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1

Immunohistochemical expression of CD44 in thyroid gland lesions  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD44 is a polymorphic family of cell surface proteoglycans and glycoproteins implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion interactions and tumor metastasis. Its expression appears to be an indicator of invasive and metastatic behavior in carcinomas. The purpose of our study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CD44 protein in thyroid lesions and its association to other histopathological parameters. METHODS: Samples from thyroid lesions were obtained from 40 patients treated in our hospital. The material consisted of 5 cases of multinodular goiter, 7 cases of thyroiditis (Hashimoto type, 5 cases of follicular adenoma, 4 cases of Hurthle cell tumor, 15 cases of thyroid carcinoma (11 papillary carcinomas, and 4 myeloid tumors, and 4 cases of normal thyroid tissue. Immunostaining was performed using the Ventana ES automated immunostainer. A monoclonal antibody was used and avidin-biotin method was applied to paraffin-embedded samples. A membranous immunostaining pattern was considered positive. RESULTS: CD44 expression was detected in three adenomas (60%, mostly of follicular type, and in eight carcinomas (72%. The CD44 immunostaining was especially apparent in papillary type of carcinomas which showed high expression. In normal thyroid tissue, a reduced CD44 expression was observed. CONCLUSION: The results of our study indicate that deregulated expression of CD44 contributes to the ability of thyroid carcinomas for invasion and metastasis and may constitute a prognostic factor for malignant biological behavior.

Kiziridou Anastasia

2003-01-01

2

Ultrasound of thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A thyroid and parathyroid ultrasound (US) is an imaging test to check the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands and is done to: check for nodules in the thyroid gland, find out whether the thyroid gland is enlarged, to keep track of the size of the thyroid gland during treatment, look for enlarged parathyroid glands caused by disease, guide the placement of the needle during a thyroid biopsy. The thyroid gland is formed by two lobes joined by an isthmus and, in a significant percentage of individuals, the 'pyramidal lobe', a vestige of the thyroglossal duct extending upward from the isthmus. A fibrous capsule surrounds the gland and connects with intrathyroidal fibrous septa forming 'lobules' that become grossly evident in pathologic conditions. Each lobule is supplied by a single artery and contains 20 to 40 'follicles' that average 200 nm in size and contain 'colloid'. Follicles are lined by a monolayer of low-cuboidal 'follicular' cells surrounded by a basement membrane. In fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimens, normal follicular cells are typically arranged in follicles, and monolayered sheets arranged in a honeycomb pattern with well-defined borders and nuclei which maintain polarity. Thyroid nodules are extremely common with an estimated prevalence on the basis of palpation that ranges from 3% to 7%. It has been estimated that there is a 5 to 10% lifetime risk of developing a palpable thyroid nodule, most of these nodules are benign, and cliniost of these nodules are benign, and clinicians should be as selective as possible in recommending surgical removal. Although thyroid nodules are a common incidental finding, US should not be performed as a screening test. Moreover, 20% to 48% of patients with one palpable thyroid nodule are found to have additional nodules on US investigation. Thyroid nodules are more common in elderly persons, in women, in those with iodine deficiency, and in those with a history of radiation exposure. Patients with benign thyroid nodules should undergo clinical and US follow-up. Symptomatic goiters, whether euthyroid or hyperthyroid, may be treated surgically or with radioiodine. Malignant or suspicious nodules should be treated surgically after preoperative evaluation with US and FNAB. An ultrasound can reveal which thyroid nodules are larger than 1-1.5 centimeters, requiring further evaluation for cancer. In addition to size, other nodule characteristics that can be noted on a thyroid ultrasound include the following: number of nodules, location of nodules, distinctness of borders, fluid versus solid contents, other nodule contents, such as calcium deposits, or the amount of blood flow (certain newer ultrasound machines can assess blood flow to the thyroid and its nodules). Thyroid lesions discovered on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for other reasons have an uncertain risk of malignancy and should undergo US evaluation before considering evaluation with FNA biopsy. Nodules are also detected infrequently by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography,but when found they are considered to have higher risk of malignancy. The annual incidence of thyroid malignancies in different parts of the world varies from 0.5 to 10 per 100,000 individuals. Despite its infrequency, it is important to remember that thyroid carcinoma is as prevalent as multiple myeloma, twice as common as Hodgkin's disease, and as frequent as cancers of the esophagus, larynx, mouth, and uterine cervix. Furthermore, thyroid cancer is the most common malignant endocrine tumor, responsible for 64% of deaths attributable to malignant endocrine neoplasms, more than all other endocrine cancers combined. Nevertheless, treatment of thyroid cancer is very successful

3

Pleomorphic liposarcoma metastatic to the thyroid gland.  

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Although carcinoma is rarely metastatic to the thyroid gland, it has an established place in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans in patients with known cancers. A case of metastatic pleomorphic liposarcoma with involvement of the thyroid gland adds to the list of cases of metastases to the thyroid gland. A patient with known metastatic pleomorphic liposarcoma with a palpable thyroid nodule of 2 months' duration had a thyroid scan with 130 MBq (3.5 mCi) Tc-99m pertechnetate. The scan showed a cold nodule occupying most of the right lobe of the thyroid. Cytologic analysis of a fine-needle aspirate from this cold nodule confirmed metastasis from the known primary cancer, pleomorphic liposarcoma. In a patient with a known primary tumor, a nodule in the thyroid gland should be considered a metastatic lesion, regardless of the time since the primary tumor was diagnosed and treated, until proved otherwise. PMID:11805476

Bashir, Humayun; Nawaz, M Khalid; Shah, Mazhar A; Ahmad, Ejaz

2002-01-01

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Radioiodine and thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

Takavar A

1994-05-01

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Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Thyroid Gland  

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Primary hydatid cyst of thyroid gland is an exceptional localization even in Morocco where echinococcal disease is endemic. A 23-year-old woman presented with multiples cystic lesions of the thyroid revealed by neck mass and dyspnea. She underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was made preoperatively and was confirmed by histological studies. Further investigation failed to identify any other evidence of systemic hydatidosis. The patient has remained asymptomatic fo...

Azendour, Imen; Boulaich, Mohamed; Ayoubi, Ali; Oujilal, Abdelilah; Essakalli, Leila; Kzadri, Mohamed

2011-01-01

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Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and thnation for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases

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Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases.

Park, Soo Youn; Han, Heon [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man Soo [Kang Nung Hospital, Ulsan University, Kangmung (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

2006-08-15

8

Thyroid gland removal  

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Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy ... of thyroidectomy you have will be either a: Total thyroidectomy, which removes the entire gland Subtotal or partial ...

9

Plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland.  

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Among the clinical presentation of plasma cell proliferative disorders the extramedullary plasmacytomas are the most infrequent after multiple myeloma and plasma cell tumours of the bones. The plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland to our knowledge has never been reported from Pakistan so far. We present the clinical picture and clinical challenges posed in diagnosis and treatment by this unusual proliferative disorder. PMID:23472435

Gilani, Jawad A; Iqbal, Shaheen; Nasreen, Shagufta; Shahid, Safoora

2011-01-01

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Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

11

Metastasis to the Thyroid Gland; Unusual Site of Metastasis  

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Background: The incidence of metastasis to the thyroid gland in autopsy series varies from 1.25% to 24%. Metastasis to the thyroid gland is usually considered as a terminal event, and the effectiveness of conventional treatment has been questioned. Methods: Seven patients with metastasis to the thyroid gland were studied retrospectively. Primary tumor origin was identified in all of them. Metastasis to the thyroid gland was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology or histology. Data were analyzed for the type of malignant lesions, the clinical course of the disease, and the prognosis after thyroid involvement. Results: Two patients had lung as a primary tumor site. Breast. iris, kidney, parotid and soft tissue sarcoma were the involved primary sites in the other cases. The time from the diagnosis of primary tumor to metastasis to the thyroid gland was considerable (ranged from 13135 months, median 60 months). Fine needle aspiration cytology detected metastasis in five of seven patients. Treatment was surgery alone or surgery with adjuvant therapy. One patient didn't receive any treatment. Conclusions: In any patient with a previous history of malignancy, no matter how old that history is, a new thyroid mass should be considered as recurrence until proved otherwise. Although detection of metastasis to the thyroid gland often indicates poor prognosis, aggressive surgical and medical therapy may be effective in a small percentage of patientstage of patients

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Scintigraphic Diagnosis of Ectopic Thyroid Gland  

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Ectopic thyroid gland is a relatively rare condition and developmental anomaly characterized by an aggregates of thyroid tissue in the midline anywhere from the base of the tongue to the mediastinum. The role of ectopic thyroid in the pathogenesis of nongoitrous sporadic cretinism and primary hypothyroidism has been emphasized. Since previous case report of sublingual thyroid, we have recently experienced additional two cases of sublingual thyroid and one case of prelaryngeal thyroid gland, which were diagnosed by scintigraphic method. We wish to report these four cases of primary hypothyroidism with ectopic thyroid with emphasis on role of scintigraphy in detection of these unusual condition.

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Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect  

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Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

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Cystic parotid gland lesion evaluation  

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We evaluated differential diagnoses of cystic parotid gland lesions and the efficacy of preoperative diagnosis. Of 191 parotid gland nodules resected between January 2003 and October 2008, 167 (87%) were benign and 24 (13%) malignant. Thirty-five parotid gland nodules whose components were almost cystic were enrolled in this study. All cystic lesions were retrospectively evaluated with respect to preoperative diagnostic examinations and histopathological confirmed diagnosis. Cystic components in surgical specimens were also evaluated histopathologically. The relationships with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological confirmed diagnosis were studied. Of 35 cystic lesions, 11 were complete cystic masses and had no mural nodules, while remaining 24 were incomplete and had mural nodules. Histopathological examinations showed that 5 were nonneoplastic, 27 were cystic degenerations of benign tumors, and 3 were cystic degenerations of malignant tumors. In the 11 complete cysts, preoperative diagnosis could not be made using any modality, whether with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), salivary scintigraphy, or 67-gallium citrate scintigraphy. Of 24 incomplete cysts, only 9 cystic Warthin tumors were diagnosed correctly before surgery. Studies of cystic components in MRI and histopathology suggested that hemorrhagic degeneration of malignant tumors should be kept in mind for cystic lesions showing hemorrhagic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesionsgic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly before surgery, but the evaluation of cystic components by MRI and FNAC is helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... long? No, because it’s basically replacing the normal hormone that the thyroid was manufacturing. I see. And if only part of the thyroid is removed, is the medication still needed long-term? Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

16

Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

Stoki? Edita

2014-01-01

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Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland  

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Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collecticancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

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Thyroid Gland Hematoma After Blunt Neck Trauma  

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Full Text Available Hemorrhage of a previously normal thyroid gland as a result of blunt trauma is a very rare condition. We report a case of blunt trauma that caused acute hemorrhage into the thyroid gland and presented with hoarseness. The diagnosis of thyroid gland hematoma was made with a combination of fiberoptic laryngoscopy, cervical computed tomography, and carotid angiography. The patient was treated conservatively, had a favorable course without further complications, and was discharged four days after admission.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:247-249.

Saylam, Baris

2009-11-01

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Effect of iodine-137 on sex and thyroid hormone binding to blood plasma proteins in children with functional lesions of the thyroid gland as a result of Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In studying characteristics of specific interaction of estradiol-, testosterone- and thyriod-binding blood globulins with the corresponding ligands in children from Gomel region with with endemic swelling of the thyroid gland (degrees 1 and 2) affected by iodine-131 revealed were a reduced cooperativity in estradiol T-3 binding and a halved affinity to androgens and thyroids as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a drastic decline in the binding capacity of estradiol- and testosterone-binding globulins in the blood plasma. The endemic thyroid gland swelling is supposed to be due to sexual malfunction in teenagers

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Imaging diagnosis of thyroid gland congenital anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical and radiological findings in 25 patients presenting diverse thyroid gland anomalies are described, as follows: thyroid aplasia - 2, thyroid hemiagenesis - 9, lingual thyroid gland - 3, median cervical cysts - 8, lateral cervical aberrant tissue - 2, distant aberrant thyroid tissue - 1 case. In all patients the following methods are applied: echography, computer tomography and radionuclide examination with 99mTc. Conclusions are made that: 1) To make definite diagnosis of thyroid ectopia the complex application of imaging methods is mandatory. 2) Ultrasound examination is sufficient to establish agenesis, hypo- or hemiaplasia of the thyroidea without need to resort to other imaging modalities. 3) Ectopic thyroid tissue eventually discovered should be carefully monitored by echography and cytologically because of susceptibility of malignant degeneration

 
 
 
 
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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... time with one surgeon, one assistant, with good clinical results. The incisions are plastic closure. The patients ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

22

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... anesthesia. Now specific for this surgery, thyroid surgery, parathyroid surgery, endocrine surgery in general, what we use ... out something. We’ve identified, one of the parathyroid glands, we’ve got actually a beautiful shot ...

23

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ... what does that do? In certain types of cancers if there is concern that there may be ...

24

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... caused sometimes by diet, and other times by environment. And what are the symptoms, besides difficulty swallowing, ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

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Solitary Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Thyroid Gland  

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Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon condition. Up to date, its clinical pathological features are not fully understood. We present a case of an extramedullary nonmucosal plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland which is the first case with regional metastatic lymph nodes. This condition requires a scrupulous survey to rule out a metastatic multiple myeloma. Although localized forms management is still controversial, authors require combined approach for regio...

Ridal, M.; Ouattassi, N.; Harmouch, T.; Amarti, A.; Alami, M. N.

2012-01-01

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Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

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Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-99m MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO-4) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO-4) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO-4 subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: -4 subtraction methods are commonly applied. The thyroid gland was not visualized on Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy of suppressed thyroid tissue in a study by Turkolmez et al.. It should be taken into account that sometimes we may not be able to visualize a normal thyroid gland, and in these cases we might encounter suboptimal visualization in T1-201 subtraction method as well. Erdil et al. foun that Tl-201 is superior to Tc-99m MIBI in the visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue with a toxic thyroid nodule. Kiratli et al. mentioned decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the thyroid gland in hemodialysis patients. However, no patient presented an absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in the thyroid gland with secondary hyperthyroidism. In this case, the thyroid was not suppressed and the TcPO-4 scan thyroid gland was normal, but the thyroid gland was not visualized with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, and Tl-201 accumulation in the thyroid gland was not sufficient. To the best of our knowledge, from a search of the published literature, there has been no case like this previously reported

28

Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

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A retrospective analysis of thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the lesions containing mature adipose tissues in surgical materials of the patients who underwent thyroidectomy operation owing to the diagnosis of nodular goiter. Methods: A total of 2800 pathologic specimens of thyroidectomies stained with hematoxylin-eosin were collected between January 2010 and November 2013 in Recep Tayyip Erdogan University School of Medicine. Pathologic sections were selected from pathology archive and re-examined. Upon examination, we determined 10 lesions with mature adipose tissue within thyroid parenchyma. Results: Thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue were observed in 10 (0.004 % of 2800 thyroidectomy materials. Eight of the patients were female and two of them were male. Minimum, maximum and median age of the patients were found to be 31, 74 and 52 years respectively. All of the cases had underwent a bilateral total thyroidectomy operation. In macroscopic examination of the only one cases, a homogenous yellow-gray color was observed. In other cases a large number of colloid-rich nodules of various sizes were observed. On microscopic examination, five adipose tissues in the nodules (adenolipoma-thyrolipoma, four scattered foci of mature adipose tissues (heterotopic adiposis and one diffuse infiltrating mature adipose tissue on entire thyroid gland (diffuse thyrolipomatosis were determined among mature adipose tissue containing lesions. A follicular variant of papillary microcarcinoma was found in two of thyrolipoma cases. Conclusion: Nodular thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue, as a result of particularly on the outer surface of the gland and parathyroid glands containining mature adipose tissue may mimic parathyroid gland lesion. Therefore, to prevent from inappropriate treatments, pathologists should be aware of these kinds of lesions, especially when they are investigating the lesions of parathyroid glands during an intraoperative consultation.

Recep Bedir

2014-06-01

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Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity. PMID:24388198

Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

2014-01-01

31

High Resolution Real Time Sonography of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available Background/Objective: High-resolution sonography equipment permits for visualization of normal and abnormal thyroid gland with or without gel pad or water bath. This study prospectively presents surgically and pathologically proved patients with thyroid disease by direct ultrasound with or without Doppler (pulse, color, power Doppler."nPatients and Methods: This study was performed by 7.5-10 MHz frequency linear probe transducer with axial resolution of 0.7mm and lateral resolution of 1-2 mm (Aloka 650 and super SG 140 Toshiba unit assembly with color, power Doppler. Patient's neck was extended as a supine position."nResults: Pathologic proof was obtained in 45 patients with benign and five patients with malignant thyroid disease. Benign lesions were follicular adenoma in 30 patients, goiter in 10 patients, as hashimoto thyroiditis in two patients, hemorrhagic cyst in two patients and simple cyst in one patient. Malignant lesions were follicular, papillary, and medulary carcinoma which seen in two, two, and one patients respectively. Echopatterns were as follow: Most of them showed decreades echo when we compare to normal thyroid tissue, some malignant lesions showed increased echo and some isoecho, in the last group we need other work up for example Doppler (pulse, color, power for evaluation vascularity. We did not have metastasis to thyroid gland."nConclusion: With advace in technology in crystal and design overall probe as a result creat broadband width probe and also full digital sonography unit inclding (beam forming - CPU in images resolution is with high grade than semi digital unit that before used for thytoid gland. When With any reason resolution is increased we sould be able to diagnosed very small and smallest lesion (for example mest to thyroid or reccurency after total Lobectomy: there is three primay uses of sonography, 1 detection of mutionodular gland when only one nodule is suspected clinically and by isotop scan.2 High resolution sonogtaphy can detect occult malignancy with or without cervical adenopathy 3 small lesion for recurrency malignant"nlesion.

A. Honarbakhsh

2008-01-01

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Hydatid disease of the thyroid gland--(a case report.  

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Full Text Available Hydatid disease of the thyroid gland, presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, is being reported below. Pre-operative investigations, including thyroid isotope scanning and aspiration of the nodule, did not help in establishing the diagnosis which was later confirmed by histological examination. Post-operative investigations revealed it to be an isolated involvement of the thyroid gland.

Arunabha

1989-10-01

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Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon condition. Up to date, its clinical pathological features are not fully understood. We present a case of an extramedullary nonmucosal plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland which is the first case with regional metastatic lymph nodes. This condition requires a scrupulous survey to rule out a metastatic multiple myeloma. Although localized forms management is still controversial, authors require combined approach for regional metastatic forms. The prognosis is favorable compared to solitary bone plasmacytomas or multiple myeloma. PMID:23094168

Ridal, M; Ouattassi, N; Harmouch, T; Amarti, A; Alami, M N

2012-01-01

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The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thyroid Hormones Concentration and Histopathological Changes of Thyroid Gland in Sheep  

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To identify the thyroid histological and hormonal changes in response to ambient temperature variations, thyroid glands and blood samples were randomly collected from 410 indigenous sheep of either sex and different age groups from municipal Ahvaz slaughter house. The extent of fluctuations in triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), T3 uptake and Free Thyroxin Index (FTI) and thyroid histopathological lesions were scrutinized in 2 months in year 2003, viz Februa...

Nouri, M.; Mirzadeh, K. H.; Mohamadian, B.

2006-01-01

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Deposition in the human thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131I concentration in cattle milk was 437pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gammacilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

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Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland  

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Ewing sarcoma of the bone is a highly malignant round-cell tumor that typically presents between 10 to 20 years of age and is more common in boys. It can have an extraosseous origin, although it is rare. We report a case of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the thyroid gland in a 9-year-old girl. (orig.)

Adapa, Pavani [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chung, Tae-Woong [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gwangju (Korea); Popek, Edwina J. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States); Hunter, Jill V. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Pediatric Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

2009-12-15

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Neuroendocrine tumors presenting with thyroid gland metastasis: a case series  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autopsy series have shown that metastasis to the thyroid gland has occurred in up to 24% of patients who have died of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors may metastasize to thyroid gland. Case presentations Case 1 was a 17-year-old Turkish woman who was referred from our Endocrinology Department for a thyroidectomy for treatment of neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination results were consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor; neoplastic cells showed strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin, but the immunohistochemical profile was inconsistent with medullary thyroid carcinoma in that the tumor was negative for calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Case 2 was a 54-year-old Turkish woman who presented with a 3-cm nodule on her right thyroid lobe. She had undergone surgery for a right lung mass four years previously. After a right pneumonectomy, thymectomy and lymph node dissection, a typical carcinoid tumor was diagnosed. Under ultrasonographic guidance, fine needle aspiration biopsy of her right thyroid pole nodule was performed and the biopsy was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination indicated three nodular lesions, 5 cm and 0.4 cm in diameter in her right lobe and 0.1 cm in diameter in her left lobe. The tumors were consistent with a neuroendocrine phenotype, showing strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Conclusion Thyroid nodules detected during follow-up of neuroendocrine tumor patients should be thoroughly investigated. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid confirms the diagnosis in most cases and leads to appropriate management of those patients and may prevent unnecessary treatment approaches.

Sivrikoz Emre

2012-02-01

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The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thyroid Hormones Concentration and Histopathological Changes of Thyroid Gland in Sheep  

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Full Text Available To identify the thyroid histological and hormonal changes in response to ambient temperature variations, thyroid glands and blood samples were randomly collected from 410 indigenous sheep of either sex and different age groups from municipal Ahvaz slaughter house. The extent of fluctuations in triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, T3 uptake and Free Thyroxin Index (FTI and thyroid histopathological lesions were scrutinized in 2 months in year 2003, viz February (the coldest month and August (the hottest month. A marked decline was discernable in T3, T4 and FTI in August compared to February, but mean value for T3 uptake increased. Out of 410 pairs of thyroid glands, 169 (41.2% had lesions in which histopathological changes were categorized as follicular atrophy (43.6%, ultimobranchial cyst (30.2%, paranchymal cyst (6.4%, lymphocytic thyroiditis (6.2%, hyperemia/hemorrhage (5.5%, follicular cell hyperplasia (4%, C cell hyperplasia (1.4%, colloid goiter (1.1% and adenoma (1.1. Mean of thyroidal parameters for T4 and FTI was higher in lesioned group (p<0.05. The frequency of lesioned thyroid was higher in summer than winter (p<0.05. The result of this study showed that high ambient temperature has profound effect on thyroid function, secretion and pathological changes in sheep.

M. Nouri

2006-01-01

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Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

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Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan  

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We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or laboratory examinations. Parathyroid scan is a noninvasive method used in determining parathyroid adenoma, and Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4} subtraction methods are commonly applied. The thyroid gland was not visualized on Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy of suppressed thyroid tissue in a study by Turkolmez et al.. It should be taken into account that sometimes we may not be able to visualize a normal thyroid gland, and in these cases we might encounter suboptimal visualization in T1-201 subtraction method as well. Erdil et al. foun that Tl-201 is superior to Tc-99m MIBI in the visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue with a toxic thyroid nodule. Kiratli et al. mentioned decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the thyroid gland in hemodialysis patients. However, no patient presented an absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in the thyroid gland with secondary hyperthyroidism. In this case, the thyroid was not suppressed and the TcPO{sup -4} scan thyroid gland was normal, but the thyroid gland was not visualized with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, and Tl-201 accumulation in the thyroid gland was not sufficient. To the best of our knowledge, from a search of the published literature, there has been no case like this previously reported.

Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

2013-09-15

 
 
 
 
41

Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

42

Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a pows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

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Ultrasonographic examinations of the thyroid gland in women at confirmed risk of familial neoplasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of new gene mutations, which increase the risk of neoplasm (e.g. breast and thyroid gland) improves the examinations that can help in early diagnosis and quick treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of asymptomatic focal lesions in ultrasonographic examinations of women at confirmed risk of family neoplasm aggregation. A total of 445 women aged 25-60 years were examined in 2004-2005. 278 patients descended from families with higher frequency of confirmed risk of familial neoplasm (I group), 167 belonged to the control group. Ultrasonographic examinations of the breast and thyroid gland were performed in all women. Patients were divided into selected groups depending on the kind of changes. In the analyzed material asymptomatic focal changes in the thyroid gland were found in 46, 5% of the first group and 61,6% of the control group. The solid-cystic lesions in this material were ascertained in 36% of the first group and 51% of the second group. A large frequency (almost 50%) of the asymptomatic focal changes in thyroid glands were found. Detections of lesions were similar in both groups: the confirmed risk of familial neoplasm group and the control group. On the basis of these findings we can conclude, that it is reasonable to perform screening examinations of thyroid glands in connection with breast's diagnostics. (author)

44

Sonography of the thyroid gland with high resolution real time apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of sonography of thyroid glands in 131 patients were compared with the findings on palpation and from scintigrams. High resolution sonography is the most accurate method of examination for demonstrating changes in the thyroid. In 40% cases sonography demonstrated lesions additional to the single abnormality found clinically. In 10% cases a suspected thyroid abnormality on palpation proved to be due to extra thyroid disease. Evaluation of the number, size and localisation of space-occupying lesions by means of sonography is superior to all other kinds of investigation. It is, however, not possible to determine whether a lesion is benign. An attempt has been made to define the usefulness of thyroid sonography and its place during routine diagnosis. (orig.)

45

Ranking of sonography in the diagnosis of the decompensated autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 30 patients with decompensated autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland, the possibility was investigated whether sonography of the thyroid gland could replace the thyroid stimulation scintigram or a diagnostically insufficient, saturated scintigram. It was found that the thyroid sonogram - which has a lower specificity - has a markedly higher sensitivity than the saturated scintigram of the thyroid gland. (orig.)

46

Development of a new type thyroid glands dosimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new dosimeter of 125I in thyroid gland is described. The dosimeter consists of NaI(Tl) detector and intelligent data recorder. Single-chip-microcomputer is used for data handling. The activity of 125I in thyroid glands of human being is measured directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent. The measuring range of 125I in thyroid glands is 10-2 x 106 Bq. The dosimeter has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability

47

Prenatal sonographic measurement of the fetal thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate whether the fetal thyroid gland could be examined by prenatal ultrasonography and to established the normal range of fetal thyroid width according to the gestational age. The width of the fetal thyroid was determined by prenatal ultrasonography from 118 pregnant women. Three of the mothers had current or previous thyroid disease and the widths of the fetal thyroid were determined from 115 normal subjects. The width of the fetal thyroid was defined by a maximum transverse distance of the thyroid gland between two carotid arteries on transverse scan of the fetal neck. We analyzed the cause of non-measurable cases. The width of the fetal thyroid and Neo-TSH were compared in 19 subjects, including 3 subjects will current or previous thyroid disease. We could measure the fetal thyroid widths in 95 cases (80%). The fetal thyroid widths of mothers without current or previous thyroid disease was 0.9-2.36 cm,which showed linear correlation with gestational age (Y=0.0506 X + 0.0439, r2=0.5661). Causes of non-measurable cases were neck flexion (65%), prone position (22%), and overlapped fetal neck by arm or shoulder (13%). Of the 19 neonates with Neo-TSH level, one case had a mother with a thyroid disease and showed increased width of the fetal and high Neo-TSH. The fetal thyroid was measured in 80% of prenatal ultrasonography and the width of the fetal thyroid showed linear correlated with gestational age. We assumed that the width of the thyroid couldssumed that the width of the thyroid could be useful for diagnosing fetal thyroid disorder when maternal thyroid disease exists.

48

Prenatal sonographic measurement of the fetal thyroid gland  

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To investigate whether the fetal thyroid gland could be examined by prenatal ultrasonography and to established the normal range of fetal thyroid width according to the gestational age. The width of the fetal thyroid was determined by prenatal ultrasonography from 118 pregnant women. Three of the mothers had current or previous thyroid disease and the widths of the fetal thyroid were determined from 115 normal subjects. The width of the fetal thyroid was defined by a maximum transverse distance of the thyroid gland between two carotid arteries on transverse scan of the fetal neck. We analyzed the cause of non-measurable cases. The width of the fetal thyroid and Neo-TSH were compared in 19 subjects, including 3 subjects will current or previous thyroid disease. We could measure the fetal thyroid widths in 95 cases (80%). The fetal thyroid widths of mothers without current or previous thyroid disease was 0.9-2.36 cm,which showed linear correlation with gestational age (Y=0.0506 X + 0.0439, r{sup 2}=0.5661). Causes of non-measurable cases were neck flexion (65%), prone position (22%), and overlapped fetal neck by arm or shoulder (13%). Of the 19 neonates with Neo-TSH level, one case had a mother with a thyroid disease and showed increased width of the fetal and high Neo-TSH. The fetal thyroid was measured in 80% of prenatal ultrasonography and the width of the fetal thyroid showed linear correlated with gestational age. We assumed that the width of the thyroid could be useful for diagnosing fetal thyroid disorder when maternal thyroid disease exists.

Ahn, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Hwa; Cho, Won Soo; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Chunan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

2001-03-15

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Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction, is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consequences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

Kova?ev-Zaviši? Branka

2012-01-01

50

Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions  

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With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2014-07-15

51

Adenomatous hyperplasia of the thyroid gland in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary and Hudson Bay, Quebec, Canada.  

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We evaluated thyroid gland lesions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (n = 16) and Hudson Bay (n = 14). Follicular cysts and nodules of adenomatous hyperplasia of the thyroid gland were found in eight and nine adults from the St. Lawrence Estuary (n = 10), respectively, and in four and six adults from Hudson Bay (n = 14), respectively. The total volume of the lesions of thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia was positively correlated with age in both populations. Comparison between populations could not be performed because of differences in age structures of sample groups. Beluga whales from both populations have unique thyroid lesions among marine mammals. PMID:14608025

Mikaelian, I; Labelle, P; Kopal, M; De Guise, S; Martineau, D

2003-11-01

52

Combined development of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign diseases.  

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The aim of the study is to establish the role of endocrine disturbances in development of malignant tumors in patients with thyroid gland and reproductive system pathology. We studied 207 patients with synchronic and metachronic development of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign tumors. The patients' average age was 35-58 years. According to study the following aspects were determined: clinical and hormonal aspect of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign tumor disease coincidence, analyses of thyroid gland and reproductive system pre-cancer disease pathogenesis, neuroendocrine relations-like increased thyrotrophic hormone secretion causes strengthening of prolactin secretion, which depresses luteinizing hormone release and increases production of follicular stimulating hormone. It has been proved that fibromyomas absolute hyperestrogenemia which develops during hypersecretion of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a role in etiology of uterine Gonadoliberin hypersecretion, especially follicular stimulating hormone FSH and corpus luteum deficiency is very important in development of ovarian pre-cancer and cancer diseases. PMID:22155802

Makaridze, T; Mardaleishvili, K

2011-10-01

53

NORMAL AND INCREASED FUNCTIONING OF THYROID GLAND IN EQUINES  

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Full Text Available Objective: to describe and analyze the normal functioning of the thyroid gland in equines and the factors which increase the thyroid hormone levels. Materials and methods: information from the last 50 years included in the BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Scirus, data bases as well as historical articles, texts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results: important information related to the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into two sections as follow: synthesis, liberation and metabolism of thyroid hormones; factors that modify the thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: the thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends on these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all the tissues.

JÓSE HENRY OSORIO

2012-12-01

54

A case of primary hydatidosis of the thyroid gland.  

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A 54-year-old woman presented with an expansive mass in the anterior cervical region (front of the neck) with abscess. Laboratory tests and thyroid profile proved normal. Surgical exploration revealed a hydatid cyst in the left lobe of the thyroid gland with parasitic metastasis of the left lateral cervical lymph node chain. Postoperative examination of the nodule showed it to be a solitary primary thyroid hydatid cyst. PMID:10568129

Cossu, M L; Palermo, M; Coppola, M; Fais, E; Ruggiu, M; Tanda, F; Cossu Rocca, P; Noya, G

1999-09-01

55

Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

56

Some findings on the fine structure of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the site of iodination of thyroglobulin, electron microscopic autoradiography of 125I was made using in vitro mouse thyroid gland. The effect of TSH and dbcAMP on fine structure was also examined in cultured mouse thyroid gland and compared with those on in vivo mouse thyroid. When cultured in the medium containing TSH, the thyroid gland showed numerous pseudopods on the cell surfaces of the follicular epithelial cells and increase of colloid droplets in the follicular epithelial cells. Similar changes were also noted in the mouse thyroid gland stimulated by TSH in vivo. dbcAMP also caused pseudopod formation and increase in intracellular colloid droplets in cultured mouse thyroid gland but did not cause these changes in mouse thyroid gland in vivo. In the thyroid gland incubated in the medium containing 125I, silver grains appeared over the periphery of the follicular lumen at 30 seconds. With lapse of time, grains over the follicular lumen increased very rapidly until the lumen was filled with numerous grains at 60 minutes of incubation. Grains over the follicular epithelial cells were always scanty and showed no constant localization on the specific intracellular organelle. Since it has been known that the synthesis and release into the follicular lumen of the thyroglobulin is a process requiring at least 15 to 40 minutes, the appearance of silver grains over the follicular lumen at 30 seconds seemed to indicate the follicular lumonds seemed to indicate the follicular lumen as the principal site of thyroglobulin iodination. When TSH was added to the culture medium containing 125I for 60 minutes, grains were found over the follicular lumen and intracellular colloid droplets. (author)

57

Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity  

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Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

Gupta Ruchika

2009-04-01

58

Indications for sonography in the investigation of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The indications for using sonography in the investigation of the thyroid gland are discussed. Correlation of echo patterns and thyroid disease has shown that sonography deserves a place in the diagnosis of thyroid disease in the same way as the classical methods, such as clinical examination, scintigraphy, laboratory investigations and aspiration biopsy. The indications for sonography, which are illustrated by a number of examples, include: 1) when scintigraphy cannot be used, 2) pre-operative demonstration, 3) disagreement between clinical findings and the scintigram, 4) diagnosis of cysts, 5) suspicion of thyroiditis. (orig.)

59

Ectopic thyroid glands : clinical and radiological features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the various clinical and radiological features of ectopic thyroid. This study involved nine ectopic thyroid cases (M:F=2:7; age range, 2-57 years) confirmed by RI thyroid scan between 1993 and 1997. We analyzed one neck ultrasonogram, five CT scans, three MR images, nine Tc-99m thyroid scans, and classified the ectopic thyroid by the basis of these findings. Hormonal abnormalities and symptoms were evaluated on the basis of medical records. Understanding the various clinical and radiologic features of ectopic thyroid can help accurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery or other procedure. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

60

Neurokinin A and galanin in the thyroid gland: neuronal localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of neurokinin A (NKA) and galanin (GAL) in the thyroid gland of several species was examined with immunocytochemistry. NKA-immunoreactive fibers were observed around blood vessels and follicles in all species examined, whereas GAL-immunoreactive fibers were found in mice and rats only. NKA-containing fibers were more numerous than GAL-containing fibers. All thyroid NKA-containing fibers harbored substance P (SP), and the majority of them stored calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as well. Most thyroid GAL-immunoreactive fibers contained NKA, SP, and CGRP; in a minor population GAL coexisted instead with vasoactive intestinal peptide. Cervical vagotomy (extirpation of the nodose ganglion) reduced the number of NKA- and GAL-containing fibers in the thyroid by approximately 50%. The jugular ganglion and cervical dorsal root ganglia are fairly rich in GAL-, NKA/SP-, and CGRP-containing cell bodies, which presumably represent the source of GAL-, NKA/SP-, and CGRP-containing fibers in the thyroid. The thyroid ganglion is rich in vasoactive intestinal peptide nerve cell bodies, which presumably project to the thyroid gland; a minor proportion of these cell bodies was found to contain GAL as well. Although the distribution of NKA and GAL fibers in the thyroid suggests that the two peptides are involved in the regulation of local blood flow and follicular cell activity, neither NKA nor GAL had any influence on thyroid hormone release as tested in conscious mice. PMID:2439317

Grunditz, T; Hakanson, R; Sundler, F; Uddman, R

1987-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... someone who has thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as ... that. So that’s just to reduce the visual effect of the scar. That is correct. Now I’ ...

62

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as papillary, is extraordinarily marvelous. Surgery cures the majority of those patients, and some who ...

63

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... goiter, you can just do a hemi- or partial removal of the thyroid. Now, once the thyroid ... you’re telling us that very little blood loss is taking place during the course of the ...

64

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... someone who has thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as ... healing of the incision; massage and heat and application of some topicals like cocoa butter or vitamin ...

65

Surgery of thyroid gland in Mongolia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The surgery department of Central Hospital no.1 operated on 1690 thyroid disease patients in last 7 years (2000-2007). Patients' ages were 9-80 years. Female : Male ratio 10 : 1. In the last years morbidity is changed, Diffuse toxic Goiter has decreased, Thyroid nodule and cancer has increased. During last 7 years we have operated 164 patients for thyroid mass. 69 cases (51.54%) of them were thyroid carcinoma. In this 69 cases include Anaplastic carcinoma 3, Papillary carcinoma 36, follicular carcinoma 30 cases. 80 percent patients from thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in pre-operative period, 20 percent were diagnosed in inter and post-operation period. For thyroid cancer cases we made the following operations: - Total thyroidectomy 20 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 30 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 29 cases. After operation 49 patients were sent for radioactive I-131 treatment and 3 cases which recurred, were operated a second time. In the treatment of DTG, there has been a decrease in the number of surgeries, while great increase in the use of I-131. From 1990 to 1999 have been done 1307 operations, because of thyroid disease: - 580 (44.37%) for DTG, 636 (48.66%) for thyroid nodule, 37 ( 2.83%) for thyroid cancer. From 2000 to 2007 we have conducted 1608 operations, because of thyroid disease: 473 (29.41%) for DTG, 919 (57.15%) for thyroid nodule and 134 (8.33%) for thyroid cancer. All operations were done by O.V.Nicolaev's method. (intracapsular resection). Conc's method. (intracapsular resection). Conclusion: 1. the numbers of thyroid cases which have been treated by operation is changing. There are an increasing number of cases of Thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. 2. There is need to improve preoperative diagnostics. 3. Combination of surgery treatment and radioactive I131 treatment gave good results for thyroid cancer. (author)

66

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... has thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as papillary, is extraordinarily ... be protocol for heading off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters ...

67

Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland  

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Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

Mamaev, N. N.; Grynyeva, E. N.; Blagosklonnaya, Y. V.

1996-01-01

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Tuberculous Infection of Thyroid Gland: A Case Report  

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Introduction. Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and almost one-third of the world is infected with this disease. Tuberculosis has been reported in many parts of the human body. But thyroid gland involvement is extremely rare and its true incidence is unknown. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a thyroid cyst which turned out to be a primary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Conclusion. The correct diagnosis o...

Prince Cheriyan Modayil; Antony Jacob; Anna Leslie

2009-01-01

69

NORMAL AND INCREASED FUNCTIONING OF THYROID GLAND IN EQUINES  

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Objective: to describe and analyze the normal functioning of the thyroid gland in equines and the factors which increase the thyroid hormone levels. Materials and methods: information from the last 50 years included in the BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Scirus, data bases as well as historical articles, texts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results: important information related to the objectives proposed in the pr...

JÓSE HENRY OSORIO; FELIPE RAMÍREZ ECHEVERRY

2012-01-01

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Improvement of 131 I - radiotherapy on thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study aims to evidence the effect of ascorbic acid administration on the radioactive iodine retention in thyroid gland and thigh-bone by supplying '131 I for thyroid cancer treatment. It may be considered that the results obtained from thigh-bone zone indicate, with a good confidence, the iodine circulation in blood and in the body. The measurements were carried out with a NaI (Tl) detector on patients who received only '131 I and also on patients who received 131 I associated with ascorbic acid. In the last case the data indicate the increase of radioactivity in thyroid gland and a decrease in the body. This result points out that the administration of ascorbic acid leads to a higher retention of 1'3'1 I radioisotope in the thyroid gland and on the other hand denotes a radioprotection effect concerning the body. The time dependence of 1'3'1 I radioactivity in both thyroid gland and thigh-bone is characterized by the same rate regardless of the presence of ascorbic acid in the applied radiotherapy. (author)

71

Isolated submandibular gland metastasis from an occult papillary thyroid cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of an isolated submandibular gland metastasis from a clinically occult papillary thyroid carcinoma is described in a 46-year old lady. Initial surgery was done based on the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC report of adenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland. Histopathologic examination of the specimen suggested a metastatic papillary carcinoma. Occult papillary carcinoma in the thyroid was found by multiple blind FNACs. Subsequently to near-total thyroidectomy, no other site of metastasis was found on radio-iodine scanning.

Sarda A

2004-01-01

72

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... to intervene with special medications to slow the rate down. And what about an underactive thyroid, the ... separate the meat from the bone or the skin from the meat. ... possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters ...

73

Salivary gland functions after radioiodotherapy of thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the method of sialoscintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate 66 patients with thyroid cancer who received 131I perorally were examined. The investigation results are given in the form of sialoscintigrams and activity-time curves, which reflect the dynamics of accumulation and removal of indicator in salivary glands. It is ascertained that administration of radioactive iodine with medical aim results in malfunctioning of period and submandibular glands. Special attention should be paid to the decrease of radiation burdens on salivary glands to prevent from complications due to their malfunctioning in the process of radioiodotherapy

74

Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000. RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %, seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente. Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 % y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea.INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of structural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000. RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5% followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively. There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%, and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%. Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

Caridad Verdecia Cañizares

2009-03-01

75

Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia / Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptiv [...] o de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000). RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %), seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente). Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 %) y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %). La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of st [...] ructural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000). RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5%) followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively). There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%), and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%). Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

Caridad, Verdecia Cañizares; Andrés, Portugués Díaz; Marta, Longchong Ramos.

2009-03-01

76

Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT scan showed left lobe thyroid tumor with tracheal deviation on the right site. Extended total thyroidectomy was done. Intraoperative consultation with the pathologist confirmed thyroid cancer. The pathologist diagnosed thyroid paraganglioma on the base of immuohistochemical investigation. This thyroid paraganglioma was positive for neuron-specific enolase, chomogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein highlighted the sustentacular cells. Tumor cells were nega-tive for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic. After the surgery the patient was treated with chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of thyroid hormone and serum neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A level, every 6 months. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest and abdomen CT scan as well as further tests (chest x-ray, ultrasound of the neck, and whole body octreotide scintigraphy were done. No primary neuroendocrine tumor in digestive sistem or in the chest was found. After more than 3 years the patient has no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of thyroid paraganglioma, followed by chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with thyroid gland paraganglioma.

Filipovi? Aleksandar

2014-01-01

77

Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland  

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The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-08-15

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Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

79

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

80

Alterations within the rat thyroid gland during vitamin A deficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid glands from female rats kept vitamin A deficient for one, two, and three months were examined by electron microscopy. After one month on the diet, no consistent alterations were noted. After two months, the colloid in some follicles displayed a peripheral zone of decreased density. In addition, ultimobranchial follicles within the gland had become keratinized. After two to three months on the diet, cells were seen entering the colloid. Many of these cells were identified as follicular cells. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies indicated that thyroids of vitamin A deficient rats took up less radioiodide than thyroids of control rats. It's possible that the presence of follicular cells in the colloid reflects an accelerated turnover of these cells and could indicate an early pathological sign

 
 
 
 
81

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead ... you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will ...

82

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... for a goiter. Recently there has been substantial growth in one of the nodules, going from 2. ... to intervene with special medications to slow the rate down. And what about an underactive thyroid, the ...

83

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... Now, is there some reason that we are hearing about so many thyroid problems, particularly in women and ... all of this contribute to why the voice is hoarse post-surgery? If the nerve is ...

84

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... patients will become symptomatic. They can have fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel sluggish, ... would take place had she been given a diagnosis of a cancerous thyroid? Correct. Although, the procedure ...

85

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... today. Thank you very much, and thank you all for joining us. Well before we hear more ... have some greater explanations once we get in. All right. The patien t’s thyroid is much larger ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... some cases when you don’t have to remove the entire thyroid? OR Live Bah 3926 7 ... other living cells that are too small to remove surgically that are not seen. So that takes ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... of the surgery. This shows some of the structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, ... that you can visualize all the important anatomic structures. And people at home may be hearing a ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... there are other conditions, there are hyper and hypo metabolic states that patients will become symptomatic. They ... regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids can actually have problems with mentation, ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... that patients will become symptomatic. They can have fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel ... thyroids can actually have problems with mentation, with fatigue, with normal function. They gain weight and really ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will offer to answer as many of those ... is up. Let’s begin now by introducing our doctor. Dr. T, can we ask you to come ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... some greater explanations once we get in. All right. The patien t’s thyroid is much larger than ... for the surgery today. That is correct. All right. Let me just go to our second diagram ...

92

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... Now, is there some reason that we are hearing about so many thyroid problems, particularly in women and ... telling us that very little blood loss is taking place during the course of the ...

93

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... involved in this procedure and how the thyroid functions in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a ... you today and tell us what each person’s function is in the o perating room. OR Live ...

94

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... thyroid; correct? That is correct. We’ve already cut the skin here. Now we’re just goin ... a transient or temporary hoarseness. If you actually cut it or if you burn it, then that ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... been prepped and we have already put some markings to suggest where I want to put the ... off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters of the way ...

96

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... diagram and explain a little bit about the anatomy involved in this procedure and how the thyroid ... easily to all of these parts of the anatomy. Correct. This is the trachea here, and this ...

97

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will offer to answer as many of those questions as he can get to before the hour ...

98

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... tell us why this particular – the way you performed is, in your mind, the most effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the first ...

99

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, the nerves to the vocal cords, the trachea, the carotid ... to the surgery? We’ll be using a nerve integrity monitor, and that monitor will be checking ...

100

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... neck and pushing the thyroid more anteriorly. And why is it so important for the patient to ... Can you explain what that monitor is and why it’s so important to the surgery? We’ll ...

 
 
 
 
101

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... the radioactive iodine it’s sort of the extra insurance that they will continue to live a normal ... decide if the symptoms are consistent with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What ...

102

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... anatomic structures. And people at home may be hearing a monitor going off. Can you explain what ... Now, is there some reason that we are hearing about so many thyroid problems, particularly in women ...

103

Incidental thyroid lesions detected by FDG-PET/CT: prevalence and risk of thyroid cancer  

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Abstract Background Incidentally found thyroid lesions are frequently detected in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of incidentally found thyroid lesions in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT and determine the risk for thyroid cancer. Methods FDG-PET/CT was performed on 3,379 patients for evaluation of suspected or known cancer or cancer screening without any history of thyroid cancer between November 2003 and De...

Kim Sung; Kim Jeong; Park Woo; Chae Byung; Bae Ja; Jung Sang; Song Byung

2009-01-01

104

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... surgery, were there other ways to treat this? No. No. And would it have continued to have grown ... reattach itself with the muscle and work perfectly. No kidding. Wow. And what does the parathyroid gland ...

105

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... Gland Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL February 1, 2012 Hello, I’m Diane Magnum, and welcome ... goiter. Recently there has been substantial growth in one of the nodules, going from 2.8 to ...

106

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... iodine, ablating the gland. Those patients that are refractory to the treatment or who may be allergic ... to do an emergency thyroidectomy if they were refractory to the medications. OR Live Bah 3926 16 ...

107

Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin`s tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

Takahashi, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Takenori; Adachi, Tosihide; Enomoto, Kenichi; Ishii, Hidenori [Asahikawa Medical School, Hokkaido (Japan); Yoshida, Chikako; Hokunan, Kazuhiko; Bando, Nobuyuki; Shigyo, Hiroshi

1997-09-01

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Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metastasis has been noted in the postoperative course of five years. She is the youngest patient with SMECE in literature. In this report, we briefly present the clinical and biologic course of this patient’s neoplasm and also review the associated literature. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 39-41

Reyhan Ersoy

2008-05-01

109

Lesions of the accessory parotid gland in children  

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The accessory parotid gland, a little-known and seldom-mentioned anatomical variant, is a nodule of normal salivary tissue separate from the main parotid gland, located on the masseter muscle and connected to the Stensen duct at that level. It can be the site of both congenital and acquired lesions. (orig.)

Currarino, Guido [Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Votteler, Theodore P. [Children' s Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States)

2006-01-01

110

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is a phenomenon that is caused sometimes by diet, and other times by environment. And what are the symptoms, besides difficulty swallowing, that would let people know they might be having a problem with their thyroid? Well outside of a goiter ...

111

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... affect your overall health if it’s failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ... will actually reattach itself with the muscle and work perfectly. No kidding. ... regulates calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is there some reason that ...

112

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that is the issue? Basically, it’s done through blood tests and a good physical examination. When you go ... to confirm whether there’s anatomic abnormality. And a blood test will tell you whether the thyroid is functioning ...

113

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... removal of an enlarged thyroid from a 65-year-old patient. This is happening live on the web and we do encourage you to send in your questions. Dr. T will answer your questions as you send them in. OR Live Bah 3926 13 If you’ve never seen a webcast before, ...

114

Expression of hepatocyte growth factor in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with nodular lesions  

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Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT is an autoimmune thyroid disease frequently associated with hyperplastic nodules (HNs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is expressed in benign thyroid nodules and over-expressed in malignant thyroid nodules, particularly in papillary thyroid carcinomas. To elucidate the role of HGF in the development of HNs in association with HT we evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of HGF in both nodular and extranodular tissues, obtained from 30 HTs and 15 goiter samples. Six normal thyroid glands were used as controls.All normal control tissue samples exhibited no evidence of HGF immunoreaction. HNs showed weak to moderate HGF immunoreaction,which was located exclusively in the cytoplasm of stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells. However, the percentage of positive cases was higher in HNs arisen in the context of HT, compared to HNs not associated with HT (30/30 or 100% vs 4/15 or 40%; p<0.001. HGF immunoreactivity was also detected in all extranodular tissues from HT specimens (30/30 or 100%, but we found some significant differences. In fact, while in HNs observed in the context of HT lesions HGF was expressed only in stromal cells, in the extranodular tissues from the same thyroid gland affected by HT it was also detected in the cytoplasm of the epithelial follicular cells. Furthermore, HTs showed a much higher HGF staining grade in the extranodular tissue compared to HNs. Finally, a clear positive correlation was observed in HT between the proportion of HGF expressing follicular cells and the grade of lymphoid aggregates of the thyroid gland. In conclusion, HGF is much more frequently and highly expressed in thyroid tissue with HT, compared to goiter. In HT glands HGF can be detected in both follicular thyroid cells and stromal cells, while in HNs, either from goiters or associated with HT, its expression is restricted only to the stromal cells.These data indicate that HGF may play a role in cell proliferation processes occurring in thyroid glands affected by HT, probably under the regulation of the lymphoid infiltrate.

RM Ruggeri

2009-08-01

115

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that monitor will be checking that the nerv es to the vocal cords are not in harm’s ... An enlarged gland like this, identifying the nerv e oftentimes can’t be done until you’ve ...

116

TTH biological effect and thyrocyte binding in functional states of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was established in experiments made in vitro on the thyroid glands of intact animals and also on hyperplastic, functionally atrophied and inflamed thyroid glands that tritiated TTH actively incorporated into thyroid gland cells of the control animals and raised the rate of thyroxin secretion. Under the conditions of experimental hyperplasia, atrophy and thyroiditis of the thyroid gland, the hormonogenic reaction of thyrocytes and the nature of TTH binding by them was greatly disturbed. The thyrocytes of the hyperplastic and inflamed thyroid tissue did not accept the labelled TTH and did not react to its administration by intensification of thyroxin secretion. The thyrocytes of the functionally atrophied thyroid gland tissue actively bound the tritiated TTH and enhanced thyroxin secretion

117

Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increase of thyroid gland cancer in people of Belarus is one of the most actual medical problems appeared after the Chernobyl disaster. During the period 1986 -1999 in Belarus were revealed 6901 cases of cancer in the adults and 673 -in the children. Compared with the pre-disaster period the increase of the pathology has made 4.7 and 84 times correspondingly. In Magilew region during post-disaster years were revealed 899 cases of thyroid gland cancer in the adults and 34 -in the children. From the year 1998 perceptible rise of disease appeared in people over 19 years old. According to the prognosis of specialists the problem of high thyroid gland carcinoma rate will be actual for years, gradually decreasing in the children and increasing in the adults. Thyroid gland cancer promoted by radiation has very aggressive nature. According to the data of Republican science-practical thyroid gland tumors center even small carcinomas (3-9 mm) can give numerous metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. The possibility of tumor growth to the nearest tissues is very high. That's why the early diagnostic of the pathology is important. Medical help to the patients with thyroid gland cancer and other node formations consist in the complex problem solution: early node formation revealing by ultrasonic method, early diagnosis verification with the help of cytological bio-assays examination, received by the way of the thin needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgicay (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were carried out on ultrasonic apparatus Aloka SSD-630, Toshiba-220A, Sonoscop-20 electronic sensor with 7.5 MHz using adapter or by the 'free hand' method. Preparations for cytological examination were prepared according to the common procedure with the coloration after Papanikolou and Pappenheim. Diagnostic methods of thyroid gland node formation changed. The main doctor's problem is to distinguish good-quality and malignant formations because their treatments are diametrically opposite. Between laboratory methods applied for differential diagnostic of good-quality and malignant thyroid gland nodes is used scanning of thyroid gland by I-123 and Tc-99 radio isotopes, but it has lost its meaning for diagnostic of malignant new formations. Nevertheless, the method is still applied for the metastasis of high-differentiated thyroid cancer revealing. Now ultrasonic scanning with following TNAB under the control of ultrasonic beam and cytological examination of the bioassays received is the most effective, high informational and reliable method. Node formations revealing with size of 0.3 cm can be done by ultrasonic method. Screening must be done at first among people whose age at the moment of disaster was 0-19 years. Early ultrasonic feature of thyroid cancer is appearing of focal formation in its parenchyma. Most often locus has low echo (75%), irregular contours (80%), impure structure (97%). Precise correlation between types of vascular net on ultrasonic angiographies and echo structure of node formations has not been found. The main role of ultrasonic examination is in revealing of the focal alterations in the parenchyma of gland, visualization of regional lymph nodes and TNAB applying. The introduction of TNAB to the clinical practice with the following bioassays cytology has raised the efficiency of early thyroid gland cancer diagnostic and has given the possibility to choose patients, who can be operated in occasion with nodal craws, more accurate. Since 1993 in diagnostic centre were made 10739 TNAB and revealed 445 case

118

Developmental Defects of the Thyroid Gland: Relationship with Advanced Maternal Age  

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Objective: Developmental defects of the thyroid gland are the most frequent causes of permanent congenital hypothyroidism. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of patients with thyroid dysgenesis (TD).

K?rm?z?bekmez, Heves; Gu?ven, Ayla; Y?ld?z, Metin; Cebeci, Ays?e Nurcan; Dursun, Fatma

2012-01-01

119

Lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence rate, distribution, patient characteristics and indications for surgical intervention of lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007. Material and methods: All biopsied/surgically removed lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark during the period 1974-2007 were identified by searching two population-based registries. Specimens were collected and re-evaluated. The following data were collected: age, gender, indications for surgical intervention and local recurrence. Results: A total of 232 lesions from 210 patients with a histologically verified lesion of the lacrimal gland were included. The incidence rate of lacrimal gland lesions was 1.3/1 000 000/year. The overall annual age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate more than doubled during the study period, owing to an increase in non-malignant lesions. Approximately half of the lesions were neoplasms (119) and 55% (66) of these were malignant. Dacryops constituted 10% (24), inflammatory lesions 27% (62), normal tissue12% (27), benign tumours 23% (53) and malignant tumours 29% (66). Patients with malignant neoplasms were significantly older than patients with benign neoplasms (63 versus 48 years, p

von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

2013-01-01

120

Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Adrenal Gland: Report of a Case.  

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Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

Gary L., Ellis.

2007-11-01

122

Development of thyroid gland and ultimobranchial body cyst is independent of p63  

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The ultimobranchial body (UBB) and thyroid primordium are the origins of the thyroid gland that fuse around embryonic day 14.5 of mouse gestation, ultimately giving rise to calcitonin-producing C cells and thyroglobulin-producing follicular cells, respectively. A homeodomain transcription factor NKX2-1 is expressed both in the UBB and the thyroid primordium, and is critical for development of the thyroid gland. In the present study, the role of p63 in development of UBB and the thyroid gland ...

Ozaki, Takashi; Nagashima, Kunio; Kusakabe, Takashi; Kakudo, Kennichi; Kimura, Shioko

2011-01-01

123

Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was unknown) were nearly twenty-times the average background concentration, while the concentration in the person who ingested Ra-226 in a medicinal preparation was about two-hundred times our background concentration. A variety of studies of small cohorts of persons either occupationally exposed to Ra-226, given Ra-224 as part of medical treatments, or among beagle dogs given Ra-226 in long-term health studies, has shown evidence of a small but significant increase in thyroid cancer rates. The findings presented here have implications for improving dosimetry models of Ra-226 in soft tissues and for projecting health risks from natural radium intake. (author)

124

Neuropeptide Y in the thyroid gland: neuronal localization and enhancement of stimulated thyroid hormone secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve fibers displaying neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity occurred around blood vessels and follicles in the thyroid gland of several mammals, including man. Removal of the superior cervical ganglia or chemical sympathectomy (6-hydroxydopamine treatment) markedly reduced the number of NPY-containing nerve fibers in the thyroid and eliminated norepinephrine-containing fibers. NPY-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were numerous in the superior cervical ganglia of mouse, rat, and guinea pig. Not unexpectedly, therefore, immunocytochemistry involving sequential staining with antibodies against dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (an enzyme marker for adrenergic neurons) and NPY revealed that most of the NPY fibers were adrenergic. As tested in mice in vivo, NPY did not affect basal or norepinephrine-stimulated thyroid hormone secretion, but enhanced isoprenaline-, TSH-, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-induced iodothyronine release. These findings suggest a modulatory role for NPY in the control of thyroid hormone secretion. PMID:6548182

Grunditz, T; Håkanson, R; Rerup, C; Sundler, F; Uddman, R

1984-10-01

125

Cytodiagnosis of thyroid lesions-usefulness and pitfalls: A study of 288 cases  

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Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been widely and successfully utilized for diagnosis. Aim: Our aim was to demonstrate the effectiveness of this cheap and simple procedure for the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions, particularly, differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions. In addition, we sought to highlight probable causes of error and possible remedies in the cases showing lack of correlation between cytological and histological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 cases of thyroid swellings were aspirated in our two-year study period. Cases were divided into four groups, namely, aspiration inadequate where diagnosis was not offered; a nonneoplastic group which included different goiters and thyroiditis; an indeterminate group which included cases showing features of follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasms, and a malignant group that included nonfollicular malignant tumors of the thyroid. Cases showing cytohistologic disparity were reevaluated. Results: Almost 14% of the cases could not be reported because of inadequate aspiration, however, an overall cytohistological correlation was achieved in 82.66% of all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy were 92.7 and 98.2%, respectively. There were four false negative malignant cases with one false positive case and 13 cases failed to show any cytohistological correlation. Conclusions: FNAC is the single most important test for preoperative assessment of thyroid pathology if attention is paid to the clinical features and collection of samples from proper sites.

Guhamallick M

2008-01-01

126

Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate thaty far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue

127

Digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands of human being  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands is described. This instrument is used to measure the activity of 125I in thyroid glands of human being directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent

128

Fine needle aspiration cytology: sensitivity and specificity in thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Thyroid enlargement is one of the common problems in patients presenting at outpatients department of ENT particularly in females. Thyroid nodules are common, thyroid cancer is uncommon and the most common way for it to present is as a solitary thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in thyroid diseases. Method: This prospective analytic study was conducted at ENT Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College/Abbasi Shaheed Hospital during year 2004-8. One hundred and five cases were enrolled who underwent thyroid surgery after complete evaluation by history, clinical examination, Thyroid profile, Thyroid Scintigraphy, Ultrasound neck and FNAC. In cases which were revealed malignant by FNAC, CT scan were done to see the extent of disease and neck node status. Surgery was done in all cases and specimens sent for histopathology. Results: Male to female ratio of the patients was 1:8.5. Most common lesion was benign nodule (96). Malignant lesions were 9 in FNAC. In histopathology, the benign nodules were 92, and malignant cases were 13. Sensitivity of FNAC was 61.53% and specificity was 98.9%. Conclusion: FNAC in Thyroid has high sensitivity and specificity. (author)

129

Differential diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions by CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We designed this study to determine the potentiality of the conventional CT in the diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions, especially in solving the diagnostic difficulty between neoplasm and inflammation. We performed retrospective study of 35 patients and 2 of them had bilateral lesion of chronic inflammation, hence we analysed 37 cases of submandibular gland lesions. There were 9 cases of tumor (including 1 basal cell carcinoma, and 8 pleomorphic adenomas), 22 cases of chronic inflammation, and 6 cases of acute inflammation. CT scans were evaluated for the degree of enlargement (graded as iso, mild or marked enlargement), pattern of contrast enhancement, contour deformity of the gland, and several other items. Neoplastic masses showed more marked enlargement of the gland (77%) than chronic inflammation (22%). Degree of enhancement showed no difference among the lesions. Enhancement pattern was more inhomogeneous in neoplasm (80%) than in chronic inflammation (5%). Deformity of the natural contour of the gland was more frequent in neoplasm (all of 9 cases) than in chronic inflammation (32%). Acute inflammation showed internal low attenuation probably by abscess formation (3/6 cases) and overlying soft tissue swelling (all of 6 cases), and the age of patients was characteristically younger than other disease (mean, 9 years). Several findings were more specific to disease, such as dystrophic calcifications to pleomorphic adenoma (37%) and calculi with or without ducnoma (37%) and calculi with or without ductal dilatation to chronic inflammation (45%). Pre and postcontrast enhanced CT scan can serve as a predictor of pathologic nature of the submandibular gland lesions

130

Oncocytic lesion of parotid gland: A dilemma for cytopathologists  

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Oncocytes are epithelial cells with abundant, granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm due to presence of numerous large mitochondria of varied sizes. The presence of oncocytes in salivary glands can occur in a variety of conditions. Here, we present a rare case of a 68 year old male patient who presented with a 6 cm diameter swelling in the right parotid region. A fine needle aspiration cytology done from the lesion showed a cellular oncocytic lesion. A possibility of oncocytoma was entertained. His...

Chakrabarti, Indranil; Basu, Amitabha; Ghosh, Nilanjana

2012-01-01

131

Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi  

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The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4) concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during bre...

Krishna, A.; Singh, K.

1998-01-01

132

FDG PET/CT of Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid gland is very rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Hereby we describe a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid that showed intense FDG activity on PET/CT in a 61-year-old woman who had partial thyroidectomy 5 years ago for a suspicious thyroid nodule that was diagnosed as neurofibroma pathologically. PMID:25546196

Zheng, Li-Chun; OuYang, Xiang-Liu; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

2015-02-01

133

Histopathological Study on Thyroid Gland of Goat in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thyroid gland in most animal species has two lobes, one on each lateral surface of the trachea. In pigs, the main lobe of the thyroid gland is on the midline in the ventral cervical region with dorsolateral projections from each side. The thyroid structural changes in gouts were investigated. About 386 pairs of thyroid glands collected from gout at the local municipal abattoir in Tabriz city of East Azerbaijan province. A total of 386 thyroid specimens examined, 8 cases were follicular atrophy, 4 cases were thyroid fibrosis, 71 cases were diffuse hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells, 5 cases were colloid goiter, 10 cases were parenchymal cysts, 3 cases were nodular hyperplasia, 1 case was C-cell adenoma and 1 case was C-cell carcinoma.

Ghafour Mousavi

2012-01-01

134

AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

2014-12-19

135

Technetium-99m high resolution tomographic imaging in the thyroid gland diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the experiments with the thyroid phantom and first studies of patients with hyperthyroidism it was proved that in combining SPECT imaging technique and high resolution ability of pinhole collimator (commonly used for conventional scintigraphy of the thyroid) it is possible to obtain quantitative information concerning the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid tissue , not available tom the planar imaging. The following applications of the the method are expected: 1) Estimation of the thyroid dimensions and volume for the accurate dosimetry of the following Iodine-131 - therapy. 2) Determination of the location of the thyroid in the neck , occurrences of the retrotracheal, retrolaryngeal and retrostemal extension of the goiter. 3) Estimation of the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid gland . 4) Locations and dimensions of cold nodules in the thyroid tissue . Some of these applications are illustrated in our studies of the patients with different thyroid gland diseases (authors)

136

Fine needle aspiration cytology--a reliable diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of thyroid gland enlargements.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of Thyroid gland enlargements. A retrospective analysis was done at Department of Pathology, Government Medical College and General Hospital, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. One hundred and fifty cases were included in this study. However in 10 cases aspirate was unsatisfactory and in 20 cases surgery was not performed and these cases were excluded from study. A total of 120 cases included in the final study. Detailed history, physical examination, routine investigations and other details of 120 patients were collected. FNAC with minimum two passes were performed in each case. Staining done with Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and Papanicolaou stains. FNAC smears and histopathology slides were reviewed. Among 120 cases 100 (83.66%) were reported cytologically as benign and 20 (16.66%) were malignant. But histologically 98 (81.66%) were benign and 22 (18.33%) were malignant. Commonest benign lesion of thyroid in both cytology and histology was nodular colloid goiter. Follicular adenoma was the second commonest one. Among malignant conditions papillary carcinoma was the commonest one in our FNAC samples, follicular carcinoma was the commonest in our histopathology samples. Four cases of false positive and 6 cases of false negative were observed. Sampling errors were mainly responsible for these false negative diagnoses. FNAC showed an accuracy of 96.6%, sensitivity 75%, specificity 95.83%, positive predicative value (PPV) 81.81% and negative predicative value (NPV) of 93.81%. Our results were similar to other international studies and suggest that FNAC is more specific and sensitive in detecting thyroid malignancy. Therefore its useas a reliable diagnostic test cannot be over emphasized. FNAC is an accurate and reliable diagnostic tool to evaluate the cause of Thyroid gland enlargements provided strict adherence to adequacy criteria are maintained. PMID:23016483

Swamy, G G; Madhuravani, S; Swamy, G M

2011-12-01

137

Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the associatilts have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

138

Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

139

Cystic Change of Thyroid Mass: A Useful Sign in Differentiating Benign from Malignant Thyroid Lesions?  

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To examine the usefulness of the cystic change of the thyroid mass in the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions. We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic (US) findings of 65 benign (30 follicular adenomas and 35 nodular hyperplasias) and 206 malignant (202 papillary carcinomas and 4 follicular carcinomas) lesions that had been confirmed by surgery. The cystic change was graded as 0 (mass without cystic change), 1, 2, 3 and 4 (cystic change less than 25%, 25-50%, 51-75%, and more than 75% of the volume of the mass, respectively). The incidence and grades of the cystic change of the benign thyroid lesions were compared with those of the malignant lesions. We also evaluated the US features of the cystic change to evaluate any differences between benign and malignant lesions. Statistical significance was assessed by Chi-square test. Cystic change was present in 47/65 (72.3%) of benign thyroid lesions (21/30 [70%] of follicular adenomas and 26/35 [74.3%] of nodular hyperplasias) and 16/206 (7.8%) of malignant lesions (14/202 [6.9%] of papillary carcinomas and 2/4 [50%] of follicular carcinomas). The grades of cystic change were grade 1 in 29/47 (61.7%), 2 in 2/47 (4.3%), 3 in 2/47 (4.3%), and 4 in 14/47 (29.8%) for benign thyroid lesions, and grade 1 in 14/16 (87.5%) and 3 in 2/16 (12.5%) for malignant lesions. In regard to the US features of cystic change, a large cyst with polypoid projection less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst with a peripheral rind of solid component were exclusively found in the benign thyroid lesions. In contrast, malignant lesions frequently presented as a mass with irregularly mixed, solid and cystic components, a solid mass with multiple cystic components, or a solid mass with one or two cystic components. Cystic change was more common (p < 0.0001) and more prominent in benign than in malignant lesions. A large cyst with polypoid projection less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst with a peripheral rind of solid component were exclusively found in the benign thyroid lesions. The cystic change was evaluated to be a useful sign in the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions, although the size of the lesion must also be taken into account

Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Woo, Seong Ku [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2007-03-15

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Cystic Change of Thyroid Mass: A Useful Sign in Differentiating Benign from Malignant Thyroid Lesions?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the usefulness of the cystic change of the thyroid mass in the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions. We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic (US) findings of 65 benign (30 follicular adenomas and 35 nodular hyperplasias) and 206 malignant (202 papillary carcinomas and 4 follicular carcinomas) lesions that had been confirmed by surgery. The cystic change was graded as 0 (mass without cystic change), 1, 2, 3 and 4 (cystic change less than 25%, 25-50%, 51-75%, and more than 75% of the volume of the mass, respectively). The incidence and grades of the cystic change of the benign thyroid lesions were compared with those of the malignant lesions. We also evaluated the US features of the cystic change to evaluate any differences between benign and malignant lesions. Statistical significance was assessed by Chi-square test. Cystic change was present in 47/65 (72.3%) of benign thyroid lesions (21/30 [70%] of follicular adenomas and 26/35 [74.3%] of nodular hyperplasias) and 16/206 (7.8%) of malignant lesions (14/202 [6.9%] of papillary carcinomas and 2/4 [50%] of follicular carcinomas). The grades of cystic change were grade 1 in 29/47 (61.7%), 2 in 2/47 (4.3%), 3 in 2/47 (4.3%), and 4 in 14/47 (29.8%) for benign thyroid lesions, and grade 1 in 14/16 (87.5%) and 3 in 2/16 (12.5%) for malignant lesions. In regard to the US features of cystic change, a large cyst with polypoid projection less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst w less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst with a peripheral rind of solid component were exclusively found in the benign thyroid lesions. In contrast, malignant lesions frequently presented as a mass with irregularly mixed, solid and cystic components, a solid mass with multiple cystic components, or a solid mass with one or two cystic components. Cystic change was more common (p < 0.0001) and more prominent in benign than in malignant lesions. A large cyst with polypoid projection less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst with a peripheral rind of solid component were exclusively found in the benign thyroid lesions. The cystic change was evaluated to be a useful sign in the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions, although the size of the lesion must also be taken into account

 
 
 
 
141

Solitary extramedullary plasmocytoma of the thyroid: a case report and histological approach to plasma cells infiltrate in the thyroid gland.  

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Background: Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from plasma cells. SEP mostly occurs in the upper respiratory tract. Thyroid gland is rarely affected (multiple myeloma was negative. Conclusions: SEP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a rapidly enlarging thyroid nodule and be distinguished from involvement of thyroid in multiple myeloma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, plasma cell granuloma and medullary carcinoma. Clinical correlation and immunohistochemistry are crucial in avoiding pitfalls. PMID:25363715

Wilmars, Maud Mertens de; Knoops, Laurent; Sempoux, Christine; Galant, Christine; Geets, Xavier; Poirel, Hélène A; Ameye, Geneviève; Camboni, Alessandra

2014-11-01

142

Computed tomography imaging of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland  

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The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland is a normal anatomical variant found frequently in the general population. This structure consists of normal thyroid tissue located in the upper part of the thyroid isthmus, extending upward in the form of a fibrous chord that connects it to the foramen caecum at the bottom of the tongue. This paper reviews thyroid anatomy and embryology, and highlights the main features of the pyramidal lobe, including the anatomy, epidemiology and computed tomography imaging.

143

Rare developmental abnormalities of thyroid gland, especially multiple ectopia: a review and our experience  

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Developmental structural abnormalities of the thyroid gland are relatively rare. There are scanty reports of hemiagenesis, dual and triple ectopia of the thyroid in the literature. Materials and Methods: We did a retrospective analysis of 236 patients referred to us for 99mTc Pertechnetate thyroid scan over period of five months (May 2010 to Sept 2010). Twenty of these 236 patients aged less than 20 years found to have developmental abnormality of the thyroid gland on thyroid scan. Diagnosis was correlated with anatomical imaging (USG/CT scan), fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and histopathology. Results: Out of the 20 patients, 8 were diagnosed with thyroglossal cyst, 4 with ectopic thyroid gland, 4 with dual ectopia, two had agenesis of thyroid gland, one case each with hemiagenesis and triple ectopia. Conclusion: The study has emphasized the indispensable role of 99mTc Pertechnetate thyroid scan in the evaluation of midline neck swellings of childhood and diagnosing developmental anomalies of thyroid gland. (author)

144

Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer  

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Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

2014-11-21

145

Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland  

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A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

146

Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy  

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Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

2015-02-06

147

Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy  

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Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

2015-01-12

148

Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer  

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Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

2015-01-30

149

Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer  

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Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

2015-01-09

150

Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions  

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Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US) guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years...

Dimashkieh Haytham; Krishnamurthy Savitri

2006-01-01

151

Extensive DNA fragmentation in oxyphilic cell lesions of the thyroid.  

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The in situ end-labeling (ISEL) method demonstrates DNA fragmentation, commonly regarded as a marker of apoptosis. We investigated by the ISEL procedure a series of 52 thyroid lesions, including 24 lesions of mitochondrion-rich oxyphilic cells, both benign and malignant, and 28 non-oxyphilic control tumors. A high percentage of nuclear ISEL staining (approximating to 100% in most cases) was observed in the vast majority of oxyphilic cells from both adenomas and carcinomas, in the absence of m...

Bussolati, Giovanni; Papotti, Mauro Giulio; Volante, Marco; Gugliotta, Patrizia

2001-01-01

152

Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland  

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For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(?g/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar d TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.)

153

Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

Yokoyama Junkichi

2012-04-01

154

Extrapulmonary small cell: a novel case of small cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland.  

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Neuroendocrine tumors comprise a large group of malignancies which share unique morphological features and are characterized by the presence of neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin, chromogranin-A, and CD56 (N-CAM), ranging from indolent tumors, such as carcinoid tumors, to aggressive tumors, such as small cell carcinoma. The lung is the most common site for primary neuroendocrine tumors. Extrapulmonary primary sites of small cell carcinoma are rare but have been documented arising from various sites including esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, gallbladder, thymus, salivary gland, ovary, cervix, bladder, prostate, and skin. We present a case of small cell carcinoma arising from the thyroid gland, a site not previously described in the literature. A 59-year-old woman presented with a thyroid mass, which, after resection, showed small cell morphology and positive immunostains for TTF-1, synaptophysin, chromogranin-A, CD56, etc. Five months after diagnosis, she had widely metastatic disease. After a near-complete response to the first chemo-treatment, her disease progressed. Following local radiation and more rounds of chemotherapy, she succumbed to the disease, 15 months after diagnosis. Our patient had no pulmonary lesions at the time of diagnosis to suggest metastasis from the lung. Much like its pulmonary counterparts, this small cell carcinoma of primary thyroid origin displayed an aggressive clinical course and poor outcome. Although it shows early sensitivity to chemotherapy, small cell carcinoma remains a difficult-to-treat cancer with a poor prognosis and can rarely be seen originating in organs outside of the lung. PMID:21644012

Beach, Douglas F; Klump, William J; Haddad, Ghada; Reid, Lisa M; Schwarting, Roland; Hageboutros, Alexandre

2012-09-01

155

Dabrafenib and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery  

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Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Adenocarcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

2014-12-19

156

The reproduction accuracy for stereolithographic model of the thyroid gland derived from the visible human dataset.  

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OBJECTIVES To investigate reproduction accuracy of the rapid prototyping technique by comparing 3-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) (virtual) model with stereolithographic (solid) replica of the thyroid gland. METHODS The Visible Human Dataset was used as the input imaging data. The Surfdriver software package was applied on these images to reconstruct the thyroid gland as 3-dimensional Data Exchange File (DXF) models. These model...

Samet Kapakin; Deniz Demiryurek

2009-01-01

157

[Using Kirlian photography method for risk assessment of the thyroid gland pathology development in adults].  

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The article considers possibilities of the use of the express method based on the Kirlian-effect to detect prenosological signs of pathology of the thyroid gland. Type of Kirlian emission form fingers was compared with the form of disease, its pathogenesis, clinical peculiarities and ultrasonic data. Obtained data were used to form criteria for different group of the risk development of thyroid gland pathology. PMID:21488372

Pisots'ka, L A; Kul'kina, O A; Abaiantseva, T O; Shostak, L V; Babenko, V V; Zaruvins'ka, O Iu

2010-01-01

158

Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study  

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Abstract Purpose To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). Methods and materials In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimo...

Knutstad K; Kv, Reinertsen; Johansen S; Dr, Olsen; Sd, Fossa?

2011-01-01

159

Ultrasound examination of the thyroid  

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Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland. (orig.)

160

Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis  

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Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morp...

Cassali Geovanni D; Saraiva Bruna S; Gobbi Helenice; Ferreira Enio

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Late Simultaneous Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Submandibular and Thyroid Glands Seven Years after Radical Nephrectomy  

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Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC metastasis to the salivary glands is extremely rare. Most cases reported previously have involved the parotid gland and only six cases involving the submandibular gland exist in the current literature. Metastasis of RCC to thyroid gland is also rare but appears to be more common than to salivary glands. Methods and Results. We present the first case of simultaneous metastasis to the submandibular and thyroid glands from clear cell RCC in a 61-year-old woman who presented seven years after the primary treatment. The submandibular and thyroid glands were excised completely with preservation of the marginal mandibular and recurrent laryngeal nerves, respectively. Conclusion. Metastatic disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with painless salivary or thyroid gland swelling with a previous history of RCC. If metastatic disease is confined only to these glands, prompt surgical excision can be curative.

Mohammed S. Miah

2010-01-01

162

GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS  

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Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

2006-04-01

163

Increasing the number of thyroid lesions classes in microarray analysis improves the relevance of diagnostic markers  

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BACKGROUND: Genetic markers for thyroid cancers identified by microarray analysis have offered limited predictive accuracy so far because of the few classes of thyroid lesions usually taken into account. To improve diagnostic relevance, we have simultaneously analyzed microarray data from six public datasets covering a total of 347 thyroid tissue samples representing 12 histological classes of follicular lesions and normal thyroid tissue. Our own dataset, containing about half the thyroid tis...

Fontaine, J. F.; Mirebeau-prunier, D.; Raharijaona, M.; Franc, B.; Triau, S.; Rodien, P.; Goeau-brissonniere, O.; Karayan-tapon, L.; Mello, M.; Houlgatte, R.; Malthiery, Y.; Savagner, F.

2009-01-01

164

Metabolic Pathways of Tetraidothyronine and Triidothyronine Production by Thyroid Gland: A Review of Articles  

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Full Text Available Tetraidothyronine (T4 and Triiodothyronine (T3 are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT and diiodothyrosine (DIT on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction , or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO, which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin to show themselves.

A.R. Mansourian

2011-01-01

165

Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

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Synovial sarcoma (SVS) of the thyroid gland is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a rapidly growing 7-cm neck mass. Because of suspicion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was planned, without preoperative cytology. During surgery, the tumor ruptured, leading to fragmented and incomplete resection. The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects suggested thyroid SVS, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (SYT gene rearrange...

Boudin, Laurys; Fakhry, Nicolas; Chetaille, Bruno; Perrot, Delphine; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Daidj, Nassima; Guiramand, Je?ro?me; Sarran, Anthony; Moureau-zabotto, Laurence; Bertucci, Franc?ois

2014-01-01

166

Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland  

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The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of [131I] and [99mTc]pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter

167

An Abattoir Study of Thyroid Histopathology in Ewes and their Fetus in Ahvaz City of Iran  

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The thyroid structural changes in pregnant ewes and their fetuses were investigated. Out of 100 pairs of thyroid glands collected from ewes and their fetuses at the local municipal abattoir in Ahvaz city of Khuzestan province, multiple lesions were seen in 59% and 21% of the thyroid glands of ewes and fetuses, respectively. Histologically, ninety nine lesions in the ewes and twenty two lesions in the fetuses’ thyroid glands were noticed.

Reza Pourjamshid; Babak Mohammadian; Mohammad Nouri

2010-01-01

168

Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound  

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Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = {pi}/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects.

Ying, Michael [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: ormying@polyu.edu.hk; Sin Manhong [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Shuk-fan [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2005-11-01

169

Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = ?/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects

170

[Function of the thyroid gland of tundra voles living on sites with the increased natural radioactivity].  

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We studied a functional condition of the thyroid gland of tundra voles living on sites with the increased level of a natural radioactivity (in Republic Komi areas in Russia). We have revealed that the functional condition of the thyroid gland depends on the phase of the population cycle of animals. The level of thyroid hormones in the irradiated animals differed from the norm; a high concentration of hormones in the irradiated animals was observed in the phase of the maximum number of animals, while males and females showed multidirectional differences from the control in the phase of the decreased number of animals. PMID:24450213

Raskosha, O V; Ermakova, O V

2013-01-01

171

CARCINOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND—A Review of 106 Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

In a review of 106 cases of carcinoma of the thyroid gland, it was noted that a solitary thyroid nodule is the most outstanding single physical sign in this disease. It should be investigated by biopsy of a specimen removed at operation. Patients and physicians were sometimes guilty of delay in this regard. Papillary carcinoma involved multiple foci within the gland in at least half of the cases and there was a high incidence of regional lymph node metastasis associated with this type. Doubt was cast on conclusions by other investigators that carcinoma of the thyroid rarely is lethal in patients less than 40 years of age. PMID:13383384

O'Hara, George L.; Macdonald, Ian; Weber, Robert A.

1957-01-01

172

Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

Bondarenko O.O.

2009-01-01

173

Study on ultrastructural changes in thyroid gland of rats exposed to pulsed electromagnetic wave  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work is to observe effects of PEMW (pulse electromagnetic wave) exposure on function and morphology of thyroid gland of rats. At different time points (24, 48, 96 and 192 h) after exposure to PEMW (E=115 kV m-1, 12000 pulses), radioimmunoassay was performed to observe the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodo- thyronine (T3) in sera of the male Sparague-Dawley rats. Optic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe structural changes of the thyroid gland at the time points. The T3, T4 and TSH in sera increased significantly, reaching a peak at 24 h and decreasing gradually then. Although no obvious changes in the thyroid gland were observed under the optic microscope, some ultrastructural changes in the thyroid gland were found under the TEM. The ultrastructures were obviously changed at 12 h and aggravated until 48 h. In the experimented rats, dilatated endoplasmic reticulum gathered with lots of protein excretion, lipid droplet and heterochromatin gathered under the nucleus membranes were observed in follicular epithelial cells. These changes were palliated at 96 h but not recovered. PEMW can affect levels of hormones in sera and the hazard ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland. Endoplasmic reticulum is the main injured organelle. (authors)

174

Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report  

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Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT) scan ...

Filipovi? Aleksandar; Vu?kovi? Ljiljana; Pejakov Ljubica

2014-01-01

175

Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

176

Regulation of mammary gland sensitivity to thyroid hormones during the transition from pregnancy to lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones are galactopoietic and help to establish the mammary gland's metabolic priority during lactation. Expression patterns for genes that can alter tissue sensitivity to thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone activity were evaluated in the mammary gland and liver of cows at 53, 35, 20, and 7 days before expected parturition, and 14 and 90 days into the subsequent lactation. Transcript abundance for the three isoforms of iodothyronine deiodinase, type I (DIO1), type II (DIO2) and type III (DIO3), thyroid hormone receptors alpha1 (TRalpha1), alpha2 (TRalpha2) and beta1 (TRbeta1), and retinoic acid receptors alpha (RXRalpha) and gamma (RXRgamma), which act as coregulators of thyroid hormone receptor action, were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The DIO3 is a 5-deiodinase that produces inactive iodothyronine metabolites, whereas DIO1 and DIO2 generate the active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine, from the relatively inactive precursor, thyroxine. Low copy numbers of DIO3 transcripts were present in mammary gland and liver. DIO2 was the predominant isoform expressed in mammary gland and DIO1 was the predominant isoform expressed in liver. Quantity of DIO1 mRNA in liver tissues did not differ with physiological state, but tended to be lowest during lactation. Quantity of DIO2 mRNA in mammary gland increased during lactation (P 100-fold). Quantity of TRbeta1 mRNA in mammary gland increased with onset of lactation, whereas TRalpha1 and TRalpha2 transcripts did not vary with physiological state. Conversely, quantity of RXRalpha mRNA decreased during late gestation to low levels during early lactation. Data suggest that increased expression of mammary TRbeta1 and DIO2, and decreased RXRalpha, provide a mechanism to increase thyroid hormone activity within the mammary gland during lactation. PMID:18641053

Capuco, A V; Connor, E E; Wood, D L

2008-10-01

177

Cediranib Maleate With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer  

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Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

2015-01-30

178

Cediranib Maleate With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

2015-01-09

179

Influence of chronic exposure to cold environment on thyroid gland function in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic exposure to cold can affect the thyroid gland. However, the effect on thyroid gland perfusion images and the ratio between thyroid hormones secretion were not addressed in any previous study. The present study investigates the effects of chronic cold exposure on thyroid gland function using radionuclide tracer and thyroid hormones secretion concentration. New Zealand white rabbits weighing approximately 1.8-2?kg were kept in a cold room (4°C) for 7 weeks. Thyroid scintigraphy was performed for cold exposed rabbits and a control rabbit group. Each rabbit was injected with 115?MBq (3.1?mCi) technetium-99m pertechnetate (99mTc pertechnetate). Studies were performed using Gamma camera equipped with a low energy, high resolution, pinhole collimator interfaced with a computer. Static images were acquired 20?min after administration of the radiotracer. Rabbits chronically exposed to cold had less body weights than control. Thyroid gland uptake is higher in rabbits chronically exposed to cold than controls using radionuclide perfusion study. The increase was proportional to the time period, so the increase after 7 weeks was greater than 5 weeks. There is also an increase in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and a decrease in free thyroxine (FT4) values. Our results indicate that thyroid gland uptake is higher in rabbits chronically exposed to cold than control and the increase was proportional to the duration. The decrease in rabbit body weights may be related to the increase in metabolism due to the increase of thyroid hormones. Chronic cold exposure also increased the conversion of T4 to T3, which is more potent in thermogenic effect. PMID:24446160

Mustafa, S; Elgazzar, A

2014-07-01

180

Histological evaluation of thyroid lesions using a scanning acoustic microscope  

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Katsutoshi Miura,1 Hiroyuki Mineta2 1Department of Health Science, Pathology, and Anatomy, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) uses an ultrasound to image an object by plotting the speed-of-sound (SOS) through tissues on screen. Because hard tissues result in great SOS, SAM can provide data on the tissue elasticity. This paper investigated the utility of SAM in evaluating thyroid lesions. ...

Miura K; Mineta H

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores / Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósi [...] to de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología. Abstract in english Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical [...] service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

MARÍA ANGÉLICA, MATAMALA S; MIGUEL, GONZÁLEZ P; GONZALO, ROSSEL D; CONSTANZA, NIEME S.

2012-08-01

182

Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients  

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Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3% se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73% correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27% a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total, 4 (36,3% con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18% con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18% con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9% con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9% con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9% con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología.Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81% had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%. were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36% had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18% had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18% had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

MARÍA ANGÉLICA MATAMALA S

2012-08-01

183

Functional thyroid gland adenoma in a dog treated with surgical excision alone.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 11-year-old male Golden Retriever presented with progressive weight loss, tachycardia, hyperthermia, polyuria and polydipsia. A freely movable mass, 4.5 x 4 cm in size, was palpated at the cranioventral cervical region. Hormonal study revealed high levels of serum thyroid hormones, and a tentative diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to a thyroid tumor was made. The tumor was removed surgically and diagnosed histopathologically as thyroid gland adenoma. Serum thyroid hormone levels decreased after surgery with improved clinical signs. At 12 months after surgery, the dog maintained a good physical condition with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:17283402

Itoh, Teruo; Kojimoto, Atsuko; Nibe, Kazumi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Shii, Hiroki

2007-01-01

184

Histological evaluation of thyroid lesions using a scanning acoustic microscope  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Katsutoshi Miura,1 Hiroyuki Mineta2 1Department of Health Science, Pathology, and Anatomy, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM uses an ultrasound to image an object by plotting the speed-of-sound (SOS through tissues on screen. Because hard tissues result in great SOS, SAM can provide data on the tissue elasticity. This paper investigated the utility of SAM in evaluating thyroid lesions. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin sections were scanned with a 120 MHz transducer. SOS through each area was calculated and plotted on the screen to provide histological images, and SOS of each lesion was compared and statistically analyzed. Results: High-concentrated colloids, red blood cells, and collagen fibers showed great SOS, while low-concentrated colloids, parathyroids, lymph follicles, and epithelial tissues including carcinomas demonstrated lower SOS. SAM clearly discriminated structure of thyroid components corresponding to low magnification of light microscopy. Thyroid tumors were classified into three groups by average SOS: the fast group consisted of follicular adenomas/carcinomas and malignant lymphomas; the slow group contained poorly differentiated/undifferentiated carcinomas; and the intermediate group comprised papillary/medullary carcinomas. Fragmented colloids, irregular-shaped follicles, and desmoplastic reactions were observed in the invasive area of surrounding carcinomas. Conclusion: The SAM imaging method had the following benefits: 1 precise images were acquired in a few minutes without special staining; 2 structural irregularity and desmoplastic reactions, which indicated malignancy, were detected; 3 images reflected tissue elasticity, which was statistically comparable among lesions by SOS; 4 follicular functional activity was predictable by converting colloid concentration to SOS; and 5 tumor classification was predictable by SOS because more poorly differentiated carcinomas had a tendency to show lower SOS. Keywords: scanning acoustic microscope, tissue elasticity, cancer imaging, thyroid tumor, parathyroid

Miura K

2014-02-01

185

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Thyroid Surgery Introduction The thyroid gland is an important gland that helps regulate the way the body works. Different diseases can affect the thyroid gland. These diseases are common and affect many people. Most of these diseases ...

186

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the thyroid are other small glands known as parathyroid glands. Two important nerves pass through the thyroid ... reviewed: 04/25/2013 1 thyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands produce the parathyroid hormone or PTH, which ...

187

Microarray Analysis of Thyroid Nodule Fine-Needle Aspirates Accurately Classifies Benign and Malignant Lesions  

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Current preoperative diagnostic procedures for thyroid nodules rely mainly on the cytological interpretation of fine-needle aspirates (FNAs). DNA microarray analysis has been shown to reliably distinguish benign and malignant thyroid nodules in surgically resected specimens, but its diagnostic potential in thyroid FNA has not been examined. In the present study, the expression profiles of 50 benign thyroid lesions and papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue samples were compared, generating a list...

Lubitz, Carrie C.; Ugras, Stacy K.; Kazam, J. Jacob; Zhu, Biaxin; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Chen, Yao-tseng; Fahey, Thomas J.

2006-01-01

188

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland 24?years after the primary tumour  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the metastases to thyroid gland, metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are not rare and their frequent macroscopic looks are similar to primary thyroid tumours. We report an unusual case of thyroid metastases from renal carcinoma in a 72?-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of choking spells, stridor and dyspnoea. Patient underwent right nephrectomy for RCC, 24?years ago. In the present case, a right hemithyroidectomy was performed for a suspected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Histological examination showed a metastases of a clear cell renal carcinoma. Although the RCC showed an indolent biological behaviour, the late thyroid metastases have concurred with a poor prognosis and the patient died 5?months after surgery. The interest of this case lies in the long progression-free survival of the RCC preceded by the diagnosis of the thyroid nodule and the discrepancy between the clinical–radiological and the histological assessment. PMID:23355570

Di Stasi, Vincenza; D'Antonio, Antonio; Caleo, Alessia; Valvano, Luca

2013-01-01

189

Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

190

Cytologic features of neoplastic lesions in endocervical glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytologic criteria for classifying atypical endocervical cells on Pap smears are poorly defined. In this study we evaluated cytologic parameters that are useful in predicting the presence of neoplastic lesions (NL) and those that help distinguish squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) from glandular neoplastic lesions. The recently proposed Bethesda System (TBS) terminology for reporting atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) was also evaluated for its significance on patient management. Sixteen cases of biopsy-proven endocervical glandular NL that had cytologic smears available for review were included. Thirty-five smears with atypical endocervical cells and follow-up biopsies showing benign/reactive change (n = 22) and SIL involving glands (n = 13) were reviewed for comparison. Our results show that squamous NL often coexist with glandular NL. The presence of rosettes, hyperchromasia and increased N/C ratio is useful in distinguishing NL from benign/reactive conditions. Architectural features are helpful in distinguishing SIL from glandular NL. While a haphazard arrangement is more often seen with SIL, glandular NL are more likely to maintain polarity and to show glandular rosettes. Using TBS criteria, a conservative management seems justified in patients with AGUS-favor reactive and AGUS diagnosis on Pap smear, and colposcopy is indicated for patients with AGUS-favor NL. PMID:9218895

Siziopikou, K P; Wang, H H; Abu-Jawdeh, G

1997-07-01

191

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... treatment options including medications and surgery. Thyroid Gland Anatomy and Function The thyroid gland is a butterfly- ... Diagnosing thyroid problems includes examining the patients’ medical history, as well as family history. Some thyroid problems ...

192

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood to make the thyroid hormone. A small gland ... the levels of the thyroid hormone in the blood. It secretes a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating ...

193

ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results  

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Full Text Available AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men: 44 (32.3% without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3% with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD, 37 (27.2% with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests, 4 (2.9% with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2% cases with thyroid pathology induced by amiodarone. In all patients, 10 elastographic measurements were made in the right thyroid lobe and 10 in the left thyroid lobe, using a 1-4.5 MHZ convex probe and a 4-9 MHz linear probe, respectively. Median values were calculated for thyroid stiffness and expressed in meters/second (m/s. RESULTS: Thyroid stiffness (TS assessed by means of ARFI in healthy subjects (2 ± 0.40 m/s was significantly lower than in GD (2.67 ± 0.53 m/s (P < 0.0001 and CAT patients (2.43 ± 0.58 m/s (P = 0.0002, but the differences were not significant between GD vs CAT patients (P = 0.053. The optimal cut-off value for the prediction of diffuse thyroid pathology was 2.36 m/s. For this cut-off value, TS had 62.5% sensitivity, 79.5% specificity, 87.6% predictive positive value, 55.5% negative predictive value and 72.7% accuracy for the presence of diffuse thyroid gland pathology (AUROC = 0.804. There were no significant differences between the TS values obtained with linear vs convex probes and when 5 vs 10 measurements were taken in each lobe (median values. CONCLUSION: ARFI seems to be a useful method for the assessment of diffuse thyroid gland pathology.

Ioan Sporea

2012-01-01

194

Diagnostic value of some radioisotope methods in the study of the thyroid gland of sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were carried out on the diagnostic effectiveness of the 131I-captation test, the thyro-cap, thyro-con, res-o-mat method, and the scintigraphic method in the investigation of sheep with hypo- and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. It was established that the first of these methods displayed negligible diagnostic capacity, embracing the changes in the inorganic phase of the iodine metabolism at hypo- and hyperfunction of the thyroid. The data obtained for the T-3, T-4, and FT-4 values on the basis of the radioimmune tests used reflected precisely and differentially the changes in the level of the hormone synthesis taking place in the thyroid in various physiologic conditions. Scintigraphic studies with 131I and sup(99)Tc did not give account for the functional changes taking place in the parenchyma of the thyroid gland

195

The thyroid gland state in the children after the Chernobyl' accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the postaccident early examination (May-July 1986), the dose-dependence hypertyroxinemia with the reactive reduction of TTg was determined. The dependence of T4 level in the blood from the age of the children was found out during the three year observation. The thyroid gland of the children having had the contact with the ionizing radiation reacted by increasing the hormone secretion on this situation, it was the most strongly pronounced in the early children. The thyroid-cancer morbidity in the Ukrainian children has been increasing. The determined decrease of the latent period in the thyroid-cancer development of the Ukrainian children is connected with the summation of the effects from the influence of radionuclids, chemical factors (nitrates pesticides, inductry poisons) on the thyroid gland as well as the iodine deficit in the goiter endemic territories. 6 tabs

196

Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report  

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The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

197

Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

198

Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author)

199

Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans.  

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Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA). Of the 7 patients with PAC, 3 were toxic and 4 nontoxic. Of the 9 patients with FA, 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting result: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examination is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. PMID:2561894

Ikekubo, K; Hino, M; Ito, H; Otani, M; Yamaguchi, H; Saiki, Y; Ui, K; Habuchi, Y; Ishihara, T; Mori, T

1989-03-01

200

Calcium iodate-another effective blocker of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland.  

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KI and KIO3 are the commonly used prophylactic drugs for the protection of thyroid glands against radioiodine. In this study, we have demonstrated the use of another iodine containing salt, calcium iodate [Ca(IO3)2], as an effective blocker of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland in rats. Ca(IO3)2 is permitted by the FDA as a food additive and is "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS, CFR No.1206). We have also compared the efficacy of Ca(IO3)2 with KIO3 in blocking thyroidal uptake of radioiodine, which could be important considering the better shelf life of Ca(IO3)2. Laboratory rats were administered 131I and stable iodide in the form of KIO3 or Ca(IO3)2 was given orally, 2 h after the administration of 131I. All the animals were monitored for whole body retention (WBR) of 131I, at 24 h and further for 14 d. The results of the present study provide us with evidence that Ca(IO3)2 can serve as another promising radioiodine blocker, and is as equipotent as KI/KIO3 in protecting the thyroid gland. We have not found any studies that examined the property of Ca(IO3)2 in blocking radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland and the present study is an attempt in this direction. PMID:15951696

Pahuja, D N; Jagtap, V S; Sonawane, V R; Rajan, M G R; Samuel, A M

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Histoarchitectonics of a thyroid gland in the conditions of a blastomogenesis  

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Full Text Available Experiment has been supplied on 20 white rats-males in mass of 140-160 g to whom under a skin the tumoral strain of a Guerin’s carcinoma has been transplanted. The purpose of the real research was studying distant tumour influences on histotopography structural components of a thyroid gland. Distant influence of a tumour on a thyroid gland calls essential rearrangements of a stroma and a parenchima of an organ which are accompanied bydepression of functional activity thyro-cyties and reduction of quantity of haemocapillars of a stroma of an organ.

Khripkov I.S.

2012-01-01

202

Submicroscopic ?hanges in the thyroid gland of rats after the immunosuppression  

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Full Text Available Background. A significant number of patients receive immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of autoimmune, allergic diseases, organ and tissue transplantation. In this regard, the study of reactivity of the thyroid gland during immunosuppression caused by the introduction of cyclophosphamide is of current interest. Objective. To investigate the submicroscopic changes in the thyroid gland at the single administration of cyclophosphan in high doses. Methods. The research was conducted on 24 male rats with an initial body weight of 180±10, which were divided into 4 groups. The animals of 1st and the 2nd groups received cyclophosphan in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The 3rd and the 4th groups included control (intact animals. The material was taken on 3rd and 30th days after the injection of cyclophosphan in accordance with the immune response phases. Results. The conducted electron microscopy research revealed significant changes of thyrocyte organelles and thyroid gland stroma during the short term of observation (3 days. After 30 days of cyclophosphan injection reactive changes directed at the normalization of the gland structure took place. Conclusion. It is planned further to investigate the ultrastructure of the thyroid gland of animals after correction of cyclophosphan-inducted immunosuppression with imunofan.

Kashchenko S.A.

2013-01-01

203

Protein metabolism in hypo- and hyperstimulated rat thyroid glands. Pt. 1  

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The comparative study of the in vivo synthesis of thyroglobulin and proteins other than thyroglobulin was carried out in thyroid glands from animals submitted to different levels of TSH stimulation. In hypostimulated thyroids the total protein synthesis is very much reduced, while in hyperstimulated glands it is significantly increased. In both hyper- and hypostimulated animals, the proportion of radioactivity bound to the particulate protein fraction is higher than in control rats. However, the solubilization by digitonine of these proteins is lower in hypostimulated and higher in hyperstimulated animals than in controls. Thyroglobulin synthesis is significantly modified qualitatively and quantitatively in both hypo- and hyperstimulated glands. Qualitative modifications are characterized by a changed ratio of 19S/12S molecules with respect to the controls. This is probably caused by a more important dissociation of 19S molecules due to the lower level of halogenation in both hypo- and MTU treated glands. The modifications of synthesis observed for the proteins other than thyroglobulin are less significant in both types of treated glands than are those observed for thyroglobulin. The level of hormonal stimulation has no effect on the distribution of these proteins between the soluble and the particulate fraction, but seems to have a slight effect on the solubilization of the latter ones. Comparative evaluation of the TSH effect on the synthesis of different thyroidal t on the synthesis of different thyroidal proteins shows that it has a much more specific and significant action on thyroglobulin than on other proteins. (orig./GSE)

204

The diagnostic value of 99Tcm-MIBI imaging to benign and malignant thyroid lesions  

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Objective: To observe the characteristic of 99Tcm-MIBI double-phase imaging, and compared with the pathologic result to discuss and evaluate the diagnostic and difference diagnostic value of early-imaging and delayed-imaging to benign and malignant lesion in thyroid. Methods: Eighty-nine pathological proven thyroid lesions patients were included in this study (38 cases of thyroid cancer and 51 cases of thyroid benign lesion). 99Tcm-MIBI early-imaging and delayed-imaging of thyroid were performed, and comparatively analyzed the T/NT ratio of early-imaging and delayed-imaging of thyroid cancer and thyroid benign lesion. Results: There was no significance in the T/NT ratio of 99Tcm-MIBI early-imaging between thyroid cancer group (T/NT=1.32±0.03) and thyroid benign lesion group (T/NT=1.26±0.22) (t=0.63, P>0.05). The T/NT ratio of delayed-imaging was high (T/NT=1.72±0.39) than that of benign lesion (T/NT=1.20±0.36), and there was statistically significance between them (t=3.45, P99Tcm-MIBI early-imaging but specify is low, and specify is high for diagnosing thyroid cancer using 99Tcm-MIBI delayed-imaging, which is better for differencing malignancy from benignity in thyroid. (authors)

205

Analysis of CT findings of submandibular gland benign and malignant lesions  

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Objective: To explore the characteristic CT features of benign and malignant submandibular gland lesions. Methods: CT scans of 75 cases of submandibular gland lesions verified pathologically after surgery were analyzed retrospectively, including 38 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 22 cases of malignant tumors, 11 cases of chronic submaxillaritis, 2 cases of myoepithelioma, 1 case of neurilemoma and 1 case of hemangioma. Results: (1) All 38 cases of submandibular gland pleomorphic adenoma only occupied a part of submandibular gland. Thirty five lesions were on the edge of submandibular gland. The edge of 33 lesions were smooth and the density of 30 lesions were even. Thirty three lesions were slightly or moderately enhanced and 10 lesions showed 'target sign' on enhanced CT. (2) There were 22 cases of submandibular gland malignant tumors. Three lesions of lymphoma located at the edge of submandibular gland with smooth edge and even density, and showed mild to moderate enhancement. The remaining 19 lesions showed rough edge and uneven density. Eighteen of the 19 lesions showed ill-defined boundary, 2 of the 18 lesions invaded most of submandibular gland and 16 of the 18 lesions invaded the whole submandibular gland. Seventeen lesions were unevenly enhanced, thickened, cirvilinear vessels were seen in 12 of the 17 lesions. Nine cases were accompanied with swollen lymph nodes (minor diameter greater than 1.0 cm) in neck. (3) There were 11 cases of chronic submaxillaritis, which showed enlargement of' the whole submandibular gland with relative smooth edge and relative clear boundary. Most of lesions were moderately and evenly enhanced. Six cases were companied with submandibular duct lithiasis and dilatation. All of 11 cases were accompanied with lymph node enlargement in neck. (4) Two cases of myoepithelioma demonstrated irregular ring enhancement on CT; one case of neurilemoma showed obvious cystic changes and slight enhancement on the edge; 1 case of hemangioma showed multiple phleboliths and prolonged contrast enhancement. Conclusions: Most of submandibular gland benign and malignant lesions show some degree of characteristic CT findings. It is relatively difficult to discriminate between lymphoma and submandibular gland pleomorphic adenoma. (authors)

206

A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat  

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Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T4) and/or triiodothyronine (T3). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins ardance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism

207

Relationship between expression of the sodium/iodide symporter and 131I uptake in recurrent lesions of differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

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The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is known to be responsible for the active accumulation of iodide within the thyroid gland. We evaluated the relationship between the expression of NIS in primary or lymph node lesions and iodine-131 uptake in recurrent lesions of differentiated thyroid cancer. In 67 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (5 follicular and 62 papillary carcinomas), the expression of NIS was analysed by immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal antibodies against human NIS. We used paraffin block tissues of primary tumours or metastatic lesions, and also assessed 131I uptake in recurrent lesions of thyroid cancer on post-operative 131I whole-body scan. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in 22 patients (32.8%), including 2 of 5 follicular and 20 of 62 papillary carcinomas. Recurrence was confirmed in 40 patients pathologically or clinically by serum thyroglobulin, 131I scan, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and/or computed tomography. Among these 40 patients, 28 showed positive uptake on 131I scan. Fourteen tumour specimens out of 28 (50%) were positive by NIS immunohistochemical staining. The remaining 12 patients with recurrent cancer showed negative 131I scans, and all specimens were negative by NIS immunohistochemical staining. Thus, NIS immunohistochemical staining predicted 131I uptake in recurrent cancer with a 100% positive predictive valuancer with a 100% positive predictive value and a 46.2% negative predictive value. There was no difference in the positivity of NIS according to the site of recurrence on 131I scan. Outcome of 131I therapy could be assessed in 22 of the 28 patients who showed 131I uptake in recurrent lesions. Patients with positive NIS immunostaining responded to 131I therapy better than did patients with negative immunostaining (P131I accumulation and effectiveness of 131I therapy in recurrent lesions. (orig.)

208

Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

Sadat Alavi Mehr

2011-12-01

209

Radiation-induced head and neck tumours: is the skin as sensitive as the thyroid gland  

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Six hundred and five persons, randomly selected from 2400 patients who had been irradiated 16-46 yr previously for benign diseases in the head and neck region, were recalled and examined for radiation-associated tumours. Three hundred and sixty-seven patients were alive, 179 had died and 66 had emigrated. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients were clinically examined, 87 refused or were unable to participate and 16 could not be contacted. Eighteen of the clinically examined patients had been or were being treated for 20 skin carcinomas with a mean latency of 37 yr. In this group only 7 carcinomas of the thyroid gland were observed, with a mean latency of 38 yr. Eleven carcinomas of the skin and 3 of the thyroid gland were reported in the group which was examined by questionnaires. The observed number of carcinomas of the skin is higher than expected according to the dose-effect relationship of UNSCEAR, whereas the number of carcinomas of the thyroid gland is lower. It is concluded that there might be less difference in susceptibility for the induction of tumours by ionizing radiation between the skin and the thyroid gland than is commonly assumed. (author)

210

Comparative radioisotope study on the function of the thyroid gland of some farm animal species  

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Radioisotope functional investigations of the thyroid gland were carried out with weaned lambs and pigs. The 131I captation capacity of the thyroid gland was studied to characterize the inogranic phase of iodine exchange. The evaluation of the hormone producing function of the thyroid gland required the determination of the level of the protein-bound 131 I (PB 131 I), T3-binding capacity of the thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) and the ratio of the T3-binding capacity of TBG and the free thyroxine (T4) calculated as the FT4 index.Established was the species peculiarity of the 131 I captation capacity of the thyroid gland in weaned lambs and pigs in the early phases of investigation. At the second hour the percent captation was calculated as 7.2+-0.8 and 1.11+-0.21%, respectively. The values of PB 131 I, T3-binding capacity of TBG and FT4 of pigs varied within the limits of 1.20+-0.05%, 0.605+-0.012, and 0.976+-0.015 and of weaned lambs they were 0.954+-0.009%, 0.912+-0.017 and 0.890+-0.03. (authors)

211

Thyroid lesions in children and adolescents after the Chernobyl disaster: Implications for the study of radiation tumorigenesis  

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Eight years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the most obvious effect is manifested by an increase in the prevalence of thyroid gland diseases in the exposed children and adolescents. In this study, we describe a comparative analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and morphological features of 92 malignant and 59 benign thyroid lesions from patients 5-18 yr of age exposed to radiation in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. All of them were operated at the same institution during the period from September 1991 through December 1992. The highest number of patients that subsequently developed thyroid carcinomas was in the group that was less that 1 yr of age at the time of Chernobyl, and this number decreased progressively through age 12 yr. Conversely, none of the patients with benign lesions only was less than 2 yr old at the time of the accident, and an exposure age of 5-6 yr was a threshold separating significant prevalence of malignant tumors in younger children from the more frequently benign lesions in older patients (P ? 0.001). Fifty-two percent of the children with carcinomas and only 24% with benign lesions (P ? 0.005) were residents of the Gomel region, which is the most contaminated in Belarus. The morphology of thyroid tissue adjacent to carcinomas showed a high prevalence of multinodular and diffuse changes, but not of adenomas or solitary adenomatoid nodules. There was a high prevalence of focal micropapillary hyperplasia with graded degopapillary hyperplasia with graded degrees of severity, which we hypothesize may correspond to precursors for papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl radiation-associated tumors. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

212

Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice  

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Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

213

Extra-osseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland mimicking lymphoma recurrence: a case report.  

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Extra-osseous Ewing sarcomas/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (EOES/pPNETs) are high-grade malignant tumors found in various organs, such as the lung, skin, intestine, kidney and female genital tract; however, to the best of our knowledge, only two cases have previously been identified in the thyroid gland. We describe a case of primary EOES/PNET of the thyroid gland in a 66-year-old man with a previous history of large B cell lymphoma. During a routine follow-up examination, the patient underwent an ultrasound cervical scan showing a solid nodule of the left thyroid lobe. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the nodule suggested a neuroendocrine tumor. Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the surgical specimen supported a diagnosis of EOES/PNET, which was further confirmed by the demonstration of EWSR1 gene translocation by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization and by the detection of glycogen particles and neurosecretory granules by means of electron microscopy. Total body computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging excluded the involvement of other sites, and therefore a diagnosis of primary EOES/PNET of the thyroid gland was made.This paper also discusses the main differential diagnoses, including lymphoma recurrence, other small round cell tumors (primary or metastatic), and a thyroid localization of an EWS/PNET from another organ. PMID:22520405

Maldi, Elena; Monga, Guido; Rossi, Davide; Tosoni, Antonella; Mezzapelle, Rosanna; Boldorini, Renzo

2012-06-15

214

Thyroglossal duct cyst cancer most likely arises from a thyroid gland remnant.  

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Thyroglossal duct cancer is a rare entity, occurring in 1.5 % of all thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC). A definitive consensus about its neoplastic origin has not been established as two contrasting theories exist, one proposing an origin in extra-thyroid remnants and the other a metastatic localization of a primary thyroid cancer. We compare morphological and molecular characteristics of both thyroglossal and thyroid carcinomas in a case series from our institute. We evaluated histology of 80 TDC. In 12 cases, prior cytological evaluation had been performed by liquid-based cytology (LBC). The BRAF gene was examined for mutations, and the histology of both thyroglossal duct and synchronous thyroid carcinoma was reevaluated. In 9 out of 80 (11 %) TDC cases, a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was diagnosed. In five out of nine (56 %) thyroglossal carcinomas, a synchronous thyroid cancer was diagnosed: 3 PTC and 2 follicular variant PTC (FVPC). In five thyroglossal carcinomas, mutated BRAF (V600E) was found, three in PTC and in thyroglossal as well as in the synchronous tumor in the thyroid. All the patients are in a disease-free status and still alive. Our results suggest that the majority of thyroglossal carcinomas most likely develop as a primary malignancy from a thyroid remnant. Neither the presence of V600E BRAF mutations nor that of a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma changed the outcome or disease-free survival. We suggest that a diagnosis of thyroglossal carcinoma should be followed by a detailed evaluation of the thyroid gland. In the absence of clinical and radiological thyroid alterations, follow-up as for thyroid cancer is the correct management. PMID:24777145

Rossi, Esther D; Martini, Maurizio; Straccia, Patrizia; Cocomazzi, Alessandra; Pennacchia, Ilaria; Revelli, Luca; Rossi, Armando; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Larocca, Luigi M; Fadda, Guido

2014-07-01

215

The thyroid gland function assessment in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy during breast cancer therapy  

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Introduction: For many years much attention has been focused on an interaction between the breast disease and the thyroid gland function in the literature. In those studies the question whether disease changes in the thyroid gland can induces the breast disease was addressed. On the other hand there are a few works concerning the inverted question whether the breast cancer therapy, in particular after mastectomy and chemotherapy, can disturb the thyroid gland function. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the mastectomy and chemotherapy on the thyroid gland function in women after breast cancer therapy. Material and methods: 173 patients aged 30 - 80 (average 56) were included in this study. The studied group comprised 97 women after breast cancer therapy (average age 60). The control group consisted of 76 patients (average age 55). 75 patients after mastectomy of the studied group were additionally treated with chemotherapy, but in 22 women chemotherapy was not applied. The following methods were used to carry out the research: the USG method was applied to evaluate thyroid morphological condition in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy; the color Doppler technique was used for dynamic presentation and fine- needle aspiration biopsy: examination of the thyroid functional state by measuring the TSH, fT3, fT4 hormone concentration and the level of antithyroid antibodies. Results: An average concentration of antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and antf antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and anti-Tg was found significantly higher in the studied group of women after chemotherapy, comparing with the control group. The level of fT3 hormone concentration was comparable in all investigated groups. Nevertheless, the average concentration of TSH was found higher in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy and as a consequence leading to hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the high level of the concentration of antithyroid antibodies: (anti-TPO and anti- Tg), which lead to destruction of the thyroid gland tissue, the thyroid gland function of the women after mastectomy and chemotherapy should be monitored morphologically as well as functionally. (author)

216

Diagnosis and Reporting of Follicular-Patterned Thyroid Lesions by Fine Needle Aspiration  

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Over the past 3 decades, fine needle aspiration (FNA) has developed as the most accurate and cost-effective initial method for guiding the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules. Thyroid FNA specimens containing follicular-patterned lesions are the most commonly encountered and include various forms of benign thyroid nodules, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Based primarily upon the cytoarchitectural pattern, FNA is used as a scre...

Faquin, William C.

2009-01-01

217

Scintigraphic study of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine  

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The aim of the study was to determine the degree of scintigraphic salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine. Patients were divided in two groups: null or mild dysfunction (grade I-II), moderate-severe dysfunction (grade III-IV) and statistical Mann-Whitney U test was applied. The radioiodine dose ranged between 80 and 200 mCi. Nineteen patients were found to be less affected (group 1), corresponding to grades I and II, and 11 patients were more affected (group 2), with grade III involvement. The severity of involvement of the salivary glands was not related with the dose of radioiodine used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and the sex of the patients had no clear influence either. Other factors are possibly related to the severity of salivary gland involvement

218

Immunocytochemical studies of the peptidergic innervation of the thyroid gland in the Brattleboro rat.  

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An indirect immunofluorescence technique was used to study the peptidergic innervation of the thyroid gland in homozygous Brattleboro rats (DI) and normal Long-Evans rats (LE). The primary goal of this study was to determine whether the previously demonstrated decrease in thyroid responsiveness to TSH in DI might be due to an abnormality in the innervation of the thyroid. Thyroids from both types of rats were found to contain nerve fibers containing immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and peptide HI (PHI). All four types of fibers were found in close association with both follicle cells and blood vessels. Well developed networks of fibers surrounding blood vessels were particularly apparent in the case of NPY. The density of fibers associated with follicle cells in DI was at least as great as that in LE in regard to SP, NPY, and PHI. Fibers containing VIP were found in greater abundance in DI than in LE. Additional studies revealed no evidence of thyroid fibers containing either somatostatin or neurophysin, which was used as a marker for vasopressin. We conclude that the reduced responsiveness of the thyroid in DI is not due to an inadequate supply of any of the neuropeptides included in this study. Since VIP is known to enhance thyroid secretion, we suggest that the apparent proliferation of VIP-containing fibers in DI may be a reflection of a neural mechanism attempting to compensate for a thyroid gland deficiency analogous to the humoral mechanism by which TSH secretion increases in response to thyroid deficiency. PMID:6548694

Hedge, G A; Huffman, L J; Grunditz, T; Sundler, F

1984-12-01

219

Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats  

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Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

Nasseer Ahmad Shah

2014-02-01

220

Comparative study of the pretumorous thyroid gland of the gynogenetic teleost, Poecilia formosa, and that of other poeciliid fishes  

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A laboratory clone of the gynogenetic fish, Poecilia formosa (the Amazon molly), showed a high incidence of invasive thyroid hyperplasia when injected with isogenic fish cells with damaged DNA. The sensitivity of the response indicated that the thyroid gland of this species might differ from that typically found in fish. Comparisons were made between the thyroid of P. formosa of several ages and that of five closely related species that had been kept under the same laboratory conditions. In the five related species, the thyroid gland was composed of a few, uniform, colloid-filled follicles lined with cuboidal epithelial cells, scattered around the ventral aorta. The thyroid gland of P. formosa was more extensive and, in addition to normal follicles, contained areas of microfollicles and afollicular groups of epithelial cells. The follicular cells were hypertrophied and, in some areas of the gland, there was hyperplasia of the connective tissue. There was an increase in the abundance of these atypical elements with advancing age. The appearance of the thyroid gland of P. formosa resembled that seen in the stages of development of thyroid tumors in some highly inbred strains of fish. Young Amazon mollies appear to have a high probability of developing invasive thyroid hyperplasia under the influence of cells with damaged DNA, yet in young fish the response is quite precise and specific. P. formosa seems to provide good advantages as a test animal for oncogenic studies.

Woodhead, A.D.; Scully, P.M.

1977-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry  

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Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

222

Simultaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the external auditory canal and thyroid gland: A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 25% of all cases of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occur in the head and neck region; NHL of the external auditory canal (EAC) and thyroid gland are rare. Specific immunohistochemical staining of the excised tissue is required to confirm the final pathologic diagnosis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune hemolytic anemia that were in remission. She presented with chronic left ear pain, a mass in the left EAC, and rapid growth of an anterior neck swelling that had led to left vocal fold palsy. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone and CT of the neck detected a mass lateral to the left tympanic membrane and another mass in the anterior neck that had infiltrated the thyroid gland. The patient was diagnosed with simultaneous B-cell lymphoma of the left EAC and thyroid gland. She was treated with chemotherapy. She responded well to treatment and was lost to follow-up after 1 year. To the best of our knowledge, the simultaneous occurrence of a lymphoma in the EAC and the thyroid has not been previously described in the literature. PMID:25531844

Khaw, BeeLian; Sivalingam, Shailendra; Pathamanathan, Sitra Siri; Tan, Teck S; Naicker, Manimalar

2014-12-01

223

Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2011-07-01

224

Inmunohistochemical Profile of Solid Cell Nest of Thyroid Gland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is widely held that solid cell nests (SCN) of the thyroid are ultimobranchial body remnants. SCNs are composed of main cells and C cells. It has been suggested that main cells might be pluripotent cells contributing to the histogenesis of C cells and follicular cells, as well as to the formation of certain thyroid tumors. The present study sought to analyze the immunohistochemical profile of SCN and to investigate the potential stem cell role of SCN main cells. Tissue sections from ten cas...

Ri?os Moreno, Mari?a Jose?; Galera-ruiz, Hugo; Miguel, Manuel; Lo?pez, Mari?a Ine?s Carmona; Illanes, Matilde; Galera-davidson, Hugo

2011-01-01

225

Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles and parafollicular C-cells. A high degree of co-existence between PACAP and VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) was observed in the intrathyroid nerve fibres and cell bodies of the thyroid ganglion indicating a common origin for the two peptides. A minor population of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres with relation to blood vessels co-stored NPY (neuropeptide Y), whereas only a few fibres co-stored CGRP. PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptor mRNA's occurred in follicular cells and blood vessels, whereas the expression of the VPAC(2) receptor was low. The findings suggest that PACAP plays a role in the regulation of parathyroid and thyroid blood flow and hormone secretion. PMID:21176780

Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

2011-03-01

226

Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles and parafollicular C-cells. A high degree of co-existence between PACAP and VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) was observed in the intrathyroid nerve fibres and cell bodies of the thyroid ganglion indicating a common origin for the two peptides. A minor population of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres with relation to blood vessels co-stored NPY (neuropeptide Y), whereas only a few fibres co-stored CGRP. PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptor mRNA's occurred in follicular cells and blood vessels, whereas the expression of the VPAC(2) receptor was low. The findings suggest that PACAP plays a role in the regulation of parathyroid and thyroid blood flow and hormone secretion.

Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

2011-01-01

227

Thyroid gland state in persons of Kiev region after Chernobyl accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After Chernobyl accident, the growth of thyroid pathology, particularly the children's thyroid cancer, has been noted in Kiev Region. Reconstruction of exposure doses on thyroid gland is one of the major problems on liquidation of medical effects of the Chernobyl accident. While accessing the dose load it is necessary to take into account not only iodine-131 contribution to the radiation load, but also that of other iodine short-living radionuclides as well as radionuclides of other chemical elements inhalated or swallowed into the organism. Analysis of pathological involvement of the thyroid gland is to be performed with regard for the state of other organs and systems, i.e. on the entire organism level, thyroid gland playing the leading role in its functioning

228

Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

229

Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

Clifton, K.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

2000-07-01

230

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is known as metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood to make the thyroid hormone. ... Hypothyroidism can be caused by a lack of iodine, which can cause the thyroid gland to swell ...

231

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Thyroid Surgery Introduction The thyroid gland is an important gland that helps regulate the way the body works. Different ... be treated with medications or radioactive iodine therapy. Surgery Thyroid surgery is done under general anesthesia. The ...

232

The effect of low-level radiation on the cAMP system of chick embryo thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content were studied in the thyroid gland of intact and irradiated (0.029 Gy given before incubation) embryos and chickens. The enzyme activity was stimulated and the nucleotide content increased on the 18th day of the embryo development. It is suggested that the observed stimulation of the cAMP system is associated with the increased secretion of the thyreotropic hormone which controls the functional activity of the thyroid gland

233

Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

234

Evaluation of focal thyroid lesions incidentally detected in fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Purpose: Increased uptake in the thyroid gland (TG) is often identified as an incidental finding on the whole body fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) in non-thyroid cancer patients. Currently, there is no consensus on the appropriate approach for the management of these cases. Thyroid ultrasound, scintigraphy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are suggested to exclude malignant thyroid lesions. Our aim is to determine the importance of increased F-18-FDG uptake in the TG on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients who are being screened for various forms of non-thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 2000 cases undergoing whole body PET/CT scanning between April 2011 and October 2012. The age, sex, type of primary cancer, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ), size of the thyroid nodules and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) on 18 F-FDG PET/CT images and if available, the biopsy results were evaluated. Results: In total, 57 patients (23 men, 34 women, mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 60.89 ± 14 years) showed an increased fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake by the TG (average SUV max : 4.07 ± 3.7). The CLNs were detected in 19/57 patients (33%). Only 20 cases (35%) received FNAB. The final histopathological diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma in seven patients (mean SUV max ± SD: 6.0 ± 5.43) and benign thyroid disease in seven patients (mean SUV max ± SD: 2.36 ± 0.63). The FNAB results were undetermined for six patients. Conclusion: Focal high 18 F-FDG uptake in the TG may be associated with an increased risk of malignancy, but the clinical significance is unclear. More data are needed to elucidate the role of the SUV in the differentiation of benign and malign thyroid lesions. If a focal increase in 18 F-FDG uptake in the TG on PET/CT is present, a prompt histopathological evaluation should be suggested to clinicians for definitive diagnosis. PMID:25494112

Yaylali, O; Kirac, F S; Yuksel, D; Marangoz, E

2014-01-01

235

Developmental regulation of gene expression in the thyroid gland of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones (TH) are the primary morphogen regulating amphibian metamorphosis. However, knowledge about molecular mechanisms regulating thyroid gland activity in anuran tadpoles is very scarce. In this study, we characterized gene expression profiles in thyroids of Xenopus laevis tadpoles during spontaneous metamorphosis. Using real-time PCR, elevated expression of slc5a5, tpo, tshr, and sar1a mRNAs was detected at late prometamorphic and climax stages. For dio2 and dio3 but not dio1, developmental regulation of thyroidal expression was evident from a strong up-regulation at late stages. Conversely, expression of the DNA replication markers mcm2 and pcna declined at climax stages. The presence of functional feedback mechanisms at premetamorphic stages was examined in two experiments. Stage 52 tadpoles were exposed for 72 h to 1.0 microg/l thyroxine (T4). This treatment caused reduced mRNA expression of slc5a5, tpo, and dio2, whereas no significant changes were detectable for tshr expression in thyroids and tshb expression in the pituitary. In another experiment, stage 46 tadpoles were treated with 20 mg/l sodium perchlorate (PER) for 5 and 10 days. Within this period of time, control tadpoles developed to stages 50 and 52, respectively. PER treatment resulted in up-regulation of slc5a5, tpo, and tshr mRNAs at both time points and increased dio2 mRNA expression at day 10. Effects of PER on thyroid histology were only apparent on day 10. Together, our analyses of thyroidal gene expression demonstrate a marked developmental regulation for functional markers of thyroid activity, two deiodinases as well as for DNA replication markers. Expression patterns detected in PER- and T4-treated tadpoles indicate that functional feedback signaling controlling thyroid activity is already active during premetamorphosis. PMID:20417211

Opitz, R; Kloas, W

2010-09-01

236

Influence of the spleen on hydrocortisone receptors in thyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sup (3)H-hydrocortisone is able to interact with homogenized glycocorticoid receptors of the thyroid cells of female rats. Five days old female rats were submitted during four days to subcutaneous treatment with 3,3 mg/kg b.w. of protein, extracted from the spleen of normal and schistosomotic animals, and were killed at 18 days old. Using the Scatchard analysis of the saturation curve, it was observed that the maximum number of hydrocortisone receptors (Bmax), changes as a function of treatments with the extracted protein from both normal and schistosomotic animals. An increase of 65% in Bmax for such animals relative to control occurred. Those results are in agreement with other studies [1, 2, 7] showing that the spleen of schistosomotic animals is able to inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, possibly acting on the hormonal regulation of growth and on the basic metabolism, with the ability of changing the number of the hydrocortisone receptors. (author)

237

Decrease of 131I uptake in thyroid gland and rat fetuses by combined treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable potassium iodide and potassium iodate were compared from the point of view of their protective qualities concerning radiation burden of thyroid gland. In case of single use no difference was observed. After repeated treatment, KI had more significant protective effect than KIO3. The higher the embryonic age is, the higher is the activity of radioiodine in the fetuses and their placenta in accordance with numerous laboratory observations. KI, administered 2 hours after the 131I incorporation of pregnant rats, is able to decrease the radioactivity of fetuses with one order of magnitude. The protective effect of KI can be increased by combining it with potassium perchlorate. Combined treatment guaranteed better protection for the thyroid gland of dams, too. (author)

238

Assessment of the role of cone beam computed sialography in diagnosing salivary gland lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to assess cone-beam computed (CBCT) sialography imaging in the detection of different changes associated with lesions of salivary glands. This study consisted of 8 cases with signs and symptoms from salivary gland lesions. Conventional sialography using digital panoramic and lateral oblique radiographs and CBCT sialography were performed for each subject. The radiographs were evaluated by 3 radiologists independently of each other. The results were compared between conventional sialography and CBCT sialography in the evaluation of various lesions associated with the salivary glands. There was an agreement between the radiologists in interpreting the lesions that affected salivary glands with both techniques. The detection of the presence of stones or filling defects, stenosis, ductal evagination, dilatation, and space occupying lesions was 83% for conventional sialography compared with CBCT sialography. CBCT sialography was superior to conventional sialography in revealing stones, stenosis, and strictures, especially in the second and third order branches. It would be advisable to perform CBCT sialography in cases of obstructive salivary gland diseases for better demonstration of the ductal system of the gland.

Abdel-Wahed, Nagla' a; Abo-Taleb, Noha Saleh Mahmoud [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Korea, Republic of); Amer, Maha E. [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University, El Menia City (Korea, Republic of)

2013-03-15

239

Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid gland: unique cytologic appearances in a fine-needle aspiration biopsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has become a standard first-line diagnostic procedure for palpable and nonpalpable nodules of the thyroid gland. Six cytologic diagnostic categories have recently been proposed to unify the terminology that is linked to proper clinical management. We report a case of follicular neoplasm diagnosed on FNA specimen that had a very artistic appearance of the microfollicle formation on both Diff-Quik and Papanicolaou-stained slides. PMID:19950399

Gu, Mai; Ghafari, Zahra

2010-09-01

240

Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone) was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml). The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated g...

Ola A El Sayed, Safaa E. Gawish

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3{+-}11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1{+-}10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2{+-}12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2{+-}1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15

242

Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3±11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1±10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2±12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2±1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

243

Studies on 129I in bovine thyroid glands and investigations on revolatilization of iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study fall out effect, deposition and revolatilization of iodine in the field and 129I activity in bovine thyroid glands were studied. Deposition velocity of I2 was 0.15 to 7 cm/sec, which was 100 times higher than that of CH3I. Biological half-life of iodine was 7.5 +- 0.5 d. In the contaminated plants, indifferent to the environmental conditions. However, the decrease of iodine concentration was not observed when the plants were cut off immediately after deposition of iodine. A sample of soil with or without plants was contaminated with iodine and re-emitted iodine was trapped by a charcoal filter. Iodine concentration was determined by I-specific electrodes after 1, 2, 4, and 8 hrs. In any case, I2 was re-emitted immediately after the contamination. Bovine thyroid glands were dried by deep freezing and ground after the addition of KOH. Organic compounds were decomposed by stepwise heating up to 6000C. Then iodine was extracted by concentrated H2SO4 and heated at 1100C. Evaporating iodine was adsorbed by a pure charcoal filter. By neutron activation analysis of the filter the activity of 129I was 1.2 pCi/g iodine, which would be about 5 times higher than that measured in animals living far from nuclear installations. The distribution of stable iodine in thyroid gland was inhomogeneous. (Nakanishi, T.)

244

Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

Alzaraa Ahmed

2008-09-01

245

Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide / Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e [...] podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento. Abstract in english Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may [...] be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

Antonio Augusto T., Bertelli; Luiz Cláudio Bosco, Massarollo; Erivelto Martinho, Volpi; Rubens Yassuzo Ykko, Ueda; Elci, Barreto.

2010-03-01

246

Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento.Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

Antonio Augusto T. Bertelli

2010-03-01

247

Protein metabolism in hypo- and hyperstimulated rat thyroid glands. Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of degradation of total thyroidal proteins is modified in differently stimulated glands. It is slowed down in hypostimulated thyroids and accelerated in hyperstimulated ones. Comparative evaluation of the rates degradation (either in absolute terms - DPM/mg of tissue or as specific activity) of different proteins shows that a modified hormonal state affects the degradation of thyroglobulin much more significantly than the degradation of non-thyroglobulin proteins. In the absence of thyrotropic hormone (TSH) the degradation of throglobulin is almost completely inhibited, while with excess of hormone it is dramatically accelerated. Comparing the TSH action on the synthesis with its effect on the degradation of thyroglobulin, it appears that it has a much stronger effect on the process of degradation than on the process of synthesis. This means that TSH significantly modifies the turnover of thyroglobulin. This effect of TSH leads, in chronically hypo- or hyperstimulated glands to the new levels of colloidal thyroglobulin which are highly increased in hypostimulated and significantly decreased in hyperstimulated glands. These results are in perfect agreement with the classical morphological description of hypo- and hyperstimulated glands. (orig.)

248

The state of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system of rats to long-term internal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data are submitted on the state of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system of male rats after a single intravenous injection of 75Se-selenomethionine in a concentration constituting for 3 months the absorbed dose of up to 1 Gy in the thyroid gland and hypophysis, and 0.5-0.55 Gy in the whole body. It was demonstrated that activation of the hypophysisthyroid gland system during the first 3 months after the administration of the preparation is followed by a profound inhibition after 6-18 months

249

Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Iodine I 131 and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2014-12-31

250

Comparison of aspiration vs non-aspiration techniques in fine-needle cytology of thyroid lesions  

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Aim: To compare the efficacy of fine-needle non-aspiration cytology (FNNAC) with that of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: FNAC and FNNAC techniques were studied in 50 cases of thyroid lesions. All the needle-sampling procedures were done by a single operator. The samples were assessed cytologically and evaluated using five parameters, that is, background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, ...

Maurya Anil; Mehta Anurag; Mani N; Nijhawan V; Batra Rajeev

2010-01-01

251

[The reliability of echotomographic diagnosis in assessing thyroid lesions. A comparison with cytology and histology  

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The authors report their personal experience in 160 patients affected with thyroid conditions examined with US and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Benign nodular hyperplasia, cystic-colloid nodular hyperplasia, colloid cyst, hemorrhagic cyst, adenoma, thyroiditis, follicular and malignant lesions were studied. The latter consisted of 5 papillary carcinomas, 6 follicular carcinomas, 1 medullary carcinoma, 1 H³rthle cell carcinoma, 1 lymphoma and 1 metastatic lesion. The following US patterns we...

Papotti, Mauro Giulio; Ragona, Riccardo; Cassinis, Maria Carla

1994-01-01

252

Estereología de la Glándula Tiroides Humana Stereology of the Human Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available La glándula tiroides es una glándula endocrina voluminosa, impar, mediana y simétrica, que ocupa la parte anterior del cuello, en la unión del tercio inferior con los dos tercios superiores. La unidad funcional y estructural de la glándula tiroides es el folículo tiroideo. Los folículos están separados unos de otros por escaso tejido conectivo interfolicular. Se ha observado en modelos experimentales animales, diversos valores estereológicos de células foliculares, parafoliculares y coloide. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si existe un patrón estereológico en la glándula tiroides humana en un grupo etáreo y sexo definidos. Para ello, se ocupó una muestra de 6 glándulas tiroides humanas extraidas de cadáveres no fijados, de individuos adultos de sexo masculino, sin antecedentes de patología o alteración tiroídea.Se procesaron histológicamente con H-E para su estudio estereológico. Los resultados mostraron valores promedio para la densidad de volumen del tejido glandular (33,8% y del coloide (63,17%, densidad de superficie del folículo tiroídeo (21,09 mm2/mm3, densidad de número de células foliculares (10,81 x 105 células/mm3 y parafoliculares (1,81 x 105 células/mm3. Conocido el volumen promedio de la glándula (21,3 mm3, se determinó el número total de células foliculares (230,22 x 105 y parafoliculares (38,33 x 105. Además, se determinó el número de folículos por mm2 (46,18 folículos/mm2. El conocimiento previo de los valores numéricos y proporciones normales estereólogicos permite establecer parámetros que determinen la alteración hiper o hipotrófica de origen endémico o exógeno que lleven a estratificar ciertas alteraciones, hecho observado en modelos experimentales donde las diferencias son significativas.The thyroid gland is a an extensive, medium and symmetrical endocrine gland situated on the anterior side of the neck at the lower third and the upper third junction. The thyroid follicle is the functional and structural unit of the thyroid gland. Follicles are separated from each other by narrow interfollicular connective tissue. Stereological values of follicular, parafollicular and colloid containing follicles have been observed in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of a stereological pattern in the human thyroid gland defined by age and sex. A sample of six human thyroid glands of adult males with no history of thyroid disease or disorder obtained from non fixed human cadavers; of these cadavers the gland was removed and processed for thyroid follicle density (21.09 mm 2/mm 3, follicular cell number density (10.81 x10 5 cells/mm3 and parafollicular (1.81 x 10 cells/mm 3. With the average gland volume (21.3 mm 3 we determined the total number of follicular cells (230.22 x 10 5 and parafollicular (38.33 x 105. The number of follicles per mm 2 (46.18 follicles/mm2 was also determined. Prior information and knowledge of numerical values and normal stereological proportions provides excellent parameters for determining hyper or hypotrophic endemic or exogenous alterations leading to stratification of certain disorders which was already observed in experimental models where differences amongst models were significant.

Guillermo Salgado A

2011-06-01

253

Estereología de la Glándula Tiroides Humana / Stereology of the Human Thyroid Gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La glándula tiroides es una glándula endocrina voluminosa, impar, mediana y simétrica, que ocupa la parte anterior del cuello, en la unión del tercio inferior con los dos tercios superiores. La unidad funcional y estructural de la glándula tiroides es el folículo tiroideo. Los folículos están separa [...] dos unos de otros por escaso tejido conectivo interfolicular. Se ha observado en modelos experimentales animales, diversos valores estereológicos de células foliculares, parafoliculares y coloide. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si existe un patrón estereológico en la glándula tiroides humana en un grupo etáreo y sexo definidos. Para ello, se ocupó una muestra de 6 glándulas tiroides humanas extraidas de cadáveres no fijados, de individuos adultos de sexo masculino, sin antecedentes de patología o alteración tiroídea.Se procesaron histológicamente con H-E para su estudio estereológico. Los resultados mostraron valores promedio para la densidad de volumen del tejido glandular (33,8%) y del coloide (63,17%), densidad de superficie del folículo tiroídeo (21,09 mm2/mm3), densidad de número de células foliculares (10,81 x 105 células/mm3) y parafoliculares (1,81 x 105 células/mm3). Conocido el volumen promedio de la glándula (21,3 mm3), se determinó el número total de células foliculares (230,22 x 105) y parafoliculares (38,33 x 105). Además, se determinó el número de folículos por mm2 (46,18 folículos/mm2). El conocimiento previo de los valores numéricos y proporciones normales estereólogicos permite establecer parámetros que determinen la alteración hiper o hipotrófica de origen endémico o exógeno que lleven a estratificar ciertas alteraciones, hecho observado en modelos experimentales donde las diferencias son significativas. Abstract in english The thyroid gland is a an extensive, medium and symmetrical endocrine gland situated on the anterior side of the neck at the lower third and the upper third junction. The thyroid follicle is the functional and structural unit of the thyroid gland. Follicles are separated from each other by narrow in [...] terfollicular connective tissue. Stereological values of follicular, parafollicular and colloid containing follicles have been observed in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of a stereological pattern in the human thyroid gland defined by age and sex. A sample of six human thyroid glands of adult males with no history of thyroid disease or disorder obtained from non fixed human cadavers; of these cadavers the gland was removed and processed for thyroid follicle density (21.09 mm 2/mm 3), follicular cell number density (10.81 x10 5 cells/mm3) and parafollicular (1.81 x 10 cells/mm 3). With the average gland volume (21.3 mm 3) we determined the total number of follicular cells (230.22 x 10 5) and parafollicular (38.33 x 105). The number of follicles per mm 2 (46.18 follicles/mm2) was also determined. Prior information and knowledge of numerical values and normal stereological proportions provides excellent parameters for determining hyper or hypotrophic endemic or exogenous alterations leading to stratification of certain disorders which was already observed in experimental models where differences amongst models were significant.

Guillermo, Salgado A; Bélgica, Vásquez; Mariano, del Sol.

2011-06-01

254

Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocyticsions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive control. BRAF T1799A mutation was detected in 7 of 26 PTCs included in the study but not in follicular or medullary carcinoma, benign tumors and thyroid tumor-like lesions. No mutations were found in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in all cases including those tested positive for BRAF T1799A. Histological analysis showed that among 26 PTCs studied, 18 had conventional papillary architecture and 8 cases were follicular variant of PTC. Mutations were detected in conventional type PTCs only (38.9%, 7/18), but not in follicular variant tumors. The occurrence of BRAF T1799A mutation did not correlate with tumor metastatic potential although such observation may be due in part to a relatively small number of appropriate cases available for the study. As a whole, our data demonstrate that BRAF T1799A mutation is a prevalent mutational event in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its presence strongly correlates with conventional PTC hypostat but not with follicular variant that is in line with results of other laboratories. The findings suggest that detection of BRAF mutation may be used for molecular diagnostic purposes both preoperatively (on fine needle aspiration biopsy material) and after surgical treatment for differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma to distinguish it from other histological types of thyroid cancer

255

Fucus vesiculosus Ameliorates Histological and Biochemical Changes in Thyroid Gland and Ovary of Irradiated Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of Fucus vesiculosus, a brownish-green seaweed, against gamma- radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland and ovary tissues of female albino rats. Fucus vesiculosus (100 mg/kg body weight/ day) was given to rats, via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4 Gy) and the last dose of Fucus vesiculosis was administered 60 minutes before irradiation. Thyroid gland and ovary were taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15th day post irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm, and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Observations of ovary sections showed dissolution of the majority of primary follicles, immature follicles and increased fibroblasts and inflammatory cells surrounded the dissolved follicles. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed a significant decrease in serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. Moreover, blood glutathione (GSH) content was decreased. Treatment with Fucus vesiculosus (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation-induced toxicity in the tissues, which was evident by improved status of most investigated parameters. These results suggest that Fucus vesiculosus could increase the antioxidant defense systems and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation

256

Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice  

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DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

1984-08-01

257

Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

258

A fatal case of an adrenal gland melanoma with a mysterious primary lesion  

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Adrenal gland involvement by metastatic melanoma is a common finding in patients with cutaneous or ocular melanomas. We report on the presence of an adrenal gland melanoma in a young female, without a documented primary lesion. A diagnosis of a primary adrenal melanoma was considered and after applying diagnostic criteria, could not be established. An attempt at resection via a nephroadrenalectomy and bilateral pulmonary metastectomies were performed. At 6-month follow up the patient pr...

Adam, Ahmed; Engelbrecht, Matthys J.; Heerden, Izak J.

2010-01-01

259

A Calcitonin-Negative Neuroendocrine Tumor Derived from Follicular Lesions of the Thyroid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroendocrine lesions of the thyroid are rare. The most common types are medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) and C-cell hyperplasia. MTCs originate from thyroid parafollicular cells that secrete calcitonin which serves as a serum marker of MTCs. Here, the rare case of a calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor (NET) derived from follicular lesions of the thyroid is described. A 34-year-old man presented at our hospital for the surgical management of an incidental thyroid nodule that was observed on an ultrasound sonography (USG) of the neck. Initially, USG-guided aspiration cytology was performed, and a MTC was suspected. The expressions of thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1, which are thyroid follicular cell markers, and synaptophysin and chromogranin A, which are neuroendocrine markers, was confirmed following surgical pathology. However, the staining of calcitonin, a marker of MTCs, was not observed. A nonmedullary NET of the thyroid is uncommon, and the distinction between calcitonin-negative NETs and MTCs of the thyroid may be important due to differences in their clinical courses and management. PMID:25491784

Kim, Ga Young; Park, Chul Yun; Cho, Chang Ho; Park, June Sik; Jung, Eui Dal; Jeon, Eon Ju

2014-12-01

260

Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

 
 
 
 
261

Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

2014-07-01

262

A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples.  

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Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a lesion that frequently causes difficulties from a diagnostic perspective in the laboratory. The purpose of this study was to interrogate a cohort of archival thyroid lesions using gene expression analysis of a panel of markers proposed to have utility as adjunctive markers in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in particular. Laser Capture Microdissection was used to procure pure cell p...

Denning, Km; Smyth, Pc; Cahill, Sf; Finn, Sp; Conlon, E.; Li, J.; Flavin, Rj; Aherne, St; Guenther, Sm; Ferlinz, A.; O Leary, Jj; Sheils, Om

2007-01-01

263

Adult stem cells in the human thyroid gland: isolation, propagation and analysis of expression profiles comparing to thyrocytes and thyroid carcinoma cells  

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The thyroid gland develops from an endodermal mass in the floor of the primitive pharynx before it migrates to the front of the trachea. In the present work we provided evidence for the presence of adult stem cells from endodermal origin in cultured cells derived from human goiters. These cells are putative precursors of differentiated thyroid follicular cells. We chose a set of stem cell markers, which characterize pluripotent stem cells (Oct4, p63) and multipotent endodermal precursors (H...

Nowka, Kathrin

2010-01-01

264

Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ontogenia dos folículos da tireóide em Rachycentron canadum. Larvas foram coletadas diariamente (n= 15 – 20) desde a eclosão até 15 dae (dias após eclosão). Posteriormente foram coletadas a cada dois dias até o 28 dae; uma nova amostragem ocorreu aos 53 dae. A [...] s larvas foram desidratadas e emblocadas em Paraplast e secções de 3 µm foram desparafinadas, reidratas e coradas com HE e PAS. Um folículo estava presente ao 1 dae e três foram encontrados aos 8 dae. O número de folículos aumentou até 19 aos 53 dae. O diâmetro dos folículos e a altura das células foliculares foram menores ao 1dae (68,3 ± 1,00 e 4,6 ± 0,01 µm), mas aumentou a partir do 8 dae (24,03 ± 0,46 µm e 6,43 ± 0,46 µm). A partir do 8 dae a presença de vesículas de reabsorção foi observada no colóide e a partir de 19 dae alguns folículos não apresentaram colóide. O surgimento precoce do folículo da tireóide no bijupirá assim como a grande quantidade de folículos sem colóide e/ou com a presença de vesículas mesmo após a metamorfose podem ser a explicação do rápido crescimento da espécie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were d [...] ehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

ADRIANA P.S., OTERO; RICARDO V., RODRIGUES; LUÍS A., SAMPAIO; LUIS A., ROMANO; MARCELO B., TESSER.

1507-15-01

265

Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ontogenia dos folículos da tireóide em Rachycentron canadum. Larvas foram coletadas diariamente (n= 15 – 20) desde a eclosão até 15 dae (dias após eclosão). Posteriormente foram coletadas a cada dois dias até o 28 dae; uma nova amostragem ocorreu aos 53 dae. A [...] s larvas foram desidratadas e emblocadas em Paraplast e secções de 3 µm foram desparafinadas, reidratas e coradas com HE e PAS. Um folículo estava presente ao 1 dae e três foram encontrados aos 8 dae. O número de folículos aumentou até 19 aos 53 dae. O diâmetro dos folículos e a altura das células foliculares foram menores ao 1dae (68,3 ± 1,00 e 4,6 ± 0,01 µm), mas aumentou a partir do 8 dae (24,03 ± 0,46 µm e 6,43 ± 0,46 µm). A partir do 8 dae a presença de vesículas de reabsorção foi observada no colóide e a partir de 19 dae alguns folículos não apresentaram colóide. O surgimento precoce do folículo da tireóide no bijupirá assim como a grande quantidade de folículos sem colóide e/ou com a presença de vesículas mesmo após a metamorfose podem ser a explicação do rápido crescimento da espécie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were d [...] ehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

ADRIANA P.S., OTERO; RICARDO V., RODRIGUES; LUÍS A., SAMPAIO; LUIS A., ROMANO; MARCELO B., TESSER.

2014-08-15

266

Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ([125I]iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM]. Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status

267

Incidence of malignant thyroid tumors in humans after exposure to diagnostic doses of 131I. II. Estimation of thyroid gland size, thyroid radiation dose, and predicted versus observed number of malignant thyroid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The size of the thyroid glands was analyzed for 10% of the patients in a selected group that had been exposed to diagnostic doses of 131I. The mean thyroid gland weight +- SD was 50 +- 33 g for patients 20 or more years of age and 10 +- 5 g for patients less than 20 years of age. With the present follow-up, diagnostic doses of 131I appeared not to be associated with an increased risk for later development of malignant thyroid tumors. Possible reasons for the difference between the observed number of such tumors and the number expected (47 to 124) on the basis of risk estimates of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation are discussed

268

Rapid measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland using a portable Ge system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rapid yet accurate measurement of the 131I activity in the thyroid gland as well as in the air, water and vegetation may have an important role in obtaining quantitative information on internal doses for the people living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities shortly after an accidental release of radionuclides. Whole body counting technique is still the standard method for measuring radionuclides in the body while necessity for in situ measurement techniques has considerably increased especially after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. For measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland in emergency situations, NaI (Tl) detectors, as in a scintillation survey meter as in the simplest case, are most often used while measurement of urinary excretions for members of the public may also effective. The scintillation survey meter method, being easily implemented, may not have enough selectivity for radioiodine and even be liable to an elevated background radiation spectrum. This would possibly lead to higher detection limits and lower accuracy. A use of a laboratory Ge (Li) detector system in the thyroidal radioiodine measurement was suggested to overcome the problem. A real measurement with a similar instrument was reported for the residents in U.K. after the Chernobyl accident. A use of a scintillation spectro-survey meter with a NaI (Tl) probe with lead collimation to thyroidal radioiodine measurement was also reported to give satisfactorily awas also reported to give satisfactorily accurate evaluation of the thyroidal 131I burden. In this paper, a movable Ge system was developed for the above purpose and preliminarily evaluated particularly for counting efficiency. It is consisted of a portable high-purity Ge detector and a battery-operated MCA. It employs a laboratory made thin Pb shield with a collimation window and an elevator for the detector platform. The elevator was designed to adjust the height of the thyroid radioiodine probe in relation to the height and position of the neck of a subject sitting in a chair. Gamma spectra were analyzed and stored by the portable MCA. The acquired spectral information, sent to a notebook computer on line, was processed for determination of the 131I activity. In the preliminary measurement, the system was checked for its counting efficiency for 131I radioactivity by using neck-thyroid phantoms for the adult and some different ages that were previously prepared. The absolute counting efficiency was observed to be satisfactory, i.e. 0.20 to 0.28%. However, it was suggested that certain modification in the shield part of the probe might improve counting efficiency. (author)

269

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... thyroid hormones and the patient will have hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism When the thyroid gland produces extra hormone, hyperthyroidism develops. “Hyper” means more. hyperthyroidism causes patients to ...

270

Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

Ja yoon Jang

2014-04-01

271

Calibration of surface contamination monitors for the detection of iodine incorporation in the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Switzerland, individuals exposed to the risk of activity intake are required to perform regular monitoring. Monitoring consists in a screening measurement and is meant to be performed using commonly available laboratory instruments. More particularly, iodine intake is measured using a surface contamination monitor. The goal of the present paper is to report the calibration method developed for thyroid screening instruments. It consists of measuring the instrument response to a known activity located in the thyroid gland of a standard neck phantom. One issue of this procedure remains that the iodine radioisotopes have a short half-life. Therefore, the adequacy and limitations to simulate the short-lived radionuclides with so-called mock radionuclides of longer half-life were also evaluated. In light of the results, it has been decided to use only the appropriate iodine sources to perform the calibration. (authors)

272

Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in AIDS patients: CT characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast agent-enhanced CT scans in nine male patients with histologically proved benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the perotid gland were reviewed. All scans showed cystic-appearing masses with peripheral rim enhancement corresponding to the macroscopic appearance of the lesion. Five patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or had infections seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Three patients were members of high-risk groups. Only one patient had symptoms of the SICCA syndrome. Once a rare cause of parotid gland enlargement, benign lymphoepithelial lesions have recently been seen with increasing frequency in patients with HIV infection. Although the CT appearance is not pathognomic, correlation results of aspiration cytology and with clinical history can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion

273

Investigation of the results of therapy of anaplastic thyroid gland carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the treatment of 28 patients with an anaplastic thyroid gland carcinoma are investigated, to see whether an optimal therapy is indicated. The execution of an operation before radiotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis (statistically this conclusion is not wholly justified). The presence of metastases at the beginning of the therapy gave rise to a worse prognosis than the absence of metastases. The combination treatment of chemotherapy and either surgery or radiotherapy was only applied to two patients so no conclusions can be made about its benefit. (C.F.)

274

Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

275

Salivary gland protection by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy using 100 to 120 MBq Tc-99m-pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after radioiodine treatment with 6 GBq I-131. Eight patients were treated with 500 mg/m2 amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment and compared retrospectively with 9 control patients. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO criteria. In 9 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced Tc-99m-pertechnetate uptake by 35.4±22.0% and 31.7±21.1% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Of these 9 patients, 3 exhibited xerostomia Grade I (WHO). In contrast, in 8 amifostine-treated patients, there was no significant (p=0.878) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. (orig.)

276

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

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... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File ...

277

Radio-in-vitro investigation of the thyroid gland situation of fullterm newborn babies immediately post partum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

145 cord sera from fullterm, vital eutrophic newborn babies of uncomplicated pregnancies have been tested for the thyroid gland parameters RT3-U, ST3-U, T4, T3, T4/T3-ratio, total balance of free iodine-hormone indices and TSH to answer the questions of the thyroid gland situation. In the fullterm newborn baby an euthyroid metabolic balance was found on comparison with the simultaneously determined thyroid specific situation of the adult. The T3-situation is identical with that of the euthyroid adult. Thyroid levels, the conversion of T4 to T3 as well as the values of the total balance are slightly elevated, like in women under contraceptive hormone therapy. The basal TSH secretion immediately post partum is similar to the one on day 5 post partum. (orig.)

278

[Hypophysis--thyroid gland--gonads in boys of the pubertate period in south areas of Archangelsk region].  

Science.gov (United States)

The hormonal level dynamics of hypophysis, thyroid gland and sex steroids was analyzed in respect to the puberty. Concentrations of gonadotropins and sex streroids were increased whereas concentrations of thyroid hormones was decreased. The amplitude of hypophysis and thyroid hormones were narrowed whereas the range of sex steroids was extended during the puberty. In early stages of puberty, the interhormonal correlations existed on some levels (hypophysis or peripheral gland), but in late stage the intersystem and polyhormonal relations were formed. Thyroid hormones play a leading role in sexual maturity regulation. The sexual maturity is prolonged, the variance of sexual stages being quite wide. The range of gonadotropin shifted to the left side in comparison with children in moderate latitudes. PMID:15969440

Kubasov, R V; Demin, D B; Tipisova, E V; Tkachev, A V

2005-04-01

279

Composite Follicular Variant of Papillary Carcinoma and Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Thyroid Gland: A Case Report  

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A 50-yr-old male presented a thyroid mass with dysphasia and hoarseness. He underwent total thyroidectomy and neck node dissection. Pathologically, the tumor had two distinct tumor components with intermingled areas: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma composed of columnar cells, mucocytes, and squamoid cells showing solid and cystic lesion. Several small cysts lined by benign ciliated columnar epithelia suggesting that this tumor h...

Jung, Yong Han; Kang, Mi Seon

2010-01-01

280

Evidence of C-cell destruction in the thyroid gland of mice exposed to high 131I doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland were visualized by means of the Sevier-Munger silver technique in normal mice and in mice receiving 131I in amounts sufficient to completely destroy the thyroid tissue. The destruction of the C-cells was observed in all 131I injected mice, and no histologic signs of recovery were seen during a period of 40 days following the treatment. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
281

Ionizing radiation effects on thyroid gland state and peroxidation of lipids in adult and old rats with a hyperthyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents the results of studies of peculiarities of thyroid gland (TG) state and antioxidant/prooxidant balance in the organism of adult and old (4 and 22 months) rats with hyperthyroidism after a single X-ray irradiating at the dose of 4.3 Gy. On the data on the levels of thyroid hormones in blood, body and TG mass, the indices of specific secretion of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were calculated

282

Proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the rat and mouse mammary, Zymbal's, preputial, and clitoral glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mammary gland of laboratory rodents is an important organ for the evaluation of effects of xenobiotics, especially those that perturb hormonal homeostasis or are potentially carcinogenic. Mammary gland cancer is a leading cause of human mortality and morbidity worldwide and is a subject of major research efforts utilizing rodent models. Zymbal's, preputial, and clitoral glands are standard tissues that are evaluated in animal models that enable human risk assessment of xenobiotics. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for mammary, Zymbal's, preputial, and clitoral gland lesions in laboratory animals will improve diagnostic alignment among regulatory and scientific research organizations and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:22949413

Rudmann, Daniel; Cardiff, Robert; Chouinard, Luc; Goodman, Dawn; Küttler, Karin; Marxfeld, Heike; Molinolo, Alfredo; Treumann, Silke; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko

2012-08-01

283

Brunner's gland lesions in rats induced by a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors are reported to cause reversible mucosal hyperplasia (adenosis) in the duodenum of rats; however, the pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Using lenvatinib, a VEGF RTK inhibitor, we characterized the histologic time course of this duodenal change in rats. At 4 weeks, there was degeneration and necrosis of Brunner's gland epithelium accompanied by neutrophil infiltration around the affected glands. At 13 weeks, the inflammation was more extensive, and Brunner's gland epithelium was attenuated and flattened and was accompanied by reactive hyperplasia of duodenal epithelium. At 26 weeks, the changes became more severe and chronic and characterized by marked cystic dilation, which extended to the external muscular layer. These dilated glands exhibited morphological characteristics of duodenal crypt epithelium, suggestive of replacement of disappeared Brunner's glands by regenerative duodenal crypt epithelial cells. Similar changes were not present in similar time course studies in dog and monkey studies, suggesting that this is a rodent- or species-specific change. Based on the temporal progression of Brunner's gland lesion, we identify degeneration and necrosis of the Brunner's glands as the primary change leading to inflammation, cystic dilatation, and regeneration with cells that are morphologically suggestive of duodenal crypt epithelium. PMID:24499803

Inomata, Akira; Nakano-Ito, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Jiro; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Etsuko; Taketa, Yoshikazu; Van Gessel, Yvonne; Akare, Sandeep; Hutto, David; Hosokawa, Satoru; Tsukidate, Kazuo

2014-12-01

284

Timing of metamorphosis and the onset of the negative feedback loop between the thyroid gland and the pituitary is controlled by type II iodothyronine deiodinase in Xenopus laevis  

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Two important features of amphibian metamorphosis are the sequential response of tissues to different concentrations of thyroid hormone (TH) and the development of the negative feedback loop between the pituitary and the thyroid gland that regulates TH synthesis by the thyroid gland. At the climax of metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis (when the TH level is highest), the ratio of the circulating precursor thyroxine (T4) to the active form 3,5,3?-triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood is many times ...

Huang, Haochu; Cai, Liquan; Remo, Benjamin F.; Brown, Donald D.

2001-01-01

285

Vitiliginous lesions during contact immunotherapy for alopecia in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE is frequently used for the treatment of alopecia, but sometimes unwanted side effects occur. Herein we report a case which developed vitiliginous lesions induced by topical SADBE application in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis. A 60-year-old female visited our department, complaining of diffuse alopecia of the scalp. She was suffering from chronic autoimmune thyroiditis over several years, and taking thyradin (90mg per day.

Yasunobu Kato

2014-07-01

286

Comparison of skin absorbed radiation dose in thyroid gland area during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography techniques  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid gland is one of the critical organs during radiation in the head and neck region. The aim of this study was to compare absorbed radiation dose by skin in the thyroid area during spiral tomography and panoramic radiography by means of thermoluminance dosimetry (TLD.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six LiF (TLD-100 thermoluminescence dosimetry chips were utilized in this experimental in vitro study. One TLD chip was placed on the tube side and another was placed on the opposite side of the thyroid gland of a sliced anatomic Alderson head and neck phantom during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography. The dosimeters were read by a SOLARO 2A TLD reader twice followed by calculation of the absorbed dose. The results were analyzed by Wilcoxon’s test at a confidence interval of 95%.Results: The mean dose for screen-film panoramic radiographs was 34 µGy in the left thyroid and 39 on the right side. With spiral tomography the thyroid gland received a mean dose of 30?71 µGy. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean thyroid doses between anterior and posterior spiral tomography and panoramic examination (p value > 0.05.Conclusion: Skin absorbed radiation dose of a tomographic examination, which includes four sections with a specific thickness, are almost comparable to that with a panoramic radiographic technique. Key words: Absorbed dose, Spiral tomography, Panoramic radiography.

Najmeh Akhlaghi

2011-01-01

287

Quiste linfoepitelial intratiroideo: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura / Lymphoepithelial cyst of the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Describimos un caso de quiste linfoepitelial intratiroideo en un varón de 31 años con tiroiditis linfocítica crónica y diagnosticado previamente de bocio multinodular. La lesión fue extirpada e histológicamente estaba tapizada por epitelio escamoso y/o cilíndrico y subyacentemente presentaba celular [...] idad linfoide con patrón folicular. Según la literatura revisada, tan sólo hay veinte casos descritos en la literatura médica y en diez casos estaban asociados a tiroiditis crónica. Abstract in english We report a case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the thyroid gland in a 31 year-old-man with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and history of multinodular goiter. The lesion was resected and the histopathologic examination showed that the cystic mass was lined by squamous and focally columnar epithelium, [...] an it was surrounded by follicular lymphoid tissue. To our knowledge only twenty cases of this lesion have been reported in the medical literature. An association with chronic thyroiditis has been noted in 10 cases.

P., San Miguel Fraile; G. C., Fernández Pérez; J. A., Ortiz Rey; C., Rivas Barros; J. S., Rouco Rouco.

2006-05-01

288

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia in a complex neoplastic lesion involving anogenital mammary-like glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anogenital mammary-like glands (AMLG) may give rise to various pathologic lesions identical to those known in mammary pathology. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a relatively frequent hormonal change associated with different benign and malignant processes in the breast, was only once mentioned in the literature concerning the pathology of AMLG. We present here a new case of PASH in a lesion of AMLG. The present case of PASH is remarkable because of its occurrence within a complex lesion evidencing the changes identical to or reminiscent of blunt duct adenosis, fibroadenoma and hidradenoma papilliferum. PMID:19508499

Vazmitel, Marina; Pavlovsky, Michal; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

2009-10-01

289

The Protective role of laser bio stimulation on thyroid gland of gamma irradiated experimental rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to clarify the effects of gamma irradiation and laser on the thyroid gland. Rats were irradiated with gamma dose of 6 Gy and external doses of argon laser . Estimation of TSH, T3 and T4 hormones, cholestrol, triacylglycerols (TAG), urea and total protein were performed. Laser irradiation with power 60 mW, after one day, elevated the TSH level of gamma irradiated rats with 9% with respect to rats irradiated with gamma source only. After five days, TSH level was decreased with 20%. On the other hand, laser irradiation, after one day, decreased the T3/T4 ratio of gamma irradiated rats with 14% while after five days, the ratio was increased with 47%. Irradiating rats only with gamma radiation (6 Gy) or only argon laser (on the thyroid gland region, 60 mW) or both showed increased cholesterol, TAG and urea one day following irradiation then gradually decreased with radiation. On the other hand, total protein levels were rapidly decreased one day after irradiation while these levels were gradually decreased after 10 days

290

The uptake of 125I by the thyroid gland and its morphological maturity in newly hatched duck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Histological observations revealed that in two-day-old ducklings the thyroids were very differentiated. In some birds they were very poorly developed, i.e. the tissue was not organized into follicles, whereas in others there was a structure almost typical of this gland. The thyroids of ducklings nine days old presented an almost normal histological picture and only small islands of the tissue not organized into follicles were visible. The less developed were the thyroids the higher was their 125I uptake. (author)

291

Initial experience with software system JODNEW for evaluation biophysical characteristics related to treatment of carcinoma of thyroid gland by 131I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our research tries to exploit sophisticated methods for a balancing of positive and negative consequences of radionuclide applications. We have tailored Bayesian data processing in order to support decision making during treatment of thyroid diseases with help of 131I. After successful experimental phase we have implemented them. This novel in-house developed software system JODNEW i now tested. It aim at: (1) increasing quality of raw biophysical data exploited in diagnostics and therapy of thyroid diseases; (2) estimating cumulated activity so that MIRD methodology can be well used; (3) decreasing working load on staff. JODNEW is an extensive data-base system co-operating with advanced estimation algorithms coded in C++. The Bayesian methodology adopted allows us to exploit expert knowledge, models of observed processes as well as measured data in a consistent way. This is important in the considered case when the number of measurements is quite limited and influence of biological and physical variations is high. Moreover, all estimates are qualified by the remaining uncertainty. During diagnostics> The (functioning) volume of thyroid gland and body mass are measured. A diagnostic amount of 131I is administered. Three whole body measurements of elimination rate by urine (excretions) are made within 2 days after administration. The accumulated activities above thyroid gland and other lesions are registered within several days. Evaluation and measurements during therapy are: The accumulation ability is evaluated using diagnostic data. Consequences of 131I administration are judged, then, the therapeutic activity is selected and administered. The accumulation dynamics is supervised and reaching radio-hygienic limits influencing patient regime is predicted. The common features of these steps are: (1) Individual measurements are corrupted by a high and varying uncertainty; (2) The number of measurements is limited; (3) A significant expert experience is available; (4) The subsequent medical decisions have to be supported also by information about uncertainty of data. (authors)

292

Computer-assisted image analysis of small cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland. Comparison of nuclear parameters of small lymphocytes in lymphomas and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nuclear parameters of the small lymphocytes in nine cases of small cell lymphomas of the thyroid gland and 17 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. The nuclear area, maximal, minimal and averaged Ferret diameters, perimeter, regularity factor and elongation factor were gauged. Statistically, the nuclear area was ascertained to be the optimum descriptor discriminating between small neoplastic and reactive lymphocytes. Application of a novel variable, combining a nuclear area cut-off value of 14 microm2 with a nuclear averaged Ferret diameter cut-off value of 4.5 micron, allows for the distinction - with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity - between small neoplastic lymphocytes in thyroidal lymphomas and the reactive lymphocytes in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:10098895

Eldar, S; Sabo, E; Cohen, A; Misselevich, I; Cohen, O; Kelner, J; Mor, C; Shvero, J; Feinmesser, R; Shibi, J; Shabtai, M; Bejar, J; Boss, J H

1998-01-01

293

OCT4 expression on a case of poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland and minireview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare and defined as follicular-cell neoplasms that show limited evidence of structural follicular cell differentiation and occupy both morphologically and behaviourally an intermediate position between differentiated (follicular and papillary carcinomas) and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinomas. The authors report a case of a 37-year-old Thai woman who presented with a prolonged left thyroid nodule. Final pathological diagnoses of her mass were poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma with lymphovascular invasion and nodular goiter. The tumor cell arrangements were nest (insular) and trabecular patterns with some follicular formations. Immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells revealed negative immunostaining for OCT4. Expression of OCT4 gene is involved in the regulation and maintenance of pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, germ cells, and in tumor cells. The authors believe that poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland probably develops from the remnant of thyroid stem cells and is not associated with dedifferentiation (anaplasia or loss of cellular differentiation) from nodular goiter or cells of other thyroid carcinomas. Although there was negative immunostain for OCT4 in the presented case, the authors assumed that the tumor cells behave with an intermediate position between thyroid stem cells and prothyrocytes Also they do not behave with thyroblasts. Additionally, the tumor may be associated with new cellular dedifferentiation. However, there is only one case of immunohistochemistry of OCT4 in poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Thus, prognosis of the presented still is mainly correlated with clinical and histological findings. Further research on expression of OCT4 gene on thyroid cancers and other malignant tumors relating to tumorigenic cancer cells (cancer stem cells) may be useful to prognostic evaluation and administration of a new chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy that is specific for tumor-initiating cells. PMID:16858970

Ruangpratheep, Chetana; Lohachittranond, Chanida; Poonpracha, Tara; Punyarit, Phaibul

2005-11-01

294

Results of a survey on the use of 123 iodine for scintigraphic exploration of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of thyroid gland scintigraphy with 123 iodine was carried out on 1131 patients, and data concerning the time of examination as well as indications, scintigrams and uptake measurements are presented. Minimal dosage provides a sufficient counting rate and good quality images and delivers a radioactive dose 15 times lower than with conventional 131 Iodine scintigraphy

295

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... make the thyroid hormone, which regulates how much energy the body is burning. This is known as metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood to make the thyroid hormone. A small gland in the base of the skull and under the brain, known as the pituitary gland, controls the levels ...

296

Thyroid Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... make the thyroid hormone, which regulates how much energy the body is burning. This is known as metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood to make the thyroid hormone. A small gland in the base of the skull and under the brain, known as the pituitary gland, controls the levels ...

297

Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland: our experience over the last 20 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland are uncommon, often presenting with nonspecific clinical and radiologic findings, and are thus underrecognized. They are occasionally associated with malignant neoplasms, which can greatly mimic benign lesions and carry detrimental clinical consequences if misdiagnosed. Here we present our 20-year experience (1992-2012) with these lesions at an academic medical center. Among more than 4500 adrenal gland specimens, 31 cases of adrenal lesions with a predominant cystic component were identified in 30 patients with an age range of 34 to 86 years (median, 55.5 years) and a male/female ratio of 13:17. Macroscopic descriptions, available histologic and immunostain slides, and available radiologic records were reviewed for all included cases. Radiologic studies and gross examination correlated well, and hemorrhage (26 cases; 84%) and encapsulation (25 cases; 81%) appeared to be nonspecific radiologic/gross features shared across histologic subtypes. Microscopic review identified 12 cases (39%) of pseudocysts, 2 cases (6%) of endothelium-derived cysts, and 17 cases (55%) of epithelium-derived cysts. Among these 31 cystic adrenal lesions, 2 cases (6%) were malignant neoplasms (1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma). Radiologic impression and histopathologic diagnosis were concordant in 11 (73%) of the 15 cases for which radiologic records were available. This study represents the second largest case series to date on cystic adrenal lesions and presents a comprehensive review on their demographic, clinical, radiologic, and gross and microscopic pathologic features, as well as their differential diagnoses. PMID:23618356

Sebastiano, Christopher; Zhao, Xiangrong; Deng, Fang-Ming; Das, Kasturi

2013-09-01

298

Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens.

Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

2013-06-01

299

Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens

300

Value of routine frozen section diagnosis of thyroid lesions.  

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The inability to diagnose follicular carcinoma intraoperatively with frozen section is the most significant factor accounting for the relatively low sensitivity of frozen section diagnosis of thyroid malignant neoplasm. In our institution, frozen section is considered a complementary investigation to emerging fine needle cytopathology in the region.

D. M. Tamimi

2001-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule verses biopsy in thyroid lesions  

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FNA biopsy of thyroid is a rapid, minimally invasive, and cost effective first line procedure in the evaluation of thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytological accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration (FNA) of solitary thyroid nodules in correlation with post-surgical histological findings. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Department of Pathology, Abbottabad International Medical College, Abbottabad from January 2009 to December 2010. A total of 81 patients with clinically palpable solitary thyroid nodule were included in the study. Thyroid function tests were initially performed followed by FNA of thyroid nodules later operated and histopathological examination was conducted on the excised nodules. FNA diagnoses were correlated with the histological findings. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the procedure were determined. Results: Out of 81 cases, 5 (6.2%) were unsatisfactory and 76 cases were satisfactory for cytological evaluation. Cyto-histopathological correlation was carried out for these cases. The study showed a diagnostic accuracy of 93% with sensitivity and specificity rates of 75% and 96% respectively. Positive predictive value is 81% and negative predictive value is 95%. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has evolved as an accurate and sensitive diagnostic tool for the initial screening of patients with thyroid nodules, and has reduced the need for unnecessary surgery. (auuced the need for unnecessary surgery. (author)

302

[Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].  

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True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells. Follicular adenoma is well-circumscribed, with no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor. Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland. The gland is distorted with a nodular surface. The hyperplasia is followed by involution of the follicles leading to large follicles of varying size. Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland. Mechanical implantation and parasitic nodule should not be misdiagnosed as lymph nodes harboring metastatic carcinoma. PMID:18018557

Kameyama, Kaori; Ito, Koichi; Takami, Hiroshi

2007-11-01

303

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia in lesions involving anogenital mammary-like glands.  

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Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), first reported in 1986, is nowadays a well-recognized change in the breast. We present three cases of lesions involving anogenital mammary-like glands demonstrating this feature. All patients were females (ages, 42, 43, and 53 years). Each presented with a solitary, 1.5- to 2-cm asymptomatic nodule. Locations included the perianal area, perineum, and labium majus. Histopathologically, one lesion was classified as low-grade phyllodes tumor, another as fibroadenoma, and in the remaining case PASH was found in the background of mild hyperplasia of anogenital mammary-like glands and substantial lipomatous metaplasia. In all lesions, PASH had an identical appearance to that in the breast, that is open, slit-like, often anastomosing channels devoid of erythrocytes and lined by discontinuous, often attenuated, inconspicuous cells without atypia or mitotic activity set in a hyalinized collagenous stroma. Quantitatively, PASH ranged in the above cases, forming a relatively small focus in the fibroadenoma and being quite extensive in the remaining two cases. In the phyllodes tumor, PASH areas exhibited focal hypercellularity and presence of myoid cells. In none of the cases were there cells with intranuclear inclusions or multinucleated cells. The lesions were surgically excised. Two patients with follow-up were disease-free at one and three years after the operation. As to our knowledge, PASH has not been previously described in the anogenital area, this feature seems to have been either overlooked or is genuinely rare in this location. It may occur in a preexisting lesion of anogenital mammary-like glands or may apparently by itself produce a clinically detectable lesion. The clinicopathologic features of PASH in the anogenital area seem to be identical to those in the breast. PMID:16096415

Kazakov, Dmitry V; Bisceglia, Michele; Mukensnabl, Petr; Michal, Michal

2005-09-01

304

Reliability of fine needle aspiration and ex tempore biopsy in the diagnosis of salivary glands lesions  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Interpretation of cytological material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA of salivary glands is one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. FNA is performed easily, it is minimally invasive, inexpensive, fast, reliable and provides valuable information to clinicians about the nature of the lesion and therapeutic modalities. Ex tempore diagnosis, frozen section (FS is a diagnostic tool that is essential in determining the modalities of surgical treatment of lesions of the salivary glands. Today this method is used in determining the status of resection margins and infiltration of adjacent anatomical structures. The aim of this study was to present our experiences in the application of FNA and FS in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and diagnostic reliability of these methods. Methods. The study included 36 patients. In all the patients, cytological analysis was done before surgery and histological analysis of the surgical material. In 23 of the patients the FS diagnostics was done. Then we compared FNA and FS findings with histopathological findings. Results. Correlation of cytological and histological diagnosis showed sensitivity of 83.3%, specificity 96.67%, positive predictive value 83.3%, negative predictive value of 96.77% and diagnostic accuracy of 97.2%. Based on the relationship between FS diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 96.67%, while positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 100% each. Conclusion. The study confirmed that FNA is a sensitive, reliable diagnostic method for differentiation of lesions of the salivary glands. In cases with no posibility to definite differentiation in FNA samples, and with the need to assess the resection margins and invasion of anatomical structures, it is recommended to use FS diagnostics.

Gajanin Radoslav

2014-01-01

305

The Role of Immunohistochemistry in Differential Diagnosis of Follicular Patterned Lesions of Thyroid  

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Full Text Available Objective: In the present study we aimed to assess the role of galectin- 3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular lesions.Material and Method: Fifty-four malignant and 50 benign lesions were evaluated and classified according to World Health Organization 2004 histological classification. Galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 were performed immunohistochemically and the slides were evaluated by two independent investigators. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed for each antibody tested.Results: Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were as follows respectively: Galectin-3: 59,25%, 84% and 71,15%; Cytokeratin 19: 70%, 82% and 75,4%; Thyroid peroxidase: 61%, 70% and 65,4%; CD44v6: 20,4%, 88% and 52,9%.Conclusion: The negativity for Galectin-3 and Cytokeratin 19 can not exclude malignancy but positivity can be thought as a sign of malignant feature or potential for lesions in which there is strong suspect of malignancy. Thyroid peroxidase immunostaining failed to differantiate benign from malignant oxyphilic tumors but decreased expression can be used as a malignancy marker together with Galectin-3 and/or Cytokeratin19 positivity in suspicious cases. CD44v6 does not seem to be reliable in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular patterned thyroid lesions.In conclusion, our approach is to take as much new samples or serial sections as possible in cases without clear-cut evidence of malignancy but with histological and immunohistochemical suspicion. Follicular variant papillary carcinoma has different criteria for malignancy and it should be always kept in mind while evaluating a benign-looking lesion with immunohistochemical signs that favor malignancy.

Gülçin YE?EN

2009-09-01

306

Diagnostic relevance of fine needle aspiration cytology in nodular thyroid lesions  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been used as an initial investigative procedure of thyroid nodule(s in the Department of Pathology at the Institute of Oncology of Vojvodina for more than 20 years. This procedure is rapid, inexpensive and technologically simple, yet it has found only limited, albeit increasing acceptance in medical practice in Serbia. The aim of the study was to evaluate our FNAC findings by correlating cytological results with histological diagnosis and to define the sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy and positive predictive value of FNAC. Methods. A total of 266 patients with thyroid swellings were aspirated in one year investigated period at our Institute out of whom 69 underwent surgery between May 2008 and May 2009. The cytological results correlated with clinical features, ultrasound investigations (US and subsequent histopathological examination of the resected tissue. Results. By the use of cytology we found out thyroid carcinoma in 10 patients, and by histopathological examination in 12. We obtained 83% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 97% of diagnostic accuracy of FNAC. Conclusion. The obtained results confirm the importance of FNAC in preoperative assesment of thyroid nodule.

Kneževi?-Ušaj Slavica

2012-01-01

307

Effects of radiation on parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland.  

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While radiation has well-recognized effects on follicular cells of the thyroid gland, those on parafollicular C cells are not yet established. Low-dose radiation that has been proved to be nonablative and carcinogenic to follicular cells was administered to 8-week-old Long-Evans rats to study the changes in C cell number and function. Circulating calcitonin levels were significantly reduced in animals that had undergone radiation at age 24 months. Mean calcitonin values were 0.66 (+/- 0.20) ng/ml and 1.64 (+/- 0.59) ng/ml for control males and females compared with 0.14 (+/- 0.06) ng/ml and 0.11 (+/- 0.01) ng/ml for males (P less than 0.05) and females (P less than 0.001) that had undergone radiation, respectively. These levels correlated well with C cell population density in thyroid glands in the control group and in the group that had undergone radiation as evidenced by light microscopy. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed C cell hyperplasia in 77% of control animals of both sexes compared with 4% in animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.005). Immunoperoxidase staining with an anticalcitonin antibody showed virtual absence of C cells in most animals that had undergone radiation compared with diffusely scattered cells in animals in the control group. Medullary carcinomas occurred in 14% of animals in the control group compared with 3% of animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that the radiation dosage that is carcinogenic to the follicular epithelium causes lethal injury to C cells and thus suggest that C cells are more sensitive to radiation than are follicular cells. This increased sensitivity could explain the virtual absence of C cells, decrease in calcitonin levels, and reduced numbers of medullary carcinomas in the animals that had undergone radiation. PMID:6648815

Shah, K H; Oslapas, R; Calandra, D B; Prinz, R A; Ernst, K; Hofmann, C; Smith, M; Chejfec, G; Lawrence, A M; Paloyan, E

1983-12-01

308

Effects of radiation on parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland  

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While radiation has well-recognized effects on follicular cells of the thyroid gland, those on parafollicular C cells are not yet established. Low-dose radiation that has been proved to be nonablative and carcinogenic to follicular cells was administered to 8-week-old Long-Evans rats to study the changes in C cell number and function. Circulating calcitonin levels were significantly reduced in animals that had undergone radiation at age 24 months. Mean calcitonin values were 0.66 (+/- 0.20) ng/ml and 1.64 (+/- 0.59) ng/ml for control males and females compared with 0.14 (+/- 0.06) ng/ml and 0.11 (+/- 0.01) ng/ml for males (P less than 0.05) and females (P less than 0.001) that had undergone radiation, respectively. These levels correlated well with C cell population density in thyroid glands in the control group and in the group that had undergone radiation as evidenced by light microscopy. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed C cell hyperplasia in 77% of control animals of both sexes compared with 4% in animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.005). Immunoperoxidase staining with an anticalcitonin antibody showed virtual absence of C cells in most animals that had undergone radiation compared with diffusely scattered cells in animals in the control group. Medullary carcinomas occurred in 14% of animals in the control group compared with 3% of animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that the radiation dosage thaata indicate that the radiation dosage that is carcinogenic to the follicular epithelium causes lethal injury to C cells and thus suggest that C cells are more sensitive to radiation than are follicular cells. This increased sensitivity could explain the virtual absence of C cells, decrease in calcitonin levels, and reduced numbers of medullary carcinomas in the animals that had undergone radiation

309

Effects of radiation on parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland  

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While radiation has well-recognized effects on follicular cells of the thyroid gland, those on parafollicular C cells are not yet established. Low-dose radiation that has been proved to be nonablative and carcinogenic to follicular cells was administered to 8-week-old Long-Evans rats to study the changes in C cell number and function. Circulating calcitonin levels were significantly reduced in animals that had undergone radiation at age 24 months. Mean calcitonin values were 0.66 (+/- 0.20) ng/ml and 1.64 (+/- 0.59) ng/ml for control males and females compared with 0.14 (+/- 0.06) ng/ml and 0.11 (+/- 0.01) ng/ml for males (P less than 0.05) and females (P less than 0.001) that had undergone radiation, respectively. These levels correlated well with C cell population density in thyroid glands in the control group and in the group that had undergone radiation as evidenced by light microscopy. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed C cell hyperplasia in 77% of control animals of both sexes compared with 4% in animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.005). Immunoperoxidase staining with an anticalcitonin antibody showed virtual absence of C cells in most animals that had undergone radiation compared with diffusely scattered cells in animals in the control group. Medullary carcinomas occurred in 14% of animals in the control group compared with 3% of animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that the radiation dosage that is carcinogenic to the follicular epithelium causes lethal injury to C cells and thus suggest that C cells are more sensitive to radiation than are follicular cells. This increased sensitivity could explain the virtual absence of C cells, decrease in calcitonin levels, and reduced numbers of medullary carcinomas in the animals that had undergone radiation.

Shah, K.H.; Oslapas, R.; Calandra, D.B.; Prinz, R.A.; Ernst, K.; Hofmann, C.; Smith, M.; Chejfec, G.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

1983-12-01

310

The effect of newer water-soluble contrast media on I-131 uptake by the thyroid gland  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two water-soluble contrast media (nonionic and Dimer) on iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Twenty-eight euthyroid patients (16 females and 12 males) were subjected to 24hrs radioiodine uptake (RAIU) studies following brain CT examinations using the above cited two water-soluble contrast media. Radioiodine uptake studies were done at one (Group-1), two (Group-2) and four (Group-3) weeks following performance of contrast enhanced CT scans. The effect of both contrast media on the thyroid uptake was found to be identical. The radio active iodine uptake (RAIU) was observed to be suppressed in 30% of patients in Group-1, 33% of patients in Group-2 and in none of the patients belonging to Group-3. On the basis of this pilot study on a limited number of patients it was concluded that dimer and non-ionic water soluble contrast media cause suppression of radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland in a significant proportion of patients. It has also been observed that both contrast media have similar suppressive effects on radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. This effect is transient and does not persist beyond a period of four weeks following the administration of the contrast media. (author)

311

Dental radiography technique and equipment: How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland  

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Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that collimator and technique choice had on the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, during intra-oral examinations of the upper and lower teeth. Radiation dose reduction from a different perspective, other than the application of lead-rubber shielding, was addressed. Methods: A study was performed at a regional dental school with the use of a phantom head/neck and a radiation dosemeter, to measure the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position. The radiation dose was assessed for two intra-oral techniques (paralleling and bisecting angle), and two collimators (rectangular and circular). The radiation dose was also assessed with and without the application of a thyroid shield. Standard descriptive statistics, followed by inferential statistics were applied to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, when employing the paralleling technique (66.7%) and rectangular collimator (45.5%). Other factors, for example the tooth/teeth under examination, were also found to influence the radiation dose detected. Conclusion: Radiation dose reductions using the paralleling technique and rectangular collimator were outlined. The use of this low dose combination within dental practices remains limited, therefore, continued awareness and acceptance of radiation hazards need to be addressed addressed

312

The Dysfunction of the Thyroid Gland and Opportunities for the Homeopathic Treatment of Dogs  

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Full Text Available The low levels of T4 (thyroxine and T3 (triiodothyronine can be observed in the dogs with hypothyroidism, but it could also reflect some other illness, in which the function of the thyroid gland is not disturbed. This phenomenon is called "sick euthyroid syndrom" (SES and it is mainly associated with the existence of the other endocrinopathies (Cushing`s syndrome, hyperestrogenism. The other endocrinopathies could be clinically manifest by very similar chronic changes in the skin and hair as those manifested in hypothyroidism. There are two cases of German shepherd dogs which were manifested by obesity, lethargy, infertility and chronic dermal findings. The level of T4 in the blood serum was very low in the first bitch T4 = 4.53 n mol l-1 and in the second bitch T4 = 12.84 n mol l-1. Diagnostic biochemical blood examination revealed results indicating the possibility of hypothyroidism, but at the same time also the possibility of another non- thyroid disease. Homeopathy can help to solve the problem of theraphy in such complicated cases. After homeopathic therapy the results of the biochemical and endocrinological examinations repeatedly showed the restored conditions of the patient. The level of the T4 in the blood serum was in the first bitch T4 = 27.31 n mol l-1 and in the second bitch T4 = 26.28 n mol l-1. This study presents the possibility to use homeopathic treatment in chronic dermatologic cases.

M. Fialkovi ova

2003-01-01

313

Total thyroidectomy and intraoperative radioiodine localisation diagnostic with differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas  

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In a retrospective study on 103 patients, who between 1971 and 1979 because of differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas underwent thyroidectomies, it was investigated, which parameters lead to a reduction in the complications rate with a thyroidectomy. A division of the patients into two groups, namely, those operated on up until 1976 and those operated on from this point in time on using a new operative concept showed in the second group that there was no more recurrence paresis or remaining parathyroprivic tetani, but that the new operative procedure, however, had not brought any significant improvement with respect to favourable, respectively unfavourable, initial conditions and to the type of possible preoperations. Another new method which began in 1976, the intraoperative 131-iodine localisation measurement, is presented. It deals with a control of the storing remaining tissue. In comparison to the first group the storing remaining area was reduced significantly from 44% to 19%, such that the amount of radioiodine needed for the radioiodine therapy which is usually used to eliminate any remaining thyroid tissue could be reduced. This also reduced the radiation load. Thyroidectomy continues to be the therapy of choice. (TRV)

314

Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas. Treatment results of 268 patients after thyroidectomy  

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The effectiveness of radioiodine therapy on differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas was checked out based on the following criteria from 268 patients: Histology, tumor expanse, type of metastasis, survival rate of treated patients and the frequency of tumor remains, respectively metastases, removal. The 5-year survival rate of the whole group lay near 92%, those with regional and distant metastases near 70%. With differentiation according to different histological forms of the carcinoma there were only slight differences. The therapeutical response rate varied with the different metastasis forms. Regional lymph gland metastases responded best to radioiodine therapy (76%), lung and bone metastases not as well with 21% and 14%. The standardized radioiodine therapy with relatively low single doses of 70 resp. 100 mCi 131-iodine proved itself as most tolerable. Serious therapy-dependent complications or even deaths did not appear. A comparison of the treatment results in this paper with those of other authors shows that the survival rates of these patients were mostly higher than the ones they were compared to. (TRV)

315

Color doppler image of thyroid nodule : differentiation between benign and malignant lesion  

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To assess the utility of color Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Fifty patients with thyroid nodules(10 cases of follicular adenoma, 12 of adenomatous hyperplasia, 21 of papillary adenocarcinoma, and 7 of follicular adenocarcinoma) were analyzed. Colour signal analysis was performed by inspecting the signals in and around the nodules, and these were graded from 0 to III according to the degree of vascularity in internal and marginal blood flow. Peak systoic velocity (PSV) and resisitive index (RI) in internal vascularity were used to analyse the flow signal. Internal color signals of malignant lesions tended to be high grade, whereas those of benign lesions tended to be low grade, with statistical significance(P<0.05). In spectral wave analysis, correlation between PSV and malignancy of thyroid nodules was statistically significant(P<0.05). The value of RI did not correlate with the malignancy of nodules, but tended to show a meaningful difference. Although further studies may be required, color Doppler sonography using color signal and flow signals analysis is a useful imaging modality for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid nodules

316

[The impact of iodine prophylaxis programme on thyroid gland morphology and function in children and adolescents from the Mazowieckie Voivodship].  

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The project was realised within the multicentre research programme no PBZ038-08. In all, 2967 children aged 11-18 years were examined, including 1712 girls and 1255 boys. The tested children came from the Mazowieckie Voivodship. Each child was assessed by thyroid ultrasound examination and the level of TSH, FT4 hormones, antithyroid antibodies ATM and ATGL in the blood serum. The level ofFT3 hormone in blood serum was assessed in every fourth child. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of obligatory iodine preventive treatment programme on the morphological and functional status of the thyroid gland in children and teenagers from the Mazowieckie Voivodship. The tested children were divided into three groups: 525 children examined in 1997, living in an area of moderate iodine deficiency, 1477 children tested in 1998 after a few months of iodine supplementation and 965 children examined in 1999 who were well supplemented by iodine longer than one year. The average thyroid volume and the incidence of focal changes in the thyroid gland were determined by ultrasonography, the mean of the TSH, FT4, FT3, hormone level was defined in blood serum in girls and in boys examined in consecutive years. In children tested in 1999 a reduction of the average thyroid volume and a statistically significant decrease of the percentage of children with goitre and with focal changes in the thyroid gland were observed in comparison to children tested in 1997. The results depended on iodine prophylaxis. A statistically significant lower level of FT3 hormone in blood serum was recorded in children tested in 1999 than in 1997. The largest number of children with high levels of ATM and ATGL antibodies in blood serum, exceeding 100 IIJ7ml, were found in 1997 (ATM in 8.6% of cases, ATGL in 17.3% of cases). The high level of ATGL antibodies was observed more frequently in children tested in 1999 than in 1998. PMID:12004140

Szymborska, M; Staroszczyk, B; Oltarzewski, M; Lisewska, I

2001-01-01

317

Evaluation of the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques  

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Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The use of sophisticated radiographic techniques is absolutely necessary in dentistry. The use of these techniques exposes the sensitive organs of head and neck to x-rays. The aim of the present study was to investigate the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 TLD GR-200 circular dosimeters (Thermoluminans Detector were used in male RANDO-like phantom (head and neck segment, i.e. the first 10 segments in order to determine the radiation dose absorbed by the thyroid gland. Then spiral computed tomographies were provided from the anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible along with a lateral Scout view as a guide. Conventional spiral tomographies were prepared from the maxilla, mandible and both jaws with a panoramic radiograph as a guide. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS 11.5 (a = 0.05. Results: The highest and lowest thyroid gland absorbed doses were observed with computed tomography of both jaws and conventional spiral tomography of the anterior maxilla, respectively (5.92 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ± 0.01 mSiv. The mean amount of the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland was lower in the conventional spiral tomography compared to computed tomography. The two techniques revealed significant differences in the absorbed doses except for conventional spiral tomography in the posterior and anterior regions of the mandible (p value = 0.276.Conclusion: According to results of the present study, the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in the conventional spiral tomography in different regions of the jaws was less than CT scan techniques. As a result, it appears the use of conventional spiral tomography is preferred over CT scans in limited regions where three-dimensional and cross-sectional views are required.Key words: Thyroid gland, Film dosimetry, Spiral Computed Tomography.

Hamid Badrian

2012-01-01

318

Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )  

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In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphc Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate with the intensity of the administered activity of radioiodine, the previous condition of dental integrity and in patients living in the interior of our country in zones of 'bad' water containing tracers of arsenic and fluorine. In 13 patients submitted to intense treatment of dental problems posterior WBS showed a decrease of the positive maxilla areas or they were not found. The presence of metastasis in the active maxilla area was in all cases negative. Our observations confirm that radioiodine is deposited in maxillary bone in relation of dental lesions and that this 131-I move in a very slow place. This mechanism of fixation has to be determined. We fully recommended taking into account the existence of dental illness or incomplete dental treatments when the administration of higher activities than 3.7 GBq (150 mCi). (author)

319

Effect of some radio-modifying preparations on the doses absorbed by the thyroid glands in orally introduced iodine-131  

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In order to estimate the reduction dose rates of J131 absorbed by thyroid glands after preliminary administration of several chemical protectors, the experiments on 210 male Wistar rats were carried out. The protectors AET, VVR-2721, cysteamine hydrochloride, serotonin, creatine sulfate and Adeturon were applied intraperitoneally and after different periods of time J131 was introduced via stomach sounding . The results were shown as measured absorbed doses as well as calculated thyroid gland protection coefficients (PC). In all cases a sharp reduction of the absorbed doses in the first minutes after applications was found. The maximum PC of about 50-55% for serotonin, cysteamine and VVR-2721 was obtained. The protection effect gradually died down in the longer periods of time and practically it was missing in all cases in the 24th hour. The protection effect of radioprotectors was evaluated as unessential even in the most favourable cases

320

Diagnostic Accuracy and Pitfalls of Preoperative Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Salivary Gland Lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in salivary gland lesions. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 82 patients presented at NCI, Cairo University with salivary gland lesion who underwent preoperative FNAC diagnosis with subsequent excision and histopathologic assessment. Cytology results were classified as negative, positive, suspicious for cancer and inadequate. The definitive histopathologic report according to WHO Histological typing was the gold standard diagnosis against which FNAC was compared. Results: Our study included 82 patients who underwent preoperative FNAC of major salivary glands with subsequent surgical excision. Male to female ratio was 1.4: 1. The median age was 42 years. Parotid gland was involved in (68.3%), submandibular in (28%) and sub mental gland in (3.7%). Forty cases (48.8%) were cytologically diagnosed as benign lesions, 26 (31.7%) were malignant and 10 (12.2%) were suspicious. Cytological findings were non diagnostic in 6 (7.3%). The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma; 16 out of 40 cases (40%), while the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma; 22 out of 26 cases (84.6%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones and were true-negative in 37 (92.5%), true-positive in 33 (91.6%), false-negative in 3 (8.3%) and false-positive in 3 (7.5%) cases regarding detection of malignant tumors. The cytologic diagnosis achieved a sensitivity of 91.7%; a specificity of 92.5%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 92.5% and diagnostic accuracy 92%. The rates of agreement of histopathologic type for benign and malignant tumors were 89.2% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC were 91.7%, 92.5% and 92%, respectively. Attention to subtle morphologic changes, pitfalls and limitations are important to increase diagnostic accuracy. Multidirectional aspiration is preferred to avoid selective sampling. Re-aspiration of solid portion after cyst fluid aspiration is necessary to decrease the rate of inadequacy

 
 
 
 
321

Does amifostine have radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled clinical trials which compared the effects of amifostine with those of placebo or acid-stimulating agents. Two randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 130 patients were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of amifostine and acid-stimulating agents on the incidence of xerostomia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01 to 9.52), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of {sup 99m}Tc by the parotid (RR 0.30, 95% CI -2.28 to 2.88) or submandibular glands (RR 1.90, 95% CI -1.46 to 5.26) at 12 months, or the reduction in blood pressure (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16). Neither of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. The results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The use of acid-stimulating agents to increase salivation should remain the first choice during radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients should also be well informed of the importance of hydration and acid stimulation. (orig.)

Ma, Chao; Wang, Guoming; Zuo, Shuyao [Qingdao University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Xie, Jiawei [Qingdao University, Medical College, Qingdao (China); Jiang, Zhongxin [Qingdao University, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao (China)

2010-09-15

322

Does amifostine have radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled clinical trials which compared the effects of amifostine with those of placebo or acid-stimulating agents. Two randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 130 patients were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of amifostine and acid-stimulating agents on the incidence of xerostomia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01 to 9.52), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of 99mTc by the parotid (RR 0.30, 95% CI -2.28 to 2.88) or submandibular glands (RR 1.90, 95% CI -1.46 to 5.26) at 12 months, or the reduction in blood pressure (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16). Neither of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. The results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The use of acid-stimulating agents to increase salivation should remain the first choice during radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients should also be well informed of the importance of hydration and acid stimulation. (orig.)

323

Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

324

Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid glands from turtles (Chrysemys dorbigni) pretreated with potassium iodide were incubated with 125I-insulin in the presence or absence of unlabeled insulin, in order to study its specific uptake. At 24 degrees, the specific uptake reached a plateau at 180 min of incubation. The dose of bovine insulin that inhibited 50% of the 125I-insulin uptake was 2 micrograms/ml of incubation medium. Most of the radioactive material (71%) extracted from the gland, after 30 min incubation with 125I-insulin, eluted in the same position as labeled insulin on Sephadex G-50. Only 24% eluted in the salt position. After 240 min incubation, increased amount of radioactivity appeared in the Na125I position. When bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone, a substantial reduction of radioactivity was observed in the insulin and Na125I elution positions. Dissociation studies were performed at 6 degrees in glands preincubated with 125I-insulin either at 24 or 6 degrees. The percentage of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble radioactive material in the dissociation medium increased with incubation time at both temperatures. However, the degradation activity was lower at 6 than at 24 degrees. The addition of bovine insulin to the incubation buffer containing 125I-insulin reduced the radioactive degradation products in the dissociated medium. Chloroquine or bacitracin inhibited the degradation activiacitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125I-hGH or 125I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

325

Quantitative comparison of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare the scintigraphic images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands obtained with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Forty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent {sup 201}Tl (74 MBq), {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate (74 MBq) and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (555-740 MBq) scintigraphy in a single session. Image analysis included the computation of the thyroid/background ratio in the whole study population and the parathyroid/background ratio, parathyroid/thyroid ratio and diagnostic sensitivity in 17 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. The pertechnetate subtraction technique was used. {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin showed a similar thyroid/background ratio (1.79{+-}0.41 and 1.81{+-}0.47, respectively, P=NS); however, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin showed a higher parathyroid/background ratio than {sup 201}Tl (2.06{+-}0.54 vs 1.79{+-} 0.50, P=0.007). Despite the superior quality of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin images, both tracers showed identical sensitivity in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (89%) and in those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (50%). (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs.

Giordano, A.; Meduri, G.; Calcagni, M.L. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy); Marozzi, P.; Ficola, U.; Vaccaro, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cervello Hospital, Palermo (Italy); Rubini, G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University, Bari (Italy); Attard, M.; Li Puma, M. [Department of Endocrinology, Cervello Hospital, Palermo (Italy); Ricci, R. [Department of Pathology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Corsello, S. [Department of Endocrinology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy)

1999-08-01

326

Quantitative comparison of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare the scintigraphic images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands obtained with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Forty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent 201Tl (74 MBq), 99mTc-pertechnetate (74 MBq) and 99mTc-tetrofosmin (555-740 MBq) scintigraphy in a single session. Image analysis included the computation of the thyroid/background ratio in the whole study population and the parathyroid/background ratio, parathyroid/thyroid ratio and diagnostic sensitivity in 17 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. The pertechnetate subtraction technique was used. 201Tl and 99mTc-tetrofosmin showed a similar thyroid/background ratio (1.79±0.41 and 1.81±0.47, respectively, P=NS); however, 99mTc-tetrofosmin showed a higher parathyroid/background ratio than 201Tl (2.06±0.54 vs 1.79± 0.50, P=0.007). Despite the superior quality of 99mTc-tetrofosmin images, both tracers showed identical sensitivity in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (89%) and in those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (50%). (orig.)

327

Relationship between expression of the sodium/iodide symporter and {sup 131}I uptake in recurrent lesions of differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is known to be responsible for the active accumulation of iodide within the thyroid gland. We evaluated the relationship between the expression of NIS in primary or lymph node lesions and iodine-131 uptake in recurrent lesions of differentiated thyroid cancer. In 67 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (5 follicular and 62 papillary carcinomas), the expression of NIS was analysed by immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal antibodies against human NIS. We used paraffin block tissues of primary tumours or metastatic lesions, and also assessed {sup 131}I uptake in recurrent lesions of thyroid cancer on post-operative {sup 131}I whole-body scan. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in 22 patients (32.8%), including 2 of 5 follicular and 20 of 62 papillary carcinomas. Recurrence was confirmed in 40 patients pathologically or clinically by serum thyroglobulin, {sup 131}I scan, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and/or computed tomography. Among these 40 patients, 28 showed positive uptake on {sup 131}I scan. Fourteen tumour specimens out of 28 (50%) were positive by NIS immunohistochemical staining. The remaining 12 patients with recurrent cancer showed negative {sup 131}I scans, and all specimens were negative by NIS immunohistochemical staining. Thus, NIS immunohistochemical staining predicted {sup 131}I uptake in recurrent cancer with a 100% positive predictive value and a 46.2% negative predictive value. There was no difference in the positivity of NIS according to the site of recurrence on {sup 131}I scan. Outcome of {sup 131}I therapy could be assessed in 22 of the 28 patients who showed {sup 131}I uptake in recurrent lesions. Patients with positive NIS immunostaining responded to {sup 131}I therapy better than did patients with negative immunostaining (P<0.05). In conclusion, NIS immunohistochemical staining showed a high positive predictive value in predicting iodine uptake. Positive immunohistochemical staining of human NIS in primary or lymph node lesions may predict {sup 131}I accumulation and effectiveness of {sup 131}I therapy in recurrent lesions. (orig.)

Min, J.J.; Chung, J.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Jeong, J.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Coll. of Medicine (Korea); Cancer Research Inst., Seoul National Univ. Coll. of Medicine (Korea); Lee, D.S.; Lee, M.C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Coll. of Medicine (Korea); Jang, J.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National Univ. Coll. of Medicine (Korea); Cho, B.Y. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Coll. of Medicine (Korea)

2001-05-01

328

Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions-A pilot study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue{sup Registered-Sign} perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

Knopf, Andreas, E-mail: a.knopf@lrz.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Stock, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Nephrologie der II. Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

2012-11-15

329

Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions—A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue® perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

330

FUNCIONAMIENTO NORMAL Y AUMENTADO DE LA GLÁNDULA TIROIDES EN EQUINOS / NORMAL AND INCREASED FUNCTIONING OF THYROID GLAND IN EQUINES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Describir y analizar el funcionamiento normal de la glándula tiroides en equinos y los factores que aumentan en ellos los niveles de hormonas tiroideas. Materiales y métodos: Mediante la revisión de la literatura disponible de los últimos 50 años en las bases de datos BBCS-LILACS, fuente a [...] cadémica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus y Scirus, al igual que artículos históricos, textos y referencias citadas en trabajos publicados. Resultados: la información obtenida relacionada con los objetivos propuestos en la presente revisión, permite clasificar en 4 secciones a saber: síntesis y secreción de hormonas tiroideas; transporte y metabolismo; funciones; hipertiroidismo en los equinos. Conclusión: La glándula tiroides juega un papel importante, como productora de hormonas tiroideas, las cuales son necesarias para la diferenciación celular y crecimiento del organismo. El buen funcionamiento de las vías metabólicas depende de estas hormonas, las que tienen efectos específicos sobre diferentes órganos, manteniendo la homeostasis en todos los tejidos. Abstract in english Objective: to describe and analyze the normal functioning of the thyroid gland in equines and the factors which increase the thyroid hormone levels. Materials and methods: information from the last 50 years included in the BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Sc [...] irus, data bases as well as historical articles, texts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results: important information related to the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into two sections as follow: synthesis, liberation and metabolism of thyroid hormones; factors that modify the thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: the thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends on these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all the tissues.

JÓSE HENRY, OSORIO; FELIPE, RAMÍREZ ECHEVERRY.

2012-12-01

331

Salivary gland protection by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy using 100 to 120 MBq Tc-99m-pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after radioiodine treatment with 6 GBq I-131. Eight patients were treated with 500 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment and compared retrospectively with 9 control patients. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO criteria. In 9 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced Tc-99m-pertechnetate uptake by 35.4{+-}22.0% and 31.7{+-}21.1% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Of these 9 patients, 3 exhibited xerostomia Grade I (WHO). In contrast, in 8 amifostine-treated patients, there was no significant (p=0.878) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Heilversuchs wurde eine limitierte Anzahl von Patienten untersucht. Vor und drei Monate nach Gabe von 6 GBq I-131 wurde eine quantitative Speicheldruesenszintigraphie mit 100 bis 120 MBq Tc-99m-Pertechnetat an 17 Patienten mit differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinomen durchgefuehrt. Acht Patienten erhielten vor Radiojodtherapie 500 mg/m{sup 2} Amifostin und wurden mit einer historischen Kontrollgruppe aus neun Patienten verglichen. Eine Xerostomie wurde nach WHO-Kriterien beurteilt. Die Patienten der Kontrollgruppe wiesen sowohl fuer die Glandulae parotides als auch fuer die Glandulae submandibulares eine signifikante Verminderung der Tc-99m-Pertechnetat-Aufnahme um 35,4{+-}22,0% bzw. 31,7{+-}21,1% als Zeichen einer Parenchymschaedigung auf. Bei drei dieser neuen Patienten fand sich eine Xerostomie Grad I (WHO). Im Gegensatz dazu konnte bei den mit Amifostin behandelten Patienten keine signifikante Verminderung der Parechymfunktion festgestellt werden (p=0,878). Dementsprechend wies keiner dieser Patienten eine Xerostomie auf. (orig.)

Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Bleckmann, C.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Brenner, W.; Lassmann, S.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

1999-02-01

332

Thyroid Hormone Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: to replace the function of the thyroid gland, which is no ... and other organs working as they should. Definition, Therapy & Treatment Thyroid hormone replacement therapy Many people have ...

333

The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treated to give KIO3 and KI salt was intended to determine the level of supplementation of iodine (I2, the level of MDA in serum and histological rat thyroid gland. MDA levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the KIO3 and KI salt was significantly (p<0.05 reduce levels of MDA in the serum of treatment with KIO3 salt (33.62% and KI salt (37,02% and improving histological of the thyroid gland rats.

Chanif Mahdi

2014-04-01

334

Cytogenetic analysis of tumoral thyroid tissues of thyroid glands of people from Gomel region as against Brest one  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis in vivo of histologically normal and tumoral thyroid tissues has shown that in organism of examined patients with thyroid cancer mutation process taken place not only in tumor but in histologically normal tissue. As a result of investigations pursued a significant increase in the level of aberrant cells in thyroid cell populations was revealed in people from Gomel regions as against Brest one

335

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... treatment options including medications and surgery. Thyroid Gland Anatomy and Function The thyroid gland is a butterfly- ... cause hypothyroidism. In this condition, the body’s immune system mistakes thyroid ... nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, cut lips, chipped teeth, sore throat, and ...

336

Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on serum levels of LH and testosterone and weights of testes and thyroid gland in rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of metabolism, maturity and reproduction. Thyroid dysfunction affects almost all endocrine glands such as pituitary and testis. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH serum levels as well as weights of thyroid gland and testes in methimazole (MMI-induced hypothyroidism. Methods: Twenty-one adult male rats weighing 185 g were divided into 3 groups. The control group received drinking water, while treated groups received two doses of methimazole; low dose (20 mg/dl in drinking water and high dose (100 mg/dl in drinking water, for 42 days. At the end of the experiments, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed and serum samples were obtained. Serum levels of hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay. Weights of testes and thyroid gland were determined after sacrifice. Results: Results showed that the use of methimazole decreased serum levels of T4, T3, testosterone and LH as well as the weight of testes, while it increased the weight of thyroid gland compared to control group. These effects were more clear in the high dose group. Conclusion: This study suggests that MMI–induced hypothyroidism causes a significant decrease in serum levels of thyroid hormones, testosterone and LH. Hypothyroidism also decreases the weight of testes, while it increases the weight of thyroid in rat. These effects were dose-dependent.

Esmaeil Mohamadizadeh

2011-08-01

337

Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning syt). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman) surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes). Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation

338

Radioiodine therapy effect on lacrimal gland function in patients with thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Objectives: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radioiodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected postradioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of I-131 (exposed group) for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months ago. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5 min) of this exposed group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with any other known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: The study demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to unexposed one. In the group of patients who have undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77% respectively. In evaluating the symptoms, 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the mentioned dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant differeata analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of the two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radioiodine therapy, which seems to be more severe in the majority of affected ones; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. (author)

339

Radioiodine Treatment Effects on Lacrimal Glands Function in Patients with Thyroid Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi of I-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient. Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light one patient (2 eyes revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation.

A. Fard Esfahani

2005-07-01

340

MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?  

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Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 {+-} 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 {+-} 25 ml, with 2.1 {+-} 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high. (orig.)

Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Ivanova, T.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

[Bone tissue mineral density in patients with thyroid gland cancer on levothyroxine natrium therapy].  

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The subjects of the study were 319 patients (55 men and 264 women) aged 17 to 55 (mean age 40.8 +/- 1.9 years), who had been on suppressive therapy with levothyroxine natrium in a dose of 100 to 300 mkg/day, or 247 +/- 0.32 mkg/kg/day, for 4.9 0.3 years following special treatment of diferentiated thyroid gland cancer (TGC). The control group included 55 subjects (11 men and 44 women) aged 18 to 55 (mean age 38.9 +/- 1.4 years) without thyroid gland dysfunction. In the patients of the main group bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry using Sophos L-XRA device (France). Serum levels of free fractions of thyroid hormones and thyrotropin were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using Medipan diagnostic (Germany) and Immunotech (Czechia) kits. Blood levels of testosterone, estradiol, lutropin, and follicle-stimulating hormone were determined by RIA using IOPIBOKH (Belarus) kit in order to exclude the role of sex hormone deficit in BMD disorder. Peripheral blood level of parathormone was determined by RIA using CIS Biointernational (France). General calcium levels were determined by arsenazo III method, inorganic phosphorus level--by kinetic phosphomolybdic method using Technicon RA-XT analyzer (USA), ionized calcium serum level--by ionoselective method using OP-270 analyzer (Radelkis, Hungary) and DiaSys kits (Russia). The study revealed no increase of osteoporosis frequency in patients under 55 years old on suppressive therapy with levothyroxine natrium following a surgery for differentiated TGC. The study found a significant increase in frequency of lumbar osteopenia (22.9% vs. 9.1% in the control group, chi squared = 3.9, p = 0.049) due to decrease of skeleton mineralization in women (21.96% vs. 681% in the control group, chi squared = 4.02, p = 0.045), which was associated with peripheral blood level of triiodothyronine (T3) free fraction (r = -0.45, p = 0.03.) Subjects with a level of T3 free fraction higher than 5.8 mmol/l displayed a significant increase of calcium excretion: 4.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/day vs. 3.7 +/- 0.2 mmol/day in the control group, T = 3.06, p = 0.049); a weak correlation between T3 free fraction level higher than 5.8 mmol/l and calcium excretion (r = 0.28, p = 0.002) was found The study revealed age peaks of osteopenia in the women of the main group--25 years old and older than 40. The results show that postoperative parathyroid insufficiency does not lead to decrease of skeleton mineralization. PMID:16320850

Khmara, I M; Tolkachev, Iu V

2005-01-01

342

Radiation damage to thyroid gland may be the reason of increase in frequency of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other hematological diseases  

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Distribution of autoimmune thyroidities in the patients with diseases of blood system was investigated. Attribute of autoimmune thyroidities was revealed by the detection of antimicrosomal antibodies. It was established that the autoimmune thyroidities are more often in patients with various hematological diseases than in control group. It is supposed that the increase in frequency of some hematological diseases in residents suffered from the Chernobyl accident can be defined not only by the influence of the radiation on blood system, but also can be connected with damage to thyroid glands

343

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation  

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A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on nitial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

344

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation  

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A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on nitial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

Kim, Hye Seong; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-15

345

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... therapy. Surgery Thyroid surgery is done under general anesthesia. The thyroid gland is approached through a curved ... The risks and complications include those related to anesthesia and those related generally to any type of ...

346

Thyroid Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

347

Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid  

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The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-15

348

Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

349

Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process  

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The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that ...

Zyablov ?. V.; Chesnokova N.P.; Yu, Barsukov V.

2011-01-01

350

Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.  

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The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries. PMID:25130905

Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

2014-11-01

351

Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland and secundary hiperparathyroidism in patient on dialysis  

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Full Text Available Association between non-medullar thyroid carcinoma and secondary hyperparthyroidism have been rarely reported in patients with renal failure. A few cases of micropapillary thyroid carcinoma have been reported in patients before and after renal transplantation. We present a case of incidental detection of thyroid carcinoma at the time of parathyroidectomy in patient on dialysis after cadaver renal transplantation.

Ajdinovi? Boris Ž.

2003-01-01

352

Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland  

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There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID), an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days) were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I) and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary) acti...

Lisbôa P.C.; Curty F.H.; Moreira R.M.; Pazos-Moura C.C.

1997-01-01

353

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... small glands known as parathyroid glands. Two important nerves pass through the thyroid on their way to the voice box and vocal cord. These nerves control the vocal cords and are known as ...

354

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... gland. It also explains the treatment options including medications and surgery. Thyroid Gland Anatomy and Function The ... During the hyperactive period, patients may be given medications that will slow the heart rate down. If ...

355

Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2014-05-05

356

Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2014-06-30

357

ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results  

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AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men): 44 (32.3%) without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3%) with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD), 37 (27.2%) with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests), 4 (2.9%) with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2%) cases with thyroid pathology induced by am...

Ioan Sporea; Roxana Sirli; Simona Bota; Mihaela Vlad; Alina Popescu; Ioana Zosin

2012-01-01

358

CT-diagnosis for mass lesions in the parotid gland and cervical region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty patients suffering from mass lesion in the parotid gland or cervical region were examined by computed tomography (CT). The photographed images were compared with the findings and pathological diagnoses obtained by surgical procedures. The conclusions were as follows: 1) Plain CT demonstrated the location of the parotid tumor. Contrast enhancement seemed to delineate the margin of the tumor more clearly. 2) By contrast enhancement, the branchiogenic cyst was differentiated from the parotid tumor, as a low density mass with an enhanced cyst wall. 3) Parotid tumors enhanced by contrast material did not always appear as solid tumors. 4) In some cases, CT numbers indicated the contents of the tumor. 5) The extension of the tumor to the parapharyngeal space was clearly depicted on CT. 6) It seemed to be difficult to evaluate the relationship of the parotid tumor to the facial nerve on plain CT. (author)

359

Radiation exposure to the pediatric patient during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Emphasis on the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure the radiation exposure to the skin, thyroid and gonads in 50 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and angiocariography using cine photofluorography. Average exposures were 17.1 R to the skin, 2.3 R to the thyroid and 0.1 R to the gonads. Fluoroscopy accounted for approximately 80% of the skin and thyroid exposure and cine photofluorography for 20 to 25%. Occasional primary-beam irradiation was the major contributor to gonad exposure. Internal scatter of the incident x-ray beam was primarily responsible for thyroid exposure, so that infants received relatively high exposures; one receiving 7.3 R. The thyroid was not frequently in the primary beam. The significance of high radiation exposure to the thyroid, and in particular its relationship to thyroid carcinoma, are discussed. The results are compared with other series in the literature and relative exposures of cine photofluorography and serial filming are contrasted

360

Radiation exposure to the pediatric patient during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Emphasis on the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure the radiation exposure to the skin, thyroid and gonads in 50 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography using cine photofluorography. Average exposures were 17.1 R to the skin, 2.3 R to the thyroid and 0.1 R to the gonads. Fluoroscopy accounted for approximately 80% of the skin and thyroid exposure and cine photofluorography for 20-25%. Occasional primary-beam irradiation was the major contributor to gonad exposure. Internal scatter of the incident x-ray beam was primarily responsible for thyroid exposure, so that infants received relatively high exposures; one receiving 7.3 R. The thyroid was not frequently in the primary beam. The significance of high radiation exposure to the thyroid, and in particular its relationship to thyroid carcinoma, are discussed. The results are compared with other series in the literature and relative exposures of cine photofluorography and serial filming are contrasted

 
 
 
 
361

Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions / Imaginologia das lesões das glândulas adrenais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O crescente uso da tomografia computadorizada e da ressonância magnética levou a um aumento na identificação de nódulos adrenais incidentais, também chamados de incidentalomas, gerando um impasse diagnóstico para o radiologista, bem como um número significativo de pesquisas a fim de caracterizar ess [...] as lesões como benignas ou malignas. Apesar de a maioria dos incidentalomas representar um processo benigno, geralmente um adenoma, a possibilidade de a lesão ser maligna requer suficiente acurácia dos métodos de imagem para que esses possam auxiliar no manejo dos pacientes. Neste artigo nós apresentamos uma revisão da literatura dedicada à investigação radiológica das lesões adrenais, com ênfase na tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética e tomografia por emissão de prótons, e discutimos como os achados de imagem relacionam-se com a prática clínica. Tecnologias recentes, como a ultrassonografia com uso de contraste, a tomografia computadorizada com dupla fonte de energia e a espectroscopia de prótons por ressonância magnética são brevemente discutidas. Abstract in english With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indet [...] erminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

Keith, Herr; Valdair F., Muglia; Walter José, Koff; Antonio Carlos, Westphalen.

2014-07-01

362

Normal values of thyroid gland in Isfahan, an iodine replete area  

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Full Text Available

  • BACKGROUND: Because of different values of thyroid volume in different populations, and the effects of different trace element and geographic substances on thyroid volume, we decided to evaluate thyroid volume and its determinants using ultrasound in healthy adults of Isfahan, a centrally located city in Iran, an iodine replete area.
  • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 1500 healthy adults were enrolled by cluster sampling. Serum TSH level and morning urine iodine level were measured. Thyroid exam was performed according to WHO criteria and history of previous or present thyroid disease was taken. If all the mentioned results were normal they were considered clinically normal. One third of these normal subjects referred for thyroid ultrasonography. If ultrasonography of thyroid parenchyma texture was normal, and there was no nodule by sonography (thyroid incidentaloma, thyroid volume was measured using ellipsoid formula (X×Y×Z×8/6. Correlation between thyroid volume and age, sex, BMI, TSH level and urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient, t-Test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Thyroid volume more than 97% of this population was considered as goiter sonographically. Data expressed as mean ± SD, unless otherwise stated.
  • RESULTS: We finally studied 200 subjects (123 Males, 77 females, average age: 37.27 ± 11.80 Years. The overall thyroid volume was 9.53 ± 3.68 ml. Males thyroid volume (10.73 ± 3.44 ml was significantly higher than the females one (7.71 ± 2.63 ml (P < 0.001. The thyroid volume ranges were 3-23.9 ml, 3.6-23.9 ml and 3-14.3 ml in all, males and females, respectively. Thyroid volume values more than 97 percentile of this reference range were 10.14 ml, 11.48 ml and 8.37 ml in all, males and females respectively, and were considered goiter sonographically. Thyroid volume had a positive correlation with age (r = 0.163, P = 0.022, but did not have correlation with serum TSH, UIC, and BMI, in both sexes. There was a strong correlation between thyroid volume, and height and body surface area (r = 0.48, P < 0.001.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It was documented that thyroid volume is higher in male sex and increases with age, and have a positive correlation with body surface area and height.
  • KEY WORDS: Adult, thyroid, ultrasonography, volume.

Atoosa Adibi

2008-04-01

363

Coexisting iodine avid and iodine nonconcentrating lesions with multiple distant soft tissue metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer  

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Distant soft tissue metastasis and the simultaneous presence of iodine concentrating and nonconcentrating lesions in papillary thyroid cancer are extremely rare. The concerned patient, a histopathologically proven case of papillary thyroid cancer with nodal metastases treated with total thyroidectomy, bilateral cervical nodal dissection, and radioablation, subsequently developed lung, muscle, and liver metastasis. Triggered by increased thyroglobulin, the iodine-131 whole body scan and 200 mc...

Mohapatra, Tushar; Arora, Abhishek; Bethune, Naidu N.

2012-01-01

364

Detection of Thyroid Metastasis of Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT  

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A 69-year-old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed, and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

Kim, Yong-il; Lee, Jong Jin; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

2011-01-01

365

Metastatic Melanoma to the Thyroid Gland Expressing Somatostatin Receptors-Imaging With 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis that can have widespread metastases at presentation. Melanoma is known to undergo neuroendocrine differentiation. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with malignant melanoma showing a metastatic lesion in the thyroid expressing somatostatin receptors as evident by Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT and metabolically active widespread subcutaneous metastases on F-FDG PET/CT imaging. PMID:25546189

Jung, Rayamajhi Sampanna; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Bal, Amanjit; Dey, Pranab; Shukla, Jaya; Kapoor, Rakesh

2015-02-01

366

Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice  

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Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS) gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the ...

Iwata Tomoyuki; Yoshida Tadao; Teranishi Masaaki; Murata Yoshiharu; Hayashi Yoshitaka; Kanou Yasuhiko; Griffith Andrew J; Nakashima Tsutomu

2011-01-01

367

Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia  

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Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellul...

Eduardo Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Diego Mendonça Uchôa; Vanessa Yépez

2012-01-01

368

Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi Mudanças na glândula tireóide durante o ciclo reprodutivo masculino em um morcego vespertilionídeo Scotophilus heathi  

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The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4) concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during bre...

Krishna, A.; Singh, K.

1998-01-01

369

Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer  

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Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta dose contribution. Photon-absorbed dose fractions of total absorbed dose were 4.9% {+-} 1.3% (range, 1.1%-8.7%) and 3.7% {+-} 2.5% (range, 0.8%-7.9%) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Conclusions: The iodine uptake of salivary glands is continuously reduced during the courses of therapy. The phenomenon of hyper-radiosensitivity may to some extent account for the occurrence of salivary gland hypofunction at very low radiation doses with low dose rates in {sup 131}I therapy. On the other hand, failure to incorporate a nonuniform and preferential uptake by salivary gland ductal cells may result in underestimating the actual dose for the critical tissue. Other methods, including {sup 124}I voxel-based dosimetry, are warranted to further investigate the {sup 131}I-induced salivary gland toxicity.

Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.; Zhao, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

2011-10-15

370

Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer; Rekonstruktion der Schilddruesendosis fuer Kinder mit Schilddruesenkrebs in Weissrussland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope {sup 131}I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of {sup 1}31 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I. The inferred {sup 131}I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs-deposition density and a few {sup 131}I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of {sup 131}I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the {sup 129}I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the {sup 129}I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

Robl, R.; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

1997-10-01

371

Ectopic thyroid in an adrenal mass: a case report  

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Abstract Background It is difficult to explain ectopic thyroid beneath the diaphragm because during the development the thyroid descends from the tongue to the anterior of the trachea. A few cases of ectopic lesions have been reported in the literature for abdominal organs including the adrenal glands, but the mechanism by which the thyroid components migrate into the abdomen has been poorly understood. Case presentation A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as havi...

Ueno Munehisa; Tsukamoto Takuji; Kuroda Isao; Hagiuda Jun; Yokota Chizuko; Hirose Takanori; Deguchi Nobuhiro

2006-01-01

372

[Effects of Turisynchron and Suisynchron on the thyroid gland in rats during simultaneous administration of TSH].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyrotrophin was injected i/p at 2 I.U. daily simultaneously with oral administration of Turisynchron at 100 mg/kg or Suisynchron at 125 mg/kg daily for five days to Wistar rats. The uptake of radio-iodine by the thyroid was reduced, and there were slight changes in thyroid structure. Suisynchron produced a milder inhibition of thyroid regulatory mechanisms than Turisynchron. PMID:1190965

Löw, O; Robiller, F; Köhler, I

1975-06-01

373

Normal values of thyroid gland in Isfahan, an iodine replete area  

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  • BACKGROUND: Because of different values of thyroid volume in different populations, and the effects of different trace element and geographic substances on thyroid volume, we decided to evaluate thyroid volume and its determinants using ultrasound in healthy adults of Isfahan, a centrally located city in Iran, an iodine replete area.
  • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 1500 healthy adults were e...

    Atoosa Adibi; Mehri Sirous; Ashraf Aminorroaya; Ehsan Roohi; Mohsen Mostafavi; Zahra Fallah; Azamossadat Tabatabaei; Massoud Amini

    2008-01-01

374

Using of oncomarkers in morphological diagnostics of epithelial tumors of thyroid gland  

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This study is dedicated to research molecular marker’s expression in the differentiated thyroid tumors for prognosis of subsequent clinical course. In this study thyroid tumors were analyzed for NIS, thyroglobulin, galectin-3, p53 expression as well as for proliferation activity (based on Ki-67 expression) depending on the presence of metastases and invasion level. It was identified the prognostic value of each marker of biological properties. The immunophenotypes of thyroid cancers with hi...

Bondarenko ?.?.; Shponka I.S.; Gritsenko P.O.

2009-01-01

375

31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands. Clinic results and differential diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a prospective study, 15 normals and 20 patients with space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands were examined by MRT images and by in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy. The spectra of malignant tumours showed a significant increase in concentration of phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters and inorganic phosphates when compared with normals. In addition there was an enormous reduction in creatine phosphates. Increased pH values and marked increase in concentration of inorganic phosphates correlated with poorly vascularised necrotic tumour segments. Concentrations of ATP and PCr were similar to normal muscle tissue. High concentrations of PME and PDE correlated directly with the proliferation of tumour cells and were an important marker for the bioenergy and phospholipid metabolism of the growing tumour. Standardised in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands provides noninvasive prognostic information on the type and behaviour of the lesion and is complementary to clinical and histological findings. (orig.)

376

The interdependence of the follicular, parafollicular, and mast cells in the mammalian thyroid gland: a review and a synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to summarize some of our quantitative descriptive and experimental studies, to discuss them in view of the literature data, and to present a synthesis of the topic. The results of stereological analysis of some tissue components of the rat thyroid gland have been compared with the results of topological studies on the parafollicular cells of various mammalian species. Localization of the parafollicular cells in the central regions of the thyroid gland lobes, where the follicular cell activity seems to be greater than in the periphery of the lobes, has led to the hypothesis that the parafollicular cells regulate (stimulate and/or suppress) the activity of the follicular cells. Long-term application and antithyroid drugs to mice and rats has shown that excessive concentrations of thyrotropin provoke hyperplasia of both the follicular cells and the intrathyroid mast cells and, transiently, of the parafollicular cells. This and some of the literature data are congruent with the hypothesis that the parafollicular and mast cells also stimulate the follicular cells by their paracrine secretions. Long-term application of antithyroid drugs to mice and rats has shown that excessive concentrations of cular cells but also probably stimulation of the follicular cells, as judged by the stereological measurements. The biological meaning of the spatial integration of follicular and parafollicular cells seems to be a functional coordination of both epithelial cell lines, supported by intrathyroid mast cells. PMID:2462344

Kalisnik, M; Vraspir-Porenta, O; Kham-Lindtner, T; Logonder-Mlinsek, M; Pajer, Z; Stiblar-Martincic, D; Zorc-Pleskovic, R; Trobina, M

1988-10-01

377

Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

378

Kinetics of radioiodine released from prelabelled thyroid gland in vivo: Influence of propylthiouracil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of free and hormone bound blood iodine after stimulation with endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are not satisfatorily characterized. We studied these kinetics in mice injected with 125I and thyroxine. In control mice the injected 125I is organified within the thyroid and incorporated into thyroid hormones, whereas in mice treated with the thyreostatic drug propylthiouracil (PTU), most 125I remains inorganic, since the thyroperoxidase activity is inhibited by PTU. We found that during blockade of TSH secretion by means of thyroxine, blood 125I activity was significantly higher in PTU-treated animals than in controls, indicating that PTU impaired thyroidal uptake of 125I. On the fourth day after the thyroxine load, the blockade of TSH secretion vanished. This caused the blood 125I activity to increase markedly. The increase of blood 125I was as high in PTU-treated animals as in controls. After the peak, blood 125I was cleared according to first order kinetics, with a half-time of 0.72 days (= 17.3 hours) in PTU-treated animals and of 6.3 days in controls (P<0.001). It is suggested (1) that PTU impairs thyroidal uptake of iodide, (2) that endogenous TSH stimulates release from the thyroid of inorganic iodide as well as of thyroid hormones, and (3) that inorganic iodide released by the thyroid has a much shorter biological half-life than hormone-bound iodine. (aal half-life than hormone-bound iodine. (author)

379

Substernal Thyroid Masses  

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A thyroid mass, most often a non toxic colloid goiter or occasionally an adenoma, is not an unusual finding below the level of the thoracic inlet.1 In 1992 Creswell and Wells estimated that these tumors comprise 5.8% of all mediastinal lesions.1 There is no standard definition for thyroid glands extending below the thoracic inlet, but such masses descend from their original cervical location for more than 2 or 3 cm below the thoracic inlet, and are not truly primary tumors of the mediastinum....

Regal, Mohamed A. H.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Ahmed, Ahmed S.; Aljehani, Yasser M.; Enani, Hussam S.; Al Sayah, Ahmed A.

2010-01-01

380

Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID), an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized [...] (OVX) rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days) were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I) and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary) activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P

P.C., Lisbôa; F.H., Curty; R.M., Moreira; C.C., Pazos-Moura.

1997-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stimuli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant, follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001. A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas (P = 0.043. In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007 and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES high-risk group (P = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.

Renê Gerhard

2010-06-01

382

Anaplastic thyroid cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland. ... Anaplastic thyroid cancer grows very rapidly and is an invasive type of thyroid cancer . It occurs most often in people ...

383

Quantitative radiation biology of the thyroid gland: cell survival, neoplasia and hormonal effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology has been developed for the quantitative transplantation of monodispersed rat thyroid cells. Thyroid follicular units (FU) develop following the transplantation of sufficient numbers of viable, monodispersed cells into control or hormonally manipulated, isologous recipients. With the use of an assay based on the development of FU from inoculated cells, radiation dose-cell survival curves have been generated for cells irradiated in vivo and removed immediately for assay, and for cells irradiated and left in situ for 24 hours prior to removal for assay. The survival parameters for cells irradiated in vivo and transplanted immediately after irradiation were not significantly different from those previously reported for thyroid cells irradiated in vitro and assayed by transplantation. Preliminary results from long-term thyroid carcinogenesis experiments indicate that both total tumor and carcinoma induction are significantly higher in transplant sites grafted with irradiated thyroid cells relative to grafts of non-irradiated cells. We believe that the thyroid transplantation technique described is an excellent model system for the study of thyroid development and response in vivo. This model provides a further advantage of a quantitative approach for the investigation of epithelial cell growth and differentiation, of responses to environmental fluctuations and of the relationship between acute effects of ionizing radiation and the subsequent development of neation and the subsequent development of neoplasms

384

Evaluation of digital subtraction angiography in preoperative differentiation of benign and malignant nodular lesions of the thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have studied digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with 51 patients having benign and malignant nodular lesions of the thyroid. DSA studies were all performed before surgical intervention. Later, DSA imaging patterns were compared with histopathologic findings, retrospectively. The results of DSA technique showed that 3 out of 17 cases were nodules of papillary carcinoma which were blush at the lesion site, six cases were lucent, eight were unclear residuary cases. These DSA findings have indicated that diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were difficult because the DSA findings of papillary carcinoma have no special features. However, two follicular carcinoma and eleven follicular adenoma were all blush at the lesion site. Then, the selection of follicular carcinoma and adenoma from other thyroid nodules seemed possible, however the differentiation between follicular carcinoma and adenoma was impossible. Seventeen adenomatous goiters showed variegated DSA findings, characteristic findings showed lucent at the sites of the lesion which were degenerated enlarged cysts. Thus, it appears that DSA is not a suitable technique for the diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. The purpose of DSA imaging is to infer the compression, sift, obstruction of the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein owing to a tumor by a less invasive procedure. It would appear that the utilization of DSA must be chosen for the thyroid nodule. (author) (author)

385

Modification of the activity of lymphocytes by xenotransplantation of thyroid gland tissue and by the transfer factor of immune reactivity in the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transplantation of a thyroid tissue is one of the possible methods for the curing of functional disorders of thyroid gland that appear due to the influence of insufficient environmental conditions on organism. By the micro method of lymphocyte blast transformation reaction, the functional activity of Wistar rat's splenocytes is studied. In the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis before and after xenotransplantation of the organic cell culture of thyroid gland of newborn pigs, the opportunities for correction of immunological disorders with the help of transfer factor preparations are investigated. The transfer factor is a low-molecular weight leukocyte extract (? 10kD) with immuno modulating activities. The reducing of self and PHA-stimulated proliferation of rat's splenocytes with [J131]-induced hypothyrosis is found. Bovine and human transfer factor preparations activate the proliferation of splenocytes from animals with hypothyrosis and animals with xenotransplantation

386

Evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology as a screening tool in thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Methods: The retrospective study comprised data of all patients who presented for fine needle aspiration cytology at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, between January 2009 and April 2011. The data was retrieved from the departmental records and the results were recorded. All cases who underwent subsequent surgery were also retrieved and histopathology results were compared with the cytology results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Results: Of the 327 patients, the results were inconclusive in 18 (5.5%), benign in 230 (70.3%), suspicious in 64 (19.6%) and malignant in 15 (4.6%) cases. Besides, 59 (18%) of these patients underwent subsequent surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology was calculated to be 85.7%, 73.3%, 50% , 94.2% and 76.2% respectively. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a reasonably sensitive, specific and accurate initial diagnostic test for pre-operative evaluation of patients with thyroid swellings. The clinicians should be encouraged to use the procedure as it is minimally invasive and easily performed in an outpatient setting. (author)

387

Neuropeptides in the thyroid gland: distribution of substance P and gastrin/cholecystokinin and their effects on the secretion of iodothyronine and calcitonin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was localized to intrathyroidal nerve fibers. It stimulates iodothyronine secretion in mice. In the present study two populations of nerve fibers containing substance P and gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactivity, respectively, were demonstrated in the thyroid gland of several mammals. The substance P fibers occurred around blood vessels and follicles, whereas the gastrin/CCK fibers occurred mainly around follicles. In the chicken thyroid and ultimobranchial glands only substance P-containing fibers could be demonstrated. Such fibers were particularly numerous in the ultimobranchial gland. CCK-4, CCK-8, and substance P did not increase thyronine secretion measured as release of radioiodine into the circulation of mice pretreated with Na125I and T4. The TSH-induced release of radioiodine was also unaffected. Calcitonin secretion in rats was stimulated by CCK-4, CCK-8, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. PMID:6190643

Ahrén, B; Grunditz, T; Ekman, R; Håkanson, R; Sundler, F; Uddman, R

1983-07-01

388

Using of oncomarkers in morphological diagnostics of epithelial tumors of thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is dedicated to research molecular marker’s expression in the differentiated thyroid tumors for prognosis of subsequent clinical course. In this study thyroid tumors were analyzed for NIS, thyroglobulin, galectin-3, p53 expression as well as for proliferation activity (based on Ki-67 expression depending on the presence of metastases and invasion level. It was identified the prognostic value of each marker of biological properties. The immunophenotypes of thyroid cancers with high risk of tumor dissemination were established. The differential diagnostic marker of follicular tumors was proposed as well. These immunomorphology tumor profile based findings allow to predict the clinical course of thyroid cancer that make possible to separate the groups of patients, which need more careful clinical observing and examination, individualization of treatment as well as group of patients, which may get less invasive treatment methods.

Bondarenko ?.?.

2009-01-01

389

Osseous metaplasia with mature bone formation of the thyroid gland: Three case reports  

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Nodular hyperplasia (nodular or multinodular goiter) is the most common form of thyroid disease. These nodules may undergo secondary changes in the form of hemorrhages, calcification and cystic degeneration. However, osseous metaplasia with mature bone formation rarely occurs. The present study reports the cases of three female patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as nodular hyperplasia with osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation. The patients underwent right lobectomy, near total th...

Chun, Ji-sun; Hong, Ran; Kim, Jung-a

2013-01-01

390

Primary paraganglioma located between the thyroid gland and the left common carotid artery: A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Head and neck paraganglioma is a rare and predominantly asymptomatic tumor. In the present study, an extremely rare case of asymptomatic paraganglioma located between the left common carotid artery and the left thyroid is described. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology and the immunohistochemical characteristics for the diagnosis of head and neck paraganglioma are described. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of paraganglioma located between the left common carotid artery and the left thyroid have previously been reported. PMID:25295074

Huang, Dihua; Huang, Liming; Tian, Jingqi; Sun, Aijing; Xu, Feng

2014-11-01

391

Down Regulation of hypertrophied follicular cell volume in thyroid hyperplastic gland  

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In the present study, changes in thyroid follilucar cell volume and its regulation have been investigated during the early involution of a hyperplastic goitre. Male Wistar rats were aministered an iodine deficient diet for 6 months with propylthiouracil (PTU, 0.15%) during the last two months. At the end of the iodine deficiency (day 0), some rats were killed and the others received a normal iodine diet. These rats were killed after different periods of iodine refeeding. Thyroid follicular ce...

Rognoni, J. B.; Penel, C.; Bastiani, P.; Roccabianca, M.; Lemarchand-beraud, Th

1989-01-01

392

Silent Thyroiditis  

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Silent or painless thyroiditis is a frequent cause of transient hyperthyroidism, which is characterized by recent onset of symptoms in a patient with a normal to modestly enlarged and firm thyroid gland. The hallmarks of the disease are the absence of thyroidal pain or tenderness and a markedly reduced radioiodine uptake. Histologically, the gland is characterized by an important lymphocytic infiltration, occasionally to the point of lymphoid follicle formation. However, other indices of an a...

Walker, Peter

1984-01-01

393

Cimetidine administration decreases radiogenic damage on the thyroid gland in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To study if Cimetidine administration could ameliorate the thyroid damage in external radiation. Materials and methods: Forty healthy male adult mice were used in the present study. The animals were randomized into four groups. Untreated mice (Group 1) that received 1 mg/kg saline intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 received a single 10 Gy gamma radiation dose with 1 mg/kg saline IP and group 3 were treated with Cimetidine IP. Group 4 was irradiated 1 hour after treatment with Cimetidine. The serum were assayed for the contents of triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Free T4 (FT4) and Cortisol using a radioimmunological technique 7 days following radiation. The thyroid tissue was processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) for histological examination. Data were statistically analyzed using Tukey's post-hoc test and were considered significant at p < 0.05. Results: External radiation resulted in weight loss and reduction of serum thyroid hormone levels. However, Cimetidine administration prevented marke