WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Immunohistochemical expression of CD44 in thyroid gland lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD44 is a polymorphic family of cell surface proteoglycans and glycoproteins implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion interactions and tumor metastasis. Its expression appears to be an indicator of invasive and metastatic behavior in carcinomas. The purpose of our study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CD44 protein in thyroid lesions and its association to other histopathological parameters. METHODS: Samples from thyroid lesions were obtained from 40 patients treated in our hospital. The material consisted of 5 cases of multinodular goiter, 7 cases of thyroiditis (Hashimoto type), 5 cases of follicular adenoma, 4 cases of Hurthle cell tumor, 15 cases of thyroid carcinoma (11 papillary carcinomas, and 4 myeloid tumors), and 4 cases of normal thyroid tissue. Immunostaining was performed using the Ventana ES automated immunostainer. A monoclonal antibody was used and avidin-biotin method was applied to paraffin-embedded samples. A membranous immunostaining pattern was considered positive. RESULTS: CD44 expression was detected in three adenomas (60%), mostly of follicular type, and in eight carcinomas (72%). The CD44 immunostaining was especially apparent in papillary type of carcinomas which showed high expression. In normal thyroid tissue, a reduced CD44 expression was observed. CONCLUSION: The results of our study indicate that deregulated expression of CD44 contributes to the ability of thyroid carcinomas for invasion and metastasis and may constitute a prognostic factor for malignant biological behavior.

Kiziridou Anastasia; Pantidou Agni; Destouni Chariclea; Toliou Theano

2003-01-01

2

Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyrolipoma or adenolipoma of the thyroid gland is defined as a thyroid adenoma containing mature fat tissue. It is a rare encapsulated lesion. A case of a 35-year-old female presenting with swelling in the neck that was diagnosed as adenolipoma is described because of its extreme rarity.

Gupta Anshu; Mathur S; Batra Charu; Gupta Anjali

2008-01-01

3

Thyroid gland biopsy (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

4

Chronic dietary exposure to environmental organochlorine contaminants induces thyroid gland lesions in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of dietary organochlorine (OC) exposure on thyroid gland pathology was studied in farmed male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus). The exposed group (n=16) was fed a diet based on wild minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber as a main fat source in order to mimic the exposure to OC cocktails in the Artic environment. This resulted in an exposure of approximately 17 microg Sigma OC/kg day and a Sigma OC residue adipose tissue and liver concentration of 1700 and 4470 ng/gl.w., respectively, after 16 months of exposure. Control foxes (n=13) were fed a diet with pork (Sus scrofa) fat as a main fat source containing significantly lower OC concentrations. The food composition fed to the control and exposed group was standardized for nutrient contents. Four OC-related histopathological changes were found: (1) flat-epithelial-cell true thyroid cysts (TC) characterized by neutral content; (2) remnants of simple squamous epithelial-cell embryonic ducts containing neutral debris (EDN); (3) remnants of stratified squamous epithelial-cell embryonic ducts containing acid mucins often accompanied with debris of leukocyte inflammatory nature (EDM) and (4) disseminated thyroid C-cell hyperplasia (HPC). Of these, the prevalence of TC, EDN and HPC was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi(2) test: all p<0.04). The study shows that the OC mixture in minke whale blubber may cause development of thyroid gland cysts, C-cell hyperplasia and increase the prevalence of cystic remnants of embryonic ducts. The mechanism causing these effects could include endocrine disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, a disturbance of the calcium homeostasis/metabolism or energy metabolism or immune suppression. Because concentrations of OCs are higher in wild Arctic foxes, it is likely that these animals could suffer from similar OC-induced thyroid gland pathological and functional changes.

Sonne C; Wolkers H; Leifsson PS; Iburg T; Jenssen BM; Fuglei E; Ahlstrøm O; Dietz R; Kirkegaard M; Muir DC; Jørgensen EH

2009-08-01

5

Chronic dietary exposure to environmental organochlorine contaminants induces thyroid gland lesions in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of dietary organochlorine (OC) exposure on thyroid gland pathology was studied in farmed male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus). The exposed group (n=16) was fed a diet based on wild minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber as a main fat source in order to mimic the exposure to OC cocktails in the Artic environment. This resulted in an exposure of approximately 17 microg Sigma OC/kg day and a Sigma OC residue adipose tissue and liver concentration of 1700 and 4470 ng/gl.w., respectively, after 16 months of exposure. Control foxes (n=13) were fed a diet with pork (Sus scrofa) fat as a main fat source containing significantly lower OC concentrations. The food composition fed to the control and exposed group was standardized for nutrient contents. Four OC-related histopathological changes were found: (1) flat-epithelial-cell true thyroid cysts (TC) characterized by neutral content; (2) remnants of simple squamous epithelial-cell embryonic ducts containing neutral debris (EDN); (3) remnants of stratified squamous epithelial-cell embryonic ducts containing acid mucins often accompanied with debris of leukocyte inflammatory nature (EDM) and (4) disseminated thyroid C-cell hyperplasia (HPC). Of these, the prevalence of TC, EDN and HPC was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi(2) test: all p<0.04). The study shows that the OC mixture in minke whale blubber may cause development of thyroid gland cysts, C-cell hyperplasia and increase the prevalence of cystic remnants of embryonic ducts. The mechanism causing these effects could include endocrine disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, a disturbance of the calcium homeostasis/metabolism or energy metabolism or immune suppression. Because concentrations of OCs are higher in wild Arctic foxes, it is likely that these animals could suffer from similar OC-induced thyroid gland pathological and functional changes. PMID:19464679

Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Leifsson, Pall S; Iburg, Tine; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even H

2009-05-22

6

Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is an unusual and controversial lesion of the thyroid gland. Some have considered it a unique entity, some have considered it a variant of papillary carcinoma, and still others have considered it a nonspecific pattern that may be seen with a variety of thyroid lesions. The histological and ultrastructural characteristics of this thyroid neoplasm are well documented; however, its cytological diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) remains challenging. The cytomorphological features of this entity overlap with both papillary and medullary carcinoma to a varying extent. We report a case of HTT with cytological evaluation by FNAC in a 28-year-old male.

Gupta Sumiti; Modi Shilpi; Gupta Veena; Marwah Nisha

2010-01-01

7

Primary hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary hydatid cyst of thyroid gland is an exceptional localization even in Morocco where echinococcal disease is endemic. A 23-year-old woman presented with multiples cystic lesions of the thyroid revealed by neck mass and dyspnea. She underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was made preoperatively and was confirmed by histological studies. Further investigation failed to identify any other evidence of systemic hydatidosis. The patient has remained asymptomatic for 24 months after surgery. The possibility of hydatid disease, though rare, should be always kept in mind, for patients with cystic lesions of the thyroid, because a needle aspiration biopsy is a potentially harmful procedure. PMID:23008718

Azendour, Imen; Boulaich, Mohamed; Ayoubi, Ali; Oujilal, Abdelilah; Essakalli, Leila; Kzadri, Mohamed

2011-08-01

8

Primary hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary hydatid cyst of thyroid gland is an exceptional localization even in Morocco where echinococcal disease is endemic. A 23-year-old woman presented with multiples cystic lesions of the thyroid revealed by neck mass and dyspnea. She underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was made preoperatively and was confirmed by histological studies. Further investigation failed to identify any other evidence of systemic hydatidosis. The patient has remained asymptomatic for 24 months after surgery. The possibility of hydatid disease, though rare, should be always kept in mind, for patients with cystic lesions of the thyroid, because a needle aspiration biopsy is a potentially harmful procedure.

Azendour I; Boulaich M; Ayoubi A; Oujilal A; Essakalli L; Kzadri M

2011-01-01

9

Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases.

2006-01-01

10

Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases.

Park, Soo Youn; Han, Heon [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man Soo [Kang Nung Hospital, Ulsan University, Kangmung (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

2006-08-15

11

Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author).

12

Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy.

Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

1988-03-01

13

Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that possessed a similar expression status in the original and metastatic lesions [ER, PR and CerbB-2 (HER2/neu)], and those that are capable of differentiating between metastatic lesions and the surrounding thyroid components (TG and TTF-1). The results showed that ER, PR and CerbB-2 demonstrated a similar expression pattern in primary breast carcinoma and thyroid lesions. Meanwhile, in the thyroid lesions, the malignant cells showed negative staining for TG and TTF-1, which confirmed that lesions were not thyroid in origin. This case may prompt clinicians that although thyroid gland are uncommon metastatic site, a diagnosis of metastatic disease should be considered when new aggregates are identified in the thyroid glands and histopathological analysis may aid the diagnosis.

Yang M; Wang W; Zhang C

2013-06-01

14

Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using ?2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05). Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05). The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05).Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

F. Fulya KÖYBA?IO?LU; Özgür ?lhan ÇEL?K; Nuray Güneri TOSUNO?LU; Binnur ÖNAL; Ay?egül ADABA?

2009-01-01

15

Scintigraphic Diagnosis of Ectopic Thyroid Gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ectopic thyroid gland is a relatively rare condition and developmental anomaly characterized by an aggregates of thyroid tissue in the midline anywhere from the base of the tongue to the mediastinum. The role of ectopic thyroid in the pathogenesis of nongoitrous sporadic cretinism and primary hypothyroidism has been emphasized. Since previous case report of sublingual thyroid, we have recently experienced additional two cases of sublingual thyroid and one case of prelaryngeal thyroid gland, which were diagnosed by scintigraphic method. We wish to report these four cases of primary hypothyroidism with ectopic thyroid with emphasis on role of scintigraphy in detection of these unusual condition.

1988-01-01

16

Scintigraphic Diagnosis of Ectopic Thyroid Gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ectopic thyroid gland is a relatively rare condition and developmental anomaly characterized by an aggregates of thyroid tissue in the midline anywhere from the base of the tongue to the mediastinum. The role of ectopic thyroid in the pathogenesis of nongoitrous sporadic cretinism and primary hypothyroidism has been emphasized. Since previous case report of sublingual thyroid, we have recently experienced additional two cases of sublingual thyroid and one case of prelaryngeal thyroid gland, which were diagnosed by scintigraphic method. We wish to report these four cases of primary hypothyroidism with ectopic thyroid with emphasis on role of scintigraphy in detection of these unusual condition.

Lee, Sun Wha; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jin Woo [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1988-03-15

17

A rare neoplasm of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Burkitt's lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a rare malignancy. We present a case of a 58-year-old female who developed a rapid enlargement of her thyroid gland. Core biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma. The tumour resolved after three cycles of chemotherapy. This case report emphasises the importance of considering lymphoma when dealing with thyroid nodules and goitres, as its management is different from that of other thyroid pathologies and delaying treatment has an impact on prognosis.

Mweempwa A; Prasad J; Islam S

2013-02-01

18

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland either primary or metastatic is extremely rare. However, MEC is the most common malignant tumour of the salivary glands with the majority originating from the parotid gland. We report the case of a 54-year-old Malay lady who presented with recurrent MEC affecting the thyroid gland two years after being treated for primary parotid MEC.

Anusha BALASUBRAMANIAN; Irfan MOHAMAD; Nur Asyilla CHE JALIL; Anani Aila MAT ZAIN; Wan Faiziah WAN ABDUL RAHMAN

2013-01-01

19

Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds. PMID:21120907

Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

2011-01-01

20

Imaging diagnosis of thyroid gland congenital anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical and radiological findings in 25 patients presenting diverse thyroid gland anomalies are described, as follows: thyroid aplasia - 2, thyroid hemiagenesis - 9, lingual thyroid gland - 3, median cervical cysts - 8, lateral cervical aberrant tissue - 2, distant aberrant thyroid tissue - 1 case. In all patients the following methods are applied: echography, computer tomography and radionuclide examination with 99mTc. Conclusions are made that: 1) To make definite diagnosis of thyroid ectopia the complex application of imaging methods is mandatory. 2) Ultrasound examination is sufficient to establish agenesis, hypo- or hemiaplasia of the thyroidea without need to resort to other imaging modalities. 3) Ectopic thyroid tissue eventually discovered should be carefully monitored by echography and cytologically because of susceptibility of malignant degeneration

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

[Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ectopic locations of parathyroid adenomas are a rare condition and can cause difficulty in their diagnosis and surgical treatment. We report two cases of intrathyroid parathyroid lesions. In the first patient, preoperative localization studies suggested the possibility of a parathyroid adenoma outside the thyroid gland. When a pathological gland is not found during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, an ectopic parathyroid gland was found in the thyroid tissue. In the second patient, in an existing thyroid nodule was found an ectopic normal parathyroid gland postoperatively.

Kirov G; Boneva Zh; Protich M; Koleva N; Paskalev V; Iovchevski P; Lozev I; Liutskanov V

2007-01-01

22

[Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic locations of parathyroid adenomas are a rare condition and can cause difficulty in their diagnosis and surgical treatment. We report two cases of intrathyroid parathyroid lesions. In the first patient, preoperative localization studies suggested the possibility of a parathyroid adenoma outside the thyroid gland. When a pathological gland is not found during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, an ectopic parathyroid gland was found in the thyroid tissue. In the second patient, in an existing thyroid nodule was found an ectopic normal parathyroid gland postoperatively. PMID:18437114

Kirov, G; Boneva, Zh; Protich, M; Koleva, N; Paskalev, V; Iovchevski, P; Lozev, I; Liutskanov, V

2007-01-01

23

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon condition. Up to date, its clinical pathological features are not fully understood. We present a case of an extramedullary nonmucosal plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland which is the first case with regional metastatic lymph nodes. This condition requires a scrupulous survey to rule out a metastatic multiple myeloma. Although localized forms management is still controversial, authors require combined approach for regional metastatic forms. The prognosis is favorable compared to solitary bone plasmacytomas or multiple myeloma.

Ridal M; Ouattassi N; Harmouch T; Amarti A; Alami MN

2012-01-01

24

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon condition. Up to date, its clinical pathological features are not fully understood. We present a case of an extramedullary nonmucosal plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland which is the first case with regional metastatic lymph nodes. This condition requires a scrupulous survey to rule out a metastatic multiple myeloma. Although localized forms management is still controversial, authors require combined approach for regional metastatic forms. The prognosis is favorable compared to solitary bone plasmacytomas or multiple myeloma. PMID:23094168

Ridal, M; Ouattassi, N; Harmouch, T; Amarti, A; Alami, M N

2012-10-09

25

High Resolution Real Time Sonography of the Thyroid Gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Objective: High-resolution sonography equipment permits for visualization of normal and abnormal thyroid gland with or without gel pad or water bath. This study prospectively presents surgically and pathologically proved patients with thyroid disease by direct ultrasound with or without Doppler (pulse, color, power Doppler)."nPatients and Methods: This study was performed by 7.5-10 MHz frequency linear probe transducer with axial resolution of 0.7mm and lateral resolution of 1-2 mm (Aloka 650 and super SG 140 Toshiba unit) assembly with color, power Doppler. Patient's neck was extended as a supine position."nResults: Pathologic proof was obtained in 45 patients with benign and five patients with malignant thyroid disease. Benign lesions were follicular adenoma in 30 patients, goiter in 10 patients, as hashimoto thyroiditis in two patients, hemorrhagic cyst in two patients and simple cyst in one patient. Malignant lesions were follicular, papillary, and medulary carcinoma which seen in two, two, and one patients respectively. Echopatterns were as follow: Most of them showed decreades echo when we compare to normal thyroid tissue, some malignant lesions showed increased echo and some isoecho, in the last group we need other work up for example Doppler (pulse, color, power) for evaluation vascularity. We did not have metastasis to thyroid gland."nConclusion: With advace in technology in crystal and design overall probe as a result creat broadband width probe and also full digital sonography unit inclding (beam forming - CPU) in images resolution is with high grade than semi digital unit that before used for thytoid gland. When With any reason resolution is increased we sould be able to diagnosed very small and smallest lesion (for example) mest to thyroid or reccurency after total Lobectomy: there is three primay uses of sonography, 1) detection of mutionodular gland when only one nodule is suspected clinically and by isotop scan.2) High resolution sonogtaphy can detect occult malignancy with or without cervical adenopathy 3) small lesion for recurrency malignant"nlesion.

A. Honarbakhsh

2008-01-01

26

Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland in a 51-year-old man with pre-existing right recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis from a congenital tracheoesophageal fistula repair as an infant. The left thyroid lobe was enlarged and soft. Fine needle aspiration biopsy via ultrasound guidance demonstrated a hypercellular aspirate composed of spindle cells with bland nuclear morphology. Given this histomorphology and immunohistochemical profile, the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor was considered and confirmed following left thyroid lobectomy.

Farrag TY; Micchelli S; Tufano RP

2009-12-01

27

Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland in a 51-year-old man with pre-existing right recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis from a congenital tracheoesophageal fistula repair as an infant. The left thyroid lobe was enlarged and soft. Fine needle aspiration biopsy via ultrasound guidance demonstrated a hypercellular aspirate composed of spindle cells with bland nuclear morphology. Given this histomorphology and immunohistochemical profile, the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor was considered and confirmed following left thyroid lobectomy. PMID:19806654

Farrag, Tarik Y; Micchelli, Shien; Tufano, Ralph P

2009-12-01

28

Deposition in the human thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131I concentration in cattle milk was 437pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

1979-11-29

29

Historical review of the thyroid gland surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid gland surgery passed through history from the suggestions for prohibition, during middle of XIX century due to unacceptable mortality even for mediaeval conditions, to highest level of surgical art later, as W. Halsted sad. First thyreoidectomy was done by Albucasis (El Zahrawi) in 925 A.D, and after him by Roger from Salerno. While Pierre-Joseph Desault in 1791 has done first operation on thyroid gland that can fulfill today’s criteria, Theodor Billroth gave scientific grounds of thyroid surgery. Genius attitude and surgical talent of Theodor Kocher raised thyroid surgery on scientific level, brought surgical skills on the top of surgical art pyramid, and brought him personally to the Nobel Prize in 1909. Very important contribution to development of thyroid surgery gave its giants: Johann von Mikulicz, William Halsted, Charles Mayo, George W. Crile and Frank Lahey. Thomas P. Dunhill, F. A. Coller, A. M. Boyden, and many others did important contribution, too. Development of thyroid surgery was constant to nowadays, with tendention for multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers. Thyroid surgery in Serbia followed this world trends, in spite of great problems in this area during history.

Ignjatovi? Mile D.

2003-01-01

30

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Surgical Removal of Thyroid Gland Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL February 1, 2012 Hello, I’m Diane Magnum, and welcome to OR-Live. Today we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead Hospital, part of the Baptist Health South Group, where in just a few moments ...

31

Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

2005-03-01

32

Neuroendocrine tumors presenting with thyroid gland metastasis: a case series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autopsy series have shown that metastasis to the thyroid gland has occurred in up to 24% of patients who have died of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors may metastasize to thyroid gland. Case presentations Case 1 was a 17-year-old Turkish woman who was referred from our Endocrinology Department for a thyroidectomy for treatment of neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination results were consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor; neoplastic cells showed strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin, but the immunohistochemical profile was inconsistent with medullary thyroid carcinoma in that the tumor was negative for calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Case 2 was a 54-year-old Turkish woman who presented with a 3-cm nodule on her right thyroid lobe. She had undergone surgery for a right lung mass four years previously. After a right pneumonectomy, thymectomy and lymph node dissection, a typical carcinoid tumor was diagnosed. Under ultrasonographic guidance, fine needle aspiration biopsy of her right thyroid pole nodule was performed and the biopsy was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination indicated three nodular lesions, 5 cm and 0.4 cm in diameter in her right lobe and 0.1 cm in diameter in her left lobe. The tumors were consistent with a neuroendocrine phenotype, showing strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Conclusion Thyroid nodules detected during follow-up of neuroendocrine tumor patients should be thoroughly investigated. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid confirms the diagnosis in most cases and leads to appropriate management of those patients and may prevent unnecessary treatment approaches.

Sivrikoz Emre; Ozbey Nese; Kaya Bulent; Erbil Yesim; Kaya Serkan; Yilmazbayhan Dilek; Firat Pinar; Kapran Yersu

2012-01-01

33

Neuroendocrine tumors presenting with thyroid gland metastasis: a case series.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Autopsy series have shown that metastasis to the thyroid gland has occurred in up to 24% of patients who have died of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors may metastasize to thyroid gland. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Case 1 was a 17-year-old Turkish woman who was referred from our Endocrinology Department for a thyroidectomy for treatment of neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination results were consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor; neoplastic cells showed strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin, but the immunohistochemical profile was inconsistent with medullary thyroid carcinoma in that the tumor was negative for calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1.Case 2 was a 54-year-old Turkish woman who presented with a 3-cm nodule on her right thyroid lobe. She had undergone surgery for a right lung mass four years previously. After a right pneumonectomy, thymectomy and lymph node dissection, a typical carcinoid tumor was diagnosed. Under ultrasonographic guidance, fine needle aspiration biopsy of her right thyroid pole nodule was performed and the biopsy was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination indicated three nodular lesions, 5 cm and 0.4 cm in diameter in her right lobe and 0.1 cm in diameter in her left lobe. The tumors were consistent with a neuroendocrine phenotype, showing strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin. CONCLUSION: Thyroid nodules detected during follow-up of neuroendocrine tumor patients should be thoroughly investigated. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid confirms the diagnosis in most cases and leads to appropriate management of those patients and may prevent unnecessary treatment approaches.

Sivrikoz E; Ozbey NC; Kaya B; Erbil Y; Kaya S; Yilmazbayhan D; Firat P; Kapran Y

2012-01-01

34

Parathyroid incidentalomas detected during thyroid ultrasonography and effect of chronic thyroiditis on false positive parathyroid lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We aimed to determine the prevalence of parathyroid incidentalomas in patients referred for thyroid ultrasonography (US) and investigate the role of chronic thyroiditis on false positive lesions. Patients suspected to have parathyroid lesions during thyroid US were recorded prospectively between August 2009 and January 2010. Patients referred for parathyroid US and patients with known high serum calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were excluded. Suspected parathyroid lesions were defined as hypoechoic, homogeneous, solid lesions with regular margins located outside the thyroid lobe, most commonly inferior to the thyroid gland. Thyroid US was performed in 6,528 patients. There were 78 patients (1.19 %) (73 female and 5 male) with suspected parathyroid lesion. The diagnosis of a true parathyroid adenoma was confirmed in 6 (7.69 %) patients. In patients with true adenoma, mean serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH levels were 10.57 ± 0.48 mg/dl, 3.03 ± 0.52 mg/dl, and 182.91 ± 46.62 pg/ml, respectively. Among 72 patients with false positive parathyroid lesion, antithyroid peroxidase antibody was positive in 50 (69.4 %), antithyroglobulin antibody was positive in 46 (63.9 %), and one of these antibodies were positive in 59 (81.9 %) patients. Also, 46 (63.9 %) of these patients had thyroid dysfunctions (43 hypothyroidism and 3 hyperthyroidism) and 59 (81.9 %) had chronic thyroiditis ultrasonographically. Parathyroid incidentaloma was detected in 0.09 % of patients referred for thyroid US. The presence of clinically or ultrasonographically chronic thyroiditis might cause inadvertent interpretation of a hypoechoic lesion as a parathyroid pathology during thyroid US.

Ozdemir D; Arpaci D; Ucler R; Cuhaci N; Ersoy R; Cakir B

2012-12-01

35

Elastography of the Thyroid Glands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the current resolution of ultrasound (US) has markedly improved the ability to detect nodules and it can be used to differentiate malignant thyroid nodules from benign thyroid nodules, gray scale US alone is not perfectly capable of making this differentiation. US elastography is a relatively novel dynamic technique that evaluates the degree of distortion of a tissue under the application of an external force and it is based on the principle that the softer parts of tissues deform more easily than do the harder parts under compression, thus allowing an objective determination of tissue consistency. This review provides the basic concepts of US elastography and the potential clinical applications and limitations for diagnosing thyroid nodules

Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15

36

SCHWANNOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND – A CASE REPORT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an infrequent site for the occurrence of a Schwannoma. These tumours most often mimic a thyroid nodule. A case of Schwannoma of the thyroid gland which was diagnosed on histopathological examination after a hemithyroidectomy is reported here.

V. Subramaniam; TV. Adarsha; S. Khandige

2010-01-01

37

Management of metastasis to the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present 4 cases with metastasis to the thyroid gland (MTG), and discussed the diagnosis and treatment of MTG. It is not always easy to correctly diagnose MTG from primary thyroid cancer. Although fine needle aspiration biopsy is useful for the diagnosis of MTG, it is important to take other imaging studies and/or tumor marker into consideration. Thyroidectomy for MTG is controversial, but the good indication of thyroidectomy is considered for the patient whose primary tumor is controllable. Thyroidectomy may also be useful even for the patient with uncontrollable disease to prevent respiratory and swallowing problems caused by MTG.

Ishikawa M; Hirano S; Tsuji T; Ito J

2011-06-01

38

Thyroid gland metastasis from small cell lung cancer: an unusual site of metastatic spread.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metastasis to the thyroid gland is uncommon compared with the frequency of primary thyroid tumors. The primary sites of metastatic thyroid tumors usually include the breast, lung, kidney and stomach. Among lung cancer types metastasizing to the thyroid, adenocarcinomas are the commonest followed by squamous and large cell carcinomas. Small cell lung carcinoma has not been frequently reported to cause thyroid metastatic deposits. Herein, we describe a patient with small cell lung cancer who developed metastatic lesions to the thyroid and brain simultaneously. Thyroid ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) and particularlyimmunocytochemistry documented metastasis from primary lung cancer. Clinical, cytopathological and therapeutic aspects of this unusual site of extrathoracic metastatic disease are discussed laying special emphasis on the paramount importance of the immunocytochemistry in distinguishing primary thyroid tumors from thyroid metastasis due to lung cancer.

Katsenos S; Archondakis S; Vaias M; Skoulikaris N

2013-04-01

39

The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thyroid Hormones Concentration and Histopathological Changes of Thyroid Gland in Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To identify the thyroid histological and hormonal changes in response to ambient temperature variations, thyroid glands and blood samples were randomly collected from 410 indigenous sheep of either sex and different age groups from municipal Ahvaz slaughter house. The extent of fluctuations in triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), T3 uptake and Free Thyroxin Index (FTI) and thyroid histopathological lesions were scrutinized in 2 months in year 2003, viz February (the coldest month) and August (the hottest month). A marked decline was discernable in T3, T4 and FTI in August compared to February, but mean value for T3 uptake increased. Out of 410 pairs of thyroid glands, 169 (41.2%) had lesions in which histopathological changes were categorized as follicular atrophy (43.6%), ultimobranchial cyst (30.2%), paranchymal cyst (6.4%), lymphocytic thyroiditis (6.2%), hyperemia/hemorrhage (5.5%), follicular cell hyperplasia (4%), C cell hyperplasia (1.4%), colloid goiter (1.1%) and adenoma (1.1). Mean of thyroidal parameters for T4 and FTI was higher in lesioned group (p<0.05). The frequency of lesioned thyroid was higher in summer than winter (p<0.05). The result of this study showed that high ambient temperature has profound effect on thyroid function, secretion and pathological changes in sheep.

M. Nouri; K.H. Mirzadeh; B. Mohamadian

2006-01-01

40

Oxyphilic carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oxyphilic tumors of the thyroid gland are rare tumors characterized by the presence of Hürthle cells - mitochondrion-rich, eosinophilic epithelial cells. Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCC) of the thyroid behave in a more aggressive fashion as compared to other well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Many recent studies have been focused on the further elucidation of pathogenesis and the role of mitochondrial hyperplasia in carcinogenesis of these neoplasms. The importance of combining morphological and genetic approaches in the study of HCC has been emphasized by the difficulties encountered in establishing adequate differential diagnostic criteria between benign and malignant forms, as well as by the resistance of HCC to radio and chemotherapy. It has been well documented that the Hürthle cells are characterized by profound aberrations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genome and by alterations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other key genes involved in energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis.

Stankov Karmen; Romeo Giovanni

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

MR imaging of the lingual thyroid. Comparison to other submucosal lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To study MR findings for clues to the diagnosis of lingual thyroid. Material and methods: MR findings and clinical and scintigraphic data of 5 cases of lingual thyroid were reviewed and the MR findings were compared to those of 16 cases of other submucosal lesions in the base of the tongue. Results: Four of the 5 patients with lingual thyroid were women and all had hypothyroidism. MR imaging depicted lingual thyroid in the midline in the base of the tongue (n=5) and additional ectopic thyroid glands in the floor of the mouth (n=2) or between the right and left sternohyoid muscles (n=1). Ectopic thyroid glands appeared isointense or hyperintense relative to muscle tissue on T1-weighted images and showed slight or fair contrast enhancement. All glands had low to intermediate T2 signal, which was also seen in 1 case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 1 case of adenoid cystic carcinoma. All ectopic thyroid glands had well-defined margins, whereas malignant tumors tended to have ill-defined margins and to invade the surrounding structures. All but the 5 cases of lingual thyroid had an MR-demonstrable thyroid gland in the normal cervical position. Conclusion: A well-defined mass of low-intermediate T2 signal in the midline base of the tongue, neither with invasive tendency nor with a cervical thyroid gland in the normal site on MR imaging, may strongly indicate lingual thyroid.

Takashima, S.; Ueda, M.; Shibata, A.; Takayama, F.; Momose, M.; Yamashita, K. [Shinshu Univ. School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

2001-03-01

42

[Value of echography for measuring the volume of the thyroid and its lesions].  

Science.gov (United States)

The sizes of thyroid lobes and lesions estimated by ultrasonography have been compared to surgical specimens in 92 cases of thyroid pathology. Volumes can be calculated with a reasonable accuracy for parenchymatous and cystic lesions from measurements of their diameters when considered as ellipsoids. This easy method, currently used by ultrasonographers, is however unsatisfactory for estimation of the volumes of thyroid lobes. More reliable results are obtained by computation of volumes from planimetry of cross-sections through the gland. PMID:2182834

Azagra, J S; Frédéric, N; Demeester-Mirkine, N; D'Hondt, M; Van Geertruyden, J

1990-02-01

43

[Value of echography for measuring the volume of the thyroid and its lesions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sizes of thyroid lobes and lesions estimated by ultrasonography have been compared to surgical specimens in 92 cases of thyroid pathology. Volumes can be calculated with a reasonable accuracy for parenchymatous and cystic lesions from measurements of their diameters when considered as ellipsoids. This easy method, currently used by ultrasonographers, is however unsatisfactory for estimation of the volumes of thyroid lobes. More reliable results are obtained by computation of volumes from planimetry of cross-sections through the gland.

Azagra JS; Frédéric N; Demeester-Mirkine N; D'Hondt M; Van Geertruyden J

1990-02-01

44

Proliferative thyroid lesions and hyperthyroidism in captive fishers (Martes pennanti).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diseases of the thyroid gland are common in many zoo species, but there are few descriptions of thyroid dysfunction in Mustelidae. A 7-yr-old, captive-bred female fisher (Martes pennanti) with progressive alopecia was diagnosed with clinical hyperthyroidism based on persistent elevation of both total and free serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, ultrasound examination, and histologic evidence of adenomatous hyperplasia. Four additional geriatric adult fishers (two male and two female) were identified with thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia in a review of 23 postmortem records. Banked sera were available for thyroid hormone testing from three of the four necropsy cases. Total and free thyroxine were elevated in four of four animals tested, and triiodothyronine was elevated in two of three animals tested. Necropsy findings in four cases identified cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and vascular lesions consistent with hypertension; complete tissues were not available from the remaining case. Clinical and subclinical hyperthyroidism may be a common but overlooked condition of captive fishers.

Bunting EM; Garner MM; Abou-Madi N; Schmidt RE; Kollias GV

2010-06-01

45

241Am induced thyroid lesions in the beagle: interim observations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injected doses of 2.88, 0.91 or 0.296 ?Ci 241Am/kg in young adult beagles produced morphological changes in the thyroid gland and produce lower concentrations of thyroxin in the sera. Interstitial fibrosis without functional impairment was induced by the 0.099 ?Ci 241Am/kg dose level. Clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism were not observed, even in those dogs with the most extreme thyroid lesions. The changes were characterized by a decrease in thyroid weight, interfollicular fibrosis, loss of colloid, loss of follicular epithelium, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the residual epithelium. Thus far, thyroid tumors have not been observed, however, a significant percentage of the animals in the lower dose levels are still living

1976-03-31

46

Anatomical variations of the thyroid gland: possible surgical implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The organogenesis of the thyroid gland in humans is often disturbed, leading to a variety of morphological variations of the gland, such as hypoplasia, ectopy, hemiagenesis and agenesis. As the morphological variations are usually diagnosed incidentally during examination for other thyroid gland diseases, the true incidence is therefore uncertain. METHODS: This study was structured to investigate the gross anatomical features of the thyroid gland in 105 (88 male and 17 female) cadavers from the coastal belt of southern India, an endemic goitre region. RESULTS: The pyramidal lobe was present in 61 (58 percent) male cadavers, and 52 (49.5 percent) cadavers showed the presence of the levator glandulae thyroideae. 33 percent of the specimens studied showed agenesis of the isthmus. However, the accessory thyroid tissue was found in only one cadaver. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the various developmental anomalies of the thyroid gland, which forms a cornerstone to safe and effective surgery.

Ranade AV; Rai R; Pai MM; Nayak SR; Prakash; Krisnamurthy A; Narayana S

2008-10-01

47

Computed Tomography Diagnosis of Active Bleeding into the Thyroid Gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland is the most common interventional procedure used to diagnose thyroid diseases. Serious complications are rare in this procedure. They comprise an infection with abscess formation and hemorrhage. To date, only a few case reports have described an ultrasound diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland. We established such a diagnosis using computed tomography (CT). Patient Findings: A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our hospital with complications after fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound revealed a large hematoma surrounding the gland. A subsequent CT scan confirmed the presence of hematoma and, moreover, showed active bleeding. This finding prompted rapid surgical intervention. Conclusion: CT has the capability to show active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

Veverková L; Bakaj-Zbrožková L; Hallamová L; He?man M

2013-02-01

48

Cytotoxic T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An 86-year-old female was diagnosed with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, which affected only her thyroid gland. Lymphoma cells were TIA-1(+), suggesting cytotoxic T-cell origin. She had not suffered from autoimmune thyroiditis and showed normal thyroid function. Without any specific therapies, the lymphomatous lesion showed the partial spontaneous regression before diagnostic hemithyroidectomy, and she had been well for 2 years without relapse. This is the first case of primary thyroid lymphoma of cytotoxic T-cell origin that showed spontaneous regression.

Okamoto A; Namura K; Uchiyama H; Kajita Y; Inaba T; Nakamura S; Shimazaki C

2005-09-01

49

Clinicopathologic characteristics and mucin expression in Brunner's gland proliferating lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Brunner's gland proliferating lesions, termed Brunner's gland hamartoma, hyperplasia, or adenoma, is regarded as a benign condition. However, cancerous changes have been reported in Brunner's gland proliferating lesions. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to define the characteristic features of Brunner's gland proliferating lesions and evaluate any observed cancerous changes. METHODS: We analysed clinicopathologic features and mucin expression in 25 Brunner's gland proliferating lesions. RESULTS: Brunner's gland proliferating lesions were categorized as Brunner's gland hamartoma or hyperplasia according to their tissue components. Brunner's gland hamartoma commonly occurred in the duodenal bulb and exhibited a polypoid appearance, while Brunner's gland hyperplasia was primarily observed in the second portion of duodenum as a submucosal mass and was accompanied by symptoms more frequently than Brunner's gland hamartoma. The Brunner's glands in Brunner's gland proliferating lesions exhibited various morphologic characteristics, from normal-appearing glands to sclerotic glandular foci with atypia. Changes in MUC5 expression observed in both sclerotic glandular foci and dilated Brunner's glands suggest that they might share a common mechanism and are associated with gastric foveolar metaplasia. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that most Brunner's gland proliferating lesions are either hamartoma or hyperplasia, and that true neoplastic Brunner's gland proliferating lesions are very rare. Thus, Brunner's gland adenomas or carcinomas arising in Brunner's gland proliferating lesions should be confirmed by ancillary tests, including immunostaining or molecular analysis, in addition to morphological criteria.

Kim K; Jang SJ; Song HJ; Yu E

2013-01-01

50

[The thyroid gland in emotional and pain stress].  

Science.gov (United States)

The reaction of wild rodent thyroid gland on emotional and painful stress appearing as a result of animal's catching has been studied. The thyroid activity has been shown to raise considerably during the primary stage of stress reaction. Later on the function of the gland normalizes in animals without trauma and in traumatized animals it becomes weaker. The complete normalization of the thyroid function in traumatized animals coincides with osteal regeneration according to time. PMID:3828412

Akhmetov, I Z

1987-01-01

51

Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

2007-01-01

52

Interactive MR-guided biopsies of the thyroid gland: validation of a new method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility and utility of an interactive MR-guidance system to target and biopsy thyroid lesions, and to compare resolution between ultrasound and interventional MR imaging in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Twenty thyroid lesions of 18 patients were interactively biopsied using a 0.5-T superconducting open magnet system. Stereotactic localization of the needle and imaging was accomplished using T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images. Representative cytological material was retrieved in 16 of 20 lesions (benign cystic or colloid goiter: n = 14; one de Quervain's thyroiditis and one follicular neoplasia). Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm detected by ultrasound could not be visualized adequately on GRE images. Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm were successfully biopsied by ultrasound (three colloid and haemorrhagic goiters and one adenoma). Magnetic-resonance-guided interactive biopsies and positioning of non-ferromagnetic needles in the thyroid gland are technically feasible and safe. Compared with high-resolution ultrasound, lesions larger than 1.5 cm can be adequately visualized and biopsied. Magnetic-resonance-guided placement of non-ferromagnetic needles is no substitute for high-resolution ultrasound in clinical work-up of thyroid lesions. (orig.)

1998-01-01

53

Interactive MR-guided biopsies of the thyroid gland: validation of a new method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility and utility of an interactive MR-guidance system to target and biopsy thyroid lesions, and to compare resolution between ultrasound and interventional MR imaging in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Twenty thyroid lesions of 18 patients were interactively biopsied using a 0.5-T superconducting open magnet system. Stereotactic localization of the needle and imaging was accomplished using T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images. Representative cytological material was retrieved in 16 of 20 lesions (benign cystic or colloid goiter: n = 14; one de Quervain`s thyroiditis and one follicular neoplasia). Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm detected by ultrasound could not be visualized adequately on GRE images. Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm were successfully biopsied by ultrasound (three colloid and haemorrhagic goiters and one adenoma). Magnetic-resonance-guided interactive biopsies and positioning of non-ferromagnetic needles in the thyroid gland are technically feasible and safe. Compared with high-resolution ultrasound, lesions larger than 1.5 cm can be adequately visualized and biopsied. Magnetic-resonance-guided placement of non-ferromagnetic needles is no substitute for high-resolution ultrasound in clinical work-up of thyroid lesions. (orig.) With 8 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

Kacl, G.M. [Department of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)]|[Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Bicik, I.; Schulthess, G.K. von [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Schoenenberger, A.W.; Steiner, P.; Romanowski, B.; Debatin, J.F. [Department of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

1998-09-01

54

Development of a new type thyroid glands dosimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A new dosimeter of 125I in thyroid gland is described. The dosimeter consists of NaI(Tl) detector and intelligent data recorder. Single-chip-microcomputer is used for data handling. The activity of 125I in thyroid glands of human being is measured directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent. The measuring range of 125I in thyroid glands is 10-2 x 106 Bq. The dosimeter has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability

2000-01-01

55

Multimodality imaging of pediatric parotid gland lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although diseases of the parotid gland are relatively uncommon in children, a variety of benign and malignant lesions may occur and the use of imaging is essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Ultrasonography (US) is the initial imaging modality utilized for suspected parotid lesions, and its use may suggest a correct diagnosis in an adequate clinical setting. The use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful for the assessment of large and atypical lesions. These modalities also allow the ability to image the deep parotid lobe and to better define the nature of a lesion. CT is the preferred imaging modality for inflammatory processes, including suspected sialolithiasis, abscesses and salivary duct obstructions, whereas MRI is usually used to evaluate tumors due to excellent anatomic resolution and a lack of ionizing radiation exposure, especially in children. This report describes the imaging findings of various parotid gland lesions in children. Familiarity with these findings will aid in lesion characterization and should facilitate optimal clinical management.

Kim, Yoo Na; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Eo, Hong [Samsung Medical Center, sugnkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2008-08-15

56

Prenatal sonographic measurement of the fetal thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate whether the fetal thyroid gland could be examined by prenatal ultrasonography and to established the normal range of fetal thyroid width according to the gestational age. The width of the fetal thyroid was determined by prenatal ultrasonography from 118 pregnant women. Three of the mothers had current or previous thyroid disease and the widths of the fetal thyroid were determined from 115 normal subjects. The width of the fetal thyroid was defined by a maximum transverse distance of the thyroid gland between two carotid arteries on transverse scan of the fetal neck. We analyzed the cause of non-measurable cases. The width of the fetal thyroid and Neo-TSH were compared in 19 subjects, including 3 subjects will current or previous thyroid disease. We could measure the fetal thyroid widths in 95 cases (80%). The fetal thyroid widths of mothers without current or previous thyroid disease was 0.9-2.36 cm,which showed linear correlation with gestational age (Y=0.0506 X + 0.0439, r{sup 2}=0.5661). Causes of non-measurable cases were neck flexion (65%), prone position (22%), and overlapped fetal neck by arm or shoulder (13%). Of the 19 neonates with Neo-TSH level, one case had a mother with a thyroid disease and showed increased width of the fetal and high Neo-TSH. The fetal thyroid was measured in 80% of prenatal ultrasonography and the width of the fetal thyroid showed linear correlated with gestational age. We assumed that the width of the thyroid could be useful for diagnosing fetal thyroid disorder when maternal thyroid disease exists.

Ahn, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Hwa; Cho, Won Soo; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Chunan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

2001-03-15

57

[Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger a utoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction. is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consuquences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima). The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

Dilas LT; Bajkin I; Icin T; Paro JN; Zavisi? BK

2012-11-01

58

Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction, is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consequences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima). The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

Todorovi?-?ilas Ljiljana; Bajkin Ivana; I?in Tijana; Novakovi?-Paro Jovanka; Kova?ev-Zaviši? Branka

2012-01-01

59

Unusual malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although situated on the last places among the statistical hierarchy of human malignancies, thyroid cancers (TC) are the most common tumors of the endocrine system. Follicular epithelium neoplasms account for more than 90% of these lesions with a favourable prognosis, while resting tumors (medullary, anaplastic, lymphoma, sarcoma etc) generally present a rapid unfavorable evolution with a low rate of survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a series of 464 thyropathies personally treated, 72 cases of TC (15.5%) were identified. Fifty-seven patients presented epithelial TC a 34 papillary variant, 20 follicular variant and 8 mixed forms. Alongside these there were two medullary TC, 9 anaplastic TC and insular TC, and primary lymphoma and metastasis to the thyroid of a lung carcinoma each single case. Four cases have been described in patients who were aged 2-6 years at the time of the Chernobyl disaster. Out of the common types, based on our own taxonomic criteria, we selected a group of 36 TC with unusual clinical, histological and behavioural characteristics or particular pathological associations. Results: Seven cases of occult TC, 7 cases with precessive adenopathy TC and 11 patients with TC associated with hyperthyroidism were registered. All of them underwent adapted thyroidectomies in which the presence of cancer was decisive for the extent of surgery. Medullary, insular and anaplastic TC were the most aggressive lesions and even extended surgery and complementary therapy failed to improve the prognosis of these patients. In the same category we included the cases presenting the coexistence of two TC types, pathologic dedifferentiation in recurrences and concurrent presence of another endocrine or nonendocrine cervical lesion. The a surgical dogma of total thyroidectomy cannot always be respected, so complementary therapeutic solutions must be applied. Results were complex, registering steady recoveries in occult, hyperfunctioning and even in coexisting pathological lesions, but many recurrences and reinterventions with poor survival rates (a few weeks up to 2 years) in cases with reduced or absent histologic differentiation were also noted. Some lesions were inoperable. Discussions and conclusions: Increasing clinician, surgeon and pathologist awareness of these distinct, but not rare anatomoclinical contingencies could contribute to their adequate diagnosis and treatment. Recent progress in knowledge of molecular carcinogenesis and promising successes of targeted chemotherapy trials with new drugs offer promising perspectives in the management of advanced or metastatic TC. Surgery still remains the cornerstone treatment for thyroid cancers.

Diaconescu MR; Costea I; Glod M; Grigorovici M; Diaconescu S

2013-07-01

60

Metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland, a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The thyroid gland is a known but an unusual site for metastatic tumors from various primary sites. Despite the fact that it is one of the largest vascular organs in the body, clinical and surgical cases have given an incidence of 3% of secondary malignances of the organ. Nevertheless, thyroid metastases are not an exceptional finding at autopsy, they are encountered in 2% to 24% of the patients with malignant neoplasm.Soft tissue sarcomas metastatic to the thyroid are extremely rare as the majority of thyroid metastasis are caused by tumors of the kidneys, lungs, mammary glands, ovaries , and colon or by melanomas.We report a case of 22-years-old woman with right leg rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to the thyroid gland.

Hafez MT; Hegazy MA; Abd Elwahab K; Arafa M; Abdou I; Refky B

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital ? camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na+, K+-ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na+, K+-ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na+, K+-ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na+, K+-ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na+, K+-ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na+, K+-ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author).

1987-01-01

62

NORMAL AND INCREASED FUNCTIONING OF THYROID GLAND IN EQUINES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to describe and analyze the normal functioning of the thyroid gland in equines and the factors which increase the thyroid hormone levels. Materials and methods: information from the last 50 years included in the BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Scirus, data bases as well as historical articles, texts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results: important information related to the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into two sections as follow: synthesis, liberation and metabolism of thyroid hormones; factors that modify the thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: the thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends on these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all the tissues.

JÓSE HENRY OSORIO; FELIPE RAMÍREZ ECHEVERRY

2012-01-01

63

Sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to establish the sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in the first week of life in 107 term neonates. The serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was normal in all neonates. Their gestational age at birth was range from 37 to 41 weeks and birth weight was 3305 ± 457.74 g. Sonography was performed with 7.5 MHz linear array transducer (SA-8800 MT, Medison, Korea) within the first week of postnatal age. Maximal transverse (T), anteroposterior (AP), and longitudinal (L) dimensions of thyroid gland were measured. The volume of each lobe was estimate by using standard geometric formula; volume of a prolate ellipsoid = T X AP X L X ?/6. The total volume of the thyroid gland was calculated as the sum of the each lobe. The correlations with total thyroid volume and weight, height, the body surface area, gestational age of the neonate were estimated by Pearson's coefficient and p volume on Bivariate correlation analysis. Total thyroid volume was 0.68 ± 0.23 cm3, left and right lobe volumes of thyroid gland were 0.32 ± 0.12 cm3 and 0.36 ± 0.14 cm3, respectively. T, AP, and L dimension of right lobe were 0.69 ± 0.14 cm, 0.71 ± 0.13 cm, 1.37 ± 0.22 cm respectively. And those of left lobe were 0.70 ± 0.11 cm, 0.65 ± 0.13 cm, 1.31 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. The Pearson's coefficients for total thyroid volume with the weight, and body surface area of neonate were 0.385, 0.395 (p3 and was significantly correlated with the weight and body surface area.

2001-01-01

64

Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

Gupta Ruchika; Arora Raman; Sharma Alok; Dinda Amit

2009-01-01

65

Indications for sonography in the investigation of the thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The indications for using sonography in the investigation of the thyroid gland are discussed. Correlation of echo patterns and thyroid disease has shown that sonography deserves a place in the diagnosis of thyroid disease in the same way as the classical methods, such as clinical examination, scintigraphy, laboratory investigations and aspiration biopsy. The indications for sonography, which are illustrated by a number of examples, include: 1) when scintigraphy cannot be used, 2) pre-operative demonstration, 3) disagreement between clinical findings and the scintigram, 4) diagnosis of cysts, 5) suspicion of thyroiditis.

Mueller, S.; Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.

1981-02-01

66

Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US) guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (500 cells), cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation), cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin), and background (colloid-like material and macrophages). Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH) was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51–500 cells) with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma. Immunocytochemical analysis for PHT was performed for 14 cases (6 destained smears and 8 cell blocks) which showed distinct cytoplasmic positivity. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland. Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin. Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology. Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

Dimashkieh Haytham; Krishnamurthy Savitri

2006-01-01

67

[The functional state of the thyroid gland following partial pancreatectomy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Wistar rats a study was made of a functional condition of the thyroid gland 1, 6 and 24 hours after partial pancreatectomy. The following signs-served as criteria of a functional condition of the gland: the amount of neutrone-activated iodine in iron, iodine-absorptive capacity of the gland by I131, the amount of protein-bound stable and radioactive iodine in the blood, a morphological condition of the gland structures. It was demonstrated that, despite the initial intensification of the process of synthesis and secretion in the thyroid gland, its secretory activity fell by the end of the experiment. This reduction is regarded as an adaptive response to partial insulin deficiency.

Sheianov GG; Za?chik VE; Vazilo VE

1975-05-01

68

[The functional state of the thyroid gland following partial pancreatectomy].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Wistar rats a study was made of a functional condition of the thyroid gland 1, 6 and 24 hours after partial pancreatectomy. The following signs-served as criteria of a functional condition of the gland: the amount of neutrone-activated iodine in iron, iodine-absorptive capacity of the gland by I131, the amount of protein-bound stable and radioactive iodine in the blood, a morphological condition of the gland structures. It was demonstrated that, despite the initial intensification of the process of synthesis and secretion in the thyroid gland, its secretory activity fell by the end of the experiment. This reduction is regarded as an adaptive response to partial insulin deficiency. PMID:1227591

Sheianov, G G; Za?chik, V E; Vazilo, V E

1975-05-01

69

Thyroid gland disorder emergencies: thyroid storm and myxedema coma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although thyroid dysfunction will develop in more than 12% of the US population during their lifetimes, true thyroid emergencies are rare. Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are endocrine emergencies resulting from thyroid hormone dysregulation, usually coupled with an acute illness as a precipitant. Careful assessment of risk and rapid action, once danger is identified, are essential for limiting morbidity and mortality related to thyroid storm and myxedema coma. This article reviews which patients are at risk, explains thyroid storm and myxedema coma, and describes pharmacological treatment and supportive cares.

Hampton J

2013-07-01

70

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... can be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ... to decide if the symptoms are consistent with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What ...

71

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... this procedure and how the thyroid functions in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a normal thyroid ... when it comes to hormone production in the body and how it can affect your overall health ...

72

Spindle cell foci in the thyroid gland: an immunohistochemical analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spindle cell proliferations of the thyroid gland are uncommon lesions that encompass a wide spectrum of reactive, hyperplastic, and neoplastic processes. Spindle cells may occur in subsets of papillary carcinomas and follicular adenomas where they are thought to represent metaplastic foci. The goals of the present study are to further characterize the metaplastic nature of spindle cell foci of the thyroid (SCFT), to define their immunohistochemical profiles and to review their differential diagnoses. The study group included: multinodular goiter (2), follicular adenoma (2), and minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (2). SCFTs were composed of elongate cells with thin or slightly plump nuclei with finely granular chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Rare mitotic figures were present but there was no necrosis or inflammation. All cases were positive for thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1, and TTF-2. TTF-1 and TTF-2 had a characteristic nuclear localization although the intensity of staining for TTF-1 was consistently greater than that of TTF-2. Each of the 6 cases was positive for vimentin whereas 5 of the 6 cases were positive for broad-spectrum cytokeratins. None of the cases was positive for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin-19, smooth muscle actin, desmin, calcitonin, chromogranin, or synaptophysin. The proliferative rate was less than 1% in all cases. Staining for TTF-1 and TTF-2 provided high specificity for identification of SCFT since these markers were not subject to the same diffusion artifact inherent in thyroglobulin-stained sections. The results of this study further support the hypothesis that SCFT result from metaplastic transformation of follicular cells.

Matoso A; Easley SE; Mangray S; Jacob R; DeLellis RA

2011-10-01

73

Proliferative thyroid lesions and hyperthyroidism in captive fishers (Martes pennanti).  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases of the thyroid gland are common in many zoo species, but there are few descriptions of thyroid dysfunction in Mustelidae. A 7-yr-old, captive-bred female fisher (Martes pennanti) with progressive alopecia was diagnosed with clinical hyperthyroidism based on persistent elevation of both total and free serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, ultrasound examination, and histologic evidence of adenomatous hyperplasia. Four additional geriatric adult fishers (two male and two female) were identified with thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia in a review of 23 postmortem records. Banked sera were available for thyroid hormone testing from three of the four necropsy cases. Total and free thyroxine were elevated in four of four animals tested, and triiodothyronine was elevated in two of three animals tested. Necropsy findings in four cases identified cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and vascular lesions consistent with hypertension; complete tissues were not available from the remaining case. Clinical and subclinical hyperthyroidism may be a common but overlooked condition of captive fishers. PMID:20597222

Bunting, Elizabeth M; Garner, Michael M; Abou-Madi, Noha; Schmidt, Robert E; Kollias, George V

2010-06-01

74

[Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare form of cancer. As part of the differential diagnosis, metastases or direct extension from an extra-thyroidal primary tumor must always be ruled out. We report on a 59-year-old patient presenting with a 3.9-cm cold nodule on thyroid scintigraphy. A total thyroidectomy was performed and the final histopathological evaluation revealed an undifferentiated, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland, tumor stage pT2 pN0 (0/56), L0 V0 R0. On the basis of the R0 resection, tumor size and negative nodal status, we recommended regular postoperative follow-up examinations without adjuvant radiochemotherapy.

Kleinhans H; Schmid KW; Verse T

2013-07-01

75

The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of ag...

Gesing Adam; Lewi?ski Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewi?ska Ma?gorzata

76

Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland. A case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is a very rare condition. A case of a 47-year-old female with a history of a euthyroid multi-nodular goitre is presented. The patient developed hoarseness due to right recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, confirmed with indirect laryngoscopy. On repeated ultrasound, volumetric progression of a dominant nodule in the inferior part of the right thyroid lobe was noticed. Fine needle aspiration was inconclusive. Diagnosis was ultimately based on histopathology of the surgical resection specimen.

Aerts S; Gypen BJ; Van Hee R; Bomans P

2009-11-01

77

[Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The thyroid microcarcinoma is a tumor with maximum diameter of 10 mm (WHO). For the most part is not clinically palpable and not evident by imaging investigations. The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma. The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of microcarcinoma, the association of benign thyroid disease himself and the controversial surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 391 patients (321 F and 70 M) who underwent total thyroidectomy from 2004 to 2009 at a Unit of General Surgery, Uremic and Organ Transplant, Hospital of Palermo. RESULTS: 42 carcinomas were detected, of which 24 PTMC and 1 follicular microcarcinoma. The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma). TALK: Controversial is still the type of surgery to be performed in case of differentiated thyroid microcarcinomas, as well as the indication is still debated to lymphadenectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid in our series, represents 57% of all thyroid cancers. Microcarcinoma and benign thyroid disease association (76.92% of cases) was high. The therapeutic attitude adopted by us was total thyroidectomy associated with conservative lymphadenectomy in the presence of palpable lymph nodes, instead to abstaining in the absence of clinical evidence of nodal metastases.

Sorrentino F; Atzeni J; Romano G; Buscemi G; Romano M

2010-06-01

78

Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Young Ha; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Soo Kyo [Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-12-15

79

Selenium and the thyroid gland: more good news for clinicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium content per gram of tissue because it expresses specific selenoproteins. Since the discovery of myxoedematous cretinism and thyroid destruction following selenium repletion in iodine- and selenium-deficient children, data on links between thyroid metabolism and selenium have multiplied. Although very minor amounts of selenium appear sufficient for adequate activity of deiodinases, thus limiting the impact of its potential deficiency on synthesis of thyroid hormones, selenium status appears to have an impact on the development of thyroid pathologies. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been emphasized. Most authors attribute the effect of supplementation on the immune system to the regulation of the production of reactive oxygen species and their metabolites. In patients with Hashimoto's disease and in pregnant women with anti-TPO antibodies, selenium supplementation decreases anti-thyroid antibody levels and improves the ultrasound structure of the thyroid gland. Although clinical applications still need to be defined for Hashimoto's disease, they are very interesting for pregnant women given that supplementation significantly decreases the percentage of postpartum thyroiditis and definitive hypothyroidism. In Graves' disease, selenium supplementation results in euthyroidism being achieved more rapidly and appears to have a beneficial effect on mild inflammatory orbitopathy. A risk of diabetes has been reported following long-term selenium supplementation, but few data are available on the side effects associated with such supplementation and further studies are required.

Drutel A; Archambeaud F; Caron P

2013-02-01

80

[Electroglottography in patients operated for thyroid gland malignancies].  

Science.gov (United States)

Electroglottography (EGG) was performed in 9 patients with vocal fold paresis (VFP) arisen after thyroid gland surgery performed for malignant tumours. Clinical symptoms, EGG waveforms and % Irregularity were analysed and correlation between dysphonia and % Irregularity computed. % Irregularity proved to be an effective measure of vocal fold dysfunction, significantly correlated with dysphonia. PMID:15518323

Zagólski, Olaf

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Electroglottography in patients operated for thyroid gland malignancies].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electroglottography (EGG) was performed in 9 patients with vocal fold paresis (VFP) arisen after thyroid gland surgery performed for malignant tumours. Clinical symptoms, EGG waveforms and % Irregularity were analysed and correlation between dysphonia and % Irregularity computed. % Irregularity proved to be an effective measure of vocal fold dysfunction, significantly correlated with dysphonia.

Zagólski O

2004-01-01

82

[Prevention of cognitive dysfunction in patients operated on thyroid gland].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cognitive functions assessment in 68 patients operated on thyroid gland is presented. It is elicited that attention decrease, short-term memory upset, depressed work-capacity develop after intervention. It is shown that cytoflavin use within the intervention and early postoperative period permit to decrease cognitive dysfunction signs.

Golub IE; Pinski? SB; Sorokina LV; Ivankova EN; Kovalenko AL

2011-01-01

83

Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia/ Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza (more) y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000). RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %), seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente). Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 %) y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %). La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of structural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospita (more) ls during 10 years (1990 to 2000). RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5%) followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively). There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%), and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%). Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

Verdecia Cañizares, Caridad; Portugués Díaz, Andrés; Longchong Ramos, Marta

2009-03-01

84

Role of metallothioneins in benign and malignant thyroid lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Recent findings in the past two decades have brought many insights into the biology of thyroid benign and malignant lesions, in particular the papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Although, much progress have been made, thyroid cancers still pose diagnostic problems regarding differentiation of follicular lesions in relation to their aggressiveness and the treatment of advanced and undifferentiated thyroid cancers. Metallothioneins (MTs) were shown to induce cancer cells proliferation, mediate resistance to apoptosis, certain chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. Therefore, MTs may be of utility in diagnosis and management of patients with benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid.

Pula Bartosz; Domoslawski Pawel; Podhorska-Okolow Marzena; Dziegiel Piotr

2012-01-01

85

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... diagram and explain a little bit about the anatomy involved in this procedure and how the thyroid ... easily to all of these parts of the anatomy. Correct. This is the trachea here, and this ...

86

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that patients will become symptomatic. They can have fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel ... thyroids can actually have problems with mentation, with fatigue, with normal function. They gain weight and really ...

87

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the ... plastic closure. The patients recover very nicely. The robotic surgeries are requiring up to three surgeons. Oh, ...

88

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... also, during that time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid- ... the “Ask” icon on your screen. You can send in your questions live via the web to ...

89

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... which is something like this. It’s a size seven endotracheal tube that we put in a routine ... remove the entire thyroid? OR Live Bah 3926 7 Absolutely. If you have a simple unilateral cyst ...

90

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the thyroid is removed, does it go into pathology? OR Live Bah 3926 12 Absolutely. It will ... on is adequate. We’ll discuss the final pathology, and then we’ll reinforce that the patie ...

91

CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NON - NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THYROID: An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid disorders are one among the common clinical encounters, which range from congenital disorders to the malignant lesions. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid is accepted globally as the best screening tool to differentiate neoplastic versus non neoplastic lesions. The cytological features of the non-neoplastic disorders of thyroid have a good amount of overlap between them and with a few neoplastic lesions as well, thus leading to wrong interpretation and possible inappropriate management of the patient. Identification of these cytological features is the key element in diagnosing thyroid lesions by Fine needle aspiration procedure. The review attempts to give cytological details of non-neoplastic lesions which can be applied for evaluation of thyroid lesions and identifying this category will reduce the number of unnecessary surgeries of thyroid nodules.

Dr Purushotham Krishnappa; Dr Sowmya Ramakrishnappa

2013-01-01

92

Interferon-induced progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with enlarged thyroid glands in gynecological patient: A case report and literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A case report presents a progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid glands and increased thyreotropin hormone concentration-associated with interferon treatment in human papillomavirus infected patient with the autoimmune thyro...

Ospan Mynbaev; Marina Eliseeva; Artem Chernov; Ioannis Kosmas; Andrea Tinelli; Victor Radzinsky; Victor Tsarev

93

Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

1996-01-01

94

Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-08-15

95

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Gland Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL February 1, 2012 Hello, I’m Diane Magnum, and welcome ... goiter. Recently there has been substantial growth in one of the nodules, going from 2.8 to ...

96

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... surgery, were there other ways to treat this? No. No. And would it have continued to have grown ... reattach itself with the muscle and work perfectly. No kidding. Wow. And what does the parathyroid gland ...

97

An unusual ectopic location of a parathyroid carcinoma arising within the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Parathyroid carcinomas are very rare tumors and may arise in the normally located or ectopic gland. The latter present certain diagnostic difficulties, and there are no specific guidelines on their management. We present a case of parathyroid carcinoma arising within an ectopically located intrathyroid gland and discuss the diagnosis, management, and difficulties encountered. Furthermore, we review all six previously reported cases of this rare event and demonstrate the patterns in presentation, as well as the differences in management. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-yr-old male presented with a right neck mass with biochemical derangement suggestive of a parathyroid lesion. However, radiological investigations were inconclusive as to the true nature of this lesion because they demonstrated a mass within the right thyroid lobe. A sestamibi (99m)technetium subtraction study was performed, which suggested an intrathyroid parathyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent successful surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Although rare, ectopically located parathyroid glands can harbor malignant disease. Those located within the thyroid gland can be difficult to diagnose, and thus a combination of radiological modalities, including sestamibi (99m)technetium studies, need to be utilized. Although surgical resection is the most effective treatment, there are no specific guidelines as to the radicality of such treatment.

Cook MI; Qureshi YA; Todd CE; Cummins RS

2012-06-01

98

Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE) of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metastasis has been noted in the postoperative course of five years. She is the youngest patient with SMECE in literature. In this report, we briefly present the clinical and biologic course of this patient’s neoplasm and also review the associated literature. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 39-41

Reyhan Ersoy; ?lhan Yetkin; Ömer Uluo?lu; ?pek I??k; Metin Arslan

2008-01-01

99

Pathological changes in the thyroid gland in crush asphyxia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine whether crush asphyxia may be associated with macro- and microscopic changes in the thyroid gland, four cases of death due to crush asphyxia were evaluated where the decedents (males aged 36, 37, 45, and 65 years respectively) suffered lethal chest compressions. The diagnosis of crush asphyxia in each case was suggested by the death scene description and confirmed by the finding of injuries to the torso, with marked congestion of the face, neck, and upper body associated with petechial and subconjunctival hemorrhages. In addition to other pathological findings, each decedent had intense congestion of their thyroid gland resulting in a dark/black appearance. Microscopically, stromal capillaries were engorged, with bulging of capillaries into the follicles. Rupture of these small vessels had created focal intrafollicular aggregates of erythrocytes within the colloid. As intense suffusion of the thyroid gland with blood in cases of crush asphyxia may impart an appearance of "black thyroid" this may be another feature of this condition to look for at autopsy, in addition to intrafollicular blood lakes on histology.

Byard RW

2013-08-01

100

Rare localisation of breast cancer metastasis to thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Metastases to the thyroid gland are very rare. They are usually seen in malignant melanoma, kidney, breast cancer and lung cancer. Case report. We presented a 54- years-old female patient with breast cancer diagnosed in 2002. The adequate surgical procedure was done and the tumor and axillary lymph nodes were removed. The patient also received adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. After seven years of a disease free period, the first relapse of the disease was detected as thyroid gland tumor with axillary lymphadenopathy. The patient had a good response to systemic treatment so the surgical removal of thyroid gland and enlarged lymph nodes was performed. Histopathological analysis confirmed metastasis with breast cancer origin. Radical mastectomy was also preformed. Second relapse of the disease was detected 10 months later, while the patient was on hormonal therapy. It was manifested as the appearance of bone and skin metastases, pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. Conclusion. This case report emphasized the importance of detailed examination of any new onset of thyroid swelling in a patient with previous history of malignancy.

Kolarevi? Daniela; Tomaševi? Zorica; Markovi? Ivan; Žegarac Milan; Pupi? Gordana

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Tendency to form autoimmune processes in thyroid gland of children depending on dose load  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland of children at long terms after the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant was studied. It has been shown that the children who stayed in immediate proximity to the epicenter of the accident and exposed to high dose load to the thyroid gland develop a tendency to thyroid changes of autosomal type. This tendency, though less marked, was observed in permanent residence of Kyiv. Correlation between these changes and the dose load to the thyroid gland is noted. In some patients, prepathological state of the thyroid gland was revealed with ultrasound and laboratory studies.

1997-01-01

102

Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

1997-01-01

103

Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin`s tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

Takahashi, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Takenori; Adachi, Tosihide; Enomoto, Kenichi; Ishii, Hidenori [Asahikawa Medical School, Hokkaido (Japan); Yoshida, Chikako; Hokunan, Kazuhiko; Bando, Nobuyuki; Shigyo, Hiroshi

1997-09-01

104

Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

2007-01-01

105

131I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Therapeutic doses of 131I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of 131I (64-277 µCi). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before 131I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following 131I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 ± 8.16 to 55.0 ± 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 ± 6.9 to 25.4 ± 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after 131I administration to rats, which was not 131I dose dependent.

V. Torlak; T. Zemunik; D. Modun; V. Capkun; V. Pesutic-Pisac; A. Markotic; M. Pavela-Vrancic; A. Stanicic

2007-01-01

106

Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland. A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is a very rare condition. A case of a 47-year-old female with a history of a euthyroid multi-nodular goitre is presented. The patient developed hoarseness due to right recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, confirmed with indirect laryngoscopy. On repeated ultrasound, volumetric progression of a dominant nodule in the inferior part of the right thyroid lobe was noticed. Fine needle aspiration was inconclusive. Diagnosis was ultimately based on histopathology of the surgical resection specimen. PMID:20184076

Aerts, S; Gypen, B J; Van Hee, R; Bomans, P

107

Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increase of thyroid gland cancer in people of Belarus is one of the most actual medical problems appeared after the Chernobyl disaster. During the period 1986 -1999 in Belarus were revealed 6901 cases of cancer in the adults and 673 -in the children. Compared with the pre-disaster period the increase of the pathology has made 4.7 and 84 times correspondingly. In Magilew region during post-disaster years were revealed 899 cases of thyroid gland cancer in the adults and 34 -in the children. From the year 1998 perceptible rise of disease appeared in people over 19 years old. According to the prognosis of specialists the problem of high thyroid gland carcinoma rate will be actual for years, gradually decreasing in the children and increasing in the adults. Thyroid gland cancer promoted by radiation has very aggressive nature. According to the data of Republican science-practical thyroid gland tumors center even small carcinomas (3-9 mm) can give numerous metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. The possibility of tumor growth to the nearest tissues is very high. That's why the early diagnostic of the pathology is important. Medical help to the patients with thyroid gland cancer and other node formations consist in the complex problem solution: early node formation revealing by ultrasonic method, early diagnosis verification with the help of cytological bio-assays examination, received by the way of the thin needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were carried out on ultrasonic apparatus Aloka SSD-630, Toshiba-220A, Sonoscop-20 electronic sensor with 7.5 MHz using adapter or by the 'free hand' method. Preparations for cytological examination were prepared according to the common procedure with the coloration after Papanikolou and Pappenheim. Diagnostic methods of thyroid gland node formation changed. The main doctor's problem is to distinguish good-quality and malignant formations because their treatments are diametrically opposite. Between laboratory methods applied for differential diagnostic of good-quality and malignant thyroid gland nodes is used scanning of thyroid gland by I-123 and Tc-99 radio isotopes, but it has lost its meaning for diagnostic of malignant new formations. Nevertheless, the method is still applied for the metastasis of high-differentiated thyroid cancer revealing. Now ultrasonic scanning with following TNAB under the control of ultrasonic beam and cytological examination of the bioassays received is the most effective, high informational and reliable method. Node formations revealing with size of 0.3 cm can be done by ultrasonic method. Screening must be done at first among people whose age at the moment of disaster was 0-19 years. Early ultrasonic feature of thyroid cancer is appearing of focal formation in its parenchyma. Most often locus has low echo (75%), irregular contours (80%), impure structure (97%). Precise correlation between types of vascular net on ultrasonic angiographies and echo structure of node formations has not been found. The main role of ultrasonic examination is in revealing of the focal alterations in the parenchyma of gland, visualization of regional lymph nodes and TNAB applying. The introduction of TNAB to the clinical practice with the following bioassays cytology has raised the efficiency of early thyroid gland cancer diagnostic and has given the possibility to choose patients, who can be operated in occasion with nodal craws, more accurate. Since 1993 in diagnostic centre were made 10739 TNAB and revealed 445 cases of thyroid gland cancer. Four hundred fo

108

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that monitor will be checking that the nerv es to the vocal cords are not in harm’s ... An enlarged gland like this, identifying the nerv e oftentimes can’t be done until you’ve ...

109

Lesions of the accessory parotid gland in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accessory parotid gland, a little-known and seldom-mentioned anatomical variant, is a nodule of normal salivary tissue separate from the main parotid gland, located on the masseter muscle and connected to the Stensen duct at that level. It can be the site of both congenital and acquired lesions. (orig.)

Currarino, Guido [Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Votteler, Theodore P. [Children' s Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States)

2006-01-01

110

Phenotype of blood lymphocytes in correlation with histological picture in thyroid gland of rats treated with potassium iodide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Having in mind the former results which confirmed the functional relationship between the thyroid and the immune system, and the administration of potassium iodide (KI) in the therapy of auto-immune diseases, we considered it of interest to investigate the pathogenesis of KI induced experimental thyroiditis, by studying the morphology of thymus, thyroid gland and spleen, as well as the phenotype of lymphocytes in the thymus and peripheral blood in relation to the expression of CD4 and CD8 molecules. The experiments have been carried out on 30 male Wistar rats, divided in 3 groups. The first group (n=10) received KI (225 ?g/g, i.p.), the second group (n=10) received KI (675 ?g/g, i.p.), while the third group (n=10) received sodium chloride (0.9%, i.p.). The intensity of histological lesions in the thyroid gland, was statistically significant (p<0.01) in KI treated groups, compared to the controls. KI also significantly decreased rat body mass, and increased masses of thymus and thyroid gland (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in thymocyte and peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulation numbers between the groups. Our experiments suggest that KI, at least in some doses could induce mild lymphocytic thyroiditis in rats, and that this simple, practical and non-expensive model of experimental thyroiditis could be of importance for further research.

Markovi? Ljiljana; Lazi? Dijana; Popovi?-Deuši? Smiljka; Nenadovi? M.; Radonji? Vidosava; Puškaš L.

2011-01-01

111

Thyroid nodule  

Science.gov (United States)

A thyroid nodule is a growth (lump) in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the base of the ... Thyroid nodules are growths of cells in the thyroid gland. These growths can be: Not cancer (benign) or thyroid ...

112

[Analysis of thyroid lesions in childhood recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We performed a physical examination and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland in 24 patients who had received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a total-body irradiation (TBI)-containing regimen during childhood. When ultrasonography revealed thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm in diameter, fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed. Of 5 patients with palpable masses and thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm, adenomatous goiter was diagnosed in 4 cases and thyroid cancer in 1. Of the remaining 19 patients in whom no palpable mass was detected in the physical examination, 5 had thyroid nodules (including 1 adenomatous goiter), 6 had cystic lesions, and 8 exhibited no abnormalities on ultrasonography. No significant differences in sex, age at transplantation, interval between transplantation and evaluation, primary disease, preconditioning regimen, status at transplantation, stem cell source, chronic graft-versus-host disease, hypogonadism, or hypothyroidism were observed between patients with and without nodules. Individuals who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a TBI-containing regimen are at risk of secondary thyroid cancer due to radiotherapy and require regular clinical evaluations of the thyroid gland by palpation, and ultrasonography should be incorporated into these checkups.

Maeda N; Hamajima T; Yambe Y; Sekimizu M; Horibe K

2013-03-01

113

Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland. [/sup 60/Co  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy.

Souhami, L.; Simpson, W.J.; Carruthers, J.S.

1980-09-01

114

The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

1981-01-01

115

Sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland and spinal canal: unique localizations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sarcoid involvement of the thyroid gland and spinal canal are rare individual manifestations of sarcoidosis. In this article, we will describe two concurrent cases of spinal canal and thyroid sarcoid involvement. Diagnostic criteria usually include histologic identification of a non-caseating granuloma, supportive laboratory or imaging tests or both, and a compatible clinical course. Our goal is to discuss the presentations and clinical manifestations of our patients, and we will also review the literature involving sarcoid involvement of the spinal canal and thyroid. Although rare, atypical locations of sarcoid should remain suspected for those patients known to have sarcoid involvement in other organ(s) or found to have granulomatous involvement on pathology.

Hanemann C; Patel M; Palacios E; Neitzschman H

2012-09-01

116

[Central lymphodissection in carcinoma of the thyroid gland].  

Science.gov (United States)

Experience with central lymphodissection (CLD) was analyzed in 93 patients with primary thyroid cancer (pT1-4aN0-1a). Prophylactic central lymphodissection was fulfilled in 48 patients, therapeutic CLD in 45 patients. The size and spread of the primary thyroid tumor had no difference in both groups of patients. In patients of the 2nd group thyroidectomy was fulfilled more often (71.1%) than in the 1st group (58.3%).The frequency of postoperative transitory hypoparathyroidism after surgery on the thyroid gland and therapeutic CLD made up 13.3%. There were no recurrent metastases of cancer after CLD fulfilled during the last 3.5 years. All cancer metastases in the postoperative period were detected in lymph nodes of the neck (2-5 levels) and their prevalence was 8.9%. PMID:20020627

Chernyshev, V A; Khamidullin, R G; Zinchenko, S V; Rudyk, A N

2009-01-01

117

[Central lymphodissection in carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experience with central lymphodissection (CLD) was analyzed in 93 patients with primary thyroid cancer (pT1-4aN0-1a). Prophylactic central lymphodissection was fulfilled in 48 patients, therapeutic CLD in 45 patients. The size and spread of the primary thyroid tumor had no difference in both groups of patients. In patients of the 2nd group thyroidectomy was fulfilled more often (71.1%) than in the 1st group (58.3%).The frequency of postoperative transitory hypoparathyroidism after surgery on the thyroid gland and therapeutic CLD made up 13.3%. There were no recurrent metastases of cancer after CLD fulfilled during the last 3.5 years. All cancer metastases in the postoperative period were detected in lymph nodes of the neck (2-5 levels) and their prevalence was 8.9%.

Chernyshev VA; Khamidullin RG; Zinchenko SV; Rudyk AN

2009-01-01

118

Expression of hepatocyte growth factor in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with nodular lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune thyroid disease frequently associated with hyperplastic nodules (HN)s. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is expressed in benign thyroid nodules and over-expressed in malignant thyroid nodules, particularly in papillary thyroid carcinomas. To elucidate the role of HGF in the development of HNs in association with HT we evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of HGF in both nodular and extranodular tissues, obtained from 30 HTs and 15 goiter samples. Six normal thyroid glands were used as controls.All normal control tissue samples exhibited no evidence of HGF immunoreaction. HNs showed weak to moderate HGF immunoreaction,which was located exclusively in the cytoplasm of stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells). However, the percentage of positive cases was higher in HNs arisen in the context of HT, compared to HNs not associated with HT (30/30 or 100% vs 4/15 or 40%; p<0.001). HGF immunoreactivity was also detected in all extranodular tissues from HT specimens (30/30 or 100%), but we found some significant differences. In fact, while in HNs observed in the context of HT lesions HGF was expressed only in stromal cells, in the extranodular tissues from the same thyroid gland affected by HT it was also detected in the cytoplasm of the epithelial follicular cells. Furthermore, HTs showed a much higher HGF staining grade in the extranodular tissue compared to HNs. Finally, a clear positive correlation was observed in HT between the proportion of HGF expressing follicular cells and the grade of lymphoid aggregates of the thyroid gland. In conclusion, HGF is much more frequently and highly expressed in thyroid tissue with HT, compared to goiter. In HT glands HGF can be detected in both follicular thyroid cells and stromal cells, while in HNs, either from goiters or associated with HT, its expression is restricted only to the stromal cells.These data indicate that HGF may play a role in cell proliferation processes occurring in thyroid glands affected by HT, probably under the regulation of the lymphoid infiltrate.

RM Ruggeri; S Sciacchitano; F Trimarchi; G Barresi; M Trovato

2007-01-01

119

Demonstration of Iodide Transport Defect but Normal Iodide Organification in Nonfunctioning Nodules of Human Thyroid Glands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Benign and malignant nodules in human thyroid glands, which did not concentrate iodide in vivo, were also unable to accumulate iodide in vitro. The mean thyroid-to-medium ratio (T/M) in seven benign nodules was 0.8±0.2 compared with 7±2 in adjacent normal thyroid tissue. In four malignant thyroid no...

Field, James B.; Larsen, P. Reed; Yamashita, Kamejiro; Mashiter, Keith; Dekker, Andrew

120

A rare case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma presenting in the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lymphoma involving the thyroid gland is rare. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma are the two most common histologic subtypes of primary thyroid lymphoma. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) presenting initially as a thyroid abnormality is extremely rare, with very few reported cases in the literature. SUMMARY: We report a case of a patient with a long history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and goiter who presented with a recent enlargement of her thyroid gland. The sonographic finding of a distinct thyroid nodule in the heterogeneous background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis led to the performance of a fine-needle aspiration biopsy and flow cytometry, with a high index of suspicion for thyroid lymphoma. Subsequent surgical removal of the thyroid gland, prompted by the patient's history of head and neck radiation, confirmed the diagnosis of CLL/SLL. The patient's systemic illness was recognized only after the management of her thyroid disease. Although thyroiditis has long been associated with lymphoma arising in the thyroid gland, CLL/SLL involving the thyroid has not been linked to chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Therefore, the patient also had coexisting thyroiditis. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the rarity of thyroid lymphomas, our experience in the detection and management of this disease is limited. Primary thyroid lymphoma should be suspected in a patient with a history of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis presenting with a rapidly enlarging neck mass. The initial diagnostic method for thyroid lymphoma should consist of a fine-needle aspiration biopsy with the use of ancillary techniques such as flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry for improved diagnostic accuracy. Although controversial, the treatment of thyroid lymphoma is typically guided by the histologic subtype and extent of disease. CLL/SLL is one of the rarest subtypes of lymphoma that can involve the thyroid gland. Diagnosis of this entity is difficult, particularly before the recognition of systemic involvement, requiring the expertise of a multidisciplinary team for early detection and optimal management.

Shin J; Chute D; Milas M; Mitchell J; Siperstein A; Berber E

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Differential diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions by CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We designed this study to determine the potentiality of the conventional CT in the diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions, especially in solving the diagnostic difficulty between neoplasm and inflammation. We performed retrospective study of 35 patients and 2 of them had bilateral lesion of chronic inflammation, hence we analysed 37 cases of submandibular gland lesions. There were 9 cases of tumor (including 1 basal cell carcinoma, and 8 pleomorphic adenomas), 22 cases of chronic inflammation, and 6 cases of acute inflammation. CT scans were evaluated for the degree of enlargement (graded as iso, mild or marked enlargement), pattern of contrast enhancement, contour deformity of the gland, and several other items. Neoplastic masses showed more marked enlargement of the gland (77%) than chronic inflammation (22%). Degree of enhancement showed no difference among the lesions. Enhancement pattern was more inhomogeneous in neoplasm (80%) than in chronic inflammation (5%). Deformity of the natural contour of the gland was more frequent in neoplasm (all of 9 cases) than in chronic inflammation (32%). Acute inflammation showed internal low attenuation probably by abscess formation (3/6 cases) and overlying soft tissue swelling (all of 6 cases), and the age of patients was characteristically younger than other disease (mean, 9 years). Several findings were more specific to disease, such as dystrophic calcifications to pleomorphic adenoma (37%) and calculi with or without ductal dilatation to chronic inflammation (45%). Pre and postcontrast enhanced CT scan can serve as a predictor of pathologic nature of the submandibular gland lesions.

Yoh, Kyu Tong; Park, Chan Sup [College of Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Songnam (Korea, Republic of)

1994-07-15

122

Colour-coded Doppler sonography in thyroid gland diagnosis: Preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid gland was investigated in 43 persons (12 healthy volunteers, 31 patients with diseases of the thyroid gland) with a new colour Doppler system (angiodynography). In euthyreotic persons (normal thyroid gland, diffuse or multinodular goitre) only a few vessels were detected. In cases with Graves' disease however, hypervascularisation was evident. Autonomus adenomas had a hypervascular periphery, whereas our two carcinomas showed a high vascularisation in the nodule. Angiodynography might become an important diagnostic tool for the evaluation of thyroid glands. The number of radionuclide studies and punctures might be limited. (orig.)

1988-01-01

123

Lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands: an update.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Long considered to be ectopic breast tissue representing the caudal remnants of the milk ridges, anogenital mammary-like glands are nowadays thought to represent a normal constituent of the anogenital area. Lesions involving these glands, benign or malignant, epithelial or stromal manifest a striking similarity to their mammary counterparts. This review addresses the recent literature on lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands and our personal experience with various lesions related to these structures. Discussed are the normal anatomy and histology of these glands as well as the clinical presentation, histopathological and immunohistochemical features, molecular biological aspects, and differential diagnosis of various lesions involving anogenital mammary-like glands, including lactating adenoma, hidradenoma papilliferum, hidradenocarcinoma papilliferum, fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumor, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, extramammary Paget disease, and other carcinomas. In addition, "nonspecific" epithelial or stromal changes some of which can be likened to similar changes occurring in a range of benign breast disease, including sclerosing adenosis, columnar cell lesions, ductal lesions and various metaplastic changes affecting epithelium and myoepithelium are discussed. Although lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands are often discussed in many dermatopathology textbooks in the context of cutaneous adnexal neoplasms we advocate that the best approach to the diagnosis of these lesions is to relate them to analogous well recognized lesions occurring in the breast, that is, through the eyes of a breast pathologist. This will enable their recognition, precise classification and should introduce greater uniformity in how they are reported in the literature so that more meaningful clinicopathological comparisons and correlations may be made.

Kazakov DV; Spagnolo DV; Kacerovska D; Michal M

2011-01-01

124

Involvement of the thyroid and the salivary glands in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas at initial diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: The clinical spectrum of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is different from that in adults, with frequent extranodal involvement. We searched the incidence and radiological appearance of the secondary involvement of the thyroid and salivary glands by ultrasonography (US) to assess its importance for staging of the disease. Materials and methods: We examined the thyroid, parotid and submandibulary glands of 43 children with NHL, age ranging between 9 months and 17 years, by US. Results: According to US findings, involvement of the parotid gland was very common as detected in 18 of the cases with NHL (41%). It was the most common organ involved in lymphoma. Lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland, with bilateral multiple focal lesions, was detected in two patients and proved by fine needle aspiration biopsy in all cases (5%). Salivary gland and thyroid involvement changed staging in three (6%) of the patients, however, the treatment plan was unchanged. Conclusions: This study shows that anatomic sites, known to be very rarely involved at the initial presentation of the disease is actually more commonly involved in childhood NHL. However, it does not cause any significant change in the treatment planning or in the survival.

Akata, Deniz; Akhan, Okan; Akyuez, Canan; Oezmen, Mustafa N.; Yalcin, Bilgehan

2002-12-01

125

Lipomatous lesions of the parotid gland: analysis of 70 cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate presenting signs and symptoms, preoperative workup, operative therapy, and morbidity of benign and malignant lipomatous lesions of the parotid gland. STUDY DESIGN: Medical literature review and retrospective chart review for all patients who underwent surgery for lipomatous lesions of the parotid gland at our institution from 1959 to 2009. METHODS: Seventy patients underwent surgery for such lesions. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and reviewed, and clinical information was obtained from hospital medical records for each case. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (70.0%) were male and 21 (30.0%) female (mean age, 49.9 years). Of the lesions, 43 (63.2%) were intraparotid, 25 (36.8%) periparotid, 69 (98.6%) unilateral, and 1 (1.4%) bilateral (average size, 3.7 cm). Fifty-nine patients were treated with superficial or partial superficial parotidectomy, 10 were treated with total parotidectomy, and one was treated with parapharyngeal space dissection. Complications included six cases (8.6%) of facial paresis or paralysis and two cases of hematoma. No lesions recurred. CONCLUSIONS: We present the largest series, to our knowledge, of lipomatous lesions of the parotid gland. These masses, although rare, should be considered in the evaluation of a parotid mass. This series provides insight into the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and surgical treatment of parotid lipomatous lesions. Surgical extent depends on lesion location in the gland. Lipomatous masses can be effectively treated surgically with low morbidity and high cure rates.

Starkman SJ; Olsen SM; Lewis JE; Olsen KD; Sabri A

2013-03-01

126

Lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence rate, distribution, patient characteristics and indications for surgical intervention of lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007. Material and methods: All biopsied/surgically removed lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark during the period 1974-2007 were identified by searching two population-based registries. Specimens were collected and re-evaluated. The following data were collected: age, gender, indications for surgical intervention and local recurrence. Results: A total of 232 lesions from 210 patients with a histologically verified lesion of the lacrimal gland were included. The incidence rate of lacrimal gland lesions was 1.3/1 000 000/year. The overall annual age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate more than doubled during the study period, owing to an increase in non-malignant lesions. Approximately half of the lesions were neoplasms (119) and 55% (66) of these were malignant. Dacryops constituted 10% (24), inflammatory lesions 27% (62), normal tissue12% (27), benign tumours 23% (53) and malignant tumours 29% (66). Patients with malignant neoplasms were significantly older than patients with benign neoplasms (63 versus 48 years, p

von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

2013-01-01

127

Thyroid Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

... your thyroid gland produces too little thyroid hormones). Thyroid Nodules Thyroid nodules are solid or fluid-filled lumps that form in the thyroid gland. Thyroid Cancer Most thyroid nodules are benign, but in 10% of cases, they ...

128

Cadmium toxicity in the thyroid gland of pregnant rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The toxic effects of cadmium on the thyroid gland of pregnant rats were studied with an electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyzer. Serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were also analyzed. Deterioration of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum occurred in the thyroid follicular epithelium on the fifth day of cadmium treatment. Large intracellular vacuoles, which arose from dilated cisternae of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, were fused together, and marked swelling of the mitochondria was also noted. Thyroglobulin-secreting granules at the apical cytoplasm were decreased in number. By energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, cadmium peaks were preferentially obtained from swollen mitochondria in the follicular epithelial cells. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were significantly decreased in cadmium-treated rats dams when compared to those of controls. In the present experiment, cycloheximide also caused degenerative changes in the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and the disappearance of thyroglobulin-secreting granules. Cycloheximide is a known inhibitor of protein synthesis on cytosolic ribosomes. These results indicated that accumulated cadmium in the mitochondria of thyroid follicular epithelial cells might disturb the oxidative phosphorylation of this organelle and the loss of energy supply possibly caused the inhibition of the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones.

Yoshizuka, M.; Mori, N.; Hamasaki, K.; Tanaka, I.; Yokoyama, M.; Hara, K.; Doi, Y.; Umezu, Y.; Araki, H.; Sakamoto, Y. (Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan))

1991-08-01

129

Functioning thyroglossal cyst and concurrent ectopic thyroid in the floor of the mouth without an orthotopic thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the case of a 20-year-old man with a constellation of anomalies - a functional thyroglossal cyst and concurrent ectopic thyroid in the floor of the mouth, without an orthotopic thyroid gland. To our knowledge, this is the third such report in the otolaryngology literature. It is important to be aware of the possibility of concurrent ectopic thyroid and thyroglossal cyst in the absence of an orthotopic thyroid gland. The majority of reported cases of thyroid ectopy occur at the base of the tongue. The occurrence of an ectopic thyroid in the floor of the mouth is both unusual and not amenable to clinical examination. Even if there is good uptake on nuclear imaging, the ectopic thyroid may be hypofunctioning. We discuss the importance of thyroid imaging, as well as the need for preoperative imaging and an appropriate management strategy in the treatment of patients with this triad of anomalies.

Dhingra S; Gulati A; Bansal A

2013-07-01

130

Functioning thyroglossal cyst and concurrent ectopic thyroid in the floor of the mouth without an orthotopic thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 20-year-old man with a constellation of anomalies - a functional thyroglossal cyst and concurrent ectopic thyroid in the floor of the mouth, without an orthotopic thyroid gland. To our knowledge, this is the third such report in the otolaryngology literature. It is important to be aware of the possibility of concurrent ectopic thyroid and thyroglossal cyst in the absence of an orthotopic thyroid gland. The majority of reported cases of thyroid ectopy occur at the base of the tongue. The occurrence of an ectopic thyroid in the floor of the mouth is both unusual and not amenable to clinical examination. Even if there is good uptake on nuclear imaging, the ectopic thyroid may be hypofunctioning. We discuss the importance of thyroid imaging, as well as the need for preoperative imaging and an appropriate management strategy in the treatment of patients with this triad of anomalies. PMID:23900478

Dhingra, Shruti; Gulati, Achal; Bansal, Abhishek

2013-07-01

131

Fatal airway obstruction caused by invasive aspergillosis of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Invasive aspergillosis is a common form of fungal infection in patients with hematological malignancies. Because Aspergillus species have angioinvasive properties, they frequently disseminate from the lung to a variety of organs via hematogenous spread. Extra-pulmonary involvement occurs at an advanced stage of invasive aspergillosis, and represents an ominous sign. However, few reports have been published on extra-pulmonary involvement in cases of aspergillosis. Its clinical features have not been fully clarified. We experienced a patient who developed thyrotoxicosis and fatal airway obstruction caused by invasive aspergillosis of the thyroid. A 26-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. During myelosuppression following the chemotherapy, he developed cervical swelling and hyperthyroidism. We suspected lymphoma infiltration to the thyroid, and irradiated it with a total of 26 Gy. However, the cervical lesion enlarged rapidly, and he complained of wheezing and dyspnea. We underwent immediate tracheostomy to secure the airway, but he died. Autopsy findings were striking. Extensive necrosis with diffuse infiltration of Aspergillus hyphae was observed in the thyroid gland. Necrotic tissues of the thyroid protruded into the tracheal lumen, causing airway obstruction. This case demonstrated that invasive aspergillosis of the thyroid can lead to medical emergency.

Kishi Y; Negishi M; Kami M; Hamaki T; Miyakoshi S; Ueyama J; Morinaga S; Mutou Y

2002-03-01

132

Cases with focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-PET screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined fifteen cases with focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) screening for cancer. Examination of the thyroid gland was carried out by using computer tomography, ultrasound sonography, laboratory test and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Surgical operation was performed to the patient who was suspected of having thyroid cancer by FNAC or clinical findings. Thyroid cancer was histologically confirmed in 4 cases. Malignancy was not ruled out by FNAC in one patient. Seven patients were suspected of having benign thyroid tumor (adenoma, adenomatous goiter). Three patients were diagnosed with thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, painless thyroiditis) by laboratory tests. It was not easy to differentiate between cancer and benign diseases only by FDG-PET. However, it was useful to detect thyroid tumor especially if the tumor is hardly palpable. FDG-PET was also valuable as a diagnostic imaging technique to evaluate metastasis and the extent of cancer. (author)

2007-01-01

133

Chemical homeostasis of thyroid gland under modelling microelementosis influence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work presents the results of the research of a thyroid tissue of 36 laboratory rats of different ages which have been drinking water with salts of zinc, cooper, iron, manganese, chrome and lead within 60 days. By means of anatomical, histological and spectrochemical methods it was established: the most significant morphological changes was increase with the growing terms of the experiment, concentration of ions in 30 days of experiment was the highest in the thyroid gland of young aged rats, at the end of the experiments the decreasing of the speed of their accumulation was observed. This work consideres the influence of ions of heavy metals on apoptosis of thyrocytes.

Moskalenko R.A.

2009-01-01

134

Morphometric features of the thyroid gland: a cadaveric study of Turkish people.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although racial and ethnic variations in the morphology of anatomical structures are defined well, the size, shape, and weight of the thyroid gland have not previously been reported in Turkish people. This study provides data about the morphometric features of the thyroid gland, thyroid lobes, and pyramidal lobe, and highlights some anatomical variations in people from the Marmara region in Turkey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material for the present study consisted of thyroid glands obtained from 75 male and 15 female adult cadavers aged between 18 and 80 years. A dissection was carried out and the thyroid glands were exposed. The glands were weighed and measured according to the various age groups of the patients. RESULTS: A pyramidal lobe was found to be present in 57.8% of the cadavers (52/90). During midline dissection of the neck 2 males out of 90 cadavers, giving an incidence of 2.22%, did not show an isthmus. The mean thyroid weight was 26.11 ± 8.14 g. In males it was 26.93 ± 7.96 g while in females it was 21.93 ± 7.98 g. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported morphometric study on cadaveric thyroid glands from Turkey and it highlights individual and ethnic/racial variations. In order to perform safe and effective surgery and for the accurate diagnosis of thyroid disorders, knowledge of normal anatomy and the variations of the thyroid gland are essential.

Tanriover O; Comunoglu N; Eren B; Comunoglu C; Turkmen N; Bilgen S; Kaspar EC; Gündogmus UN

2011-05-01

135

[Effect of phenformin on fetal mass in rats previously immunized with an extract of homologous thyroid gland  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rats immunized with homologous thyroid antigen 9-27 weeks before delivery manifest an increase in the mean weight of fetus as compared with normal pregnant rats. Administration of phenformin (7.5 mg/day per os) during immunization and over 30 days after its discontinuance led to a significant weight reduction as compared with immunized animals not given phenformin. The latter's effect became more potent with an increase in the interval between immunization discontinuance and delivery. Prophylaxis and cure of the latent and evident autoimmune lesions of the thyroid gland during childhood and juvenescence are regarded as approaches to the prevention of endocrine and metabolic disorders favouring large fetus delivery.

Bershte?n LM; Okulov VB; Aleksandrov VA; Fedorova LV; Dil'man VM

1981-05-01

136

Histopathological Study on Thyroid Gland of Goat in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thyroid gland in most animal species has two lobes, one on each lateral surface of the trachea. In pigs, the main lobe of the thyroid gland is on the midline in the ventral cervical region with dorsolateral projections from each side. The thyroid structural changes in gouts were investigated. About 386 pairs of thyroid glands collected from gout at the local municipal abattoir in Tabriz city of East Azerbaijan province. A total of 386 thyroid specimens examined, 8 cases were follicular atrophy, 4 cases were thyroid fibrosis, 71 cases were diffuse hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells, 5 cases were colloid goiter, 10 cases were parenchymal cysts, 3 cases were nodular hyperplasia, 1 case was C-cell adenoma and 1 case was C-cell carcinoma.

Daryoush Mohajeri; Ghafour Mousavi; Mehrdad Nazeri

2012-01-01

137

Fine needle aspiration cytology: sensitivity and specificity in thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Thyroid enlargement is one of the common problems in patients presenting at outpatients department of ENT particularly in females. Thyroid nodules are common, thyroid cancer is uncommon and the most common way for it to present is as a solitary thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in thyroid diseases. Method: This prospective analytic study was conducted at ENT Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College/Abbasi Shaheed Hospital during year 2004-8. One hundred and five cases were enrolled who underwent thyroid surgery after complete evaluation by history, clinical examination, Thyroid profile, Thyroid Scintigraphy, Ultrasound neck and FNAC. In cases which were revealed malignant by FNAC, CT scan were done to see the extent of disease and neck node status. Surgery was done in all cases and specimens sent for histopathology. Results: Male to female ratio of the patients was 1:8.5. Most common lesion was benign nodule (96). Malignant lesions were 9 in FNAC. In histopathology, the benign nodules were 92, and malignant cases were 13. Sensitivity of FNAC was 61.53% and specificity was 98.9%. Conclusion: FNAC in Thyroid has high sensitivity and specificity. (author)

2011-01-01

138

Brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 33-year-old woman had been operated on for a tumor of the thyroid gland in December of 1976, and was admitted to Saku Central Hospital in April of 1983 because of pulmonary and ovarian metastases. She underwent surgical removal of the metastatic ovarian tumor and chemotherapy, but developed headaches in June of 1983. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a well-defined, homogeneously enhanced mass in the right occipital region. Angiography showed a homogeneous, well-defined tumor stain supplied by the right posterior cerebral artery, the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, and the meningeal branch of the occipital artery. The tumor was removed in July of 1983. It was situated in the right occipital lobe and was supplied by numerous small meningeal vessels. Histologically, it was composed of small, oval-shaped cells, some with mitotic figures, and giant cells, occasionally forming a follicular structure. Three months later, the headaches reappeared, and a recurrence of brain metastasis was demonstrated by CT. In October of 1983, the second metastatic brain tumor and the dural bed were removed and local radiation therapy was administered. In this case, meningioma-like features were demonstrated by CT scan and angiography, and these findings may be characteristic of brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

1987-01-01

139

[Enzymohistochemical and immunomorphological study of experimental thyroid gland carcinoma  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 8 medullary carcinimas, 134 adenomas of C-cells, 32 solid focal over-growths of C-cells, and 124 normal thyroid glands of rats were investigated by histochemical, immunomorphological and histological methods. Modullary carcinomas were characterized by a high enzymes of hydrolysis of ethers of carboxylic acids, tissue respiration, and by a moderate or low activity of enzymes of the initial link of glycolysis, oxidative deamination, synthesis of amino acids, hydrolysis of monoethers of orthophosphoric acid, pentose and citric acid cycles. In medullary carcinomas, as well as in normal C-cells and adenomas of C-cells, there was revealed the phenomenon of occult metachromasia with the absence of a microsomal tissue-specific antigen and direct reaction to amyloid. The authors consider medullary carcinomas to be analogues of solid carcinoma with amyloidosis of the stroma of the human thyroid gland, differing from the latter by specific metabolic reactions, and therefore, they may serve as an experimental model in studies of these diseases.

Kolodin VI; Okulov VB; Savel'eva OP

1976-01-01

140

In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In a prospective study, 609 solid thyroid gland tumors were percutaneously probed using standard 25 gauge fine needles, their tissue toughness ranked on the basis of the nature and strength of the haptic force feedback cues, and subjected to standard fine needle biopsy. The tumors' toughness rankings and final cytological diagnoses were combined and analyzed. The interpreting cytopathologist was blinded to the tumors' toughness rankings. Results Our data showed that cancerous and noncancerous tumors displayed remarkable haptically distinguishable differences in their material toughness. Conclusion The qualitative method described here, though subject to some operator bias, identifies a previously unreported in vivo approach to classify fracture toughness of a solid tumor that can be correlated with malignancy, and paves the way for the development of a mechanical device that can accurately quantify the tissue toughness of a human tumor.

Ragavendra Nagesh; Ju JW; Sayre James W; Hirschowitz Sharon; Chopra Inder; Yeh Michael W

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background Incidental focal fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid is not uncommon. A significant proportion is due to intercurrent thyroid cancer on further evaluation. Purpose To investigate and discuss the clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy. Material and Methods We investigated 188/7896 (2.4%) patients who had incidental focal thyroid uptake on FDG PET/CT in an oncology population over a 45-month period. Diagnosis was confirmed in 63 patients of whom 59 patients had histopathological verification. Results Thirty-two percent of confirmed cases were malignant comprising intercurrent thyroid cancer in three-quarters of these patients. Maximum standardized uptake values of the thyroid lesions and SUV ratios compared with background thyroid and mediastinal uptake were not predictive of a benign or malignant etiology. In patients with incidental thyroid cancers, more than half had non-papillary and intermediate to high-risk pathology. Conclusion Focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on PET/CT showed a malignancy risk of 32%. The intensity of uptake does not predict histology and underpins the importance of further investigations to exclude intercurrent thyroid cancer in suitable patients

Wong, Christine (Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)); Lin, Michael (Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Liverpool (Australia)), email: Michael.lin@swsahs.nsw.gov.au; Chicco, Andrew; Benson, Rhonda (Liverpool Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Liverpool (Australia))

2011-10-15

142

Thyroid/parotid ratio a new cost effective parameter for assessment of functional status of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This prospective study was under-taken to evaluate the efficacy of a new parameter for the assessment of thyroid function, During routine thyroid scan under the Gamma Camera ratio of activity in the thyroid and parotid gland (T/P ratio) was calculated using ROI technique. Sensitivity and specifications of this T/P ratio was analyzed in 455 non selected and fully worked up patients after standardising the normal value in 20 voluntaries who had no thyroid diseases . The overall sensitivity was found to be 93.7 % and specificity 85.5%. This parameter could also be used to differentiate borderline hyperthyroidism from thyroiditis

1997-01-01

143

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 ± SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 ± SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

2005-01-01

144

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 {+-} SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 {+-} SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland.

Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee [Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-15

145

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

2006-01-01

146

Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

2008-01-01

147

Modular Measuring System for Assesment of the Thyroid Gland Functional State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distributed modular system BioLab for biophysical examinations enabling assessment of the thyroid gland functional state is presented in the paper. The BioLab system is based on a standard notebook or desktop PC connected to an Ethernet-based network of two smart sensors. These sensors are programmed and controlled from PC and enable measurement of selected biosignals of the human cardiovascular and neuromuscular system that are influenced by the production of thyroid gland hormones. Recorded biosignals are processed in a PC and peripheral indicators characterizing thyroid gland functional state are evaluated.

Vladimir Rosik; Milan Tysler; Jana Svehlikova; Jaroslav Zdinak

2005-01-01

148

Ectopic parathyroid adenoma initially suspected to be a thyroid lesion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Considering the variety of aberrant locations in which ectopic parathyroid adenomas may be found, these neoplasms can be difficult to identify and treat surgically. The results of radiographic and cytologic studies may lead to confusion of these neoplasms with lesions of thyroid origin. We present a case of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma for which misleading localization prompted cytologic misdiagnosis and intraoperative suspicion of thyroid carcinoma.

Pitsilos SA; Weber R; Baloch Z; LiVolsi VA

2002-12-01

149

Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

2011-01-01

150

Agenesis of isthmus of the thyroid gland in a patient with graves-basedow disease and a solitary nodule.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thyroid is a vascular endocrine gland with two lateral lobes connected by a narrow, median isthmus. Although a wide range of congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland has been reported in the literature, agenesis of the thyroid isthmus is a very rare congenital anomaly. Thyroid isthmus agenesis does not manifest clinical symptoms, and it can be confused with other thyroid pathologies. We describe a patient with no isthmus of the thyroid, associated with Graves-Basedow disease. Thyroid isthmus agenesis should be kept in mind in order for surgical procedures involving thyroid pathologies to be carried out safely. PMID:23346452

Ozkan, Omer Faruk; As?k, Mehmet; Toman, Huseyin; Ozkul, Faruk; C?kman, Oztekin; Karaayvaz, Muammer

2013-01-02

151

Agenesis of isthmus of the thyroid gland in a patient with graves-basedow disease and a solitary nodule.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The thyroid is a vascular endocrine gland with two lateral lobes connected by a narrow, median isthmus. Although a wide range of congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland has been reported in the literature, agenesis of the thyroid isthmus is a very rare congenital anomaly. Thyroid isthmus agenesis does not manifest clinical symptoms, and it can be confused with other thyroid pathologies. We describe a patient with no isthmus of the thyroid, associated with Graves-Basedow disease. Thyroid isthmus agenesis should be kept in mind in order for surgical procedures involving thyroid pathologies to be carried out safely.

Ozkan OF; As?k M; Toman H; Ozkul F; C?kman O; Karaayvaz M

2013-01-01

152

The Effects of Neck Irradiation on Thyroid Gland for Tumors of the head and Neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-five patients with tumors of the head and neck treated with either radiation therapy alone or combined with surgery or chemotherapy were studied prospectively to evaluate the effects of radiation therapy to the neck on thyroid gland between September 1986 and October 1992. All patients were serially monitored for thyroid function tests before and after radiation therapy. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 35 to 60 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Median follow-up time was 30 months with a range of 11 to 85 months. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction was 40%; forty-five patients (60%) euthyroid, 2 patients (3%) clinical hypothyroidism, 27 patients (36%) subclinical hypothyroidism and 1 patient (1%) hyperthyroidism. No thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer were detected in any patients. Thyroid dysfunction appeared earlier in patients who underwent surgery than in those patients treated with radiation therapy alone or combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p=0.0013). By multivariate analysis, risk factors that significantly influenced a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction were female sex (p=0.0293) and combination of total laryngectomy and radiation therapy (p=0.0045). In conclusion, evaluation of thyroid function before and after radiation therapy with periodic thyroid function tests are recommended to detect thyroid dysfunction in time and thyroid hormone replacement therapy is recommended whenever thyroid dysfunction develops

1986-09-00

153

The Effects of Neck Irradiation on Thyroid Gland for Tumors of the head and Neck  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seventy-five patients with tumors of the head and neck treated with either radiation therapy alone or combined with surgery or chemotherapy were studied prospectively to evaluate the effects of radiation therapy to the neck on thyroid gland between September 1986 and October 1992. All patients were serially monitored for thyroid function tests before and after radiation therapy. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 35 to 60 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Median follow-up time was 30 months with a range of 11 to 85 months. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction was 40%; forty-five patients (60%) euthyroid, 2 patients (3%) clinical hypothyroidism, 27 patients (36%) subclinical hypothyroidism and 1 patient (1%) hyperthyroidism. No thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer were detected in any patients. Thyroid dysfunction appeared earlier in patients who underwent surgery than in those patients treated with radiation therapy alone or combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p=0.0013). By multivariate analysis, risk factors that significantly influenced a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction were female sex (p=0.0293) and combination of total laryngectomy and radiation therapy (p=0.0045). In conclusion, evaluation of thyroid function before and after radiation therapy with periodic thyroid function tests are recommended to detect thyroid dysfunction in time and thyroid hormone replacement therapy is recommended whenever thyroid dysfunction develops.

Park, In Kyu; Kim, Sang Bo; Yun, Sang Mo; Park, Jun Sik; Jun, Su Han; Kim, Bo Wan [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

1994-02-15

154

Sexual dimorphism of thyroid reactive oxygen species production due to higher NADPH oxidase 4 expression in female thyroid glands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2) are NADPH oxidases (NOX) involved in hydrogen peroxide production necessary for thyroid hormonogenesis, but recently, the NOX4 has also been described in the thyroid gland. The prevalence of thyroid disease is higher in women, and the basis for this difference might involve a higher oxidative stress level in the female thyroid gland. Hence, we aimed at evaluating whether the function and the expression of enzymes involved in the thyroid redox balance differ between females and males. METHODS: DUOX1, DUOX2, NOX4, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities and expression levels were evaluated in the thyroids of prepubertal and adult male and female rats. The mRNA levels of DUOXA1 and DUOXA2, the DUOX maturation factors, and of p22phox and Poldip2 (subunits of NOX4) were also determined. RESULTS: A higher calcium-independent H(2)O(2) production was detected in the adult female rat thyroid, being higher in the estrous phase of the cycle. Moreover, the expression of NOX4 and Poldip2 mRNA was higher in the thyroids of adult female rats, as well as in PCCL3 cells treated with 17?-estradiol. The GPx1 mRNA expression was higher in adult female thyroids, while GPx2 and GPx3 mRNA and total GPx activity were not significantly different. Catalase mRNA expression and activity, together with thyroid thiol levels were significantly lower in the adult female rat thyroid. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results show that the thyroid gland of female rats is exposed to higher oxidative stress levels due both to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through NOX4, and decreased ROS degradation.

Fortunato RS; Braga WM; Ortenzi VH; Rodrigues DC; Andrade BM; Miranda-Alves L; Rondinelli E; Dupuy C; Ferreira AC; Carvalho DP

2013-01-01

155

Unique association of p53 mutations with undifferentiated but not with differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thyroid neoplasms show a wide variety of lesions varying from slowly growing differentiated adenocarcinomas to rapidly proliferating undifferentiated carcinomas. There is some histopathological evidence that the undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas are derived from differentiated carcinomas. Moreover, it is suspected that some genetic events might be associated with such changes. In the present study, mutations in the p53 gene were detected by direct sequencing analysis after polymerase chain reaction amplification of exons 5-8, using paraffin-embedded primary tumors and cultured cells. No mutations in exons 5 to 8 were detected in 10 differentiated papillary adenocarcinomas, whereas 6 out of 7 undifferentiated carcinomas were found to carry base substitution mutations. Sequencing analysis confirmed mutations at a codons 135 (TGC ? TGT), 141(CCC ? CCT), 178(CAC ? GAC), 213 (CGA ? TGA), 248 (CGG ? CAG, CGG ? TGG), and 273 (CGT ? TGT). The spectrum of mutations (G:C to A:T transitions in 7 of 8) might be a specific feature of the spontaneous cancers. The results strongly suggest that, in human thyroid glands, p53 mutations play a crucial role in the progression of differentiated carcinomas to undifferentiated ones. (author)

2004-01-01

156

First description of papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland of a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans ).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postmortem examination of the carcass of an approximately 10-year-old male Red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans ) was performed. The thyroid gland was enlarged, showed follicular structure, and shifted the base of the heart caudally. Histology revealed differently shaped and sized follicles in the thyroid gland. Based on the macroscopic appearance and histopathological changes of the thyroid gland, the pathological process was established as a papillary-cystic carcinoma. Neoplasia of the endocrine organs, especially of the thyroid gland, is rare in reptiles. The current case seems to be the first report of thyroid carcinoma in a Red-eared slider.

Gál J; Csikó G; Pásztor I; Bölcskey-Molnár A; Albert M

2010-03-01

157

First description of papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland of a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans ).  

Science.gov (United States)

Postmortem examination of the carcass of an approximately 10-year-old male Red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans ) was performed. The thyroid gland was enlarged, showed follicular structure, and shifted the base of the heart caudally. Histology revealed differently shaped and sized follicles in the thyroid gland. Based on the macroscopic appearance and histopathological changes of the thyroid gland, the pathological process was established as a papillary-cystic carcinoma. Neoplasia of the endocrine organs, especially of the thyroid gland, is rare in reptiles. The current case seems to be the first report of thyroid carcinoma in a Red-eared slider. PMID:20159740

Gál, János; Csikó, György; Pásztor, István; Bölcskey-Molnár, Antal; Albert, Mihály

2010-03-01

158

Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(?g/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.).

1984-01-01

159

Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(..mu..g/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Grebe, S.F.; Mueller, H.

1984-10-01

160

Technical aspects of magnetic resonance imaging in parathyroid gland lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were examined before parathyroid surgery with magnetic resonance imaging at 0.35 telsa in order to analyse optimal methods of visualization. Two large parathyroid glands in the neck had long transverse relaxation times which rendered them clearly visible in T2-weighted images as structures of a signal intensity higher than that of the surrounding. Large parathyroid lesions may thus be easily detected by magnetic resonance imaging provided proper examination parameters are employed. (orig.)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

Yokoyama Junkichi; Ito Shin; Ohba Shinichi; Fujimaki Mitsuhisa; Sato Eriko; Komatsu Norio; Ikeda Katsuhisa; Hanaguri Makoto

2012-01-01

162

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, or TSH. TSH causes the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone. ... pituitary gland can damage the area that secretes TSH. Without TSH, the thyroid gland does not make ...

163

Thyroid Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, or TSH. TSH causes the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone. ... pituitary gland can damage the area that secretes TSH. Without TSH, the thyroid gland does not make ...

164

Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02)

1983-01-01

165

Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

1983-12-01

166

Thyroid gland irradiation of Belarus population as a result of Chernobyl accident: doses and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This monograph provides information on the radiation-induced thyroid cancer morbidity of Belarus population as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Peculiarities of thyroid gland radiation doses formation in different regions of Belarus are described taking into account radioecological situation during postaccidental 'iodine period'. Results of thyroid gland radiation doses estimation for 2.4 mln children and adolescents and 6.3 mln of adults, living in 23325 settlements are presented. These results were found by the unique method of radioecological modeling. Correlation between radiation doses and epactal thyroid cancer morbidity in the post-accidental period is analysed. Reasons for ineffectiveness of counter-measures for thyroid gland protection in the early postaccidental period are described. Recommendations for selection of critical groups for long-term medical follow-up were given. (authors)

2004-01-01

167

Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). Methods and materials In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm3) receiving respectively Results No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (? = 0.003), with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving Conclusions We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

Johansen S; Reinertsen KV; Knutstad K; Olsen DR; Fosså SD

2011-01-01

168

Selective exposure of thyroid gland follicles to radionuclides decaying according to K-capture model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors submit the results of studies of the effect of internal exposure of microstructures of thyroid gland follicles to electron radiation within the energy range from tenths of keV to 1 MeV, covering the electron radiation spectra of the commonly used radionuclides which decay according to the K-capture model. The case of selective exposure of thyroid gland follicles to selenium-75 delivered as a constituent of selenomethionine is described as an example

1980-01-01

169

Metastases of renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland with synchronous benign and malignant follicular cell-derived neoplasms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is the most common origin for metastasis in the thyroid. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a subcarinal lesion. Ten years before, the patient had undergone a nephrectomy for CCRCC. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed elevated values in the thyroid gland, while the mediastinum was normal. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass was consistent with CCRCC, and this was confirmed after resection. The thyroidectomy specimen also revealed lymphocytic thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia, one follicular adenoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and six foci of metastatic CCRCC involving both thyroid lobes. Curiously two of the six metastatic foci were located inside two adenomatoid nodules (tumor-in-tumor). The metastatic cells were positive for cytokeratins, CD10, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. No BRAF gene mutations were found in any of the primary and metastatic lesions. The patient was treated with sunitinib and finally died due to CCRCC distant metastases 6 years after the thyroidectomy. In CCRCC patients, a particularly prolonged survival rate may be achieved with the appropriate therapy, in contrast to the ominous prognosis typically found in patients with thyroid metastases from other origins.

Zamarrón C; Abdulkader I; Areses MC; García-Paz V; León L; Cameselle-Teijeiro J

2013-01-01

170

Thyroid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper approaches the effects of explosions of nuclear weapons on the thyroid, the radiation-induced thyroid diseases due to exposure to external radiation at the time of explosion or from the radioactive fallout, and to exposure to internal irradiation from radioactive iodine that accumulates inside the thyroid glands.

Nagataki, Shigenobu [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

1997-07-01

171

Late Simultaneous Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Submandibular and Thyroid Glands Seven Years after Radical Nephrectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the salivary glands is extremely rare. Most cases reported previously have involved the parotid gland and only six cases involving the submandibular gland exist in the current literature. Metastasis of RCC to thyroid gland is also rare but appears to be more common than to salivary glands. Methods and Results. We present the first case of simultaneous metastasis to the submandibular and thyroid glands from clear cell RCC in a 61-year-old woman who presented seven years after the primary treatment. The submandibular and thyroid glands were excised completely with preservation of the marginal mandibular and recurrent laryngeal nerves, respectively. Conclusion. Metastatic disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with painless salivary or thyroid gland swelling with a previous history of RCC. If metastatic disease is confined only to these glands, prompt surgical excision can be curative.

Mohammed S. Miah; Sharon J. White; George Oommen; Esther Birney; Samit Majumdar

2010-01-01

172

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood to make the thyroid hormone. Thyroid Gland A ... the levels of the thyroid hormone in the blood. It secretes a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating ...

173

Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographi...

Yokoyama Junkichi; Ito Shin; Ohba Shinichi; Fujimaki Mitsuhisa; Sato Eriko; Komatsu Norio; Ikeda Katsuhisa; Hanaguri Makoto

174

Determination of tracheal volume in the examination of the thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among other thyroid parameters the volume of a tracheal segment, which is topographically adjectent to the thyroid gland was determinated. The quantitative level of compression can be determinated more accurate than by measuring the cross sections in dv and lateral X-ray projection mentioned.

Boehmer, F.; Seyss, R.

1985-03-01

175

Tuberculous abscess of the thyroid gland: a report of two cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is very rare, with an acute abscess formation being the least common form of presentation. We report the sono-graphic features of two cases of tuberculous thyroid abscess that were confirmed via ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy.

Kang M; Ojili V; Khandelwal N; Bhansali A

2006-06-01

176

Tuberculous abscess of the thyroid gland: a report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is very rare, with an acute abscess formation being the least common form of presentation. We report the sono-graphic features of two cases of tuberculous thyroid abscess that were confirmed via ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:16673371

Kang, Mandeep; Ojili, Vijayanadh; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Bhansali, Anil

2006-06-01

177

Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response.

Ling, M.C.; Dake, M.D.; Okerlund, M.D.

1988-04-01

178

Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response

1988-01-01

179

Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of (/sup 131/I) and (99mTc)pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter.

Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

1986-09-01

180

Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

2009-04-15

 
 
 
 
181

Interferon-induced progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with enlarged thyroid glands in gynecological patient: A case report and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case report presents a progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid glands and increased thyreotropin hormone concentration-associated with interferon treatment in human papillomavirus infected patient with the autoimmune thyroiditis and a daily L-thyroxin hormone replacement therapy background. Observation was supplemented with a brief review of literature and discussion. On the basis of this observation and a brief review of literature authors suggested that the potential adverse effects of interferon therapy are overbalanced than its benefits for gynecological patients, therefore any interferon treatment should be recommended with strict indications as well as after screening of conditions and functions of thyroid glands and other interferon target organs to avoid interferon treatment side effects. Practitioners especially gynecologists should inform their patients about pleiotropic interferon effects and its high frequent and wide range side effects before to start such kind of treatment.

Ospan Mynbaev; Marina Eliseeva; Artem Chernov; Ioannis Kosmas; Andrea Tinelli; Victor Radzinsky; Victor Tsarev

2013-01-01

182

Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range f...

Iwata Tomoyuki; Yoshida Tadao; Teranishi Masaaki; Murata Yoshiharu; Hayashi Yoshitaka; Kanou Yasuhiko; Griffith Andrew J

183

Distribution of 129I in soil and in cattle thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Depth profile of 129I in surface soil was measured with some long-lived radionuclides. In the organic rich soil 129I remained in the surface. Distribution ratio of radioiodine in surface soil decreased after heated, irradiated by ?-ray, and fumigated with chloroform. So radioiodine were trapped by the effect of living in the surface soil. Iodine and 129I in thyroid gland of cattle and human were measured by neutron activation analysis and compared each other. 129I/127I ratio in Japanese thyroid gland are lower than cattle. And also those data of Japanese human thyroid were lower than European. (author).

1995-12-01

184

A virtual reality simulator for training of needle biopsy of thyroid gland nodules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fine needle biopsy is an important minimally invasive procedure for providing accurate diagnosis in cases of thyroid gland nodules. This paper presents the research, development and evaluation of a virtual reality simulator for the training of ultrasound guided needle biopsy of thyroid gland nodules, using 3D models and haptic devices. The system is also an educative tool, where the user can interact with a thyroid 3D model to feel its texture, as well as rotate a complete model of the neck with transparency in order to study all its internal organs.

Souza IA; Sanches C Jr; Zuffo MK

2009-01-01

185

Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

Bondarenko O.O.; Shponka I.S.; Shponka V.I.

2009-01-01

186

Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 ? 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 ? 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall. In summary, the radiofrequency ablation therapy for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules located in anterior aspect (within a 5 mm radius) of the thyroid gland in human suggests this is an effective treatment, though this was an animal study performed on dogs.

2005-01-01

187

Tumor-in-tumor of the thyroid with basaloid differentiation: a lesion with a solid cell nest neoplastic component?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes an encapsulated thyroid tumor having 3 different concentric appearances in a 70-year-old man. The most peripheral neoplasm showed features of a microfollicular adenoma; the intermediate lesion displayed typical features of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC); and the main, central neoplasm, showed a basaloid configuration. At variance with the other neoplasms, the latter component exhibited high mitotic activity. Necrosis, angio-invasion, or capsular invasions were not observed. The centrally located neoplasm was immunoreactive for several cytokeratins, p63, carcinoembryonic antigen, and galectin-3, and negative for thyroid transcription factor 1, thyroglobulin, calcitonin, CD5, and CK20, featuring a phenotype similar to that of thyroid solid cell nests. A N-RAS mutation was found both in the basaloid and in the FVPTC components. The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data ruled out the alternative possibilities of intrathyroidal metastasis and tumor from ectopic (thymic, parathyroid, or salivary gland) tissues.

Eloy C; Vinagre J; Cameselle-Teijeiro J; Paiva ME; Soares P; Sobrinho-Simões M

2011-04-01

188

Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

1997-01-01

189

Ultrasound examination of the thyroid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland.

Swaenepoel, L.; Demeester-Mirkine, N.; Sacre, R.; Jockheer, M.H.; van Geertruyden, J.

1982-07-01

190

Radionuclide method for functional and structural examination of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The aim of this study is development and routine daily practice of the radionuclide method for tracking of the thyroid gland functional status and structure. 168 patients with various thyroid diseases were examined. Nuclear medicine examination is held by gamma camera (Siemens and ADAK). 74 MBq 99m Tc-pertechnetate is injected intravenous. The activity of full and empty syringe is measured. Static scintigrams of full and empty syringes and injection place and duration 10 seconds are carried out. On 20 th minute a static scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with a duration of 300 seconds in front position is held. The individual dose calibration factor is calculated. The functional status of thyroid gland as well as its structural changes is determined. In addition, the relationships between the accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the salivary glands and thyroid are determined. 168 patients are studied, 97 of them are with euthyroidism, 71 with hyperthyroidism and 19 - with hypothyroidism. The nuclear medicine diagnostic method provides information about functional and structural condition of the thyroid gland. The study is determining for decision to conduct the metabolic brachytherapy of hyperthyroid conditions

2009-01-01

191

Study on ultrastructural changes in thyroid gland of rats exposed to pulsed electromagnetic wave  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work is to observe effects of PEMW (pulse electromagnetic wave) exposure on function and morphology of thyroid gland of rats. At different time points (24, 48, 96 and 192 h) after exposure to PEMW (E=115 kV m-1, 12000 pulses), radioimmunoassay was performed to observe the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodo- thyronine (T3) in sera of the male Sparague-Dawley rats. Optic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe structural changes of the thyroid gland at the time points. The T3, T4 and TSH in sera increased significantly, reaching a peak at 24 h and decreasing gradually then. Although no obvious changes in the thyroid gland were observed under the optic microscope, some ultrastructural changes in the thyroid gland were found under the TEM. The ultrastructures were obviously changed at 12 h and aggravated until 48 h. In the experimented rats, dilatated endoplasmic reticulum gathered with lots of protein excretion, lipid droplet and heterochromatin gathered under the nucleus membranes were observed in follicular epithelial cells. These changes were palliated at 96 h but not recovered. PEMW can affect levels of hormones in sera and the hazard ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland. Endoplasmic reticulum is the main injured organelle. (authors)

2006-01-01

192

Analysis of the arterial anatomical variations of thyroid gland: anatomic guide for surgical neck dissection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to establish preliminary data on the variations of arterial supply of thyroid gland in Karnataka population. METHODS: The anterior triangles in the neck of formalin fixed cadavers were dissected. The length, branching pattern, number and length of branches of superior thyroid artery (STA) were noted. We measured the length of inferior thyroid artery (ITA) from its point of emergence from thyrocervical trunk (TCT) to lower pole of thyroid gland. The length of the external carotid artery (ECA), TCT from the point of its emergence to the point of its branching was noted. We noted the number of branches from ITA and TCT. Presence of any additional artery supplying the thyroid gland was searched for. Difference in the length of STA and ITA between the two sexes and sides were noted. Statistical analysis was done by Student's t-test. RESULTS: In our study the maximum length of STA was 5.34cm and that of ITA was 5.07cm and there were no statistically significant side-to-side differences in level of bifurcation. CONCLUSIONS: Observations of the present study on the course and branching pattern of arteries around thyroid gland will help in easier approach during thyroid surgeries and interventional techniques (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 38).

Ray B; Pugazhandhi B; D'Souza AS; Saran S; Fasil M; Srinivasa RS

2012-01-01

193

[A case of solitary metastasis from renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of solitary metastasis with renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland is presented. The patient was a 54-year-old man found to have an abnormal mass in the neck. He had a past history of radical nephrectomy orignating from the right renal cell carcinoma 5 years earlier (pT2N0M0, G2 > 3, alveolar type, clear cell subtype). Ultrasonography revealed a tumor mass in the right hemithyroid gland. Right hemithyroidectomy was performed on April 19, 1995. Histopathologically, the removed thyroid tumor showed clear cell carcinoma. The possibility of a primary thyroid tumor was ruled out by immunohistochemical thyroglobulin staining, and the present case was thus diagnosed as of metastatic thyroid tumor of renal cell carcinoma. The present case is the 12th case of thyroid solitary metastasis of renal cell carcinoma reported in Japan to date.

Muramoto M; Uchida T; Shibata Y; Kyuno H; Ishii J; Iwamura M; Mashimo S; Koshiba K; Ohbu M; Kameya T; Sugino K; Ito K

1996-02-01

194

Cystic Change of Thyroid Mass: A Useful Sign in Differentiating Benign from Malignant Thyroid Lesions?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the usefulness of the cystic change of the thyroid mass in the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions. We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic (US) findings of 65 benign (30 follicular adenomas and 35 nodular hyperplasias) and 206 malignant (202 papillary carcinomas and 4 follicular carcinomas) lesions that had been confirmed by surgery. The cystic change was graded as 0 (mass without cystic change), 1, 2, 3 and 4 (cystic change less than 25%, 25-50%, 51-75%, and more than 75% of the volume of the mass, respectively). The incidence and grades of the cystic change of the benign thyroid lesions were compared with those of the malignant lesions. We also evaluated the US features of the cystic change to evaluate any differences between benign and malignant lesions. Statistical significance was assessed by Chi-square test. Cystic change was present in 47/65 (72.3%) of benign thyroid lesions (21/30 [70%] of follicular adenomas and 26/35 [74.3%] of nodular hyperplasias) and 16/206 (7.8%) of malignant lesions (14/202 [6.9%] of papillary carcinomas and 2/4 [50%] of follicular carcinomas). The grades of cystic change were grade 1 in 29/47 (61.7%), 2 in 2/47 (4.3%), 3 in 2/47 (4.3%), and 4 in 14/47 (29.8%) for benign thyroid lesions, and grade 1 in 14/16 (87.5%) and 3 in 2/16 (12.5%) for malignant lesions. In regard to the US features of cystic change, a large cyst with polypoid projection less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst with a peripheral rind of solid component were exclusively found in the benign thyroid lesions. In contrast, malignant lesions frequently presented as a mass with irregularly mixed, solid and cystic components, a solid mass with multiple cystic components, or a solid mass with one or two cystic components. Cystic change was more common (p

2007-01-01

195

[Fibromatosis of the thyroid gland region. An electron-microscopic and enzyme-histochemical study (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two cases of aggressive fibromatosis of the thyroid gland region were studied by histological, immunhistological and electron-microscopic methods. Contractile cells can be found in all tissue preparations using human serum containing antibodies to smooth muscle, especially in the periphery of the tumor. These cells have the characteristics of myofibroblasts by electron microscopy. The central areas of the tumor are composed of hyalin thickened bundles of collagen fibres with few cellular elements. The myofibroblast is thus considered to be the characteristic cell type of the tumor, and the pathogenesis and histogenesis of the lesion are discussed.

Schwarzlmüller B; Hofstädter F

1978-02-01

196

An Abattoir Study of Thyroid Histopathology in Ewes and their Fetus in Ahvaz City of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thyroid structural changes in pregnant ewes and their fetuses were investigated. Out of 100 pairs of thyroid glands collected from ewes and their fetuses at the local municipal abattoir in Ahvaz city of Khuzestan province, multiple lesions were seen in 59% and 21% of the thyroid glands of ewes and fetuses, respectively. Histologically, ninety nine lesions in the ewes and twenty two lesions in the fetuses’ thyroid glands were noticed.

Mohammad Nouri; Babak Mohammadian; Reza Pourjamshid

2010-01-01

197

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-directed induction of the CREM gene in the thyroid gland participates in the long-term desensitization of the TSH receptor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thyroid gland function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis via the secretion of TSH, according to environmental, developmental, and circadian stimuli. TSH modulates both the secretion of thyroid hormone and gland trophism through interaction with a specific guanine nucleotide-binding pro...

Lalli, E; Sassone-Corsi, P

198

Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs.

Gibbons PM; Garner MM; Kiupel M

2013-03-01

199

Thyroid Nodule Demonstrating Itself as Calcified Lung Lesion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multinodular goiter (MNG) is the most prevalent thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland enlarge as a result of MNG, the initial extension is typically outward. After this cervical  enlargement, expansion may extend in to the mediastinum. As substernal goiters enlarge within the mediastinum, vascular and visceral structures may slowly became compressed. The most common symptoms of substernal goiter result from compression of the trachea and/ or esophagus and include dyspnea, choking sensation, cough, and dysphagia. Progressive hoarseness and superior vena cava syndrome are less common symptoms. Substernal goiters can remain asymptomatic for many years and it may be diagnosed incidentally. For example, routine chest radiography may reveal a mediastinal mass or tracheal deviation. Many authors have advocated surgical removal of all substernal goiters, even when these goiters are asymptomatic. In this article, we report a case of substernal MNG which demonstrating itself as a nodular calcification on chest X-Ray radiography.

Ediz Yorganc?lar; Müzeyyen Y?ld?r?m; Ramazan Gün; Faruk Meriç; ?smail Topçu

2010-01-01

200

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland associated with multinodular goiter: case report and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from plasma cells most commonly occurring in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx and larynx. Thyroid involvement is rare and less than 75 cases of SEP of the thyroid gland have been reported to date. A 74-year-old woman with an history of multinodular goiter presented with dysphonia and painful neck swelling, related to a rapidly growing nodule in the right thyroid lobe. Thyroid function tests showed subclinical hypothyroidism; no evidence of Hashimoto's disease was found. Ultrasound confirmed the presence of an isoechoic nodule, 35 mm in diameter, with a CDIII vascular pattern. FNAC showed a monotonous population of atypical cells, interpreted as suspicious for malignant neoplasia (Thyr. 4). The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination showed a unencapsulated neoplasm composed of atypical tumour cells characterized by abundant cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei. At immunohistochemistry, tumour cells revealed diffuse reactivity for CD138 and CD45RB and predominant staining for kappa chains. Pan-cytokeratins, TTF1, thyreoglobulin, calcitonin, CD20 and CD79a were negative. Clinically, a complete multiple myeloma workup was negative. On this basis, a definitive diagnosis of SEP was made. At 16 months follow-up, the patient showed good clinical conditions without evidence of multiple myeloma. In conclusion, SEP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a rapidly enlarging thyroid nodule. Clinical correlation and immunocytochemistry are crucial in avoiding pitfalls. Surgery remains the best modality of treatment whenever the lesion is localized and easily removable.

Puliga G; Olla L; Bellisano G; Di Naro N; Ganau M; Lai ML; Faa G; Tolu GA

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Chronic urticaria in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: significance of severity of thyroid gland inflammation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a clear association between autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and chronic urticaria/angioedema (CUA). However, not all patients with AT demonstrate urticaria. AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate in which patients with AT did CUA become a problem. A sensitive inflammation marker, neopterine (NP) was used to confirm whether the severity of inflammation in the thyroid gland was responsible for urticaria or not. Methods: Neopterine levels were assessed in patients with AT with urticaria and without urticaria. Furthermore, levels were compared in relation to pre and post levothyroxine treatment. Twenty-seven patients with urticaria (Group 1) and 28 patients without urticaria (Group 2) were enrolled in the study. A course of levothyroxine treatment was given to all patients, and urine neopterine levels before and after the trial were obtained. RESULTS: All patients completed the trial. Mean age in Group 1 and Group 2 was similar (35.70 ± 10.86 years and 38.36 ± 10.38 years, respectively) (P=0.358). Pre-treatment urine neopterine levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P=0.012). Post-treatment levels decreased in each group, as expected. However, the decrease in the neopterine level was insignificant in the patients of Group 2 (P=0.282). In Group 1, a significant decrease in post-treatment neopterine levels (P=0.015) was associated with the remission of urticaria. CONCLUSION: In patients with CUA and AT, pre-treatment elevated levels of NP, and its decrease with levothyroxine treatment along with symptomatic relief in urticaria, may be evidence of the relationship between the degree of inflammation in thyroid and presence of urticaria.

Gulec M; Kartal O; Caliskaner AZ; Yazici M; Yaman H; Ozturk S; Sener O

2011-07-01

202

An Abattoir Study of Ovine Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Lesions and the Respective Serum T3 andT4 Levels in an Endemic Goiter Region in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of histologic thyroids lesions and the respective thyroid hormones changes of ewes in an endemic goiter region and to find out any impact of this condition on the fetal thyroid structures and serum thyroid hormones. In the present study a total number of 100 pregnant ewes and their fetuses slaughtered at slaughterhouse were selected for the study. The sera were prepared from the jugular vein blood of ewes and fetuses umbilical cords. The ewes and fetuses thyroids subjected to histopathological examination and radioimmunoassay procedure was used for sera T3 and T4 assay. The results showed a high prevalence of thyroid lesions in ewes and their fetuses. The different kinds of lesions including cysts, follicular hyperplasia, hemorrhage and inflammation were seen in ewes. In the fetuses thyroid structural changes were cysts resemble structures; hemorrhage and hyperemia. Mean T4 concentration was significantly higher in the ewes with pathologic thyroid compared to normal animals. However, there was not any significant difference between pathologic and normal ewes’ thyroids on serum T3. Although, existence of lesions on fetal thyroids did not affect the serum concentrations of T4 and T3, there was a significant correlation between T4 and T3 serum concentrations of fetuses and their age. In conclusion, the significant prevalence of fetal and maternal thyroid pathological changes in the endemic goiter region raises a question about probable congenital source of these variations. The thyroid lesions significantly influenced the functions of mothers' gland but not fetuses.

Mohammad Darakhshesh; Mohammad Nouri; Annahita Rezaei; Farid Barati

2011-01-01

203

Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología.Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

MARÍA ANGÉLICA MATAMALA S; MIGUEL GONZÁLEZ P; GONZALO ROSSEL D; CONSTANZA NIEME S

2012-01-01

204

Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores/ Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello (more) del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología. Abstract in english Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head an (more) d neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

MATAMALA S, MARÍA ANGÉLICA; GONZÁLEZ P, MIGUEL; ROSSEL D, GONZALO; NIEME S, CONSTANZA

2012-08-01

205

Endocrine glands  

Science.gov (United States)

The endocrine system is primarily composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the thymus, ...

206

[Effect of phenformin on fetal mass in rats previously immunized with an extract of homologous thyroid gland].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rats immunized with homologous thyroid antigen 9-27 weeks before delivery manifest an increase in the mean weight of fetus as compared with normal pregnant rats. Administration of phenformin (7.5 mg/day per os) during immunization and over 30 days after its discontinuance led to a significant weight reduction as compared with immunized animals not given phenformin. The latter's effect became more potent with an increase in the interval between immunization discontinuance and delivery. Prophylaxis and cure of the latent and evident autoimmune lesions of the thyroid gland during childhood and juvenescence are regarded as approaches to the prevention of endocrine and metabolic disorders favouring large fetus delivery. PMID:7020797

Bershte?n, L M; Okulov, V B; Aleksandrov, V A; Fedorova, L V; Dil'man, V M

1981-05-01

207

Fine-needle aspiration of primary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid gland, a potential mimic of papillary thyroid carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) as a primary solitary nodule in the thyroid gland is rare. As a result, there are few reports of its cytologic features in thyroid aspirates where it can pose a diagnostic pitfall. CASE AND CONCLUSION: To foster familiarity with its cytomorphology, we report the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) findings of 3 specimens from 2 patients with LCH presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule. All aspirates contained numerous dispersed cells with prominent nuclear grooves, and the background showed a mixed pattern of chronic inflammation including scattered eosinophils. The aspirate from patient 1 raised a differential diagnosis that included chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and a thyroglossal duct cyst, while the aspirate from patient 2 was interpreted as 'suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma'. The diagnosis of LCH was confirmed in both patients after lobectomy and immunohistochemical studies that revealed positive reactivity for CD1a and S-100. LCH of the thyroid gland is rare and can pose significant diagnostic challenges, but increased familiarity with its characteristic cytomorphology can help in avoiding diagnostic pitfalls.

Pusztaszeri MP; Sauder KJ; Cibas ES; Faquin WC

2013-01-01

208

Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4) concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during breeding and post-breeding and low concentration during quiescence. However, the T4 concentration increased from breeding to post-breeding phase, when the testes weight was declining. It is suggested that in S. heathi the positive correlation between thyroid and testicular cycles occurs only during the phases of the reproductive cycle when the body weight and testicular activity are also closely correlated.

KRISHNA A.; SINGH K.

1998-01-01

209

Variations in the anatomy of the thyroid gland: clinical implications of a cadaver study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surgical removal of the thyroid gland is associated with risk of damage to the parathyroid glands, external branch of superior laryngeal nerves, inferior laryngeal nerves, and haematoma due to vascular damage and the chance of residual thyroid tissue being left in case of cancer and Graves' disease. The present study was designed to report the prevalence of anatomical variations and developmental anomalies of the thyroid gland that will hopefully help to minimise the aforementioned complications related to thyroid surgery. A total of 52 male and 18 female properly embalmed cadavers were dissected. The thyroid gland was examined for the presence of the pyramidal lobe, levator glandulae thyroideae and partial or complete absence of isthmus. Length, greatest transverse and anteroposterior extent of both the right and left lobe of the gland was recorded. A pyramidal lobe was present in 43.9% male and 22.2% female cadavers and was more prevalent on the left side of the median plane. Levator glandulae thyroideae was present in 34.6% male and 27.8% female cadavers. Isthmus was absent in 9.6% male and 5.6% female cadavers. The average length, greatest transverse and anteroposterior extent of right lobe was 4.43, 2.54 and 1.69 cm, respectively, whereas for the left lobe it was 4.21, 2.63 and 1.7 cm, respectively. The nature of the specimens studied, and the region where the study is carried out, affect the different goitre zones, age, sex, and race of population studied, all of which can contribute to the anatomical variations of the thyroid gland found in different reports by various authors.

Prakash; Rajini T; Ramachandran A; Savalgi GB; Venkata SP; Mokhasi V

2012-03-01

210

[The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used

Abduvaliev AA; Gil'dieva MS; Khidirov BN; Sa?dalieva M; Khasanov AA; Musaeva ShN; Saatov TS

2012-04-01

211

Thyroid Carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid cancer develops in the follicular cells of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck below the voice box. The thyroid gland secretes hormones that control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and weight.

212

The influence of smoking habits on thyroid gland volume: an ultrasonic approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of smoking habits on thyroid function, echo-texture (nodules and/or cysts) and thyroid gland volume were determined by using ultrasound and measuring serum Thyroxin (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyrotropin (TSH) and TPO antibodies (ab-TPO) in 189 healthy smokers and non-smokers, randomly selected (111 females and 78 males) among the employees of our hospital and their relatives. When the entire group of subjects was considered the mean ratio of thyroid gland volume/body weight was found to be significantly higher in male (P < 0.05) and female (P < 0.05) smokers compared with non-smokers. In female smokers, mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was lower (P < 0.05) and the degree of smoking was positively correlated with the ratio of thyroid gland volume/body weight (P < 0.05). However, when the subjects with a family history of goitre in first degree relatives were excluded from our study (14 females and 9 males), no significant differences in mean ratio of thyroid volume/weight or TSH between the remaining smokers and non-smokers were detected. In both sexes, the correlation between the degree of smoking and thyroid volume, although positive, did not reach statistical significance. No difference in prevalence of abnormal echogenicity and echo-texture (nodules and cysts) between smokers and non-smokers was detected. It is concluded that smoking habits present a goitrogenic effect only in subjects with a family history of goitre but have no influence on thyroid gland texture.

Georgiadis E; Papapostolou C; Korakis T; Evagelopoulou K; Mantzoros C; Batrinos M

1997-12-01

213

Fallout sup 131 I in western Nevada cattle thyroid glands: 1962-early 1969  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been continuing interest in historical fallout data. The authors have previously published data concerning the concentrations of fallout radioactive {sup 131}I in the thyroid glands of cattle from the Nevada Test Site and from commercial slaughter cattle. These data showed that bovine thyroid {sup 131}I was an effective monitor of both local and worldwide fresh nuclear fallout. This paper extends the data on commercial slaughter cattle from western Nevada through early 1969.

Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States))

1991-10-01

214

Calcium iodate-another effective blocker of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

KI and KIO3 are the commonly used prophylactic drugs for the protection of thyroid glands against radioiodine. In this study, we have demonstrated the use of another iodine containing salt, calcium iodate [Ca(IO3)2], as an effective blocker of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland in rats. Ca(IO3)2 is permitted by the FDA as a food additive and is "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS, CFR No.1206). We have also compared the efficacy of Ca(IO3)2 with KIO3 in blocking thyroidal uptake of radioiodine, which could be important considering the better shelf life of Ca(IO3)2. Laboratory rats were administered 131I and stable iodide in the form of KIO3 or Ca(IO3)2 was given orally, 2 h after the administration of 131I. All the animals were monitored for whole body retention (WBR) of 131I, at 24 h and further for 14 d. The results of the present study provide us with evidence that Ca(IO3)2 can serve as another promising radioiodine blocker, and is as equipotent as KI/KIO3 in protecting the thyroid gland. We have not found any studies that examined the property of Ca(IO3)2 in blocking radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland and the present study is an attempt in this direction. PMID:15951696

Pahuja, D N; Jagtap, V S; Sonawane, V R; Rajan, M G R; Samuel, A M

2005-07-01

215

Calcium iodate-another effective blocker of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

KI and KIO3 are the commonly used prophylactic drugs for the protection of thyroid glands against radioiodine. In this study, we have demonstrated the use of another iodine containing salt, calcium iodate [Ca(IO3)2], as an effective blocker of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland in rats. Ca(IO3)2 is permitted by the FDA as a food additive and is "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS, CFR No.1206). We have also compared the efficacy of Ca(IO3)2 with KIO3 in blocking thyroidal uptake of radioiodine, which could be important considering the better shelf life of Ca(IO3)2. Laboratory rats were administered 131I and stable iodide in the form of KIO3 or Ca(IO3)2 was given orally, 2 h after the administration of 131I. All the animals were monitored for whole body retention (WBR) of 131I, at 24 h and further for 14 d. The results of the present study provide us with evidence that Ca(IO3)2 can serve as another promising radioiodine blocker, and is as equipotent as KI/KIO3 in protecting the thyroid gland. We have not found any studies that examined the property of Ca(IO3)2 in blocking radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland and the present study is an attempt in this direction.

Pahuja DN; Jagtap VS; Sonawane VR; Rajan MG; Samuel AM

2005-07-01

216

Malignant thyroglossal duct cyst with synchronous occult thyroid gland papillary carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 52-year-old male was referred to our department with complaints of a painless midline neck swelling. Clinico-radiological evaluation suggested a 6 × 5 cm thyroglossal cyst with non-palpable nodules in isthmus and right lobe of thyroid gland. FNAC of the thyroglossal cyst was suggestive of papillary carcinoma. He underwent Sistrunk's operation, total thyroidectomy, and central compartment neck dissection. Co-existence of papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland and thyroglossal cyst is a rare presentation and in this report, we describe our management and propose an evidence-based algorithm to assist decision-making in the management of these patients in future. PMID:24083187

Senthilkumar, R; Neville, J F; Aravind, R

2013-09-01

217

[The influence of normobaric hypoxia on the morphofunctional changes of thyroid gland in young rats].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the influence of hypoxic gas mixture (the different modes) on the morphometric indexes of thyroid gland functional activity in 3-mounth rats. It was shown a decrease in the size of follicles of middle area and the colloid and an increase in the amount of thyrocytes in a follicle, resorption vacuoles and interfollicular epithelium after exposure to hypoxic gas mixture (10% oxygen). We also detected an increase in a follicle-colloid index and a decrease in the colloid accumulation index. Thus, a dosed normobaric hypoxia intensifies the functional activity and physiological regeneration processes of thyroid gland in the young animals.

Ianko RV

2013-01-01

218

Tumour-like lesions of the salivary glands. The new WHO classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumour-like lesions must be distinguished from true tumours of the salivary glands. In the new WHO classification of salivary gland tumours seven entities were considered: sialadenosis, oncocytosis (diffuse oncocytosis and focal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia), necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland infarction), benign lymphoepithelial lesion (chronic myoepithelial sialadenitis), salivary duct cysts (mucoceles of the minor salivary glands of extravasation or retention type, cysts of the major salivary glands, ranula and dysgenetic polycystic disease of the parotid gland), chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the submandibular gland (Küttner tumour), and cystic lymphoid hyperplasia in AIDS. The main topics of clinical data and pathohistology were described and documented by the results of the Salivary Gland Register in Hamburg (1965-1989). PMID:1448373

Seifert, G

1992-10-01

219

Tumour-like lesions of the salivary glands. The new WHO classification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tumour-like lesions must be distinguished from true tumours of the salivary glands. In the new WHO classification of salivary gland tumours seven entities were considered: sialadenosis, oncocytosis (diffuse oncocytosis and focal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia), necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland infarction), benign lymphoepithelial lesion (chronic myoepithelial sialadenitis), salivary duct cysts (mucoceles of the minor salivary glands of extravasation or retention type, cysts of the major salivary glands, ranula and dysgenetic polycystic disease of the parotid gland), chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the submandibular gland (Küttner tumour), and cystic lymphoid hyperplasia in AIDS. The main topics of clinical data and pathohistology were described and documented by the results of the Salivary Gland Register in Hamburg (1965-1989).

Seifert G

1992-10-01

220

Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland lesions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Jan , BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnosis and treatment planning of the lesions of the salivary gland. METHODS: Eight hundred seventy-nine aspiration biopsies of the lesion of the salivary gland over a...

Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

222

Quiste linfoepitelial intratiroideo: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura/ Lymphoepithelial cyst of the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Describimos un caso de quiste linfoepitelial intratiroideo en un varón de 31 años con tiroiditis linfocítica crónica y diagnosticado previamente de bocio multinodular. La lesión fue extirpada e histológicamente estaba tapizada por epitelio escamoso y/o cilíndrico y subyacentemente presentaba celularidad linfoide con patrón folicular. Según la literatura revisada, tan sólo hay veinte casos descritos en la literatura médica y en diez casos estaban asociados a tiroiditis crónica. Abstract in english We report a case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the thyroid gland in a 31 year-old-man with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and history of multinodular goiter. The lesion was resected and the histopathologic examination showed that the cystic mass was lined by squamous and focally columnar epithelium, an it was surrounded by follicular lymphoid tissue. To our knowledge only twenty cases of this lesion have been reported in the medical literature. An association with chronic thyroiditis has been noted in 10 cases.

San Miguel Fraile, P.; Fernández Pérez, G. C.; Ortiz Rey, J. A.; Rivas Barros, C.; Rouco Rouco, J. S.

2006-05-01

223

Nonpalpable solid thyroid nodules : Is FNAB necessary in all lesions?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To provide new US criteria for the indication of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in nonpalpable solid thyroid nodules. The US scans of 155 non-palpable thyroid nodules in 132 subjects were prospectively classified as benign or malignant. Malignant findings included microcalcifications, irregular or microlobulated margin, marked hypoechogenicity and taller than wider shape. If even a single malignant feature was present, the nodule was classified as malignant. If nodules didn't have any malignant features, they were classified as benign. Final diagnosis of benign (n=106) or malignant (n=49) was obtained by means of FNAB and follow-up (>6 months) in 83 benign nodules, by FNAB and surgery in 44 malignant and 15 benign lesions, and by surgery alone in 5 malignant and 8 benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated using our proposed classification method. Considering the high level of sensitivity of our proposed US classification, fine-needle aspiration biopsy should be performed on thyroid nodules classified as malignant category, although nonpalpable.

Kim, E. K; Oh, K. K; Lee, J. T; Yoo, H. S [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2000-12-15

224

Nonpalpable solid thyroid nodules : Is FNAB necessary in all lesions?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide new US criteria for the indication of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in nonpalpable solid thyroid nodules. The US scans of 155 non-palpable thyroid nodules in 132 subjects were prospectively classified as benign or malignant. Malignant findings included microcalcifications, irregular or microlobulated margin, marked hypoechogenicity and taller than wider shape. If even a single malignant feature was present, the nodule was classified as malignant. If nodules didn't have any malignant features, they were classified as benign. Final diagnosis of benign (n=106) or malignant (n=49) was obtained by means of FNAB and follow-up (>6 months) in 83 benign nodules, by FNAB and surgery in 44 malignant and 15 benign lesions, and by surgery alone in 5 malignant and 8 benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated using our proposed classification method. Considering the high level of sensitivity of our proposed US classification, fine-needle aspiration biopsy should be performed on thyroid nodules classified as malignant category, although nonpalpable.

2000-01-01

225

Physical and radiological findings specific for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preoperative physical and radiological findings, if specific to a certain extent, are important for detecting patients with sporadic form of medullary thyroid carcinoma and especially for the first patient in the family having a hereditary form of medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma syndrome. To delineate clinical features of medullary thyroid carcinoma, a total of 9 patients with this tumor were reviewed retrospectively. In most patients, the thyroid lesions were located in the upper two thirds of the lobe, which was determined by careful palpation or 131I scintiscanning of the thyroid. The primary lesion in the thyroid could be felt more or less as a round, sharply demarcated nodule with fairly good mobility. These findings suggested rather a benign thyroid nodule when there was no lymph node involvement. However, it could be considered a sign suggesting medullary thyroid carcinoma when accompanied by marked lymph node metastasis. In our recent 2 cases, the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma was strongly suspected on these clinical bases, one of the cases being presented in detail. In 4 patients, lymph node metastasis in the central neck extended to either submandibular or upper mediastinal regions or both. In about one third of the patients, calcified deposits were shown in the cervical roentgenograms. With the use of soft tissue roentgenography, grossly punctate calcific deposits associated with psammoma-like shadows were recognized and the pattern was a criterion for definitive diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Fujimoto Y; Oka A; Fukumitsu M; Obara T; Akisada M

1975-06-01

226

Lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma masquerading as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most common cause of proptosis in adult female, especially those with positive thyroid antibody. Sometimes, other diagnoses should be considered. A 45-year-old female presented with progressive right proptosis and mild diplopia for 2 years. One year earlier, she had been diagnosed with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy because of abnormal thyroid autoantibody. Computed tomography scan showed a 2.4- × 1.9- × 1.6-mm heterogeneous soft-tissue density lying above the left eye. Excisional biopsy of this mass revealed the histopathologic diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. This case highlights the need for including other diagnoses such as pleomorphic adenoma in the differential diagnosis of patients with proptosis, diplopia and abnormal thyroid antibody.

Huang SK; Tsai CC; Lin CH; Kau HC; Kao SC; Lee FL

2013-08-01

227

Lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma masquerading as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most common cause of proptosis in adult female, especially those with positive thyroid antibody. Sometimes, other diagnoses should be considered. A 45-year-old female presented with progressive right proptosis and mild diplopia for 2 years. One year earlier, she had been diagnosed with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy because of abnormal thyroid autoantibody. Computed tomography scan showed a 2.4- × 1.9- × 1.6-mm heterogeneous soft-tissue density lying above the left eye. Excisional biopsy of this mass revealed the histopathologic diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. This case highlights the need for including other diagnoses such as pleomorphic adenoma in the differential diagnosis of patients with proptosis, diplopia and abnormal thyroid antibody. PMID:23514669

Huang, Shih-Kung; Tsai, Chieh-Chih; Lin, Chin-Hsuan; Kau, Hui-Chuan; Kao, Shu-Ching; Lee, Fenq-Lih

2013-08-01

228

Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid bed lesions from patients with thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and the limitation of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in thyroid bed lesions, a retrospective review was performed of the medical records of thyroid cancer patients who underwent ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy of the thyroid bed at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center over a 5-year period. METHODS: Data were reviewed on 220 FNA biopsies taken from thyroid bed lesions in 195 patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid bed FNA results were compared with clinical follow-up, including neck dissection results. RESULTS: Recurrent carcinoma was diagnosed by FNA biopsy in 139 of 220 (63%) cases. Neck dissections were performed for 112 sites identified by FNA biopsies, and recurrent carcinoma was confirmed in 110 sites. The concordance between positive and/or suspicious FNA diagnosis and positive neck dissection results was 98% (118 of 120 cases). A false-positive FNA occurred in one patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma. The other discrepancy was attributed to failure to remove the lesion by neck dissection. The diagnostic accuracy of thyroid bed FNA was 100% in papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma and 93% in follicular thyroid carcinoma. Suspicious and rare false-negative FNA results were attributed to low cellularity and lack of characteristic cytomorphologic features of thyroid carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided thyroid bed FNA biopsy is accurate and efficient in triaging patients who require post-thyroidectomy follow-up for recurrent thyroid carcinoma. Caution should be taken in the interpretation of FNA specimens that have low cellularity and lack characteristic cytologic features of thyroid carcinoma.

Zhao L; Gong Y; Wang J; Dawlett M; Huo L; Caraway NP; Guo M

2013-02-01

229

Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis

1986-01-01

230

Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

1986-04-01

231

Effect of laser treatment on thyroid gland hormones in female rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of laser treatment on thyroid functions and hormones in female rabbits. A total of 18 female rabbits were used in this investigation. Six rabbits were used for examining the thyroid gland location and dissected to be sure that laser therapy will be directed to this gland. Twelve female rabbits were used in this experiment to study the physiological effect of laser therapy (4J/cm2) on normal thyroid function they were divided into two equal groups, six used as control and the others were exposed to laser therapy at the thyroid gland region for three successive days for 5 minutes on each side. Then blood was collected for hormonal assay from ear vein at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after the last dose of laser treatment. The results revealed a gradual decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels with a concomitant increase in TSH level at the first eighteen days of laser treatment, then normalization of hormones level were take place to be normal after thirty days. More work is needed on this subject to examine the specific role of laser on glands.

N. S. AL-Mustawfi; T. S. Al- Azawi; I. F. R. Mohammed

2011-01-01

232

Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discha...

Ohbuchi Toyoaki; Tabata Takahisa; Nguyen Khac-Hung; Ohkubo Jun-ichi; Katoh Akiko; Suzuki Hideaki

233

Histologic changes in thyroid glands from great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Tokyo Bay, Japan: possible association with environmental contaminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared morphologic changes in thyroid glands of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from the Tokyo Bay and Lake Biwa areas in Japan with presence of residues of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs). Prominent morphologic changes in thyroid glands included increased density of small follicles and increased number of epithelial cells surrounding follicular lumens. The extent of morphologic changes in the thyroid gland was higher in cormorants captured from Tokyo Bay than in those captured from Lake Biwa. Increased thyroid change in cormorants from the Tokyo Bay area was associated with significantly higher levels of PCDFs and Co-PCBs. Thus, we suggest that morphologic changes in thyroid glands from the cormorants are associated with increased levels of dioxin contamination in Japan. PMID:15650097

Saita, E; Hayama, S; Kajigaya, H; Yoneda, K; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

2004-10-01

234

Histologic changes in thyroid glands from great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Tokyo Bay, Japan: possible association with environmental contaminants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We compared morphologic changes in thyroid glands of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from the Tokyo Bay and Lake Biwa areas in Japan with presence of residues of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs). Prominent morphologic changes in thyroid glands included increased density of small follicles and increased number of epithelial cells surrounding follicular lumens. The extent of morphologic changes in the thyroid gland was higher in cormorants captured from Tokyo Bay than in those captured from Lake Biwa. Increased thyroid change in cormorants from the Tokyo Bay area was associated with significantly higher levels of PCDFs and Co-PCBs. Thus, we suggest that morphologic changes in thyroid glands from the cormorants are associated with increased levels of dioxin contamination in Japan.

Saita E; Hayama S; Kajigaya H; Yoneda K; Watanabe G; Taya K

2004-10-01

235

Expression of urocortin and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors in the horse thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urocortin (UCN) is a 40-amino-acid peptide and a member of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family, which includes CRH, urotensin I, sauvagine, UCN2 and UCN3. The biological actions of CRH family peptides are mediated via two types of G-protein-coupled receptors, namely CRH type 1 receptor (CRHR1) and CRH type 2 receptor (CRHR2). The biological effects of these peptides are mediated and modulated not only by CRH receptors but also via a highly conserved CRH-binding protein (CRHBP). Our aim was to investigate the expression of UCN, CRHR1, CRHR2 and CRHBP by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the horse thyroid gland. The results showed that UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 were expressed in the thyroid gland, whereas CRHBP was not expressed. Specifically, UCN immunoreactivity (-IR) was found in the thyroid follicular cells, CRHR2-IR in the C-cells and CRHR1-IR in blood vessels. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiments confirmed the immunohistochemical data. These results suggest that a regulatory system exists in the mammalian thyroid gland based on UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 and that UCN plays a role in the regulation of thyroid physiological functions through a paracrine mechanism.

Squillacioti C; De Luca A; Alì S; Paino S; Liguori G; Mirabella N

2012-10-01

236

Expression of urocortin and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors in the horse thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urocortin (UCN) is a 40-amino-acid peptide and a member of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family, which includes CRH, urotensin I, sauvagine, UCN2 and UCN3. The biological actions of CRH family peptides are mediated via two types of G-protein-coupled receptors, namely CRH type 1 receptor (CRHR1) and CRH type 2 receptor (CRHR2). The biological effects of these peptides are mediated and modulated not only by CRH receptors but also via a highly conserved CRH-binding protein (CRHBP). Our aim was to investigate the expression of UCN, CRHR1, CRHR2 and CRHBP by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the horse thyroid gland. The results showed that UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 were expressed in the thyroid gland, whereas CRHBP was not expressed. Specifically, UCN immunoreactivity (-IR) was found in the thyroid follicular cells, CRHR2-IR in the C-cells and CRHR1-IR in blood vessels. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiments confirmed the immunohistochemical data. These results suggest that a regulatory system exists in the mammalian thyroid gland based on UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 and that UCN plays a role in the regulation of thyroid physiological functions through a paracrine mechanism. PMID:22684850

Squillacioti, Caterina; De Luca, Adriana; Alì, Sabrina; Paino, Salvatore; Liguori, Giovanna; Mirabella, Nicola

2012-06-12

237

The thyroid gland function assessment in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy during breast cancer therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: For many years much attention has been focused on an interaction between the breast disease and the thyroid gland function in the literature. In those studies the question whether disease changes in the thyroid gland can induces the breast disease was addressed. On the other hand there are a few works concerning the inverted question whether the breast cancer therapy, in particular after mastectomy and chemotherapy, can disturb the thyroid gland function. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the mastectomy and chemotherapy on the thyroid gland function in women after breast cancer therapy. Material and methods: 173 patients aged 30 - 80 (average 56) were included in this study. The studied group comprised 97 women after breast cancer therapy (average age 60). The control group consisted of 76 patients (average age 55). 75 patients after mastectomy of the studied group were additionally treated with chemotherapy, but in 22 women chemotherapy was not applied. The following methods were used to carry out the research: the USG method was applied to evaluate thyroid morphological condition in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy; the color Doppler technique was used for dynamic presentation and fine- needle aspiration biopsy: examination of the thyroid functional state by measuring the TSH, fT3, fT4 hormone concentration and the level of antithyroid antibodies. Results: An average concentration of antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and anti-Tg was found significantly higher in the studied group of women after chemotherapy, comparing with the control group. The level of fT3 hormone concentration was comparable in all investigated groups. Nevertheless, the average concentration of TSH was found higher in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy and as a consequence leading to hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the high level of the concentration of antithyroid antibodies: (anti-TPO and anti- Tg), which lead to destruction of the thyroid gland tissue, the thyroid gland function of the women after mastectomy and chemotherapy should be monitored morphologically as well as functionally. (author)

2007-01-01

238

Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso/ Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial. Abstract in english Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its clinical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

Silva, Gustavo Soares Corrêa; Chagas, Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro; Nunes, Maurício Buzelin; Paula, Rodrigo Assis de

2012-06-01

239

Effects of 131I on thyroid glands of guinea pigs of different ages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In view of the limited data on age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, and because of a need for this information, we injected fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs with single, graded dosages of iodine-131. Dosages were 0 to 100 ?Ci 131I and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rads. Subsequent testing of the animals' thyroid glands, in terms of function and size, yielded this order of radiosensitivity: wealing > fetus > neonate > adult. The differences, with regard to effects per rad, did not appear to exceed a factor of 6 between the most and least radiosensitive age-groups

1979-01-01

240

[Rodent thyroid gland function under hot climatic conditions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies have been made on the effect of high temperature and intensive insolation upon the uptake of iodide and hormone formation in the thyroid of rodents (Rhombomys opimus, Spermophilopsis leptodactylus, Citellus fulvus) with different adaptation to the environment. It was shown that high temperature in combination with solar radiation significantly decreases functional activity of the thyroid and affects some of the physiological indices of the organism. Animals with different ecological specialization differ in their reaction to factors of the hot climate.

Akhmetov IZ; Turakulov IaKh; Kha?rutdinov KhSh

1977-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

[Rodent thyroid gland function under hot climatic conditions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have been made on the effect of high temperature and intensive insolation upon the uptake of iodide and hormone formation in the thyroid of rodents (Rhombomys opimus, Spermophilopsis leptodactylus, Citellus fulvus) with different adaptation to the environment. It was shown that high temperature in combination with solar radiation significantly decreases functional activity of the thyroid and affects some of the physiological indices of the organism. Animals with different ecological specialization differ in their reaction to factors of the hot climate. PMID:899379

Akhmetov, I Z; Turakulov, Ia Kh; Kha?rutdinov, Kh Sh

242

Evaluation of thyroid scintigraphic lesions by whole-organ sections and autoradiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new technique for detailed morphological evaluation of scintigrams of thyroid lesions based on rapid, whole-organ sectioning technique combined with autoradiography is described. The findings in 10 thyroid specimens illustrate the possibilities for assessement of thyroid scintigrams, especially of hot nodules, by this technique.

Risberg, B.; Enestroem, S.; Lennquist, S.; Bergman, C. (University Hospital, Linkoeping, Sweden)

1982-01-01

243

Chromosomal rearrangements and the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The majority of thyroid cancers arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, which yield a wide variety of distinct morphotypes, ranging from relatively indolent lesions to the most malignant forms of cancer known. The remaining primary thyroid cancers arise from C cells within the gland an...

Honey V. Reddi; Alicia Algeciras-Schimnich; Bryan McIver; Norman L. Eberhardt; Stefan K.G. Grebe

244

Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland. Clinical usefulness of dynamic study in thallium-201 chloride scintigraphy for differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital ..gamma.. camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule.

Kishida, Toshihiro

1987-07-01

245

Thyroid Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... the world is a thyroid? What Is the Thyroid? The thyroid (say: thy -royd) is a gland, ... keeps the temperature just right. Continue What Is Thyroid Disease? There are two main kinds of thyroid ...

246

[Optimalization of methodical repertoire for laboratory diagnostic of autoimune diseases of the thyroid gland--aspiration cytology versus histology (cytodiagnostic accuracy)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study was evaluated the rate of cytodiagnostic accuracy of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in smears prepared from thyroid fine-needle aspirates in 72 cases and of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT) in 101 cases. The cytodiagnostic accuracy of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) was 75% and 20% in case of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT). In case of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT) the cytodiagnostics of autoimmune lymphocytic diseases of thyroid gland apears to have very low ability.

Nikolov DH

2005-01-01

247

Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

1999-01-01

248

Primary schwannoma of the thyroid gland involving the isthmus: report of a case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary thyroid schwannomas are extremely rare tumors and there are very few reports of such tumors in the literature. This report presents a rare case of schwannoma involving the isthmus of the thyroid in a 47-year-old male, presenting as a symptomatic predominating cold nodule within a multinodular goiter. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. The histological examination indicated an Antoni A-type schwannoma. The clinical, radiological and pathological findings of the tumor are discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in reaching a correct preoperative diagnosis. Only 18 cases of primary schwannoma of the thyroid gland have so far been described in the literature and, this is only the second report of thyroid schwannoma localized in the isthmus.

Graceffa G; Cipolla C; Florena AM; Gentile I; Pompei G; Latteri MA

2013-01-01

249

Clinical Significance of Diffuse 18F FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent 18F FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse 18F FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2±1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0±664.6 vs. 57.3±46.4, P18F FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The 18F FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

2011-01-01

250

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings.

Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegue (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-15

251

Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2011-07-01

252

[Methodology for evaluation of malignancy screening in surgical thyroid gland disease].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: We review a methodology for detection of malignancy in thyroid gland surgery, comparing clinical exploration, ultrasonography, gammagraphy, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and extemporaneous biopsy with the definitive pathological results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study on a sample of 433 (N=433) patients who had been intervened due to thyroid gland disease at the same ENT centre between 1999 and 2004. We collected information focusing on the characteristics of cervical exploration, ultrasonography, gammagraphy, FNA, extemporaneous biopsy and definitive pathological results. RESULTS: With N=433, the male/female ratio was approximately 1/9 (m/f 1/9), the average age was 45.5 years, with a range between 13 and 87 years, and with 20.3% of referred family history of thyroid gland disease; the cervical exploration, ultrasonography ang gammagraphy were not good tests for the screening of malignancy; FNA and extemporaneous biopsy offered 74% and 81% of sensitivity (Se), and 73% and 92% of specificity (Sp) in the detection of malignancy. The specific sensitivities towards papillary carcinoma of FNA and extemporaneous biopsy were 81% and 88%, whilst for follicular carcinoma they were 66% and 62.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: FNA has good sensitivity in clinical suspicion of thyroid papillary carcinoma, although it should be complemented by extemporaneous biopsy due to its better specificity. In the case of follicular carcinoma there is a tendency towards conservative treatment, without carrying out extemporaneous biopsy previously and with reintervention in case of definitive malignancy.

Rubio V; Tamarit JM; Baviera N; Fernández S; Estrems P; Seijas T; López C; Dalmau J

2009-11-01

253

Use of 131-I metaiodinebenzylgunidine (131-I MIBG) in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: One of the most common problems of modern oncology practice and nuclear medicine is the treatment of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), which is considered to be the tumor of the APUD system. The neoplasm originates from C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland. The tumor is hormone-active and can produce calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland constitutes 3-13% of all malignant thyroid tumors. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes, mediastinum, lungs, liver, bones are frequent. The purpose of our work was to review the efficacy of MCT treatment done in our centre. Since 1999 131I-MIBG (Amersham-Nycomed) has been used in the treatment of MCT at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology. During 1999-2002, 131I-MIBG was administered in various doses (100 to 300 mCi) to 12 patients with different stages of MCT. Four non-radically operated patients with local dissemination of the tumor were cured following 131I-MIBG therapy (total activity 200-300 mCi, follow up period - 2 years). In four patients reduction in the tumor volume and/or disappearance of metastases in the cervical nodes (follow-up period 1.5 years, total activity of 131I-MIBG 100 - 200 mCi) was noticed. Three patients are still on follow up since 1.5 years (total activity of 131I-MIBG 100-200 mCi). One patient died due to the progression of disease. Myelosuppression was not observed in any of the treated patients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promising radiopharmaceutical for treatment medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

2004-01-01

254

Improved abnormal parathyroid gland detection using Tc-99m Sestamibi with simultaneous I-123 thyroid imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tc-99m Sestamibi imaging has become the most sensitive test for localizing abnormal parathyroid glands (PTG) prior to surgery in patients being evaluated for primary hyperparathyroidism. Larger volume PTG and those lying distant from the thyroid in the upper neck or thorax can be imaged with Sestamibi alone. Comparison with a functional thyroid scan would improve the sensitivity of the imaging in patients with smaller volume PTG, those lying within or near the thyroid and in patients with thyroid nodules or prior thyroid surgery. Methods: We have performed simultaneous I-123 (NaI) and Tc-99m Sestamibi imaging for PTG scanning with dual-window gamma camera acquisition in 450 patients with hypercalcaemia and elevated serum PTH. Patients were given 18.5 - 37 MBq I-123 orally and 740 MBq Sestamibi IV. Planar imaging of the anterior neck obtained with asymmetric windows of -5% to +9% around 159 keV (I-123) was subtracted from a -10% to +4% window around 140 keV (Tc-99m Sestamibi). Planar and SPECT imaging allows for detection of very small abnormal PTG (as small as 50-60 mg) and localization of PTG lying adjacent or within the thyroid. Conclusion: Simultaneous imaging of I-123 and Tc-99m Sestamibi is possible using asymmetric acquisition windows avoiding the patient motion with sequential Tc-99m pertechnetate and Tc-99m Sestamibi imaging. This technique allows detection of very small PTG in or near the thyroid.

2002-10-02

255

MRI-based three-dimensional thermal physiological characterization of thyroid gland of human body.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article is dedicated to present a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) based three-dimensional finite element modeling on the thermal manifestations relating to the pathophysiology of thyroid gland. An efficient approach for identifying the metabolic dysfunctions of thyroid has also been demonstrated through tracking the localized non-uniform thermal distribution or enhanced dynamic imaging. The temperature features over the skin surface and thyroid domain have been characterized using the numerical simulation and experimental measurement which will help better interpret the thermal physiological mechanisms of the thyroid under steady-state or water-cooling condition. Further, parametric simulations on the hypermetabolism symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thermal effects within thyroid domain caused by varying breathing airflow in the trachea and blood-flow in artery and vein were performed. It was disclosed that among all the parameters, the airflow volume has the largest effect on the total heat flux of thyroid surface. However, thermal contributions caused by varying the breathing frequency and blood-flow velocity are negligibly small. The present study suggests a generalized way for simulating the close to reality physiological behavior or process of human thyroid, which is of significance for disease diagnosis and treatment planning.

Jin C; He ZZ; Yang Y; Liu J

2013-08-01

256

Function of the thyroid gland following percutaneous radiation therapy in the region of the neck  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

14 patients are reported who were submitted to radiation therapy because of a laryngeal carcinoma, and in whom the function of the thyroid gland was examined after irradiation. During radiation therapy at the gammatron 3 a focal dose totalling 6000 cGy at least was delivered to every patient, and the thyroid always was fully encompassed by the radiation field. Beside the clinical index, there was performed chemical analysis of total cholesterine as well as the test of T/sub 3/, T/sub 3/-RIA, T/sub 4/-RIA, and TRH. The weight of the gland was also determined. Results obtained in the course of 4.3 years are showing that the rate of hypothyroidism is increased after radiation therapy and lies above the data from a recently examined control group which is geographically comparable. Though none of our patients had manifest hypothyroidism, there was slight hypothyroidism detected in 2 of 14, and a latent one in 5 of 14 cases. Analysis of the thyroid hormones in the serum might possibly yield normal values in cases of slight hypothyroidism. Determination of the TSH-activity in the serum, however, offers a sure proof of relative as well as of absolute deficiency of hormones. Hence follows, as a clinical consequence, that patients whose thyroid had been exposed to radiation in the course of therapy always should have a determination of their TSH made. Increase of the TSH-activity has to be considered as an indication for a treatment with thyroid hormones.

Wuttke, H.; Grauthoff, H.; Braick, H.G.; Frommhold, H.

1980-08-01

257

Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spe...

Ferreira Enio; Gobbi Helenice; Saraiva Bruna S; Cassali Geovanni D

258

Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

Clifton, K.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

2000-07-01

259

Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

2000-01-01

260

Thyroid gland as an initial site of delayed metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain and abdominal mass is uncommon. About, 25%-30% of patients are found to have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Bones, lungs, liver and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the thyroid gland is rarest manifestation. We report a case of 40 years old male who underwent radical nephectomy for localized RCC seven years back, now presented with swelling in neck which was suspected as thyroid malignancy; subsequently was confirmed as metastatic RCC following excisional biopsy and was treated with surgical resection. 

Mutahir A Tunio; Mushabbab A IAsiri; Yasir Bayoumi; Mohsin Fareed; Shoaib Ahmad

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Follicular lesion of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA revisited.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Controversy exists regarding the validity of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), an indeterminate diagnostic category of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). According to BSRTC, FLUS carries a 5-15% risk of cancer. This study was designed to determine if cytomorphology could stratify FLUS into subgroups with different risks of malignancy. Reports of 127 consecutive FNAs reported as FLUS with subsequent tissue diagnoses were evaluated for the presence of various cytologic features and the results were correlated with histological diagnoses. FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia (nuclear overlap/crowding, nuclear grooves/membrane irregularities, nuclear enlargement, and/or nuclear pseudoinclusions) were more frequently malignant on excision whereas those with architectural atypia (microfollicles) were more often benign on excision (P?thyroid resection. Papillary carcinomas predominated in excised FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia whereas most FLUS with architectural atypia were adenomas or hyperplastic nodules on histological evaluation. BSRTC recommends that thyroid aspirates containing follicular cell nuclear and/or architectural atypia insufficient for a diagnosis of suspicious for follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy or malignant be classified as FLUS. Our findings indicate that FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia carry a risk for malignancy that is substantially higher than that assigned to FLUS and are best classified as suspicious. FLUS cases lacking these atypical nuclear features have a risk for malignancy that approximates the risk BSRTC has assigned to FLUS. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Walts AE; Mirocha J; Bose S

2013-07-01

262

Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

Herman, M.; Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Gool, S. van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Pediactrics, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Ophthalmology, Leuven (Belgium)

2007-12-15

263

Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

2007-01-01

264

Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland - a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rare localization of primary osteosarcoma is presented. A woman aged 76 years was operated on for rapid growth of thyroid right lobe tumour. Histopathology showed anaplastic cancer with numerous foci of osseous metaplasia, negative with thyroglobulin, calcitonin, synaptophysin and chromogranin. A high proliferative activity of the tumour was observed (MIB-1 reaction) in the form of a positive reaction in approx. 40% of the tumour cell nuclei. The tumour stage was evaluated as pT4aNxMx according to the TNM scale. The reconsultation revealed negative staining with cytokeratin, and positive with vimentin, thereby confirming the mesenchymal origin of the tumour, with the final diagnosis being primary thyroid osteosarcoma. Taking into consideration the histopathological diagnosis, the extremely low radiation sensitivity of the tumour, the patient's age, the radical surgical treatment and persisting respiratory failure, radiotherapy was rejected in favour of further follow-up. The patient remains under oncological and endocrinological care.

Zembala-No?y?ska E; Lange D

2013-01-01

265

Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34?E-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34?E-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

Ferreira Enio; Gobbi Helenice; Saraiva Bruna S; Cassali Geovanni D

2010-01-01

266

Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. METHODS: A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34betaE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. RESULTS: Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34betaE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. CONCLUSIONS: Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

Ferreira E; Gobbi H; Saraiva BS; Cassali GD

2010-01-01

267

Genetic defects of hydrogen peroxide generation in the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a key element in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. It is the substrate used by thyroid peroxidase for oxidation and incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin, a process known as organification. The main enzymes composing the H2O2-generating system are the dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) and the recently described DUOX maturation factor 2 (DUOXA2). Defects in these reactions lead to reduced thyroid hormone synthesis and hypothyroidism, with consequent increased TSH secretion and goiter. Since the first report in 2002 of DUOX2 mutations causing congenital hypothryoidism (CH), to date 25 different mutations have been described. Affected patients show a positive perchlorate discharge test and high phenotypic variability, ranging from transient to permanent forms of CH. Up to now, only two cases of CH due to DUOXA2 defects have been published. They also suggest the existence of a great genotype-phenotype variability. The phenotypic expression is probably influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. DUOX and DUOXA constitute a redundant system in which DUOX1/DUOXA1 can at least partially replace the function of DUOX2/DUOXA2. Furthermore, increased nutritional iodide could ensure a better use of H2O2 provided by DUOX1. PMID:23404134

Weber, G; Rabbiosi, S; Zamproni, I; Fugazzola, L

2013-02-12

268

Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone) was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml). The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotrophin (TSH), interleukin 6 (IL6), tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001) were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001) of serum (T4 & T3) with Concomitant suppression of (TSH) (P<0.001). Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001). Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of epithelial hyperplasia with atypical nuclear features. Thyroid tissue damage with haemorrhage and necrosis. Electron microscopic examination showed a remarkable cellular changes in the form of dilated rouph endoplasmic reticulum, inclusion lysosomes, dilated Golgi bodies, mitochondrial distension and nuclear degeneration. In both treated groups these changes were dose related.

Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

2007-01-01

269

Determination of thyroid gland mass using the scintillation camera and computer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scintillation camera-computer method for determining thyroid gland mass prior to /sup 131/I therapy for Graves' disease is described. The method was developed to replace an older rectilinear scanner technique previously used. The two methods were compared and the scintillation camera-computer method was found to have a small standard error of the estimate and a high degree of correlation with the rectilinear method.

Gilbert, S.A.; Jansen, A.A.; Eklem, M.J.; Bobba, V.V.R.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.

1985-12-01

270

Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland were discussed in this paper, such as deposition velocity of radioactive iodine onto plant leaves, elimination factor from the leaves, transfer of this nuclide to milk and the consumption of those critical foods especially by inhabitants around nuclear sites in coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture. Uptake of the stable iodine was estimated. (auth.)

1976-01-22

271

Bcl-2 protein expression in carcinomas originating from the follicular epithelium of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The bcl-2 product has been related to the block of programmed cell death (apoptosis) both in lymphoid and in epithelial cells. The pathological expression of bcl-2 has been investigated mainly in haematological malignancies. Here we have investigated bcl-2 expression in a model of epithelial tumours represented by the spectrum of carcinomas arising from the follicular epithelium of the human thyroid gland. The analysis was carried out by immunocytochemistry on archival material using monoclonal antibodies against bcl-2 and thyroglobulin (Tg) on consecutive sections of 94 well-differentiated carcinomas (WDCs), 19 poorly differentiated carcinomas (PDCs), and 22 undifferentiated carcinomas (UCs) of the thyroid gland. In a subset of 5 cases of UC showing a differentiated component (UC-D), the expression of p53 protein was also investigated. As controls, fetal and adult normal thyroid glands and adenomas were analysed. bcl-2 expression was detected in 74 of 94 cases (78.7 per cent) of WDC, 16 of 19 cases (84.2 per cent) of PDC, and 3 of 22 cases (13.6 per cent) of UC. Simultaneous expression of bcl-2 protein and Tg was observed in 74 of 94 cases (78.7 per cent) of WDC, 13 of 19 cases (68.4 per cent) of PDC, and in no case of UC. bcl-2 and Tg immunostaining was detected in all fetal and normal thyroid glands as well as in the adenoma specimens examined. In the subset of UC-D, mutual exclusion of bcl-2 and p53 expression was observed in the undifferentiated and differentiated components (p53 but not bcl-2 expressed in the former).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Pilotti S; Collini P; Rilke F; Cattoretti G; Del Bo R; Pierotti MA

1994-04-01

272

Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

2011-09-01

273

Oxidative stress in the thyroid gland: from harmlessness to hazard depending on the iodine content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In basal conditions, thyroid epithelial cells produce moderate amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are physiologically required for thyroid hormone synthesis. They are not necessarily toxic because they are continuously detoxified either in the process of hormone synthesis or by endogenous antioxidant systems. Using a rat model of goiter formation and iodine-induced involution, we found that compared with control thyroids, the oxidative stress, assessed by the detection of 4-hydroxynonenal, was strongly enhanced both in hyperplastic and involuting glands. The level of antioxidant defenses (glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins) was also up-regulated in both groups, although somewhat less in the latter. Of note, increased oxidative stress came along with an inflammatory reaction, but only in involuting glands, suggesting that although antioxidant systems can adequately buffer a heavy load of ROS in goiter, it is not necessarily the case in involuting glands. The effects of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), an endogenous ligand of peroxisome proliferated-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) with antiinflammatory properties, were then investigated in involuting glands. This drug strongly reduced both 4-hydroxynonenal staining and the inflammatory reaction, indicating that it can block iodine-induced cytotoxicity. When experiments were carried out with the PPARgamma antagonist, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, 15dPGJ2-induced effects remained unchanged, suggesting that these effects were not mediated by PPARgamma. In conclusion, thyroid epithelial cells are well adapted to endogenously produced ROS in basal and goitrous conditions. In iodine-induced goiter involution, the increased oxidative stress is accompanied by inflammation that can be blocked by 15dPGJ2 through PPARgamma-independent protective effects.

Poncin S; Gérard AC; Boucquey M; Senou M; Calderon PB; Knoops B; Lengelé B; Many MC; Colin IM

2008-01-01

274

A case of papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal cyst without a carcinoma in the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The thyroglossal duct cyst is the most common developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland. We present a patient with a papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed after surgical resection of a thyroglossal cyst. The 39-year-old patient reported to our hospital due to a swelling of this throat. The results of the ultrasonography were reported as showing multiple nodules in both thyroid lobes, and an ~3-cm diameter image in the submental area, in keeping with lymphadenomegalia. In the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) evaluation from the nodules in the thyroid, it was observed that the thyrocites with uniform nuclei made up single-layer groups. FNAC from the thyroglossal cyst, a few histiocytes were observed on a ground with a large number of erythrocytes. The patient was subjected to a total thyroidectomy, pyramidal lobe excision, and total excision of the 3-cm diameter soft mass, starting at the tip of the pyramidal lobe. The case was diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst with histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. If the thyroglossal channel cyst had been diagnosed preoperatively, total thyroidectomy and a Sistrunk operation would have been performed. For this reason, repeated FNAC, particularly, if performed under ultrasound guidance, may improve the diagnostic value of FNAC. Thus, in such patients, throat ultrasonography must be carried out in expert hands, thin-needle aspiration biopsy, computerized tomography, and thyroid scintigraphy must be done if necessary, and the necessary treatment protocols carried out after a definite diagnosis.

Albayrak Y; Albayrak F; Kaya Z; Kabalar E; Aylu B

2011-01-01

275

The effect of MR contrast medium dose on pituitary gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and pituitary gland-to-lesion contrast conspicuity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and gland-lesion contrast ratio in patient groups in which half-dose (HD), standard-dose (SD) and double-dose (DD) contrast medium was used in pituitary MR imaging. Pituitary gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement were measured and gland-lesion contrast ratios were calculated in 18 patients receiving HD (0.05 mmol/kg), 9 receiving SD (0.1 mmol/kg) and 13 receiving DD (0.2 mmol/kg) contrast medium. Gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement over baseline were determined employing DICOM region of interest measurements and compared after normalization to temporal lobe white matter. Contrast ratios and differences were also calculated and compared. Gland enhancement and lesion enhancement were greater with larger contrast medium doses (gland: HD 50%, SD 99%, DD 132%; microlesion: HD 19%, SD 54%, DD 86%). The gland-lesion contrast ratios were similar with the three doses (25.6%), reflecting expected similar fractional contrast medium distributions in spite of different doses. The signal difference between gland and microlesion, therefore, was a fixed percentage of gland enhancement (?S approximately 26%) with greater signal differences with larger contrast medium doses. Greater gland-to-lesion signal differences with larger contrast medium doses would likely improve pituitary microlesion visualization and margin characterization aiding in microlesion detection as well as preoperative planning. (orig.)

2006-01-01

276

[Morphophysiologic status of the rodent thyroid gland in the case of alimentary obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

The studies were carried out on rodents with different ecology, suffering from alimentary obesity. Their weight was 1.3-1.5 that of control animals. Prolonged (3 months) maintaining of the animals in conditions of obesity led to sharp decrease in inclusion of 131I into thyroid parenchyma, synthesis and excretion of SB 131I into blood. Microscopy study of thyroid gland revealed an inhibition of hormone synthesis, as indicated by flattened epithelium, dense colloid in follicles, and other hypofunctional features. Obesity decreases the quantity of food consumed by the animals and their reproductive abilities. Comparison of data obtained on rodents with different ecology revealed that maximal inhibition of thyroid function at obesity was observed in yellow gopher as compared to rat and gerbil. PMID:2794233

Akhmetov, I Z

277

Thyroid gland invasion in total laryngectomy and total laryngopharyngectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the English literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma carries an inherent risk of invading thyroid parenchyma leading to the incorporation of a hemi- or total thyroidectomy as part of a total laryngectomy. In some centres, thyroid gland removal occurs routinely during surgery for T3 and T4 laryngo-pharyngeal carcinoma. However, the incidence of invasion is low and therefore thyroid-sparing surgery must be considered for select cases. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: The primary goal of the review is to assess the true incidence of thyroid gland invasion in laryngo-pharyngeal carcinoma. Utilising this data we aim to identify risk factors and clinical predictors of thyroid gland invasion to facilitate in a more targeted approach in the surgical management of advanced laryngo-pharyngeal carcinoma. TYPE OF REVIEW: A systematic review and meta-analysis of all published data and review of case series at Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals (NuTH). SEARCH STRATEGY: MEDLINE (1946-2012) and EMBASE (1980-2012) were searched. EVALUATION METHOD: A single reviewer conducted the systematic review with a follow up ancestry search. Studies publishing case series of T3 and T4 laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma treated by total laryngectomy or laryngo-pharyngectomy and partial or total thyroidectomy, with pathological assessment for thyroid gland invasion rates were selected. Articles published prior to 1977 were excluded due to the advent of whole organ sectioning. RESULTS: The literature search identified 16 studies suitable for inclusion, with 1180 cases. The NuTH case series identified 107 patients. The overall pooled incidence of thyroid gland invasion in 1287 patients is 10.7% (95% CI 7.6-14.2). Patients with primary subglottic tumours (relative risk 7.5; 95% CI 4.3 to 13.0) and disease extension into the subglottis (relative risk 4.3; 95% CI 2.5 to 7.2) have a significantly higher relative risk of thyroid gland invasion. Radiorecurrent tumours and hypopharyngeal tumours did not have an increased risk of thyroid gland invasion. CONCLUSION: Advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas involving the subglottis carry a significantly elevated risk of thyroid gland invasion compared with those that spare this subsite. The overall incidence of thyroid gland invasion is low and therefore thyroidectomy should be reserved for cases considered to be at risk as opposed to a being a routine measure for all total laryngectomies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Kumar R; Drinnan M; Robinson M; Meikle D; Stafford F; Welch A; Zammit-Maempel I; Paleri V

2013-09-01

278

Histological changes in the thyroid gland of the mouse following treatment with 1, 1, 3-tricyano-2-amino-1-propene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1,1,3-tricyano-2-amino-1-propene (malononitrile dimer), administered intraperitoneally to mice, induced histological changes in the thyroid gland 6 h after drug administration. The histology of the thyroid gland is normal up to 16 h after drug treatment. Pathological conditions characteristic of hyperthyroidism are observed after 16 h of the drug treatment. By 48 h, the thyroid again appeared normal. The antithyroid action of the drug is attributed to the initial acute inhibition of the organic binding of iodine causing supression in the formation of thyroxine, which is later compensated.

Dhindsa KS

1980-01-01

279

Multiple cystic brain metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking neurocysticercosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is the most common type of tumor of the thyroid gland with good prognosis and low incidence of distant metastasis. The brain metastases of thyroid gland carcinoma are extremely rare. We report a patient with multiple cystic brain lesions and satisfying criteria for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Brain biopsy revealed brain metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma. The tumor originated from mediastinal thyroid tissue. Even in cases when neuroimaging suggests neurocysticercosis with great accuracy, it is important to exclude metastasis. Extensive brain metastases of primary papillary thyroid carcinoma are extremely rare.

Bago-Rožankovi? P; Baši? S; Vavro H; Rožankovi? M; Nikoli? I; Muller D; Grahovac G

2013-08-01

280

Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-12-15

 
 
 
 
281

Radionuclide method for functional and structural examination of the thyroidal gland with 99mTc-pertechnetate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the current study is the introduction of a complex radionuclide method for examination of the functional and structural condition of the thyroidal gland into routine clinical practice. The method includes intra venal injection of 74 MBq 99mTc pertechnetate, thyroidal gland scintigraphy and precise calculation of the radio-marker accumulation in accordance with the specified activity. One hundred and eighty two patients (159 women and 23 men, aged 19 to 80), suffering from various failures of the thyroidal gland, have been examined for the current study. In order to diagnostically examine the functional condition of the thyroidal gland, all patients have received detailed follow up of thyreo-stimulating hormone levels, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg-Ab) and microsomal antibodies (MAT). The accumulation of the 99mTc pertechnetate in euthyroidal conditions (117 patients) was approximately 1,06% ± 0.42, in hyperthyroidal conditions (54 patients) it was 4,55% ± 3,02, while in hypothyroidal conditions (11 patients) it was 0,22 ± 0.11. The above method provides quick and precise diagnostic information, at the same also performing as a screening definition while differentiating euthyroidal of hyperthyroidal function of the thyroidal gland. Furthermore, we may define the shape, size, location and the structure of the gland, as well as the mass, volume and the surface, necessary for the further medical strategy. (authors)

2009-01-01

282

Carcinoma of dual ectopic thyroid gland in a patient with cyanotic congenital heart disease--a case report and review of literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carcinoma arising from an ectopic thyroid gland in the absence of a normal thyroid gland is uncommon. There is a clinically relevant and unique association of ectopic thyroid with congenital heart disease which in turn is related to thyroid embryogenesis. The median thyroid anlage develops adjacent to the newly differentiated myocardium during the 3rd week of intrauterine life. The downward pull exerted by continued descent of heart is postulated to assist in the descent of the thyroid to its final location in the lower cervical position. Ectopic thyroid tissue can result from abnormal heart development or abnormal interaction between thyroid primordium and heart. We present a rare association of cancer of the ectopic thyroid gland in a patient with congenital heart disease.

Ballehaninna UK

2013-02-01

283

Proliferative Lesions in Thyroid Follicular Cells of Dwarfs Derived from Wistar Hannover GALAS Rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We observed spontaneous dwarfism among Wistar Hannover GALAS rats, caused by primary hypothyroidism. The dwarf (D) rats showed markedly high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values. In this study, we investigated the incidence and histopathological characteristics of the proliferative lesions of the thyroid follicular cells in our D rats. Gross enlargement of thyroid and histological vacuolar change of the thyroid follicular cells with age-related progression suggesting diffuse hypertrophy/hyperplasia were seen in all the D rats. In addition, focal proliferative lesions-namely hyperplasias, activated hyperplasias, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas-were seen in D rats aged over 50 weeks. Taken together, these results suggested that the sustained stimulation of elevated levels of serum TSH caused and enhanced diffuse hypertrophy of thyroid follicular cells and subsequent development of focal proliferative lesions.

Kokoshima H; Doi T; Yamada N; Tsuchitani M

2013-06-01

284

Estereología de la Glándula Tiroides Humana/ Stereology of the Human Thyroid Gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La glándula tiroides es una glándula endocrina voluminosa, impar, mediana y simétrica, que ocupa la parte anterior del cuello, en la unión del tercio inferior con los dos tercios superiores. La unidad funcional y estructural de la glándula tiroides es el folículo tiroideo. Los folículos están separados unos de otros por escaso tejido conectivo interfolicular. Se ha observado en modelos experimentales animales, diversos valores estereológicos de células folicular (more) es, parafoliculares y coloide. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si existe un patrón estereológico en la glándula tiroides humana en un grupo etáreo y sexo definidos. Para ello, se ocupó una muestra de 6 glándulas tiroides humanas extraidas de cadáveres no fijados, de individuos adultos de sexo masculino, sin antecedentes de patología o alteración tiroídea.Se procesaron histológicamente con H-E para su estudio estereológico. Los resultados mostraron valores promedio para la densidad de volumen del tejido glandular (33,8%) y del coloide (63,17%), densidad de superficie del folículo tiroídeo (21,09 mm2/mm3), densidad de número de células foliculares (10,81 x 105 células/mm3) y parafoliculares (1,81 x 105 células/mm3). Conocido el volumen promedio de la glándula (21,3 mm3), se determinó el número total de células foliculares (230,22 x 105) y parafoliculares (38,33 x 105). Además, se determinó el número de folículos por mm2 (46,18 folículos/mm2). El conocimiento previo de los valores numéricos y proporciones normales estereólogicos permite establecer parámetros que determinen la alteración hiper o hipotrófica de origen endémico o exógeno que lleven a estratificar ciertas alteraciones, hecho observado en modelos experimentales donde las diferencias son significativas. Abstract in english The thyroid gland is a an extensive, medium and symmetrical endocrine gland situated on the anterior side of the neck at the lower third and the upper third junction. The thyroid follicle is the functional and structural unit of the thyroid gland. Follicles are separated from each other by narrow interfollicular connective tissue. Stereological values of follicular, parafollicular and colloid containing follicles have been observed in experimental animal models. The aim o (more) f this study was to determine the existence of a stereological pattern in the human thyroid gland defined by age and sex. A sample of six human thyroid glands of adult males with no history of thyroid disease or disorder obtained from non fixed human cadavers; of these cadavers the gland was removed and processed for thyroid follicle density (21.09 mm 2/mm 3), follicular cell number density (10.81 x10 5 cells/mm3) and parafollicular (1.81 x 10 cells/mm 3). With the average gland volume (21.3 mm 3) we determined the total number of follicular cells (230.22 x 10 5) and parafollicular (38.33 x 105). The number of follicles per mm 2 (46.18 follicles/mm2) was also determined. Prior information and knowledge of numerical values and normal stereological proportions provides excellent parameters for determining hyper or hypotrophic endemic or exogenous alterations leading to stratification of certain disorders which was already observed in experimental models where differences amongst models were significant.

Salgado A, Guillermo; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

2011-06-01

285

USING A NON-RADIOACTIVE IODINE AS A GATEKEEPER SUBSTANCE FOR THE THYROID GLAND FROM THE RADIOACTIVE IODINE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine is essential for the formation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, the two thyroid hormones that are essential for maintenance of normal metabolic rates in all the cells. The workers who exposed to radioactive iodine are that workers using radioimmunoassay techniques and those at reactors. The thyroid gland is a target organ of iodine thus, when it captured radioactive iodine as 125I and 131I through inhalation or food contamination, the thyroidal cells will be destroyed and the thyroid hormones production will be decreased leading hypothyroidism. Also, the individual living at places suffering from dietary iodine deficiency will need a source of iodine to maintain a normal level of thyroid hormones in blood. The present study aims to evaluate the protective dose of non-radioactive iodine, which saturate the cells of the thyroid gland with iodine and prevent entrance and capture of radioactive iodine by the thyroid cells and acting as a gatekeeper of the thyroid gland during manipulation of radioactive iodine and radioactive accidents. This study also evaluated the expected dose of iodine intake for the people suffering from dietary iodine deficiency.

2008-01-01

286

Mini-invasive video-assisted surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid glands: A 2011 update.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid surgery during the last century was characterized by a development of Kocher's concepts: through a relentless work of surgeons from all over the world thyroidectomy reached a standard of quality in terms of overall results which was unimaginable in the first half of the XX century. The flattering data collected in the literature until the 90's were all concordant in assuming that there would be little space for a real improvement in the quality standard of thyroid surgery. The introduction of laparoscopic surgery, though, changed very quickly the attitude of surgeons towards their operative behavior and countless new mini-invasive techniques were soon proposed for almost any field of surgery. In 1994, Gagner published the first series of laparoscopic adrenalectomies. Soon after, parathyroid adenomas seemed to offer an ideal field of application of these new surgical concepts. The first report of an endoscopic parathyroidectomy was in 1996. One year later other videoscopic procedures were described whose results seemed quite encouraging so as to push surgeons to try the same access and the same technique also for operations on thyroid. During the following decade several endoscopic or video-assisted approaches were proposed for the removal of thyroid gland. This paper aims to evaluate the results of minimally invasive thyroid and parathyroid surgery through an extensive review of the literature, in particular as far as minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy is concerned.

Miccoli P; Materazzi G; Baggiani A; Miccoli M

2011-06-01

287

Ultrastructural evaluation of parathyroid glands and thyroid C cells of cattle fed Solanum malacoxylon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fine structural alterations of thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells were evaluated after feeding dried leaves of the calcinogenic plant, Solanum malacoxylon, to cattle for 1, 6 and 32 days. Thyroid C cells initially were degranulated in response to the hypercalcemia, and parathyroid chief cells accumulated secretory granules. There was hypertrophy of thyroid C cells with well-developed secretory organelles but few secretory granules in the cytoplasm after 6 days of feeding S. malacoxylon. Inactive chief cells with dispersed profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and increased lysosomal bodies predominated in the parathyroid glands. Multiple foci of soft tissue mineralization were present in the heart, lung, and kidney. Thyroid C cells underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia after 32 days of S. malacoxylon, and parathyroid chief cells were inactive or atrophic in response to the long-term hypercalcemia. Severe soft tissue mineralization was present throughout the cardiovascular system, lung, kidney, and spleen. These ultrastructural changes in thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells plus the widespread soft tissue mineralization observed after feeding cattle small amounts of S. malacoxylon are consistent with the recent evidence that leaves of this plant are a potent source of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, of vitamin D.

Collins WT; Capen CC; Döbereiner J; Tokarnia CH

1977-06-01

288

Ultrastructural evaluation of parathyroid glands and thyroid C cells of cattle fed Solanum malacoxylon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fine structural alterations of thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells were evaluated after feeding dried leaves of the calcinogenic plant, Solanum malacoxylon, to cattle for 1, 6 and 32 days. Thyroid C cells initially were degranulated in response to the hypercalcemia, and parathyroid chief cells accumulated secretory granules. There was hypertrophy of thyroid C cells with well-developed secretory organelles but few secretory granules in the cytoplasm after 6 days of feeding S. malacoxylon. Inactive chief cells with dispersed profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and increased lysosomal bodies predominated in the parathyroid glands. Multiple foci of soft tissue mineralization were present in the heart, lung, and kidney. Thyroid C cells underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia after 32 days of S. malacoxylon, and parathyroid chief cells were inactive or atrophic in response to the long-term hypercalcemia. Severe soft tissue mineralization was present throughout the cardiovascular system, lung, kidney, and spleen. These ultrastructural changes in thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells plus the widespread soft tissue mineralization observed after feeding cattle small amounts of S. malacoxylon are consistent with the recent evidence that leaves of this plant are a potent source of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, of vitamin D. PMID:869016

Collins, W T; Capen, C C; Döbereiner, J; Tokarnia, C H

1977-06-01

289

Usefulness of electrosurgical techniques in thyroid gland surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Wide propagation of new generation of electrosurgical devices such as bipolar vessel sealing systems (eg. Thermostapler® by EMED) enabled seamless closing of blood vessels with a diameter up to 7 mm while maintaining the necessary safety margin, as well as reducing the duration of the operation. We decided to verify these reports in our material. AIM OF THE STUDY was comparison of thyroid surgery performed with the electrocautery tool - Thermostapler ® by EMED with surgery using classic hemostasis technique to evaluate the operative time and complications in the form of bleeding, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, symptoms of hypoparathyroidism, and wound infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 256 patients operated in the Department of General and Proctological Surgery Solec Hospital in Warsaw due to inert thyroid goitre. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 126 patients operated in 2000, using classic techniques of hemostasis. While the second group consisted of 130 patients operated in 2007-2008 with Thermostapler®. We compared duration of surgery and the incidence of postoperative complications. RESULTS: The operative time was significantly shorter (average 18 minutes) in the second group of patients. We also recorded a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of complications in the group operated with Thermostapler. CONCLUSIONS: Use of bipolar vessel sealing system in a decisive manner shortens the duration of operation. Use of bipolar vessel sealing system also enables a radical reduction in the incidence of complications rate such as bleeding, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, symptoms of hypoparathyroidism, and wound infection. In the future, similar studies should be performed to assess the real costs resulting from the use Thermostapler®.

Kowalski BW; Bierca J; Zmora J; Ko?odziejczak M; Kosim A; Fr?czek M

2012-05-01

290

Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study), study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants), exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid), language (German and English). The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive), work experience (junior and senior surgeons),distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs). The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation, more in-depth studies are required on the variations of radiation dose in orthopaedic staff, at different anatomical locations and situations.

Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair; Haamann Frank; Nienhaus Albert

2012-01-01

291

Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63{approx}0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67{approx}1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03{approx}2.11), 2.71 (0.97{approx}4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5{approx}0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59{approx}1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

Son, Chang Woo; Kim, Chang Woo; Sin, Se Kwon; Jang, Kyeung Jae [Dae Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yi Tae [Dong A Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-15

292

Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID), an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days) were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I) and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, on (more) ly in pituitary) activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05), while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg), contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05), which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05) but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

Lisbôa, P.C.; Curty, F.H.; Moreira, R.M.; Pazos-Moura, C.C.

1997-12-01

293

Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and extending nearly to the anterior cervical skin. A migratory fish bone was suspected, and the foreign body was removed under general anesthetic, combined with a hemithyroidectomy. The injured esophageal mucosa was sutured and closed. Our patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and she was allowed oral food intake seven days after the surgery. No evidence of recurrence was seen over the postoperative follow-up period of 42?weeks. Conclusion We should be aware that fish bone foreign bodies may migrate out of the upper digestive tract and lodge in the thyroid gland.

Ohbuchi Toyoaki; Tabata Takahisa; Nguyen Khac-Hung; Ohkubo Jun-ichi; Katoh Akiko; Suzuki Hideaki

2012-01-01

294

Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and extending nearly to the anterior cervical skin. A migratory fish bone was suspected, and the foreign body was removed under general anesthetic, combined with a hemithyroidectomy. The injured esophageal mucosa was sutured and closed. Our patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and she was allowed oral food intake seven days after the surgery. No evidence of recurrence was seen over the postoperative follow-up period of 42?weeks. CONCLUSION: We should be aware that fish bone foreign bodies may migrate out of the upper digestive tract and lodge in the thyroid gland.

Ohbuchi T; Tabata T; Nguyen KH; Ohkubo J; Katoh A; Suzuki H

2012-01-01

295

Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter. Initial feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioiodine (RI) such as 131I or 124I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with ?-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of 124I. Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) or ?-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies. (author)

2011-01-01

296

Thyroid gland exposure of Bulgarian population from radioactive contamination of the country after the Chernobylsk accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on data for radiation background in Bulgaria in the first two months after the accident at Chernobylsk Nuclear Power Plant, assessment of thyroid gland exposure of different population groups was made. The thyroid gland exposure was determined by direct measurement of thyroid gland activity and indirect (computing) methods as well. Both methods show that children under school age are the group at highest dose burden. The average doses equal 10 mGy and vary from 7.5 to 20 mGy for direct measurement and indirect methods respectively, and the maximum doses range from 100 mGy to 96.5 mGy. The doses for other age groups are average 3.2±1.5 mGy and maximum 25±10 mGy. The primary source of exposure is Iodine-131 and the other Iodine and Tellurium radionuclides have an insignificant impact. The main share in thyroid gland exposure has the consumption of milk, esp. sheep's milk, and green foliar vegetables. The contribution of inhaled Iodine and both internal and external exposure from other sources is up to 10-15%. Highly exposed is the population living in the mountain regions of Southern Bulgaria (Middle and West Rhodopes) and the epidemiological studies for thyroid gland pathology should be targeted at these regions.

2005-01-01

297

Effect of reserpine on salivary gland radioiodine uptake in thyroid cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nine patients with thyroid cancer were treated with reserpine in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure to the salivary glands from 100-150 mCi doses of I-131 therapy to thyroid remnants or metastases. Three control patients were not treated with reserpine but did receive 100-150 mCi of I-131. Parotid/background ratios of activity after radioablative doses of I-131 in patients not treated with reserpine were significantly higher than the patients treated with reserpine, and this was also true seven days after the radioablative dose. Combined therapy with reserpine, chewing gum, lemon candies, and hydration is suggested for the prevention of sialadenitis and xerostomia due to large doses of radioiodine.

Levy, H.A.; Park, C.H.

1987-04-01

298

Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Evaluation of radiation dose to the radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues - ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands - during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty (DCP). Method: Radiation dose was determined in an Alderson Rando phantom and in 13 patients. Radiation dose was measured directly using Ca-F2-thermoluminescent dosimetry crystals (TLD) which were placed on each eyelid, parotid gland and thyroid gland. Results: The mean radiation dose to the lens placed next to the path of radiation was 6.58 mGy in the Alderson-Rando phantom and 5.43 mGy in patients during DCP. The mean radiation dose to the contralateral lens was 1.37 mGy and 1.7 mGy to the parotid gland placed next to the X-ray tube. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland was max. 0.4 mGy during DCP. Conclusion: Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid gland and throid gland during fluoroscopy-guided DCP was 25 times higher than during diagnostic dacryocystography. The radiation dose to radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues during fluoroscopy-guided DCP is much below the threshold dose for ocular lens cataract. (orig.).

1998-01-01

299

Increase in the rough endoplasmic reticulum in capillary endothelial cells and pericytes in hyperplastic rat thyroid glands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Observatios were made on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) of the blood capillary endothelium, pericytes, and lymphatic endothelium in the course of studies of changes occurring in the thryoid gland during the development of thyroid hyperplasia. To induce the hyperplasia, Fischer rats were fed a goitrogen (thiouracil) an a low iodine diet for various time intervals from 3-100 days. Thyroid glands were fixed by perfusion with glutaryldehyde and embedded in Epon. A noticeable increase in the RER in the capillary endothelium was seen by 3 days. This increase was very pronounced by 7 days and persisted in many cells at 100 days. The RER response was also pronounced in pericytes. In the lymphatic endothelium, however, the increase in RER was barely perceptible. These results suggest that capillary endothelium and pericytes have protein synthetic and secretory functions of an unknown nature that become strongly activated in stimulated thyroid glands.

Ericson LW; Wollman SH

1980-09-01

300

Increase in the rough endoplasmic reticulum in capillary endothelial cells and pericytes in hyperplastic rat thyroid glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observatios were made on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) of the blood capillary endothelium, pericytes, and lymphatic endothelium in the course of studies of changes occurring in the thryoid gland during the development of thyroid hyperplasia. To induce the hyperplasia, Fischer rats were fed a goitrogen (thiouracil) an a low iodine diet for various time intervals from 3-100 days. Thyroid glands were fixed by perfusion with glutaryldehyde and embedded in Epon. A noticeable increase in the RER in the capillary endothelium was seen by 3 days. This increase was very pronounced by 7 days and persisted in many cells at 100 days. The RER response was also pronounced in pericytes. In the lymphatic endothelium, however, the increase in RER was barely perceptible. These results suggest that capillary endothelium and pericytes have protein synthetic and secretory functions of an unknown nature that become strongly activated in stimulated thyroid glands. PMID:7398576

Ericson, L W; Wollman, S H

1980-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Postnatal fate of the ultimobranchial remnants in the rat thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ultimobranchial follicles (UBFs) are considered embryonic remnants from the ultimobranchial body (UBB). They are follicular structures that vary in size and appearance depending on the age of the rat. The main objective of this article was to study the progressive changes in shape, size, and frequency of the UBFs in the postnatal rat, from birth to old-age. To accomplish that objective, a systematic morphometric and incidental study of the UBF has been carried out in 110 Wistar rats of different ages and both sexes, divided into three groups: 1) young rats (5-90-day-old); 2) adult rats (6-15-month-old), and 3) old rats (18-24-month-old). The glands were serially sectioned and immunostained for calcitonin at five equidistant levels. According to our results, UBFs were observed in all thyroid glands but a more exhaustive sampling was occasionally necessary in male rats. In young rats, immature UBFs predominantly appeared whereas in adult rats, mature UBFs with cystic appearance and variable luminal content prevailed. We frequently found spontaneous anomalous UBFs in old rats, which we have termed as "ultimobranchial cystadenomata." Additionally, in young rats, UBF areas significantly increased with age and they were larger when compared to that of normal thyroid follicles. Likewise, in adult rats, UBFs were significantly larger than normal thyroid follicles but only in female rats. In general, UBFs in females were also significantly larger than those found in male rats. Finally, all these differences related to UBFs together with a higher incidence in females of UB cystadenomata suggest a sexual dimorphism in regard to the destiny of these embryonic remnants during postnatal thyroid development. PMID:23355409

Vázquez-Román, Victoria; Utrilla, José C; Fernández-Santos, José M; Conde, Esperanza; Bernabé, Reyes; Sampedro, Consuelo; Martín-Lacave, Inés

2013-01-28

302

Influence of zhen-shen on the function of thyroid gland (experiments on rats)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Extr, siccum Ginseng were injected to white rats intraperitonial; the control rats were injected with the same volume of physiological solution. The rats of the two groups after 1 1/2 hours receive intraperitoneal iodine 131. From each group 7 rats were killed 8, 24 and 48 hours after the application of radioactive iodine, and percentage of the counted impulses were determined and compared with the theoretical calculated total number of impulses in the thyroid gland on the applied quantity of iodine 131. The treated rats with Extr. Ginseng with the three intervals of time showed statistical reliable activity stronger than that of the control rats. (author)

1977-01-01

303

Relationship between 129I and 127I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

129I/127I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the 129I/127I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that 129I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the 129I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total 129I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

Negri, A. E.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Wallner, A.; Arazi, A.; Steier, P.

2013-01-01

304

Investigation of the results of therapy of anaplastic thyroid gland carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the treatment of 28 patients with an anaplastic thyroid gland carcinoma are investigated, to see whether an optimal therapy is indicated. The execution of an operation before radiotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis (statistically this conclusion is not wholly justified). The presence of metastases at the beginning of the therapy gave rise to a worse prognosis than the absence of metastases. The combination treatment of chemotherapy and either surgery or radiotherapy was only applied to two patients so no conclusions can be made about its benefit. (C.F.)

1979-01-01

305

Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in AIDS patients: CT characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast agent-enhanced CT scans in nine male patients with histologically proved benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the perotid gland were reviewed. All scans showed cystic-appearing masses with peripheral rim enhancement corresponding to the macroscopic appearance of the lesion. Five patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or had infections seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Three patients were members of high-risk groups. Only one patient had symptoms of the SICCA syndrome. Once a rare cause of parotid gland enlargement, benign lymphoepithelial lesions have recently been seen with increasing frequency in patients with HIV infection. Although the CT appearance is not pathognomic, correlation results of aspiration cytology and with clinical history can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion.

1987-12-04

306

Congenital hypothyroidism with eutopic thyroid gland: analysis of clinical and biochemical features at diagnosis and after re-evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: In recent years changes in screening strategies for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) led to an increased detection of mild forms of CH, associated with eutopic thyroid gland. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the clinical evolution of CH with eutopic thyroid gland and to find out prognostic factors at diagnosis and follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a group of 84 children with CH and eutopic thyroid gland treated at our institution. They all underwent clinical re-evaluation after the age of 3, based on thyroid function testing after l-thyroxine therapy withdrawal, thyroid ultrasonography, and (123)I scintigraphy with perchlorate discharge test. Genetic analysis was performed in selected cases. RESULTS: At re-evaluation, 34.5% of patients showed permanent hypothyroidism and needed l-thyroxine reintroduction, 27.4% had persistent hyperthyrotropinemia (TSH 5-10 mU/L), and 38.1% had transient hypothyroidism. Major risk factors for permanent CH were prematurity, first-degree familial history of goiter/nodules, thyroid hypoplasia at diagnosis, and high l-thyroxine requirements at follow-up. Iodine organification defects were found in 29.7% of patients, 30% of whom harbored DUOX2 mutations. TSH receptor gene mutations were found in 8.7% of patients with persistent thyroid dysfunction and negative perchlorate discharge test. CONCLUSIONS: Only one-third of patients with CH and eutopic thyroid gland needed to continue l-thyroxine therapy after re-evaluation. A frequent finding was the persistence of mild hyperthyrotropinemia. The evolution of CH remains difficult to predict, although different clinical features might suggest different outcomes. Mutations in the genes commonly linked to mild forms of CH were documented in a minority of cases.

Rabbiosi S; Vigone MC; Cortinovis F; Zamproni I; Fugazzola L; Persani L; Corbetta C; Chiumello G; Weber G

2013-04-01

307

A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient`s pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author).

Rodriguez-Cuevas, S.; Baena Ocampo, L. [Hospital de Oncologia (Mexico). Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery

1995-12-01

308

A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient's pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author)

1995-01-01

309

Comparison of skin absorbed radiation dose in thyroid gland area during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid gland is one of the critical organs during radiation in the head and neck region. The aim of this study was to compare absorbed radiation dose by skin in the thyroid area during spiral tomography and panoramic radiography by means of thermoluminance dosimetry (TLD).Materials and Methods: Thirty-six LiF (TLD-100) thermoluminescence dosimetry chips were utilized in this experimental in vitro study. One TLD chip was placed on the tube side and another was placed on the opposite side of the thyroid gland of a sliced anatomic Alderson head and neck phantom during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography. The dosimeters were read by a SOLARO 2A TLD reader twice followed by calculation of the absorbed dose. The results were analyzed by Wilcoxon’s test at a confidence interval of 95%.Results: The mean dose for screen-film panoramic radiographs was 34 µGy in the left thyroid and 39 on the right side. With spiral tomography the thyroid gland received a mean dose of 30?71 µGy. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean thyroid doses between anterior and posterior spiral tomography and panoramic examination (p value > 0.05).Conclusion: Skin absorbed radiation dose of a tomographic examination, which includes four sections with a specific thickness, are almost comparable to that with a panoramic radiographic technique. Key words: Absorbed dose, Spiral tomography, Panoramic radiography.

Najmeh Akhlaghi; Ehsan Hekmatian

2011-01-01

310

[Somatotypological and regional regularities of ultrasound anatomy of the thyroid gland].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to establish the regularities of the anatomical structure of the thyroid gland (TG) in healthy people aged 17-30 years of various somatic types, living in the Rostov region. The complex study of TG was carried out in 306 healthy subjects (150 male and 156 female) with ultrasonography performed according to C. L. Brown (1981). Somatotyping was done using the technique of R. N. Dorokhov and V. G. Petrukhina (1989). Sexual dimorphism of the linear dimensions, right and left lobe volumes and of TG total volume was demonstrated. In men,TG total volume was significantly greater (P<0.05), than that in women (11.7 +/- 0.43 and 9.37 +/- 0.28 cm3, respectively). Regional and constitutional features of the thyroid gland in healthy subjects living in the Rostov region were established. Linear dimensions, total TG volume and the volumes of TG lobes were found to be lower in the residents of the Rostov region as compared to these parameters in people living in the northern regions of Russia.

2013-01-01

311

Homeopathically prepared dilution of Rana catesbeiana thyroid glands modifies its rate of metamorphosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

One strand of research on the scientific basis of homeopathy is based on inversion effects of dilutions and the biophysical properties of information transfer. A model developed by Endler, was the basis for the study of the influence of high-diluted solution (1:1026 part by weight) of thyroid glands on the rate of metamorphosis of the frog Rana catesbeiana from the no legged to four-legged stage. The glands were obtained from tadpoles and prepared according by (dilution and succussion). Similar pure hydroalcoholic solution (unsuccussed) was used as control. In order to identify significant differences in the frequencies of four-legged tadpoles, in homeopathic and control group, we used a chi-square goodness-of-fit test (P<0.01) and the cumulative risk for metamorphosis by Cox's Proportional Hazards model (P<0.05). The number of animals that reached the four-legged stage is generally smaller in the treated group, than in the hydroalcoholic control group. It was postulated that thyroid hormones transmitted information' specific to the molecules used to prepare the solution, even though the molarity was beyond Avogadro's number. PMID:15287432

Guedes, J R P; Ferreira, C M; Guimarães, H M B; Saldiva, P H N; Capelozzi, V L

2004-07-01

312

Homeopathically prepared dilution of Rana catesbeiana thyroid glands modifies its rate of metamorphosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One strand of research on the scientific basis of homeopathy is based on inversion effects of dilutions and the biophysical properties of information transfer. A model developed by Endler, was the basis for the study of the influence of high-diluted solution (1:1026 part by weight) of thyroid glands on the rate of metamorphosis of the frog Rana catesbeiana from the no legged to four-legged stage. The glands were obtained from tadpoles and prepared according by (dilution and succussion). Similar pure hydroalcoholic solution (unsuccussed) was used as control. In order to identify significant differences in the frequencies of four-legged tadpoles, in homeopathic and control group, we used a chi-square goodness-of-fit test (P<0.01) and the cumulative risk for metamorphosis by Cox's Proportional Hazards model (P<0.05). The number of animals that reached the four-legged stage is generally smaller in the treated group, than in the hydroalcoholic control group. It was postulated that thyroid hormones transmitted information' specific to the molecules used to prepare the solution, even though the molarity was beyond Avogadro's number.

Guedes JR; Ferreira CM; Guimarães HM; Saldiva PH; Capelozzi VL

2004-07-01

313

The uptake of 125I by the thyroid gland and its morphological maturity in newly hatched duck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Histological observations revealed that in two-day-old ducklings the thyroids were very differentiated. In some birds they were very poorly developed, i.e. the tissue was not organized into follicles, whereas in others there was a structure almost typical of this gland. The thyroids of ducklings nine days old presented an almost normal histological picture and only small islands of the tissue not organized into follicles were visible. The less developed were the thyroids the higher was their 125I uptake. (author)

1981-01-01

314

Functional activity of rats' thyroid gland in 6 month after fractional gamma-irradiation in low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Male rats (Wistar) were exposed to external fractional irradiation in doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy during 20 days with dose rate 0.64 Gy/min. Cumulative doses were respectively equal 2, 5, 10 Gy. In 6 month after irradiation animals were decapitated and investigated for content of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in blood serum and activity of nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate in liver cytosol. The result showed decreasing rats' thyroid status after fractional irradiation in doses 0.25 and 0.5. It explains functional depression of thyroid gland and metabolism disturbance of thyroid hormone in organs and tissues

2002-01-01

315

Expression of Ki-67, PCNA and MPM2 antigens in follicular cells of the thyroid gland after iodotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperfunctional nodular goitre is the most common thyroid non-neoplastic condition in endemic areas. Iodotherapy is the basic method in thyroid gland hyperfunction treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate proliferation of thyroid follicular cells in nodular goitre after iodotherapy. The study was carried out on 32 women, 30-76 years old. Cytological and immunohistochemical evaluations were based on the material, obtained by Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB). Proliferative activity was immunohistochemically assessed. The influence of radioiodine on thyroid follicular cells was evaluated as a difference between the proliferation of follicular cells before and after its application. It was concluded that the proliferative activity of thyroid follicular cells decreased considerably after radioiodine therapy. PMID:15638400

Klim, B; Dziecio?, J; Litwiejko-Pietry?czak, E; Szkudlarek, M; Pawlak, J; Oniszczuk, S; Tobiaszewska, D

2004-01-01

316

Expression of Ki-67, PCNA and MPM2 antigens in follicular cells of the thyroid gland after iodotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyperfunctional nodular goitre is the most common thyroid non-neoplastic condition in endemic areas. Iodotherapy is the basic method in thyroid gland hyperfunction treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate proliferation of thyroid follicular cells in nodular goitre after iodotherapy. The study was carried out on 32 women, 30-76 years old. Cytological and immunohistochemical evaluations were based on the material, obtained by Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB). Proliferative activity was immunohistochemically assessed. The influence of radioiodine on thyroid follicular cells was evaluated as a difference between the proliferation of follicular cells before and after its application. It was concluded that the proliferative activity of thyroid follicular cells decreased considerably after radioiodine therapy.

Klim B; Dziecio? J; Litwiejko-Pietry?czak E; Szkudlarek M; Pawlak J; Oniszczuk S; Tobiaszewska D

2004-01-01

317

Thyroid Dysplasia in Wistar Hannover GALAS Rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid dysplasia was recognized in WistarHan GALAS rats and confirmed as a heritable congenital disorder. The gene or genes involved were not identified, but homozygous animals with thyroid dysplasia also exhibited stunted growth, had reduced pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) and were hypothyroid. Heterozygous animals exhibited thyroid dysplasia with normal thyroid hormonal homeostasis and no difference in the incidence of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in oncogenicity studies.

Weber K; Ernst R; Fankhauser H; Hardisty JF; Heider W; Stevens K

2009-12-01

318

Thyroid Dysplasia in Wistar Hannover GALAS Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid dysplasia was recognized in WistarHan GALAS rats and confirmed as a heritable congenital disorder. The gene or genes involved were not identified, but homozygous animals with thyroid dysplasia also exhibited stunted growth, had reduced pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) and were hypothyroid. Heterozygous animals exhibited thyroid dysplasia with normal thyroid hormonal homeostasis and no difference in the incidence of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in oncogenicity studies. PMID:22271999

Weber, Klaus; Ernst, Rainer; Fankhauser, Heinz; Hardisty, Jerry F; Heider, Wolfram; Stevens, Karla

2009-12-21

319

Discontinuity of thyroid gland response to hormonal stimulation: effect of TSH and cAMP on iodide organification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The action of TSH on the process of iodide organification was studied in rat thyroid glands under different experimental in vitro incubation conditions. The effects on glands of both short and prolonged exposure to TSH were evaluated using two different procedures: continuous and pulse labelling of thyroids with radioactive iodide. It was demonstrated that during prolonged contact with thyroid cells, TSH stimulates iodide organification periodically. This periodic effect is cyclic and is composed of a stimulatory and an inhibitory phase. Each cycle lasts 30-45 min, and several cycles follow one another in a regular manner. Furthermore, it has been shown that the periodic effect of THS is due to an intrinsic property of the thyroid cell to respond in a cyclic manner to hormonal stimulation. TSH stimulated the accumulation of organic iodide only when introduced at a precise phase of the cycle. The same type of discontinuous thyroid cell response was obtained when TSH was replaced by its intracellular mediator, cAMP. This indicates that the initiation of the cyclic response to hormonal stimulation is localized at the steps after that of cAMP formation. It seems, therefore, that this cyclic response of thyroid glands is not related to the recently observed phenomenon of desensitization. This phenomenon, characterized by the development of resistance in many target organs and cells toward their respective hormonal stimulators, is due to modifications in steps preceding those of cAMP formation. The discontinuity of thyroid gland response to both TSH and cAMP described in this work seems to be a new phenomenon, whose physiological significance and possible molecular mechanisms are discussed.

Pavlovic-Hournac M; Delbauffe D

1977-08-01

320

[Nuclear accidents and iodine prophylaxis. Part 1: Risks due to irradiation of the thyroid gland  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the frame of the emergency procedures in the case of an accident in a nuclear plant, this paper presents a survey of the information available on the risks related to the irradiation of the thyroid gland. Attention is focused on thyroid cancer resulting from an exposure to radioactive isotopes of iodine and especially and iodine-131. The consequences of the medical exposures as well as of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiations are recalled first. Then the recently available informations on the effects on the populations exposed after the Tchernobyl accident are analysed more in details. Ten years after the accident, the most striking and the least questionable effects is a significant increase of the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer in children, in the areas most exposed to the initial radioactive clouds. Young children are particularly vulnerable to this type of cancer which is of aggressive nature and shows a short latency period. These observations justify an iodine prophylaxis for the populations living in the vicinity of nuclear plants. Special attention should be paid to the protection of young children.

Smeesters P; Frühling J; Van Bladel L; Wambersie A

1998-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Ultrastructural studies of cilia formation during thyroid gland differentiation in grass snake embryos.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The process of ciliogenesis that accompanies the differentiation of the thyroid gland in grass snake Natrix natrix L. embryos was studied ultrastructurally. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the ciliogenesis occurred in two waves and that new centrioles duplicated via centriolar pathways. The first wave of ciliogenesis started in the post-mitotic thyrocytes before their polarisation. It ended approximately halfway through the developmental period. The second wave of ciliogenesis took place after the polarization of thyrocytes and before the resting phase of the embryonic thyroid. This wave of ciliogenesis stopped shortly before hatching when fully differentiated thyrocytes restarted their activity. During the first half of thyroid differentiation, the cilia were formed "intracellularly" but during the second half, they differentiated "extracellularly" In the differentiating thyrocytes one cilium per cell was found; however, it could not be excluded that more than one cilium per cell may be formed. These cilia lacked central fibres and therefore they had a 9+0 formula that suggested that they were immotile.

Rupik W

2013-01-01

322

Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland evaluations in patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic examinations during tuberculosis therapy: a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevalence of thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary abnormalities was determined in 91 women who received an average of 112 fluoroscopic chest examinations during pneumothorax treatment for tuberculosis more than 40 yr previously and in 72 women treated for tuberculosis by other modalities. Thyroid abnormalities were determined by physical examination, scintiscans, and measurements of serum free T4 index, TSH, and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Thyroid nodules were diagnosed in 7.7% of the exposed and 4.2% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 1.8; 90% confidence interval 0.6-5.7). Autoimmune thyroid disease was diagnosed in 15.2% of the exposed and 6.9% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-6.2). No salivary tumors were detected. Two exposed women and 1 comparison woman had primary hyperparathyroidism. Although absorbed dose to the thyroid could not be precisely determined, approximately 60 rads would be expected to yield the observed excess of thyroid nodules. While the prevalence ratios were not significantly increased in the exposed group, the results suggest that susceptibility of the thyroid to nodules from cumulative radiation doses of this magnitude could be increased even when the doses are accumulated over years and that such x-ray exposure of the thyroid gland may predispose the patient to the development of autoimmune disease.

1988-01-01

323

Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland evaluations in patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic examinations during tuberculosis therapy: a pilot study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prevalence of thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary abnormalities was determined in 91 women who received an average of 112 fluoroscopic chest examinations during pneumothorax treatment for tuberculosis more than 40 yr previously and in 72 women treated for tuberculosis by other modalities. Thyroid abnormalities were determined by physical examination, scintiscans, and measurements of serum free T4 index, TSH, and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Thyroid nodules were diagnosed in 7.7% of the exposed and 4.2% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 1.8; 90% confidence interval 0.6-5.7). Autoimmune thyroid disease was diagnosed in 15.2% of the exposed and 6.9% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-6.2). No salivary tumors were detected. Two exposed women and 1 comparison woman had primary hyperparathyroidism. Although absorbed dose to the thyroid could not be precisely determined, approximately 60 rads would be expected to yield the observed excess of thyroid nodules. While the prevalence ratios were not significantly increased in the exposed group, the results suggest that susceptibility of the thyroid to nodules from cumulative radiation doses of this magnitude could be increased even when the doses are accumulated over years and that such x-ray exposure of the thyroid gland may predispose the patient to the development of autoimmune disease.

Kaplan, M.M.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Ames, D.B.; Rosenstein, M.

1988-02-01

324

Follicular epithelial dysplasia of the thyroid: morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of a putative preneoplastic lesion to papillary thyroid carcinoma in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT), the follicular epithelial cells display cytological atypia resembling papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and epidemiological studies have suggested an increased risk of PTC in patients with this condition. While reactive atypia is observed diffusely in CLT-affected thyroid parenchyma, it is not unusual to find microscopic foci morphologically distinct from the surrounding parenchyma, exhibiting more pronounced cytological and architectural atypia. These small atypical lesions, which we term "follicular epithelial dysplasia" (FED), are particularly prominent in cases of severe CLT, yet lack invasive growth, papillary architecture, or intranuclear pseudoinclusions. To gain further insight into their biological significance, we constructed a tissue microarray of 70 cases of CLT, comprised of morphologically normal thyroid, thyroid with reactive atypia, FED, follicular nodular disease (nodular hyperplasia or follicular adenoma), and PTC. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for a marker panel including PTC (HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, galectin-3, and cyclin-D1) as well as TTF-1, thyroglobulin, and p63. Slides were digitally scanned and immunohistochemical staining evaluated using automated image analysis software. FED lesions were positive for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin (50/50, 100 %), though some (13/50, 26 %) also expressed p63. Similar to PTC, strong diffuse staining was observed for HBME-1 (43/50, 86 %), cytokeratin 19 (48/50, 96 %), galectin-3 (20/50, 40 %) and cyclin-D1 (38/50, 76 %). In contrast, normal thyroid, reactive atypia, and follicular nodular disease were negative, or at most, exhibited focal weak staining for HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, and galectin-3. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of atypical microscopic lesions in CLT with an immunohistochemical profile similar to PTC, supporting the concept of a premalignant lesion preceding PTC, arising in the context of severe chronic inflammation. PMID:23532502

Chui, Michael Herman; Cassol, Clarissa A; Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

2013-03-27

325

[Antibodies against thyroid gland peroxidase and thyroglobulin in various thyroid diseases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (anti-TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (anti-TgAb) were measured in 564 patients with various thyroid disorders and in 59 healthy subjects using chemiluminometric immunoassay. The frequency of elevated titers was 8.6% in healthy subjects, 76.2% in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism and diffuse goiter, 80.7% in patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism. 83.4% of patient with hyperfunction changed spontaneously to hypothyroidism and 71.5% of patients with hypothyroidism and goiter had antibodies above the normal range. Unexpectedly low prevalence of autoantibodies were detected in patients with primary myxoedema without goiter (48.2%) and in patients with endocrine ophthalmopathy and euthyroidism (33.2%). In the subgroup of patients with hyperthyroidism under methimazole treatment we found an incidence of positivity of 56% and the mean of positive values was lower compared with the untreated ones. In 42.8% of patients with hyperthyroidism and diffuse goiter treated successfully by methimazole, surgery or radioiodine elevated concentrations of antibodies could be detected, however they were in remission for more than five years. 197 (82.4%) of the patients with positive antibody titers showed higher concentrations to peroxidase compared with thyroglobulin. 57.9% of serum samples positive for anti-TPOAb were negative for anti-TgAb, whereas 9.4% of samples positive for anti-TgAb were anti-TPOAb negative. The diagnosis of thyroid autoimmunity could generally be based on measurement of anti-TPOAb with additional measurement of anti-TgAb in special cases.

Földes I; Lévay A

1994-07-01

326

Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36), multinodular goiter (n = 38), subacute thyroiditis (n = 6), Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (n = 17), lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3), follicular neoplasm (n = 18), Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3), papillary carcinoma (n = 16), and medullary carcinoma (n = 3). Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

Asotra Sarita; Sharma Jaishree

2008-01-01

327

Investigations of the 131-iodine accumulation in the white male rats thyroid gland during chronic parathion intoxication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 131-iodine accumulating ability of the white male rats thyroid gland during chronic parathion intoxication was investigated. The investigation was carred out through dermal application scheduled as follows: a first series of laboratory animals treated twice a week with 1 or 2 mg/kg water solution of parathion for 45 days and a second series of laboratory animals treated thrice a week with 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg for 150 days. Investigation of the 131-iodine accumulating capacity of the thyroid gland after intraperitoneal application of 1 or 2 ?Ci was carried out at the 30th, the 45th, the 90th and the 150th day. The thyroid gland weight and the protein-binding 131-iodine in the plasma was checked. The results show that the 131-iodine accumulation during prolonged parathion application undergoes phase-changes: at the beginning increased 131-iodine accumulation existed (after the first month), later a tendency toward decreasing in the iodine accumulating capacity of the thyroid gland was established. Only dosage of 1 mg/kg provoke an enhancement of the 131-iodine accumulation after the first as well after the fifth month of the course of parathion treatment. (author)

1977-01-01

328

Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of the thyroid glands: a case report with clinical manifestation of recurrent neck mass.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) is a recently recognized malignant neoplasm of the thyroid gland. About 14 cases of SMECE have been reported and this is the first reported case in Korea. A 57-year-old woman presented with right neck mass for 20 years. Total thyroidectom...

Chung, J.; Lee, S. K.; Gong, G.; Kang, D. Y.; Park, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; Ro, J. Y.

329

[Morphological, microscopic changes in the thyroid gland in the cases of hanging in vertical position with open and closed noose].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the morphological study was to search for traumatic changes in the thyroid in the cases of hanging in a vertical position with an open and closed noose. These changes would constitute an additional proof of intravital hanging and they would be useful in postmortem diagnosis of the hangings in which other commonly acknowledged features of intravitality are not discovered. In 33% of all cases, petechiae were observed in the thyroid gland. They appeared in 20% of the hangings with the closed noose, and in 13% of the hangings with the use of the open noose. The study showed that there was no difference between the open or closed, hard noose in terms of changes in the thyroid gland. There was also no correlation between the body position and the injury of the thyroid gland. In all the cases, hyperemia of the thyroid was observed and segmental expansion of blood vessels. The histopathological analysis showed that in one third of all the cases with negative macroscopic examination, it was discovered that microscopic changes indicated hanging alive. PMID:22715676

Ok?ota, Magdalena; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Dziecio?, Janusz; Ptaszy?ska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Klim, Beata; Sackiewicz, Adam; Za?uski, Janusz; Szeremeta, Micha?

330

[Morphological, microscopic changes in the thyroid gland in the cases of hanging in vertical position with open and closed noose].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the morphological study was to search for traumatic changes in the thyroid in the cases of hanging in a vertical position with an open and closed noose. These changes would constitute an additional proof of intravital hanging and they would be useful in postmortem diagnosis of the hangings in which other commonly acknowledged features of intravitality are not discovered. In 33% of all cases, petechiae were observed in the thyroid gland. They appeared in 20% of the hangings with the closed noose, and in 13% of the hangings with the use of the open noose. The study showed that there was no difference between the open or closed, hard noose in terms of changes in the thyroid gland. There was also no correlation between the body position and the injury of the thyroid gland. In all the cases, hyperemia of the thyroid was observed and segmental expansion of blood vessels. The histopathological analysis showed that in one third of all the cases with negative macroscopic examination, it was discovered that microscopic changes indicated hanging alive.

Ok?ota M; Niemcunowicz-Janica A; Dziecio? J; Ptaszy?ska-Sarosiek I; Klim B; Sackiewicz A; Za?uski J; Szeremeta M

2011-10-01

331

What Is Thyroid Cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

... or bumps in the thyroid gland are called thyroid nodules . Most thyroid nodules are benign, but about 1 in 20 is ... thyroid hormone and cause hyperthyroidism. People can develop thyroid nodules at any age, but they occur most commonly ...

332

Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland: our experience over the last 20 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland are uncommon, often presenting with nonspecific clinical and radiologic findings, and are thus underrecognized. They are occasionally associated with malignant neoplasms, which can greatly mimic benign lesions and carry detrimental clinical consequences if misdiagnosed. Here we present our 20-year experience (1992-2012) with these lesions at an academic medical center. Among more than 4500 adrenal gland specimens, 31 cases of adrenal lesions with a predominant cystic component were identified in 30 patients with an age range of 34 to 86 years (median, 55.5 years) and a male/female ratio of 13:17. Macroscopic descriptions, available histologic and immunostain slides, and available radiologic records were reviewed for all included cases. Radiologic studies and gross examination correlated well, and hemorrhage (26 cases; 84%) and encapsulation (25 cases; 81%) appeared to be nonspecific radiologic/gross features shared across histologic subtypes. Microscopic review identified 12 cases (39%) of pseudocysts, 2 cases (6%) of endothelium-derived cysts, and 17 cases (55%) of epithelium-derived cysts. Among these 31 cystic adrenal lesions, 2 cases (6%) were malignant neoplasms (1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma). Radiologic impression and histopathologic diagnosis were concordant in 11 (73%) of the 15 cases for which radiologic records were available. This study represents the second largest case series to date on cystic adrenal lesions and presents a comprehensive review on their demographic, clinical, radiologic, and gross and microscopic pathologic features, as well as their differential diagnoses.

Sebastiano C; Zhao X; Deng FM; Das K

2013-09-01

333

Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis and -management of thyroid lesions: A study on 434 patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To evaluate the results of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis and management of thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: A review was conducted of FNAC of diffuse or nodular thyroid lesions performed on 434 patients over a period of three years. The cyto...

Handa Uma; Garg Sukant; Mohan Harsh; Nagarkar Nitin

334

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... decrease in thyroid hormones slows metabolism. This can lead to a feeling of fatigue, slow thinking, and ... to destroy the hyperactive thyroid tissue. This can lead to the total destruction of the thyroid gland, ...

335

Application of liquid-based cytology to fine-needle aspiration biopsies of the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is regarded as an important tool for diagnosing thyroid lesions because of its simplicity, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Its role in correctly characterizing the group of indeterminate lesions or follicular-patterned neoplasms (FN) might be more decisive. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a technique based on the use of a semi-automated device that has gained popularity as a method of collecting and processing both gynecologic and non-gynecologic cytologic specimens. It achieves a diagnostic sensitivity as accurate as conventional preparations especially for its excellent cell preservation and for the lack of background which decrease the amount of inadequate diagnoses. Moreover, the cellular material which has been stored in the preservative solution could be effectively used for the application of immunocytochemical and molecular techniques especially for the Follicular proliferations. In many cases the cytologic features are similar in both methods but the colloid film and the lymphocytic component are more easily evaluated on direct smears whereas nuclear details and colloid globules are better evaluated in LBC slides. The LBC-processed biopsies represent a valid alternative to conventional cytology. The possibility of applying special techniques enhance the efficacy of the cytological diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

Rossi ED; Zannoni GF; Moncelsi S; Stigliano E; Santeusanio G; Lombardi CP; Pontecorvi A; Fadda G

2012-01-01

336

Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

1991-01-01

337

Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

1991-07-15

338

Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule verses biopsy in thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FNA biopsy of thyroid is a rapid, minimally invasive, and cost effective first line procedure in the evaluation of thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytological accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration (FNA) of solitary thyroid nodules in correlation with post-surgical histological findings. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Department of Pathology, Abbottabad International Medical College, Abbottabad from January 2009 to December 2010. A total of 81 patients with clinically palpable solitary thyroid nodule were included in the study. Thyroid function tests were initially performed followed by FNA of thyroid nodules later operated and histopathological examination was conducted on the excised nodules. FNA diagnoses were correlated with the histological findings. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the procedure were determined. Results: Out of 81 cases, 5 (6.2%) were unsatisfactory and 76 cases were satisfactory for cytological evaluation. Cyto-histopathological correlation was carried out for these cases. The study showed a diagnostic accuracy of 93% with sensitivity and specificity rates of 75% and 96% respectively. Positive predictive value is 81% and negative predictive value is 95%. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has evolved as an accurate and sensitive diagnostic tool for the initial screening of patients with thyroid nodules, and has reduced the need for unnecessary surgery. (author)

2010-01-01

339

[Treatment and monitoring of patients with differentiated cancer of thyroid gland].  

Science.gov (United States)

There were examined 200 patients aged from 19 to 77 years with differentiated cancer of the thyroid gland (TG). The combined treatment, which included performance of operation, radioiodine therapy and hormonotherapy, was conducted to all the patients. Total and maximum subtotal TG resection was performed in 90% patients, nonradical operation--in 10%, 23% patients were reoperated. Postoperative monitoring according to chart was done with application of dynamic scintigraphy and determination of the thyroglobuline level in the blood serum. The TG residual tissue (RT) was revealed in 61% patients and in 39%--the cancer metastases in the lymphatic nodes. RT of TG was eliminated in 86.8% patients after the first radioiodine therapy course conduction in middle remedial activity (2.79 +/- 0.11) GBq, the metastases devitalization--in 67.9% in middle remedial activity (4.07 +/- 0.12) GBq. PMID:11247457

Chebotareva, E D; Dzhuzha, D A; Shishkina, V V; Siniuta, B F; Cheren'ko, S M; Gorobe?ko, M B; Palamarchuk, V A; Sheptukha, A I; Ivanov, N A; Tratsevski?, V V

2000-11-01

340

Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN). This study reports our experience with 339 cases diagnosed as FON and 120 as FDN. All cases were evaluated for histologic diagnosis, age, sex and size of the nodule. Histopathologic follow-up was available in all cases. The malignancy rate was 22% (74/359) and 72% (86/120) for cases diagnosed as FON and FDN, respectively. In the FON category almost half of the malignant cases were papillary carcinoma. The risk of malignancy was higher in patients younger than 40 yr (53% vs. 30%) than in patients 40 year or more years old and greater in males (41% vs. 33%) than females. No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis. According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%). In addition, clinical features, including gender and age can be part of the decision analysis in selecting patients for surgery.

Deveci M Salih; Deveci Güzin; LiVolsi Virginia; Baloch Zubair

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Proliferative thyroid lesions in three diplodactylid geckos: Nephrurus amyae, Nephrurus levis, and Oedura marmorata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over a 5-mo period, three diplodactylid geckos housed at the National Aquarium were diagnosed with proliferative thyroid lesions: a rough knob-tail gecko (Nephrurus amyae), a smooth knob-tail gecko (Nephrurus levis), and a marbled velvet gecko (Oedura marmorata). Clinical signs included an intraoral mass or ventral throat swelling (or both), oral bleeding, and weight loss. Both of the knob-tail geckos died. The histologic diagnosis for the rough knob-tail gecko was thyroid carcinoma with metastases to the liver and lungs, and thyroid carcinoma with no metastases was reported in the smooth knob-tail gecko. A thyroidectomy was performed on the marbled velvet gecko with a histologic diagnosis of adenomatous hyperplasia. Postoperative weight loss and bradycardia resolved following oral supplementation with levothyroxine. The animal is in normal health 10 mo post-surgery. Five other diplodactylid geckos in the collection remain unaffected, giving a 38% prevalence of proliferative thyroid lesions (3/8). The etiology remains undetermined. This is the first report of a cluster of proliferative thyroid lesions in geckos.

Hadfield CA; Clayton LA; Clancy MM; Beck SE; Mangus LM; Montali RJ

2012-03-01

342

Congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters obtained from mothers subjected to immunization and the action of I13+H1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] I131 injected to rabbits immunized with homologous thyroid gland on the 19th - 20th day of pregnancy led to congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters in the first and second generations. The functional activity and the activity of proteolytic enzymes of the thyroid gland descreased by the 30th day of the postnatal development. A distinct correlation was revealed between the contents in the thyroid gland of the experimental litters of DIT+MIT and of organic forms -T3+T4. During the first days after birth the DIT+MIT content showed a sharp fall and increased by the 30th day; on the contrary, iodine binding into organic forms decreased with the age. Histological examination of the thyroid glands in the experimental litters demonstrated lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration, along with connective tissue proliferation, which led to a marked sclerosis and fibrosis of tissues, hypofunction. Beginning with the age of one month there was observed an extensive nodular proliferation, which possibly served as the beginning of the parenchymatous goiter formation. The appearance of lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland of the second generation could be considered as the result of a congenital predisposition to the autoimmune thyroiditis inlaid in the memory cells and intensified during birth

1976-01-01

343

Clinical Experience of In-Vivo Activation Analysis of Iodine in the Thyroid Gland. An Assessment of the Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary studies described earlier have been extended to the measurement of iodine in the thyroid glands of patients with non-toxic goitre. A collimated beam of neutrons from the UTR-100 kW reactor irradiates the patient's thyroid producing 128I and, incidentally, other isotopes, principally 24Na and 38CI. It is shown that the simple procedure of inserting boron or cadmium in the beam reduces the activity of these latter unwanted isotopes compared with the activity of 128I. A shadow-shield thyroid monitor, developed specially for these studies, is used to measure the induced activity. Sensitivities of about 1 mg or less of thyroidal iodine are shown to be attainable with a dose to the gland estimated pessimistically as about 14 rem and more realistically as about 6 rem. Problems experienced with the irradiation and counting techniques and the interpretation of the results are assessed and the progress made in overcoming these difficulties is described. Comparisons of results from in-vivo measurements and from in-vitro activation analysis and biochemical analysis on the same gland after thyroidectomy have shown that there is good agreement between the in-vivo and in-vitro activation results, but the values from these analyses, although in reasonable agreement with, tend to be higher than, the biochemical results. The reasons for this are still being investigated. (author)

1967-01-01

344

[Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].  

Science.gov (United States)

True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells. Follicular adenoma is well-circumscribed, with no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor. Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland. The gland is distorted with a nodular surface. The hyperplasia is followed by involution of the follicles leading to large follicles of varying size. Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland. Mechanical implantation and parasitic nodule should not be misdiagnosed as lymph nodes harboring metastatic carcinoma. PMID:18018557

Kameyama, Kaori; Ito, Koichi; Takami, Hiroshi

2007-11-01

345

[Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells. Follicular adenoma is well-circumscribed, with no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor. Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland. The gland is distorted with a nodular surface. The hyperplasia is followed by involution of the follicles leading to large follicles of varying size. Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland. Mechanical implantation and parasitic nodule should not be misdiagnosed as lymph nodes harboring metastatic carcinoma.

Kameyama K; Ito K; Takami H

2007-11-01

346

Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes.

Thienpont B; Barata C; Raldúa D

2013-06-01

347

Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. PMID:23562343

Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos; Raldúa, Demetrio

2013-04-03

348

Small thyroid nodules: ultrasonographic differentiation between benign and malignant lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the differentiation between benignity and malignancy in the evaluation of small thyroid nodules (the longest diameter <10 mm). Fine needle aspiration or surgery was performed for the evaluation of seventy two (44 benign and 28 malignant) small thyroid nodules from fifty eight patients. Ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively reviewed for the margin, echogenecity, presence of microcalcification, intranodular cystic change and peripheral hypoechoic halo. Ill-defined margin was more common in malignant nodules (61% vs 11%, p<0.05). In internal echogenecity, either iso- or hyperechogenicity was more common in benign nodules (45% vs 18%, p<0.05) while malignant nodules were often markedly hypoechoic (39% vs 18%, p<0.05). Malignant nodules contained more microcalcifications (36% vs 9%, p<0.05) whereas benign nodules often showed intranodular cystic change(39% vs 7%, p<0.05) and hypoechoic halo (41% vs 18%, p<0.05). Ultrasonography can be useful in the differentiation between benign and malignant small thyroid nodules.

Min, Seon Jeong; Kang, Ik Won; Lee, Gyung Kyu [Hankang Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Moon, Jeung Hee; Seo, Young Lan; Park, Sang Joon; Yoon, Young Cheol; Yun, Eun Joo [Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-03-15

349

COMPARISON BETWEEN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND (99m) TC- PERTECHNETATE SCINTIGRAPHY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN CATS WITH HYPERTHYROIDISM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scintigraphy is currently the reference standard for diagnosing feline hyperthyroidism; however, computed tomography (CT) is more widely available in veterinary practice. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe the CT appearance of thyroid glands in cats with hyperthyroidism and compare CT findings with findings from (99m) Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. Twenty-five adult hyperthyroid cats were included. Plain CT images were acquired for each cat and the following characteristics recorded for each thyroid lobe: visibility, delineation, position, attenuation, shape, and subjective size. Scintigraphic images were also acquired and the following characteristics recorded: radiopharmaceutical uptake, delineation, ectopic foci, shape, and subjective size. In CT images, thyroid lobes were most commonly found between the second and fourth cervical vertebrae, dorsolateral to the trachea. Affected thyroid lobes (based on scintigraphy reference standard) were most commonly oval and moderately enlarged in CT images. A heterogeneous attenuation pattern (isoattenuating to adjacent soft tissues with hypo- and hyperattenuating foci) was most commonly found in affected thyroid lobes. A positive correlation (P < 0.01) was identified between CT and scintigraphy for left-to-right thyroid lobe size relationship and subjective size of the larger thyroid lobe. The CT estimated mass was significantly higher (median = 148.8; range = [0;357.6]) for the more active thyroid lobe compared to the less active thyroid lobe (median = 84.6; range = [0;312.3]); (W = 154; P < 0.01). Findings indicated that CT may not reliably differentiate unilateral vs. bilateral hyperthyroidism in cats; however, CT may be a reliable alternative test for correctly identifying the more active thyroid lobe.

Lautenschlaeger IE; Hartmann A; Sicken J; Mohrs S; Scholz VB; Neiger R; Kramer M

2013-08-01

350

[Diagnostic relevance of fine needle aspiration cytology in nodular thyroid lesions].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIM: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid gland has been used as an initial investigative procedure of thyroid nodule(s) in the Department of Pathology at the Institute of Oncology of Vojvodina for more than 20 years. This procedure is rapid, inexpensive and technologically simple, yet it has found only limited, albeit increasing acceptance in medical practice in Serbia. The aim of the study was to evaluate our FNAC findings by correlating cytological results with histological diagnosis and to define the sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy and positive predictive value of FNAC. METHODS: A total of 266 patients with thyroid swellings were aspirated in one year investigated period at our Institute out of whom 69 underwent surgery between May 2008 and May 2009. The cytological results correlated with clinical features, ultrasound investigations (US) and subsequent histopathological examination of the resected tissue. RESULTS: By the use of cytology we found out thyroid carcinoma in 10 patients, and by histopathological examination in 12. We obtained 83% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 97% of diagnostic accuracy of FNAC. CONCLUSION: The obtained results confirm the importance of FNAC in preoperative assesment of thyroid nodule.

Knezevi?-Usaj S; Eri Z; Panjkovi? M; Klem I; Petrovi? T; Ivkovi?-Kapicl T; Karapandzi? A; Jeli? J

2012-07-01

351

Diagnostic relevance of fine needle aspiration cytology in nodular thyroid lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid gland has been used as an initial investigative procedure of thyroid nodule(s) in the Department of Pathology at the Institute of Oncology of Vojvodina for more than 20 years. This procedure is rapid, inexpensive and technologically simple, yet it has found only limited, albeit increasing acceptance in medical practice in Serbia. The aim of the study was to evaluate our FNAC findings by correlating cytological results with histological diagnosis and to define the sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy and positive predictive value of FNAC. Methods. A total of 266 patients with thyroid swellings were aspirated in one year investigated period at our Institute out of whom 69 underwent surgery between May 2008 and May 2009. The cytological results correlated with clinical features, ultrasound investigations (US) and subsequent histopathological examination of the resected tissue. Results. By the use of cytology we found out thyroid carcinoma in 10 patients, and by histopathological examination in 12. We obtained 83% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 97% of diagnostic accuracy of FNAC. Conclusion. The obtained results confirm the importance of FNAC in preoperative assesment of thyroid nodule.

Kneževi?-Ušaj Slavica; Eri Živka; Panjkovi? Milana; Klem Ištvan; Petrovi? Tomislav; Ivkovi?-Kapicl Tatjana; Karapandži? Aleksandra; Jeli? Jasmina

2012-01-01

352

Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS) gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS. Methods We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3) and total thyroxine (TT4) levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Results TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area. Conclusions An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.

Iwata Tomoyuki; Yoshida Tadao; Teranishi Masaaki; Murata Yoshiharu; Hayashi Yoshitaka; Kanou Yasuhiko; Griffith Andrew J; Nakashima Tsutomu

2011-01-01

353

Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pendred syndrome (PDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS) gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS. METHODS: We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3) and total thyroxine (TT4) levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area. CONCLUSIONS: An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.

Iwata T; Yoshida T; Teranishi M; Murata Y; Hayashi Y; Kanou Y; Griffith AJ; Nakashima T

2011-01-01

354

Evaluation of the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The use of sophisticated radiographic techniques is absolutely necessary in dentistry. The use of these techniques exposes the sensitive organs of head and neck to x-rays. The aim of the present study was to investigate the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 TLD GR-200 circular dosimeters (Thermoluminans Detector) were used in male RANDO-like phantom (head and neck segment, i.e. the first 10 segments) in order to determine the radiation dose absorbed by the thyroid gland. Then spiral computed tomographies were provided from the anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible along with a lateral Scout view as a guide. Conventional spiral tomographies were prepared from the maxilla, mandible and both jaws with a panoramic radiograph as a guide. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS 11.5 (a = 0.05). Results: The highest and lowest thyroid gland absorbed doses were observed with computed tomography of both jaws and conventional spiral tomography of the anterior maxilla, respectively (5.92 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ± 0.01 mSiv). The mean amount of the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland was lower in the conventional spiral tomography compared to computed tomography. The two techniques revealed significant differences in the absorbed doses except for conventional spiral tomography in the posterior and anterior regions of the mandible (p value = 0.276).Conclusion: According to results of the present study, the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in the conventional spiral tomography in different regions of the jaws was less than CT scan techniques. As a result, it appears the use of conventional spiral tomography is preferred over CT scans in limited regions where three-dimensional and cross-sectional views are required.Key words: Thyroid gland, Film dosimetry, Spiral Computed Tomography.

Hamid Badrian; Mahnaz Sheikhi; Atefeh Mirzabagherian; Navid Khalighinejad

2012-01-01

355

Synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland and thyroglossal duct in an adolescent with congenital hypothyroidism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid carcinoma (TC) combined with congenital hypothyroidism is rare. The synchronous occurrence of these two conditions is even rarer. We describe a patient with congenital hypothyroidism in whom hyperthyroglobulinemia and nodules developed despite adequate replacement therapy. Papillary TC was detected at age 19 years. Postoperative diagnostic scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the thyroglossal duct region. Repetitive imaging of the thyroid gland can be useful in the early detection of TC in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Moreover, this rare situation can be complicated by a synchronous thyroglossal duct carcinoma. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma can be detected if diagnostic scintigraphy is performed after total thyroidectomy.

??klar Z; Berbero?lu M; Ya?murlu A; Hac?hamdio?lu B; Sava? Erdeve S; Fitöz S; K?r M; Öçal G

2012-03-01

356

Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19), galectin-3 (Gal-3) and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1). However, current results remain controversial. The aim of the present article was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CK-19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 markers, as well as their associations, in the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Methods A systematic review of published articles on MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library was performed. After establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 articles were selected. The technique of meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was employed and global values of sensitivity, specificity, area under the summary ROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (dOR) were calculated. Results For the immunohistochemistry technique, the positivity of CK-19 for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions demonstrated global sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 73%; for Gal-3, sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 81%; and for HBME-1, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 83%. The association of the three markers determined sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 97%, and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.1. Similar results were also found for the immunocytochemistry assay. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that the three immunomarkers studied are accurate in pre- and postoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Nevertheless, the search for other molecular markers must continue in order to enhance this diagnostic accuracy since the results found still show a persistency of false-negative and false-positive tests. Virtual slides Http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3436263067345159

de Matos Leandro; Del Giglio Adriana; Matsubayashi Carolina; de Lima Farah Michelle; Del Giglio Auro; da Silva Pinhal Maria

2012-01-01

357

Thyroiditis  

Science.gov (United States)

... should. Symptoms What are the clinical symptoms of thyroiditis? There are no symptoms unique to thyroiditis. If ... in patients with subacute thyroiditis Causes What causes thyroiditis? Thyroiditis is caused by an attack on the ...

358

Analysis of the behavior and characteristics of thyroid lesions identified by biopsy fine needle aspiration and gammagraphic diagnosis: Hospital Calderon Guardia: period 2004-2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid lesions have meant one of the most important pathological entities in the Costa Rican population for many years, which have been increased by new diagnostic examinations and early detection and timely thanks to the preventive medicine that is exerted on the security of the country. After the nuclear accident Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union for several decades ago has shown an increase in neoplastic lesions as well as was appreciated after the implementation of the first atomic bomb in World War II, this behavior is the interest to see how thyroid pathology develops in the environment and what have been the Costa Rican experiences in correlation with the expected time to the global statistics. The behavior pattern observed of the lessons of the thyroid gland and based on clinical findings and in some cases together with scintigraphy have allowed to study the development seen through the ultrasound and cytopathological result. The behavior of the patients was similar to global statistics, being most frequent the benign lesions than malignant, and the scintigraphy correlation with lesions were found to be cold was significant for determination of malignant or suspicious for malignancy. Some of these lesions that were suspicious for malignancy scintigraphy and ultrasound were benign have been found to fall within the expected rate for this type of injury. The study consisted of sampling in 2023 noted that the prevalence was 9:1 in women compared with men, which agrees as thyroid diseases are more common in women than in men as well as the expected results in malignant lesions that remained the same behavior. As expected in the age ranges of suffering from thyroid lesions remained between the fifth and sixth decade of life, which has allowed to observe the frequency of different benign and malignant lesions that occurred during this study in the decades and periods covered. While before the study of thyroid lesions was occupied by scintigraphy and endocrinological management has been viewed that incidentalomas appreciated by the teams high-resolution ultrasound bring a benefit in the care of the patient early and fast like its minimally invasive intervention to characterize the thyroid lesions that are suspicious of malignancy or indeterminate by clinical and other diagnostic methods, a fact that increases in the routine study of thyroid pathology. In fact in the cost benefit study of FNA for early patient care is relatively cheap with a great evaluation of lesions and is important for determination of injury, because if there were suspected, sonographically, it is easier to seek the consent from patient and treating physician to take the sample and lead to better clinical guidance, histological and radiological, fact that will allow the patient a concise definition of your case. (author)

2007-01-01

359

Color doppler image of thyroid nodule : differentiation between benign and malignant lesion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the utility of color Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Fifty patients with thyroid nodules(10 cases of follicular adenoma, 12 of adenomatous hyperplasia, 21 of papillary adenocarcinoma, and 7 of follicular adenocarcinoma) were analyzed. Colour signal analysis was performed by inspecting the signals in and around the nodules, and these were graded from 0 to III according to the degree of vascularity in internal and marginal blood flow. Peak systoic velocity (PSV) and resisitive index (RI) in internal vascularity were used to analyse the flow signal. Internal color signals of malignant lesions tended to be high grade, whereas those of benign lesions tended to be low grade, with statistical significance(P<0.05). In spectral wave analysis, correlation between PSV and malignancy of thyroid nodules was statistically significant(P<0.05). The value of RI did not correlate with the malignancy of nodules, but tended to show a meaningful difference. Although further studies may be required, color Doppler sonography using color signal and flow signals analysis is a useful imaging modality for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid nodules.

Yoon, Jong Pil; Hong, Hyun Sook; Jeon, Young Tae; Kim, Seo Hee; Yoo, Myung Hee; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang [Soonchunhyang College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

1996-11-01

360

Effect of some radio-modifying preparations on the doses absorbed by the thyroid glands in orally introduced iodine-131  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to estimate the reduction dose rates of J131 absorbed by thyroid glands after preliminary administration of several chemical protectors, the experiments on 210 male Wistar rats were carried out. The protectors AET, VVR-2721, cysteamine hydrochloride, serotonin, creatine sulfate and Adeturon were applied intraperitoneally and after different periods of time J131 was introduced via stomach sounding . The results were shown as measured absorbed doses as well as calculated thyroid gland protection coefficients (PC). In all cases a sharp reduction of the absorbed doses in the first minutes after applications was found. The maximum PC of about 50-55% for serotonin, cysteamine and VVR-2721 was obtained. The protection effect gradually died down in the longer periods of time and practically it was missing in all cases in the 24th hour. The protection effect of radioprotectors was evaluated as unessential even in the most favourable cases.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Studies on the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland through foods contaminated by gaseous radioactive iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131 is one of the troublesome nuclides to human body, because it is concentrated in thyroid gland. If it was released into the air, it could be taken up through inhalation, drinking water and foods such as milk and vegetables which might be most suspicious foods for the ingestion of iodine-131. Factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland were discussed in this paper, such as deposition velocity of the nuclide onto plant leaves relating to its chemical forms in the air, transfer rate from grass to milk and the consumption rate of those critical foods especially by inhabitants around nuclear sites in the coastal area of Ibaragi prefecture. Specially designed closed system, gaseous radioactive iodine exposure chamber, was made in order to investigate the deposition velocity of the nuclide onto leaf vegetables and grass under the different environmental conditions. Stable iodine consumption was also estimated. (auth.)

1976-01-01

362

131I in the thyroid glands of sheep from Wales and south-west England after the Chernobyl accident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radioactive material from the Chernobyl reactor was deposited over the United Kingdom between May 2 and May 4, 1986. In this report, the 131I content of ovine thyroid glands, collected from seven abattoirs in Wales and south-west England is used to monitor the geographical distribution of the contamination. The results indicate that there was considerable local variation in the degree of contamination and suggest that, in addition to the major areas of contamination, deposition of high levels of radioactive material also occurred in isolated areas in the south-west of England. These observations confirm the value of monitoring 131I in the thyroid glands of grazing ruminants as a sensitive index of environmental contamination with the products of nuclear fission.

Morgan KL

1988-05-01

363

Thyroid gland exposure. Measurements of radioactivity in persons from Eastern Europe. Schilddruesenexposition. Strahlenmessung an Personen aus Ost-Europa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Owing to the geographic-political situation of Berlin, the Regionales Strahlenschutzzentrum of Berlin (RSZ) was able to identify almost 100% of persons arriving from the western part of the USSR, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Yugoslavia. On these persons, measurements of the I-131 activity of the thyroid gland were performed. These partial body incorporation measurements served at the same time as a screening with a view to whole-body incorporation measurements. (DG).

Herzberg, B.; Riedel, W. (Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin (Germany))

1990-04-01

364

Small-animal radionuclide luminescence imaging of thyroid and salivary glands with Tc99m-pertechnetate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The in vitro and in vivo detection of visible photons from radioisotopes using optical techniques is a fast-growing field in molecular imaging. Tc99m-pertechnetate is used as an alternative to I123 in imaging of the thyroid and is generally imaged with gamma cameras or single photon emission tomography instruments. The uptake in the thyroid tissue is mediated by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), a glycoprotein that actively mediates iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells and several extrathyroidal tissues. The luminescence of the gamma emitter Tc99m-pertechnetate in order to visualize its biodistribution in healthy small living animals by using a commercial optical imaging system is investigated. Here we show that in Nu/Nu mice, the uptake of Tc99m-pertechnetate in the thyroid gland and in salivary glands is very detectable by using radionuclide luminescence imaging. We also found light emission from the stomach in accordance with the literature. The localization of the light signals in the anatomical regions where the radiopharmaceutical is expected, confirmed by resections, shows that it is possible to image NIS-expressing tissues.

Boschi F; Pagliazzi M; Rossi B; Cecchini MP; Gorgoni G; Salgarello M; Spinelli AE

2013-07-01

365

Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI) is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET) in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH) in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 ?g/g BW) and with a high iodine dose (675 ?g/g BW) of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4) and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans) and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

Markovi? Ljiljana; Mihailovi?-Vu?ini? Violeta; Aritonovi? Jelena

2010-01-01

366

[The direct activating effect of a nonapeptide neurohormone (vasotocin) on the thyroid and interrenal glands of sturgeons in in-vitro experiments].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An in-vitro effect of nonapeptide neurohormone vasotocin on thyroid and interrenal glands was studied in hybrid of Siberian and Lena sturgeons [correction of salmons] at light microscopy level using morphometric method. At a concentration of 0.1 and 1 nmol/l vasotocin was shown to exert undirectional stimulating effect on the thyroid and interrenal gland functions. In the presence of vasotocin at a concentration of 1 nmol/l in culture media the activity of glands is even more pronounced than under the influence of adenohypophyseal hormones, adrenocorticotropic (8 x 10 ng/ml) and thyrotropic (5 ng/ml).

Platik MM; Kuzik VV; Polenov AL

1998-01-01

367

Long-term follow-up of the thyroid gland after treatment with (131) I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine in children with neuroblastoma: Importance of continuous surveillance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in up to 52% of patients 1.4 years after treatment with (131) I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in children with neuroblastoma (NBL), despite the use of potassium-iodide (KI). Our aim was to investigate if the incidence and severity of thyroid damage increases in time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All long-term survivors of childhood NBL treated with (131) I-MIBG in the period 1989-1999 in our center (n?=?16 of 43) were evaluated. During exposure to (131) I-MIBG, patients received 100?mg KI per day as thyroid protection. All MIBG images were evaluated for thyroid uptake of radio-iodine. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration above the institutional age-related reference ranges (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or using thyroxine at last moment of follow-up. In all, ultrasound investigation of the thyroid was performed. RESULTS: Fifteen years after treatment with (131) I-MIBG, in 81% (n?=?13) thyroid disorders were diagnosed. Eight survivors (50%) were treated with thyroxine. Thyroid nodules were found in nine survivors, of which two were diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma. In 28% of (131) I-MIBG-images radio-iodine uptake in the thyroid gland was seen, but no correlation was found between thyroidal radio-iodine uptake and thyroid disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Despite protection with KI during exposure to (131) I-MIBG in childhood, the occurrence of thyroid disorders is high and increases in time. Continuous screening for thyroid dysfunction and nodules in these survivors is recommended. Other ways to protect the thyroid gland should be further evaluated. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013;60:1833-1838. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Clement SC; van Eck-Smit BL; van Trotsenburg AS; Kremer LC; Tytgat GA; van Santen HM

2013-11-01

368

Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on serum levels of LH and testosterone and weights of testes and thyroid gland in rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of metabolism, maturity and reproduction. Thyroid dysfunction affects almost all endocrine glands such as pituitary and testis. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) serum levels as well as weights of thyroid gland and testes in methimazole (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism. Methods: Twenty-one adult male rats weighing 185 g were divided into 3 groups. The control group received drinking water, while treated groups received two doses of methimazole; low dose (20 mg/dl in drinking water) and high dose (100 mg/dl in drinking water), for 42 days. At the end of the experiments, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed and serum samples were obtained. Serum levels of hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay. Weights of testes and thyroid gland were determined after sacrifice. Results: Results showed that the use of methimazole decreased serum levels of T4, T3, testosterone and LH as well as the weight of testes, while it increased the weight of thyroid gland compared to control group. These effects were more clear in the high dose group. Conclusion: This study suggests that MMI–induced hypothyroidism causes a significant decrease in serum levels of thyroid hormones, testosterone and LH. Hypothyroidism also decreases the weight of testes, while it increases the weight of thyroid in rat. These effects were dose-dependent.

Esmaeil Mohamadizadeh; Namdar Yousofvand; Maryam Kazemi

2011-01-01

369

Thyroid tumors following 131I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 ?Ci of Na 131I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for 131I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor

1982-01-01

370

Thyroid tumors following /sup 131/I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 ..mu..Ci of Na /sup 131/I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for /sup 131/I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor.

Lee, W.; Chiacchierini, R.P.; Shleien, B.; Telles, N.C.

1982-11-01

371

[Preoperative cytodiagnosis by needle aspiration of follicular thyroid lesions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the period 1989-92, 2729 F.N.A.B. were performed: 585 with an histological control were reviewed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of carcinomatous occurrence in the follicular-structured smears and to suggest a new cytodiagnostic classification. Out of 398 follicular-structured smears, 188 were colloid nodules (CN), 38 thyreocytic hyperplasias without nuclear atypia (THWNA), 146 predominantly follicular lesions (PFL), 26 follicular lesions with nuclear pleomorphism (FLWNP). The last one showed a high incidence of neoplasia (69.2%) and carcinoma (46.1%); the second and the third only a difference in the incidence of benign neoplasms (32.9 vs. 15.8%), with almost the same percentage of occurrence of malignancies (2.6 vs. 2.1%). Such results suggest that a six-months dilatory strategy might be useful in simple follicular lesions (THWNA and PFL) whereas a cytological follicular pattern with nuclear pleomorphism requires a surgical treatment for the high risk of carcinomatous occurrence.

Fadda G; Rabitti C; Verzì A; Gullotta G; Lancia M; Bianchi A; Capelli A

1994-04-01

372

[Preoperative cytodiagnosis by needle aspiration of follicular thyroid lesions].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the period 1989-92, 2729 F.N.A.B. were performed: 585 with an histological control were reviewed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of carcinomatous occurrence in the follicular-structured smears and to suggest a new cytodiagnostic classification. Out of 398 follicular-structured smears, 188 were colloid nodules (CN), 38 thyreocytic hyperplasias without nuclear atypia (THWNA), 146 predominantly follicular lesions (PFL), 26 follicular lesions with nuclear pleomorphism (FLWNP). The last one showed a high incidence of neoplasia (69.2%) and carcinoma (46.1%); the second and the third only a difference in the incidence of benign neoplasms (32.9 vs. 15.8%), with almost the same percentage of occurrence of malignancies (2.6 vs. 2.1%). Such results suggest that a six-months dilatory strategy might be useful in simple follicular lesions (THWNA and PFL) whereas a cytological follicular pattern with nuclear pleomorphism requires a surgical treatment for the high risk of carcinomatous occurrence. PMID:7524012

Fadda, G; Rabitti, C; Verzì, A; Gullotta, G; Lancia, M; Bianchi, A; Capelli, A

1994-04-01

373

Radioiodine therapy effect on lacrimal gland function in patients with thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Objectives: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radioiodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected postradioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of I-131 (exposed group) for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months ago. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5 min) of this exposed group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with any other known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: The study demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to unexposed one. In the group of patients who have undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77% respectively. In evaluating the symptoms, 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the mentioned dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of the two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radioiodine therapy, which seems to be more severe in the majority of affected ones; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. (author)

2007-01-01

374

Radioiodine Treatment Effects on Lacrimal Glands Function in Patients with Thyroid Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of I-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman) surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes). Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation.

A. Fard Esfahani; F. Akhzari; H. Mirshekarpour; M. Saghari; S. Izadyar; J. Esmaili; B. Fallahi; D. Beiki; A. Takavar

2005-01-01

375

Thyroid Function Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

... on Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases : Thyroid Function Tests Thyroid Function Tests On this page: What is the ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped ...

376

Thyroid Disease and Teens  

Science.gov (United States)

... other parts of your body. Continue What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland ... medication adjustments as needed. Back Continue Goiters and Thyroid Nodules It can take months or years for ...

377

The structure and properties of 27S and larger iodoproteins in the thyroid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Iodoproteins larger than 19S were isolated from hog and calf thyroid glands using gel filtration on Sepharose 6B and one or two centrifugations in glycerol density gradients. Purified protein fractions were analysed in the analytical ultracentrifuge and characterized by the combined use of electrophoresis in continuous polyacrylamide gel gradients and electron microscopy. Three bands migrating more slowly than 19S could be identified in the polyacrylamide gels. Electron microscopy of the fastest of these species, having a sedimentation constant of 27S, showed pairs of 19S thyroglobulin molecules which had the same size and the same ovoid shape as normal, well-iodinated thyroglobulin molecules. The ovoids were randomly attached side to side, end to end. The more slowly migrating proteins were shown to consist of similar aggregates of three, four or more randomly attached molecules. Iodine and sialic acid determinations in 27S and 19S separated from the same pool of well iodinated protein showed no difference in iodine content but a larger amount of sialic acid in 27S than in 19S.

Berg G; Björkman U

1975-09-01

378

Temperature dependent changes in the thyroid gland of Mertensiella caucasica (Urodela, Amphibia).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of temperature on the thyroid gland of the Caucasian salamander, Mertensiella caucasica has been studied (1) with the light- and electron microscopes, (2) with enzyme histochemical and quantitative methods. Animals which had been kept for years at 16 degrees C were exposed for 48 hrs to 4 degrees C or 27 degrees C. At 4 degrees C the follicular epithelium consisted of cuboidal cells with well-developed rough ER, occasional distended cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) filling most of the cytoplasm, a relatively small Golgi apparatus and numerous round or oval shaped lysosomes. In animals kept at 27 degrees C the follicular wall was composed of markedly taller epithelial cells, the apices of which bulged into the follicular lumen. Compared to the animals at 4 degrees C, there appeared to be a decrease in the rough ER. The Golgi apparatus did not exhibit clear differences. The lysosomes increased in number and showed various shapes among which elongated ones with pointed ends were particularly striking. In the apical cytoplasm colloid droplets appeared indicating hormone release. The apical microvilli increased in number. The measurements of total T4 have shown that the hormone level in animals kept at 27 degrees C was about twice as high as in animals kept at 4 degrees C.

Schubert C; Welsch U

1976-01-01

379

Temperature dependent changes in the thyroid gland of Mertensiella caucasica (Urodela, Amphibia).  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of temperature on the thyroid gland of the Caucasian salamander, Mertensiella caucasica has been studied (1) with the light- and electron microscopes, (2) with enzyme histochemical and quantitative methods. Animals which had been kept for years at 16 degrees C were exposed for 48 hrs to 4 degrees C or 27 degrees C. At 4 degrees C the follicular epithelium consisted of cuboidal cells with well-developed rough ER, occasional distended cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) filling most of the cytoplasm, a relatively small Golgi apparatus and numerous round or oval shaped lysosomes. In animals kept at 27 degrees C the follicular wall was composed of markedly taller epithelial cells, the apices of which bulged into the follicular lumen. Compared to the animals at 4 degrees C, there appeared to be a decrease in the rough ER. The Golgi apparatus did not exhibit clear differences. The lysosomes increased in number and showed various shapes among which elongated ones with pointed ends were particularly striking. In the apical cytoplasm colloid droplets appeared indicating hormone release. The apical microvilli increased in number. The measurements of total T4 have shown that the hormone level in animals kept at 27 degrees C was about twice as high as in animals kept at 4 degrees C. PMID:177213

Schubert, C; Welsch, U

1976-01-28

380

Diagnosis of follicular lesions of undetermined significance in fine-needle aspirations of thyroid nodules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology for follicular lesions of undetermined significance (FLUS), the risk of cancer and diagnostic improvement with use of immunocytochemistry. Methods. For each FLUS diagnosis, we analyzed the cytological criteria (9 Bethesda criteria), secondary fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results, surgical procedures, contribution of immunocytochemistry with the antibodies cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and monoclonal anti-human mesothelial cell (HBME1). Results. Among patients with 2,210 thyroid FNAs, 244 lesions (337 nodules) were classified as FLUS (11% of all thyroid FNAs). The 3 criteria most often applied were cytological atypia suggesting papillary carcinoma (36%), microfollicular architecture but sparse cellularity (23.1%), cytological atypia (21.5%). With secondary FNA, 48.8% of nodules were reclassified as benign. For about half of all cases (41.4% for the first FNA, 57.6% for the second FNA), immunocytochemistry helped establishing a diagnosis favoring malignant or benign. No benign immunocytochemistry results were associated with a malignant lesion. In all, 22.5% of the 39 removed nodules were malignant. Conclusion. The FLUS category is supported by well-described criteria. The risk of malignancy in our series was 22.5%. Because we had no false-negative immunocytochemistry results, immun