differentiation of Parotid Gland Lesions: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature  

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Summary Background The parotid gland is the mostly affected site among major salivary gland tumors in up to 85% of cases. Preoperative knowledge of the tumour nature is crucial since it influences the surgical procedure and patient’s morbidity, especially the risk of facial nerve palsy. Ultrasonography is commonly used as the first line imaging modality for the salivary gland lesions. A pitfall is that the histologic pleomorphism often reflects an imaging pleomorphism. Case Report Herein we aimed to present the role of elastosonography in three parotid lesions: a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma, a Wharthin’s tumour and a malignant parotid tumour. Conclusions Our findings show that malignant parotid lesion was the stiffest lesion according to elastosonography. Wharthin’s tumour demonstrated soft elastosonographic features. The pleomorphic adenoma was also interpreted as stiff by elastosonography suggesting that the elastosonographic features of pleomorphic adenoma may resemble those of malignant lesions limiting the utility of the technique. PMID:25386225

Tatar, Idil Gunes; Ergun, Onur; Kurt, Aydin; Sahin, Mustafa; Hekimoglu, Baki

2014-01-01

308

Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate with the intensity of the administered activity of radioiodine, the previous condition of dental integrity and in patients living in the interior of our country in zones of 'bad' water containing tracers of arsenic and fluorine. In 13 patients submitted to intense treatment of dental problems posterior WBS showed a decrease of the positive maxilla areas or they were not found. The presence of metastasis in the active maxilla area was in all cases negative. Our observations confirm that radioiodine is deposited in maxillary bone in relation of dental lesions and that this 131-I move in a very slow place. This mechanism of fixation has to be determined. We fully recommended taking into account the existence of dental illness or incomplete dental treatments when the administration of higher activities than 3.7 GBq (150 mCi). (author)

309

Effect of some radio-modifying preparations on the doses absorbed by the thyroid glands in orally introduced iodine-131  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to estimate the reduction dose rates of J131 absorbed by thyroid glands after preliminary administration of several chemical protectors, the experiments on 210 male Wistar rats were carried out. The protectors AET, VVR-2721, cysteamine hydrochloride, serotonin, creatine sulfate and Adeturon were applied intraperitoneally and after different periods of time J131 was introduced via stomach sounding . The results were shown as measured absorbed doses as well as calculated thyroid gland protection coefficients (PC). In all cases a sharp reduction of the absorbed doses in the first minutes after applications was found. The maximum PC of about 50-55% for serotonin, cysteamine and VVR-2721 was obtained. The protection effect gradually died down in the longer periods of time and practically it was missing in all cases in the 24th hour. The protection effect of radioprotectors was evaluated as unessential even in the most favourable cases

310

Ectopic thyroid in an adrenal mass: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult to explain ectopic thyroid beneath the diaphragm because during the development the thyroid descends from the tongue to the anterior of the trachea. A few cases of ectopic lesions have been reported in the literature for abdominal organs including the adrenal glands, but the mechanism by which the thyroid components migrate into the abdomen has been poorly understood. Case presentation A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having an adrenal mass. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was carried out. Microscopically, the mass was composed of normal adrenal and ectopic thyroid tissues. Conclusion We herein describe the fourth case reported of ectopic thyroid in the adrenal gland.

Ueno Munehisa

2006-08-01

311

Thyroid transplantation developing autoimmune thyroiditis following thymectomy and irradiation.  

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Post-irradiation transplantation of normal thyroids under the renal capsule of syngenetic thymectomized and irradiated (Tx-X) rats leads to the development of thyroiditis in the ectopic grafted thyroids. A close correlation was observed between the extent of the lesions in the grafted and recipient's own thyroid. The histopathology of both grafted and recipient thyroid was similar and was characterized by infiltration with mononuclear cells together with some plasma cells. Conversely, grafting of affected thyroids from Tx-X rats to normal animals resulted in the regression of the lesion in the graft and no evidence thyroiditis was observed in either the graft or the recipient's thyroid when these were examined 60 days post-grafting. Thyroids derived from normal animals grafted to syngenetic normal rats were found to remain healthy and intact over a 60-day period. In contrast to normal animals, Tx-X rats were unable to reject totally in transplanted allogeneic thyroids by 28 days post-grafting, suggesting that some impairment of cell-mediated immunity follows this treatment. These findings indicate that the pathological change occurring in the thyroid gland of Tx-X rats is not attributable to the local effect of irradiation of the thyroids and adds further support to the concept that the process is immunologically mediated by thyroid-specific circulating components in the absence of normal immune regulatory function. PMID:6896018

Ahmed, S A; Penhale, W J

1981-09-01

312

Radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during digital subtraction angiography of arteries supplying the brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To find out the individual level of radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during DSA of arteries supplying the brain, considering the indication. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 72 patients during aortic arch and cerebral artery angiographies using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Results: During 20 aortic arch angiographies the measured values were within non-critical limits, whereas during carotid, vertebral or cerebral fourvessel angiography of the left ocular lens exposure values of more than 500 mGy (max. 782 mGy) were stated in two of 52 cases. The highest measured exposure relating to the right ocular lens was 126 mGy, to the thyroid gland 88 mGy. However, in 51 of 52 cases thyroid gland doses of below 51 mGy were measured. In 71 of 72 cases there was a lateral difference between right and left lens exposure up to twice the measured dose for the right ocular lens during aortic arch angiographies and up to sixteenfold in respect of the left lens during cerebral angiographies. (orig./AJ)

313

Does amifostine have radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer  

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To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled clinical trials which compared the effects of amifostine with those of placebo or acid-stimulating agents. Two randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 130 patients were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of amifostine and acid-stimulating agents on the incidence of xerostomia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01 to 9.52), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of {sup 99m}Tc by the parotid (RR 0.30, 95% CI -2.28 to 2.88) or submandibular glands (RR 1.90, 95% CI -1.46 to 5.26) at 12 months, or the reduction in blood pressure (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16). Neither of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. The results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The use of acid-stimulating agents to increase salivation should remain the first choice during radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients should also be well informed of the importance of hydration and acid stimulation. (orig.)

Ma, Chao; Wang, Guoming; Zuo, Shuyao [Qingdao University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Xie, Jiawei [Qingdao University, Medical College, Qingdao (China); Jiang, Zhongxin [Qingdao University, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao (China)

2010-09-15

314

Primary squamous cell carcinomas in the thyroid gland: an individual participant data meta-analysis.  

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Primary squamous cell carcinomas arising from the thyroid gland (SCCTh) is extremely rare diseases, which have never been fully studied. Thus, we performed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of published SCCTh cases, to understand the clinical characteristics and to identify the prognostic factors of primary SCCTh. A literature search was conducted within Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases and KoreaMed using the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: "primary," "squamous," "carcinoma," "cancer," and "thyroid." Eighty-four patients' individual data from 39 articles and five patients' data in our institute were selected for analysis (N = 89). The mean age at diagnosis was 63.0 years (range, 24-90) and female preponderance (M:F = 1:2) was noted. The commonest complaint was the anterior neck mass, followed by dyspnea or dysphagia, and extension to the adjacent structure was found in 72%. The median survival was 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.0-23.0) and 3-year survival rate (3YSR) was 37.6% by Kaplan-Meier method, but only 20.1% by a shared frailty model for adjusting heterogeneity. Complete resection (R0) of tumors was the only significant prognostic factor in multivariable analysis, and the benefit of adjuvant treatment was not proved. The prognosis of patients with SCCTh is very poor (20% in 3YSR), but complete resection of disease is correlated with improved survival. To achieve complete surgical eradication of tumors, early detection and accurate diagnosis should be emphasized. PMID:24995699

Cho, Jae Keun; Woo, Seung-Hoon; Park, Junoh; Kim, Min-Ji; Jeong, Han-Sin

2014-10-01

315

Diagnostic Accuracy and Pitfalls of Preoperative Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Salivary Gland Lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in salivary gland lesions. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 82 patients presented at NCI, Cairo University with salivary gland lesion who underwent preoperative FNAC diagnosis with subsequent excision and histopathologic assessment. Cytology results were classified as negative, positive, suspicious for cancer and inadequate. The definitive histopathologic report according to WHO Histological typing was the gold standard diagnosis against which FNAC was compared. Results: Our study included 82 patients who underwent preoperative FNAC of major salivary glands with subsequent surgical excision. Male to female ratio was 1.4: 1. The median age was 42 years. Parotid gland was involved in (68.3%), submandibular in (28%) and sub mental gland in (3.7%). Forty cases (48.8%) were cytologically diagnosed as benign lesions, 26 (31.7%) were malignant and 10 (12.2%) were suspicious. Cytological findings were non diagnostic in 6 (7.3%). The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma; 16 out of 40 cases (40%), while the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma; 22 out of 26 cases (84.6%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones and were true-negative in 37 (92.5%), true-positive in 33 (91.6%), false-negative in 3 (8.3%) and false-positive in 3 (7.5%) cases regarding detection of malignant tumors. The cytologic diagnosis achieved a sensitivity of 91.7%; a specificity of 92.5%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 92.5% and diagnostic accuracy 92%. The rates of agreement of histopathologic type for benign and malignant tumors were 89.2% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC were 91.7%, 92.5% and 92%, respectively. Attention to subtle morphologic changes, pitfalls and limitations are important to increase diagnostic accuracy. Multidirectional aspiration is preferred to avoid selective sampling. Re-aspiration of solid portion after cyst fluid aspiration is necessary to decrease the rate of inadequacy

316

Salivary gland protection by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer  

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Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy using 100 to 120 MBq Tc-99m-pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after radioiodine treatment with 6 GBq I-131. Eight patients were treated with 500 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment and compared retrospectively with 9 control patients. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO criteria. In 9 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced Tc-99m-pertechnetate uptake by 35.4{+-}22.0% and 31.7{+-}21.1% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Of these 9 patients, 3 exhibited xerostomia Grade I (WHO). In contrast, in 8 amifostine-treated patients, there was no significant (p=0.878) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Heilversuchs wurde eine limitierte Anzahl von Patienten untersucht. Vor und drei Monate nach Gabe von 6 GBq I-131 wurde eine quantitative Speicheldruesenszintigraphie mit 100 bis 120 MBq Tc-99m-Pertechnetat an 17 Patienten mit differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinomen durchgefuehrt. Acht Patienten erhielten vor Radiojodtherapie 500 mg/m{sup 2} Amifostin und wurden mit einer historischen Kontrollgruppe aus neun Patienten verglichen. Eine Xerostomie wurde nach WHO-Kriterien beurteilt. Die Patienten der Kontrollgruppe wiesen sowohl fuer die Glandulae parotides als auch fuer die Glandulae submandibulares eine signifikante Verminderung der Tc-99m-Pertechnetat-Aufnahme um 35,4{+-}22,0% bzw. 31,7{+-}21,1% als Zeichen einer Parenchymschaedigung auf. Bei drei dieser neuen Patienten fand sich eine Xerostomie Grad I (WHO). Im Gegensatz dazu konnte bei den mit Amifostin behandelten Patienten keine signifikante Verminderung der Parechymfunktion festgestellt werden (p=0,878). Dementsprechend wies keiner dieser Patienten eine Xerostomie auf. (orig.)

Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Bleckmann, C.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Brenner, W.; Lassmann, S.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

1999-02-01

317

Quantitative comparison of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands  

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The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare the scintigraphic images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands obtained with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Forty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent {sup 201}Tl (74 MBq), {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate (74 MBq) and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (555-740 MBq) scintigraphy in a single session. Image analysis included the computation of the thyroid/background ratio in the whole study population and the parathyroid/background ratio, parathyroid/thyroid ratio and diagnostic sensitivity in 17 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. The pertechnetate subtraction technique was used. {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin showed a similar thyroid/background ratio (1.79{+-}0.41 and 1.81{+-}0.47, respectively, P=NS); however, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin showed a higher parathyroid/background ratio than {sup 201}Tl (2.06{+-}0.54 vs 1.79{+-} 0.50, P=0.007). Despite the superior quality of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin images, both tracers showed identical sensitivity in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (89%) and in those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (50%). (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs.

Giordano, A.; Meduri, G.; Calcagni, M.L. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy); Marozzi, P.; Ficola, U.; Vaccaro, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cervello Hospital, Palermo (Italy); Rubini, G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University, Bari (Italy); Attard, M.; Li Puma, M. [Department of Endocrinology, Cervello Hospital, Palermo (Italy); Ricci, R. [Department of Pathology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Corsello, S. [Department of Endocrinology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy)

1999-08-01

318

Small-animal radionuclide luminescence imaging of thyroid and salivary glands with Tc99m-pertechnetate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro and in vivo detection of visible photons from radioisotopes using optical techniques is a fast-growing field in molecular imaging. Tc99m-pertechnetate is used as an alternative to I123 in imaging of the thyroid and is generally imaged with gamma cameras or single photon emission tomography instruments. The uptake in the thyroid tissue is mediated by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), a glycoprotein that actively mediates iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells and several extrathyroidal tissues. The luminescence of the gamma emitter Tc99m-pertechnetate in order to visualize its biodistribution in healthy small living animals by using a commercial optical imaging system is investigated. Here we show that in Nu/Nu mice, the uptake of Tc99m-pertechnetate in the thyroid gland and in salivary glands is very detectable by using radionuclide luminescence imaging. We also found light emission from the stomach in accordance with the literature. The localization of the light signals in the anatomical regions where the radiopharmaceutical is expected, confirmed by resections, shows that it is possible to image NIS-expressing tissues. PMID:23843083

Boschi, Federico; Pagliazzi, Marco; Rossi, Barbara; Cecchini, Maria Paola; Gorgoni, Giancarlo; Salgarello, Matteo; Spinelli, Antonello E

2013-07-01

319

Quantitative comparison of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare the scintigraphic images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands obtained with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Forty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent 201Tl (74 MBq), 99mTc-pertechnetate (74 MBq) and 99mTc-tetrofosmin (555-740 MBq) scintigraphy in a single session. Image analysis included the computation of the thyroid/background ratio in the whole study population and the parathyroid/background ratio, parathyroid/thyroid ratio and diagnostic sensitivity in 17 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. The pertechnetate subtraction technique was used. 201Tl and 99mTc-tetrofosmin showed a similar thyroid/background ratio (1.79±0.41 and 1.81±0.47, respectively, P=NS); however, 99mTc-tetrofosmin showed a higher parathyroid/background ratio than 201Tl (2.06±0.54 vs 1.79± 0.50, P=0.007). Despite the superior quality of 99mTc-tetrofosmin images, both tracers showed identical sensitivity in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (89%) and in those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (50%). (orig.)

320

Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions  

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Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 ?g/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 ?g/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

Markovi? Ljiljana

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

322

Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions—A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue® perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

323

Cytogenetic analysis of tumoral thyroid tissues of thyroid glands of people from Gomel region as against Brest one  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis in vivo of histologically normal and tumoral thyroid tissues has shown that in organism of examined patients with thyroid cancer mutation process taken place not only in tumor but in histologically normal tissue. As a result of investigations pursued a significant increase in the level of aberrant cells in thyroid cell populations was revealed in people from Gomel regions as against Brest one

324

Clinical Significance of Diffuse {sup 18F} FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy  

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We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2{+-}1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0{+-}664.6 vs. 57.3{+-}46.4, P<0.0001). Mean attenuation values in the diffuse uptake group were significantly lower (72.2{+-}15. vs. 97.0{+-}16.0, P<0.0001). An inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and mean attenuation values of residual thyroid in all patients (r=-0.57, P<0.0001) and subgroup with diffuse uptake (r=-0.31, P<0.05). In this study, diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The {sup 18F} FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

Song, Hee Sung; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jandee; Soh, Euy Young; An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou Univ. School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15

325

Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman) surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes). Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation

326

Radioiodine Treatment Effects on Lacrimal Glands Function in Patients with Thyroid Cancer  

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Full Text Available Introduction: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi of I-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient. Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light one patient (2 eyes revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation.

A. Fard Esfahani

2005-07-01

327

The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat  

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Full Text Available Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treated to give KIO3 and KI salt was intended to determine the level of supplementation of iodine (I2, the level of MDA in serum and histological rat thyroid gland. MDA levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the KIO3 and KI salt was significantly (p<0.05 reduce levels of MDA in the serum of treatment with KIO3 salt (33.62% and KI salt (37,02% and improving histological of the thyroid gland rats.

Chanif Mahdi

2014-04-01

328

Synchronous malignancies of breast and thyroid gland: A case report and review of literature  

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Full Text Available The relationship and coincidence of breast cancer with thyroid disorders is a subject of extensive debate and controversy. Many studies have shown that thyroid diseases are common among women with breast cancer. We present a case of concomitant malignancy of breast and thyroid with review of literature on the association of breast with thyroid neoplasm. The potential association and plausible mechanisms of breast carcinoma development after or before the thyroid carcinoma should be evaluated in larger cohorts of patients.

Agarwal Dwarka

2007-01-01

329

Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on serum levels of LH and testosterone and weights of testes and thyroid gland in rat  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of metabolism, maturity and reproduction. Thyroid dysfunction affects almost all endocrine glands such as pituitary and testis. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH serum levels as well as weights of thyroid gland and testes in methimazole (MMI-induced hypothyroidism. Methods: Twenty-one adult male rats weighing 185 g were divided into 3 groups. The control group received drinking water, while treated groups received two doses of methimazole; low dose (20 mg/dl in drinking water and high dose (100 mg/dl in drinking water, for 42 days. At the end of the experiments, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed and serum samples were obtained. Serum levels of hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay. Weights of testes and thyroid gland were determined after sacrifice. Results: Results showed that the use of methimazole decreased serum levels of T4, T3, testosterone and LH as well as the weight of testes, while it increased the weight of thyroid gland compared to control group. These effects were more clear in the high dose group. Conclusion: This study suggests that MMI–induced hypothyroidism causes a significant decrease in serum levels of thyroid hormones, testosterone and LH. Hypothyroidism also decreases the weight of testes, while it increases the weight of thyroid in rat. These effects were dose-dependent.

Esmaeil Mohamadizadeh

2011-08-01

330

Monitoring intervals for measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129I in thyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work shows the monitoring interval, which can be implemented in the Laboratorio de Contaminacion Interna del Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, for direct measurement in the thyroid gland of radionuclides 125I and 129I . Were used two measuring systems, one employing a scintillating detector and the other detector Phoswich. Both detectors were placed inside a depth camera, 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5m of dimension covered with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm lead, 1.8 mm tin and 1.5 mm of copper. Was calculated for each system, the minimum detectable activity, and based on this, the monitoring interval is determined. Was obtained, for 125, all tested intervals, 120, 90,60,30 , 14, and 7 days may be implemented with both systems. In the case of the radionuclide 129 I, with the installation of scintillating detector can only be implemented the intervals 120, 90, and 60 days , and for installation with Phoswich, all evaluated

331

Temperature dependent changes in the thyroid gland of Mertensiella caucasica (Urodela, Amphibia).  

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The influence of temperature on the thyroid gland of the Caucasian salamander, Mertensiella caucasica has been studied (1) with the light- and electron microscopes, (2) with enzyme histochemical and quantitative methods. Animals which had been kept for years at 16 degrees C were exposed for 48 hrs to 4 degrees C or 27 degrees C. At 4 degrees C the follicular epithelium consisted of cuboidal cells with well-developed rough ER, occasional distended cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) filling most of the cytoplasm, a relatively small Golgi apparatus and numerous round or oval shaped lysosomes. In animals kept at 27 degrees C the follicular wall was composed of markedly taller epithelial cells, the apices of which bulged into the follicular lumen. Compared to the animals at 4 degrees C, there appeared to be a decrease in the rough ER. The Golgi apparatus did not exhibit clear differences. The lysosomes increased in number and showed various shapes among which elongated ones with pointed ends were particularly striking. In the apical cytoplasm colloid droplets appeared indicating hormone release. The apical microvilli increased in number. The measurements of total T4 have shown that the hormone level in animals kept at 27 degrees C was about twice as high as in animals kept at 4 degrees C. PMID:177213

Schubert, C; Welsch, U

1976-01-28

332

Soft tissue metastasis of thyroid carcinoma in the knee region mimicking a paraarticular inflammatory lesion.  

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We report a case of a 57-year-old male patient presenting with a painful mass in the popliteal fossa of the left knee, while the X-ray being unremarkable, MRI suggested a paraarticular lesion such as an inflamed paraarticular ganglion. A biopsy showed a poorly differentiated metastasis of a papillary thyroid carcinoma, the patient had been operated on 8 years ago. This case emphasizes that in patients with malignancies such as papillary thyroid carcinomas long-term courses (over years) with several phases of tumor spread occur finally leading to filiae in any location. Thus, in such patients, a metastatic lesion even in unusual places such as the periarticular soft tissue should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:20119712

Prietzel, Torsten; Macher, Anna; Haferkorn, Irina; Schmitz, Nicole; Schmidt, Frank; Aigner, Thomas

2010-12-01

333

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... destroy thyroid tissue and may result in hypothyroidism. Tumors that affect the pituitary gland can damage the area that secretes TSH. Without TSH, the thyroid gland does not make thyroid hormones and the patient will ... small lumps such as tumors, cysts, and cancers. These lumps are called nodules. ...

334

Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid  

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Full Text Available Background: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult. Thus, additional diagnostic features that can assist in this distinction would have great clinical usefulness. Aims: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Settings and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Ki-67 immunostaining was performed by peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and compared with mitotic counts. Results: Ki-67 labeling index (LI showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms. A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05 and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05. The correlation between mitotic counts and Ki-67 LI was found to be significant. Conclusions: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

Pujani M

2010-01-01

335

Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound. Longitudinal growth data from birth were available. RESULTS: TV increased significantly with age (r = 0.487; P < 0.001). Mean TV +/- sd for different age groups were as follows: 4 yr, 2.2 +/- 1.4 ml; 5 yr, 2.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 6 yr, 2.8 +/- 1.3 ml; 7 yr, 3.2 +/- 1.3 ml; 8 yr, 3.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 9 yr, 3.7 +/- 1.3 ml. We found a significant positive association between IGF-I and TV (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in multiple regression analyses, TSH (P < 0.013), free T(4) (P < 0.001), lean body mass (P < 0.001), and body surface area (P < 0.001) as well as other anthropometrical measurements were identified as factors significantly associated with TV. Family history of thyroid disease and presence of incidental abnormal ultrasound findings were also positively associated with TV (P = 0.025 and 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of prepubertal Danish children, the GH/IGF-I-axis was positively correlated with thyroid size, suggesting a role in the regulation of thyroid growth. Moreover, anthropometric measurements, in particular body surface area, were the best predictors of TV Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10

Boas, M.; Hegedus, L.

2009-01-01

336

Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

337

Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries. Clin. Anat. 27:1185-1192, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25130905

Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

2014-11-01

338

Effects of phenylbutazone and anabolic steroids on adrenal and thyroid gland function tests in healthy horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adrenal and/or thyroid gland function tests were evaluated in horses at various times during short-term therapy with phenylbutazone, stanozolol, and boldenone undecylenate. There were no significant treatment or time effects on mean basal plasma cortisol concentrations in horses during treatment with the following: phenylbutazone, given twice daily (4 to 5 mg/kg, IV) for 5 days; stanozolol, given twice weekly (0.55 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; boldenone undecylenate, given twice weekly (1.1 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; or nothing. There was no significant effect of phenylbutazone treatment on the changes in plasma cortisol concentration during the combined dexamethasone-suppression adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulation test. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly decreased from base line at 3 hours after dexamethasone administration and was significantly increased from base line at 2 hours after ACTH in all horses (P less than 0.05). Likewise, the stimulation of basal plasma cortisol concentrations at 2 hours after administration of ACTH (P less than 0.05) was not affected by treatment with stanozolol or boldenone undecylenate. There were no significant treatment effects on mean basal plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) among horses during the following treatments: stanozolol, given twice weekly (0.55 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; boldenone undecylenate, given twice weekly (1.1 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; or nothing. There was a significant time effect on overall mean basal plasma T4 and T3 concentrations (P less than 0.05): plasma T4 was lower on day 8 than on days 1, 10, and 12; plasma T3 was higher on day 8 than on days 4 and 12.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3994102

Morris, D D; Garcia, M C

1985-02-01

339

Radioiodine therapy effects on salivary gland function in patients with differentiated Thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available Salivary gland involvement is one of the radioiodine therapy complications. Salivary gland scintigraphy in quantitative mode can accurately evaluate salivary gland function. Methods: Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed with Tc-99m Pertechnetate, at the time of iodine therapy as a basic study and then 3 weeks and 3 months afterwards. Ejection Fraction (EF of parotid and submandibular glands was obtained at each stage of the study. Results: 36 patients (10 male, 16 female were studied. Mean of EF 3 weeks and 3 months following radioiodine therapy was reduced. There was no significant involvement in 12 patients (33.3%. With increase in radioiodine dose, more salivary gland involvement was noted in 3 weeks (P=0.07, but not after 3 months (P=0.5. No difference was noted between two sexes (P=0.6. Parotid gland involvement was more than submandibular gland (P<0.05, confirming more radiosensitivity of parotid gland. No meaningful relation was noted between salivary gland involvements with age (P=0.1. Parotid gland dysfunction was not related to radioiodine dose, but in submandibular gland, with dosage increase, more involvement was noted (P=0.02. Clinical symptoms were not reliable in evaluating salivary gland dysfunction.

Fard Esfahani A

2003-05-01

340

Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process  

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Full Text Available The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

Zyablov ?. V.

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Radiation exposure to the pediatric patient during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Emphasis on the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure the radiation exposure to the skin, thyroid and gonads in 50 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and angiocariography using cine photofluorography. Average exposures were 17.1 R to the skin, 2.3 R to the thyroid and 0.1 R to the gonads. Fluoroscopy accounted for approximately 80% of the skin and thyroid exposure and cine photofluorography for 20 to 25%. Occasional primary-beam irradiation was the major contributor to gonad exposure. Internal scatter of the incident x-ray beam was primarily responsible for thyroid exposure, so that infants received relatively high exposures; one receiving 7.3 R. The thyroid was not frequently in the primary beam. The significance of high radiation exposure to the thyroid, and in particular its relationship to thyroid carcinoma, are discussed. The results are compared with other series in the literature and relative exposures of cine photofluorography and serial filming are contrasted

342

Normal values of thyroid gland in Isfahan, an iodine replete area  

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Full Text Available

  • BACKGROUND: Because of different values of thyroid volume in different populations, and the effects of different trace element and geographic substances on thyroid volume, we decided to evaluate thyroid volume and its determinants using ultrasound in healthy adults of Isfahan, a centrally located city in Iran, an iodine replete area.
  • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 1500 healthy adults were enrolled by cluster sampling. Serum TSH level and morning urine iodine level were measured. Thyroid exam was performed according to WHO criteria and history of previous or present thyroid disease was taken. If all the mentioned results were normal they were considered clinically normal. One third of these normal subjects referred for thyroid ultrasonography. If ultrasonography of thyroid parenchyma texture was normal, and there was no nodule by sonography (thyroid incidentaloma, thyroid volume was measured using ellipsoid formula (X×Y×Z×8/6. Correlation between thyroid volume and age, sex, BMI, TSH level and urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient, t-Test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Thyroid volume more than 97% of this population was considered as goiter sonographically. Data expressed as mean ± SD, unless otherwise stated.
  • RESULTS: We finally studied 200 subjects (123 Males, 77 females, average age: 37.27 ± 11.80 Years. The overall thyroid volume was 9.53 ± 3.68 ml. Males thyroid volume (10.73 ± 3.44 ml was significantly higher than the females one (7.71 ± 2.63 ml (P < 0.001. The thyroid volume ranges were 3-23.9 ml, 3.6-23.9 ml and 3-14.3 ml in all, males and females, respectively. Thyroid volume values more than 97 percentile of this reference range were 10.14 ml, 11.48 ml and 8.37 ml in all, males and females respectively, and were considered goiter sonographically. Thyroid volume had a positive correlation with age (r = 0.163, P = 0.022, but did not have correlation with serum TSH, UIC, and BMI, in both sexes. There was a strong correlation between thyroid volume, and height and body surface area (r = 0.48, P < 0.001.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It was documented that thyroid volume is higher in male sex and increases with age, and have a positive correlation with body surface area and height.
  • KEY WORDS: Adult, thyroid, ultrasonography, volume.

Atoosa Adibi

2008-04-01

343

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a normal level of calcium in the blood. Hypothyroidism When the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones, hypothyroidism develops. “Hypo” means less. The decrease in thyroid ...

344

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... does not produce enough hormones, hypothyroidism develops. “Hypo” means less. The decrease in thyroid hormones slows metabolism. ... thyroid gland produces extra hormone, hyperthyroidism develops. “Hyper” means more. hyperthyroidism causes patients to be jittery and ...

345

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... iodine, which can cause the thyroid gland to swell trying to make more thyroid hormone. This condition ... days after surgery. They cause the leg to swell and hurt. Blood clots can become dislodged from ...

346

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... the body is burning. This is known as metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood ... means less. The decrease in thyroid hormones slows metabolism. This can lead to a feeling of fatigue, ...

347

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... hyperactive thyroid tissue. This can lead to the total destruction of the thyroid gland, resulting in hypothyroidism. ... 04/25/2013 6 After surgery, avoid strenuous activity and getting your incision wet for about one ...

348

CT-diagnosis for mass lesions in the parotid gland and cervical region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty patients suffering from mass lesion in the parotid gland or cervical region were examined by computed tomography (CT). The photographed images were compared with the findings and pathological diagnoses obtained by surgical procedures. The conclusions were as follows: 1) Plain CT demonstrated the location of the parotid tumor. Contrast enhancement seemed to delineate the margin of the tumor more clearly. 2) By contrast enhancement, the branchiogenic cyst was differentiated from the parotid tumor, as a low density mass with an enhanced cyst wall. 3) Parotid tumors enhanced by contrast material did not always appear as solid tumors. 4) In some cases, CT numbers indicated the contents of the tumor. 5) The extension of the tumor to the parapharyngeal space was clearly depicted on CT. 6) It seemed to be difficult to evaluate the relationship of the parotid tumor to the facial nerve on plain CT. (author)

349

Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions / Imaginologia das lesões das glândulas adrenais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O crescente uso da tomografia computadorizada e da ressonância magnética levou a um aumento na identificação de nódulos adrenais incidentais, também chamados de incidentalomas, gerando um impasse diagnóstico para o radiologista, bem como um número significativo de pesquisas a fim de caracterizar ess [...] as lesões como benignas ou malignas. Apesar de a maioria dos incidentalomas representar um processo benigno, geralmente um adenoma, a possibilidade de a lesão ser maligna requer suficiente acurácia dos métodos de imagem para que esses possam auxiliar no manejo dos pacientes. Neste artigo nós apresentamos uma revisão da literatura dedicada à investigação radiológica das lesões adrenais, com ênfase na tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética e tomografia por emissão de prótons, e discutimos como os achados de imagem relacionam-se com a prática clínica. Tecnologias recentes, como a ultrassonografia com uso de contraste, a tomografia computadorizada com dupla fonte de energia e a espectroscopia de prótons por ressonância magnética são brevemente discutidas. Abstract in english With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indet [...] erminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

Keith, Herr; Valdair F., Muglia; Walter José, Koff; Antonio Carlos, Westphalen.

2014-07-01

350

Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of 131I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 ± 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing 131I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of 131I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered 131I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% ± 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% ± 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P 131I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 ± 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 ± 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P 131I therapy. On the other hand, failure to incorporate a nonuniform and preferential uptake by salivary gland ductal cells may result in underestimating the actual dose for the critical tissue. Other methods, including 124I voxel-based dosimetry, are warranted to further investigate the 131I-induced salivary gland toxicity.

351

Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

352

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... skull and under the brain, known as the pituitary gland, controls the levels of the thyroid hormone in ... may result in hypothyroidism. Tumors that affect the pituitary gland can damage the area that secretes TSH. Without ...

353

The clinicopothologic study of benign and malignant lesions of salivary glands in patients attending Shiraz dental school in 15 years  

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Full Text Available Background: There are malignant and benign intra-oral pathologic lesions of salivary gland. Reevaluation of paitants’ age, sex and location of lesions can help to have better diagnosis and accurate comparison with other studies in other countries.Materials and Method: In a retrospective study, cases of benign and malignant salivary gland during 1369 to 1385 retrieved from the files and histopathologic records of cases diagnosed at Shiraz School of Dentistry.Results: From 110 cases, 70 cases had mucocele, 15 had sialadenitis, 7 of pleomorphic adenoma, 3 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the remaining 3 cases had adenoid cystic carcinoma. The mean age for patients with mucoceles was 20. 8 and the most common site were mucosa of the lower lips. The mean age for patients with sialadenitis was 34. The most common sites were mucosa of the lips and submandibular gland. The mean age of pleomorphic adenoma was 32 and the most common site was hard palate. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was detected in 3 males at the ages of 44 to 54. Adenoidcystic carcinoma was seen in 3 patients at the ages of 18 to 32.Conclusion: Mucocele was the most common lesion (71% and pleomorphic adenoma constituted 70% of all salivary gland diseases and 53% of all neoplasms. Mucocele was the most common lesion in lower lip, in the second and third decades with equal gender distribution. Pleomorphic adenoma occurs more in third and fourth decades and the most common site was hard palate

Soheil Pardis

2012-02-01

354

Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta dose contribution. Photon-absorbed dose fractions of total absorbed dose were 4.9% {+-} 1.3% (range, 1.1%-8.7%) and 3.7% {+-} 2.5% (range, 0.8%-7.9%) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Conclusions: The iodine uptake of salivary glands is continuously reduced during the courses of therapy. The phenomenon of hyper-radiosensitivity may to some extent account for the occurrence of salivary gland hypofunction at very low radiation doses with low dose rates in {sup 131}I therapy. On the other hand, failure to incorporate a nonuniform and preferential uptake by salivary gland ductal cells may result in underestimating the actual dose for the critical tissue. Other methods, including {sup 124}I voxel-based dosimetry, are warranted to further investigate the {sup 131}I-induced salivary gland toxicity.

Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.; Zhao, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

2011-10-15

355

Right thyroid hemiagenesis with adenoma and hyperplasia of parathyroid glands -case report  

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Abstract Background Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare anomaly, more commonly seen on the left side (ratio 4:1) and in females (ratio 3:1). The first to describe this anomaly was Handfield Jones in 1852. Case presentation We present a 66 year old female patient with right thyroid hemiagenesis, parathyroid adenoma on the side of hemiagenesis and parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side. The patient had neck pain and was diagnosed as Hashimto thyroiditis with...

Oruci Merima; Ito Yasuhiro; Buta Marko; Radisavljevic Ziv; Pupic Gordana; Djurisic Igor; Dzodic Radan

2012-01-01

356

Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2014-05-05

357

Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2014-06-30

358

Detection of Thyroid Metastasis pf Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 69 year old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed,and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

359

Detection of Thyroid Metastasis pf Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT  

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A 69 year old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed,and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

Kim, Yong Il; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Jin [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Jin Ho [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15

360

Comparison of aspiration vs non-aspiration techniques in fine-needle cytology of thyroid lesions  

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Full Text Available Aim: To compare the efficacy of fine-needle non-aspiration cytology (FNNAC with that of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: FNAC and FNNAC techniques were studied in 50 cases of thyroid lesions. All the needle-sampling procedures were done by a single operator. The samples were assessed cytologically and evaluated using five parameters, that is, background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, and degree of cellular trauma and retention of appropriate architecture. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed using SPSS14 software. Differences between all the individual parameters as observed in FNAC and FNNAC smears were insignificant. Results and Conclusion: After evaluation of FNAC and FNNAC on the basis of these scores, greater numbers of diagnostically superior samples were obtained by FNNAC; however, by FNAC more number of diagnostically adequate smears were observed. The numbers of unsuitable smears were also more by FNNAC technique.

Maurya Anil

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Thyroid gland formation from inocula of monodispersed cells: early results on quantitation, function, neoplasia, radiation effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Procedures are described by which (a) suspensions of monodispersed rat thyroid cells may be prepared and irradiated or otherwise manipulated in vitro, (b) known numbers of morphologically viable cells can be inoculated into untreated or hormonally manipulated histocompatible recipients, and (c) the morphological, functional, and neoplastic potential of the inoculated thyroid cells can be quantitatively assessed. The development of glandular structures at the site of thyroid cell inoculation is quantitatively related to the number of cells injected. These glandular structures concentrate radioiodide, support body growth of thyroidectomized hosts, and are susceptible to neoplastic change

362

Morphological features of thyroid gland of children who have died aged till 6 months from a HIV-infected of mothers  

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Full Text Available In a thyroid gland of children who have died aged till 6 months, from a HIV-infected of mothers thanks to morphological and morphometric researches it is taped reduction of internal diameter of follicles, heights follicular cells, and as increase the stromal and reduction colloid components, testifying about change secretion type, apparently, caused by influence antenatal and a postnatal hypoxia.

Sherstiuk S.A.

2011-01-01

363

Using of oncomarkers in morphological diagnostics of epithelial tumors of thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available This study is dedicated to research molecular marker’s expression in the differentiated thyroid tumors for prognosis of subsequent clinical course. In this study thyroid tumors were analyzed for NIS, thyroglobulin, galectin-3, p53 expression as well as for proliferation activity (based on Ki-67 expression depending on the presence of metastases and invasion level. It was identified the prognostic value of each marker of biological properties. The immunophenotypes of thyroid cancers with high risk of tumor dissemination were established. The differential diagnostic marker of follicular tumors was proposed as well. These immunomorphology tumor profile based findings allow to predict the clinical course of thyroid cancer that make possible to separate the groups of patients, which need more careful clinical observing and examination, individualization of treatment as well as group of patients, which may get less invasive treatment methods.

Bondarenko ?.?.

2009-01-01

364

Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) presenting as a painless cold nodule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 49-yr-old woman presented with a solid, painless, nontender nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a solitary cold area in the left lobe and a slightly decreased 24-hr radioactive iodine thyroid uptake (9%). Although there were no specific clinical or biochemical signs suggesting thyroiditis needle aspiration cytology showed the presence of a subacute thyroiditis. Approximately 1 mo later the entire thyroid gland was affected leading to a completely suppressed thyroid radioiodine uptake and elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This case illustrates that in the early phase of the disease, subacute thyroiditis may present as a solitary, painless, cold nodule and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions

365

Scintiscan characteristics of the normal thyroid gland - determination of size and weight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The average surface areas of 267 thyroids classified as showing no particular pathological findings on the basis of colour scintigraphy were determined using the 'h times b' formula and also a planimetric method of calculation. The findings revealed permitted the quantitative relation between the right and left lobes of the thyroid and the ratios of surface to volume or surface to weight to be established just as well as the so-called 'life curve'. (TRV)

366

Electron radiography in the evaluation of solitary nodules in the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiography and more recently xeroradiography have been used in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. We have found electron radiography (ERG, Xonics Medical Systems) superior to both, in that ERG provides better edge enhancement and detection of soft-tissue calcification than conventional radiography and produces less radiation dose than xeroradiography. However, in a controlled study of 101 patients with solitary nodules of the thyroid, radiography was of only limited value in patient management decisions. The study is reviewed here

367

Malignancy risk assessment in adenomatoid nodules and suspicious follicular lesions of the thyroid obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to assess malignancy risk in adenomatoid nodules and suspicious follicular lesions of the thyroid obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. Retrospective research was performed of 276 patients who underwent thyroid surgery after preoperative ultrasound-guided FNA diagnosis of either adenomatoid nodule, cellular follicular lesion, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" or follicular neoplasm. Out of 276 patients, FNA reports showed 15 diagnoses (5%) of adenomatoid nodules, 73 (26%) cellular follicular lesions, 76 (28%) "suspicious for follicular neoplasm", and 112 diagnoses (41%) of follicular neoplasm. FNA reports were compared with pathohistological findings. In FNA reports of adenomatoid nodule (N = 15), there were seven (47%) pathohistological diagnoses (PHDs) of nodular goiter, and eight (53%) PHDs of follicular adenoma. In FNA reports of cellular follicular lesion (N = 73), there were 2 (3%) PHDs of thyroiditis, 32 (44%) PHDs of nodular goiter, 38 (52%) PHDs of follicular adenoma, and one (1%) PHD of papillary carcinoma. In FNA reports of "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" (N = 76), there was one (1%) PHD of thyroiditis, 24 (32%) PHDs of nodular goiter, 47 (62%) PHDs of follicular adenoma and four (5%) diagnoses of papillary carcinoma. In FNA reports of follicular neoplasm (N = 112), there were 25 (22%) PHDs of nodular goiter, 72 (64%) PHDs of follicular adenoma, and 15 (14%) PHDs of thyroid carcinoma. We found significant difference (p < 0.01) between investigated FNA report groups according to malignancy risk. Stratification of cytologic diagnoses of follicular thyroid lesions into different subcategories with various probabilities of malignancy allows more accurate estimation of malignancy risk and individualized patient treatment, when deciding between immediate operation and close follow-ups with repeat FNA. PMID:20698101

Dabeli?, Nina; Matesa, Neven; Matesa-Ani?, Dubravka; Kusi?, Zvonko

2010-06-01

368

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... box. The gland partially wraps around the windpipe, or trachea. The feeding tube, or esophagus, lies behind the trachea. In very close ... secretes a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, or TSH. TSH causes the thyroid gland to produce ...

369

Anaplastic thyroid cancer  

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... carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland. ... Anaplastic thyroid cancer grows very rapidly and is an invasive type of thyroid cancer . It occurs most often in people ...

370

Substernal Thyroid Masses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A thyroid mass, most often a non toxic colloid goiter or occasionally an adenoma, is not an unusual finding below the level of the thoracic inlet.1 In 1992 Creswell and Wells estimated that these tumors comprise 5.8% of all mediastinal lesions.1 There is no standard definition for thyroid glands extending below the thoracic inlet, but such masses descend from their original cervical location for more than 2 or 3 cm below the thoracic inlet, and are not truly primary tumors of the mediastinum....

Regal, Mohamed A. H.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Ahmed, Ahmed S.; Aljehani, Yasser M.; Enani, Hussam S.; Al Sayah, Ahmed A.

2010-01-01

371

Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Neck Mimicking Cold Thyroid Nodule in 99m Tc Thyroid Scintigraphy  

Science.gov (United States)

A 68-year-old man had a rapidly growing, painless neck mass, thought to be nodular goiter. Ultrasonography showed a giant, heterogeneous mass occupying the middle and superior poles and protruding outside of the left thyroid lobe. The results of the thyroid function tests were normal. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a large hypoactive nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Complete surgical removal of tumor was performed and macroscopically demonstrated a well-demarked lesion outside the thyroid gland. Microscopically, the lesion was composed of fibroblast-like spindle cells in a patternless architecture and extensive stromal hyalinization. Immunohistochemistry showed positive reaction for CD34 in spindle cells and diffuse bcl-2 staining. The pathology was confirmed as solitary fibrous tumor. In the follow-up period after surgery, thyroid scintigraphy showed normal left thyroid lobe. Solitary fibrous tumor originated from or associated with thyroid gland is extremely rare. According to our knowledge, this is the first reported solitary fibrous tumor presenting like a cold thyroid nodule. This pathology must be considered for differential diagnosis of neck masses in the thyroid region. PMID:24194989

Topaloglu, Oya; Ucan, Bekir; Demirci, Taner; Sayki Arslan, Muyesser; Saylam, Guleser; Onder, Evrim; Gultekin, Sinan; Dilli, Alper; Sahin, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman; Ozbek, Mustafa; Delibasi, Tuncay

2013-01-01

372

Hematologic long-term modifications after radio-iodine therapy of the carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a retrospective study, the hematologic parameters of 296 patients treated with iodine-131 (average: 536 mCi) for carcinoma of the thyroid gland were evaluated with respect to the different doses applied. The average observation period was 65 months. The most frequent hematologic modification was thrombocytopenia which was found in 35%, followed by erythrocytopenia in 24% of cases. The normal concentration of leucocytes was decreased in 11% and increased in 23% of cases, however, the medium value calculated for all patients showed a decrease of leucocytes by 7%. Pancytopenias were found in 4,4% of cases. The most severe decreases were presented after high doses of radio-iodine (? 1000 mCi). Pancytopenia may be considered as one of the causes of the death of three patients. (orig.)

373

Value of posttherapeutic scintigraphy for the demonstration of distant metastases of differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value of posttherapeutic scintigraphy performed at discharge with the remaining radioactivity after an ablative radio-iodine therapy was studied in 190 patients with differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland (54% papillary and 46% follicular carcinomas). 163 patients (86%) had no signs of disease. 33 patients had distant metastases. In six out of them, the examination method allowed a first demonstration of metastases. In seven further cases, additional, hitherto unknown foci were found. There was a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 82% (no false positive findings, six false negative findings). Further to the usual image-producing examination methods (native X-ray diagnosis, sonography and CT), posttherapeutic scintigraphy furnishes early information about the formation of distant metastases. Therefore it is helpful to indicate a regional percutaneous X-ray therapy and to assess the prognosis. (orig.)

374

Hematologic long-term modifications after radio-iodine therapy in carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

59 posttherapeutic examinations of the bone marrow have been performed in 35 patients out of a group of 296 patients treated from 1969 through 1976 by postoperative iodine-131 irradiations for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Seven patients had normal findings, twelve patients showed panmyelopathy as principal finding, and fourteen patients presented modifications of the three marrow systems in differents degrees and combinations. Acute myeloid leukemia was demonstrated in two patients by examination of the bone marrow, in another case the same disease was diagnosed by an analysis of the peripheral blood count. Taking into account the dosimetric considerations of the authors and the three cases of leukemia observed within the total group of patients, a risk factor for leukemia of 7.0x10-5xrd-1 is calculated which is slightly higher than he leukemia induction rate communicated in literature (22/2646 patients; 1-2/100 000/rd/year). (orig.)

375

Evaluation of digital subtraction angiography in preoperative differentiation of benign and malignant nodular lesions of the thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have studied digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with 51 patients having benign and malignant nodular lesions of the thyroid. DSA studies were all performed before surgical intervention. Later, DSA imaging patterns were compared with histopathologic findings, retrospectively. The results of DSA technique showed that 3 out of 17 cases were nodules of papillary carcinoma which were blush at the lesion site, six cases were lucent, eight were unclear residuary cases. These DSA findings have indicated that diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were difficult because the DSA findings of papillary carcinoma have no special features. However, two follicular carcinoma and eleven follicular adenoma were all blush at the lesion site. Then, the selection of follicular carcinoma and adenoma from other thyroid nodules seemed possible, however the differentiation between follicular carcinoma and adenoma was impossible. Seventeen adenomatous goiters showed variegated DSA findings, characteristic findings showed lucent at the sites of the lesion which were degenerated enlarged cysts. Thus, it appears that DSA is not a suitable technique for the diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. The purpose of DSA imaging is to infer the compression, sift, obstruction of the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein owing to a tumor by a less invasive procedure. It would appear that the utilization of DSA must be chosen for the thyroid nodule. (author) (author)

376

Evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology as a screening tool in thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Methods: The retrospective study comprised data of all patients who presented for fine needle aspiration cytology at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, between January 2009 and April 2011. The data was retrieved from the departmental records and the results were recorded. All cases who underwent subsequent surgery were also retrieved and histopathology results were compared with the cytology results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Results: Of the 327 patients, the results were inconclusive in 18 (5.5%), benign in 230 (70.3%), suspicious in 64 (19.6%) and malignant in 15 (4.6%) cases. Besides, 59 (18%) of these patients underwent subsequent surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology was calculated to be 85.7%, 73.3%, 50% , 94.2% and 76.2% respectively. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a reasonably sensitive, specific and accurate initial diagnostic test for pre-operative evaluation of patients with thyroid swellings. The clinicians should be encouraged to use the procedure as it is minimally invasive and easily performed in an outpatient setting. (author)

377

Thyroid abscess.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid abscess arising from Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis (AST is a rare clinical disorder. The ability of the thyroid gland to resist infection is well known and infection in the thyroid gland is rare, particularly so with the advent of widespread usage of antibiotics. An internal pharyngeal fistula (Pyriform sinus fistula is the most common underlying abnormality in patients with AST. We report a case of an adult male who presented with a thyroid abscess. The causal organism was found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Intravenous antibiotics and, incision and drainage of the abscess led to an uncomplicated recovery.

Rohondia O

1995-04-01

378

Dabrafenib and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Nonmedullary Carcinoma

2014-09-16

379

The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

380

Identification of a major iodolipid from the horse thyroid gland as 2-iodohexadecanal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incorporation of iodide into proteins (PBI) and lipids (LBI) of horse thyroid slices was measured in various conditions. Their dependency on the concentration of extracellular iodide was strikingly different. For PBI the relationship was biphasic with a decrease above 10 microM, likely to correspond to the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. On the contrary, LBI increased as a function of iodide concentration up to 100 microM. Methimazole (MMI) inhibited the incorporation of iodide into both LBI and PBI, but higher concentrations of MMI were required to depress LBI as compared to PBI. The inhibition of active iodide transport by NaCIO4 reduced both PBI and LBI. Chromatography on silica gel resolved almost equal amounts of low and high polarity iodolipids. The main unpolar iodolipid was identified as 2-iodohexadecanal (2-IHDA), on the basis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and co-elution with authentic 2-IHDA obtained by chemical synthesis in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The presence of 2-IHDA was also detected in dog thyroid slices, following incubation with KI (50 microM) and in the rat thyroid, 4 hours after intraperitoneal injection of KI (650 micrograms). An incubation of bovine brain plasmalogens with lactoperoxidase, iodide, and H2O2 generated 2-IHDA. In conclusion, we have identified a major thyroid iodolipid as 2-iodohexadecanal. The biosynthesis of this compound is likely to involve the addition of iodine to the vinyl ether group of plasmalogens. PMID:2211608

Pereira, A; Braekman, J C; Dumont, J E; Boeynaems, J M

1990-10-01