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Sample records for thyroid gland lesions

  1. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  2. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

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    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  3. Pituitary and thyroid gland lesions induced by 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2-MBI) inhalation in male Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norford, D C; Meuten, D J; Cullen, J M; Collins, J J

    1993-01-01

    2-Mercaptobenzimidazole (2-MBI) is a member of the thioureylene compound family known for their potent antithyroid activity. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 3.13, 12.5, and 50.0 mg/m3 of 2-MBI via inhalation for 13 wk. Follicular cell hyperplasia occurred in the thyroid glands of rats from the 3 2-MBI treatment groups. Thyrotrophs in the pituitary glands from rats in these 3 groups were hyperplastic, and they had varying numbers of hypertrophic cells with either eosinophilic stippled cytoplasm or with eosinophilic globules within 1 or more large vacuoles that displaced the nucleus. These cells were compared by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural examination to "thyroidectomy cells" within the anterior pituitary glands of thyroparathyroidectomized rats and were determined to be identical to them. Immunohistochemical staining for the beta-chain of thyroid-stimulating hormone confirmed that the hyperplastic and hypertrophic cells were thyrotrophs. Ultrastructurally, hypertrophic cells in 2-MBI-treated rats and thyroidectomy cells in thyroparathyroidectomized rats had expanded cytoplasm containing either increased profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) or one or more widely dilated cisternae of RER, which displaced other cellular organelles. 2-MBI appears to act comparably to other thioureylene compounds that have been shown to produce low serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, which results in thyrotroph hypertrophy and hyperplasia, resultant thyroid hyperplasia, and subsequent goiter. PMID:8115823

  4. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

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    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Anani Aila MAT ZAIN; Irfan MOHAMAD; Balasubramanian, Anusha; Nur Asyilla CHE JALIL

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland either primary or metastatic is extremely rare. However, MEC is the most common malignant tumour of the salivary glands with the majority originating from the parotid gland. We report the case of a 54-year-old Malay lady who presented with recurrent MEC affecting the thyroid gland two years after being treated for primary parotid MEC.

  5. Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions

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    F. Fulya KÖYBA?IO?LU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using ?2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05. Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05. The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05.Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage and ... This shows some of the structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, the nerves to ...

  7. Methods of microlymphography of the thyroid gland

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    Spuzyak, M.I.; Karachentsev, Yu.I.; Gorbenko, V.N. (Khar' kovskij Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej (Ukrainian SSR))

    Methods of microlymphography application for study of lymphatic system and thyroid gland are described. It is shown that microlymphography can promote to outline new ways and directions in experimental and clinic lymphology. Microthyrolymphography must contribute to more correct and detailed interpretation of lifetime lymphograms of thyroid gland.

  8. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    B T Turumhambetova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... long? No, because it’s basically replacing the normal hormone that the thyroid was manufacturing. I see. And if only part of the thyroid is removed, is the medication still needed long-term? Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  10. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

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    Stoki? Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  11. Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

  12. Effect of iodine-137 on sex and thyroid hormone binding to blood plasma proteins in children with functional lesions of the thyroid gland as a result of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying characteristics of specific interaction of estradiol-, testosterone- and thyriod-binding blood globulins with the corresponding ligands in children from Gomel region with with endemic swelling of the thyroid gland (degrees 1 and 2) affected by iodine-131 revealed were a reduced cooperativity in estradiol T-3 binding and a halved affinity to androgens and thyroids as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a drastic decline in the binding capacity of estradiol- and testosterone-binding globulins in the blood plasma. The endemic thyroid gland swelling is supposed to be due to sexual malfunction in teenagers

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will see every moment of this procedure as it takes place over the course of the next ... picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage ...

  14. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... explaining some of the technical applications here, and Gene Bashera who is our anesthesia tech. And, doc ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  15. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ... what does that do? In certain types of cancers if there is concern that there may be ...

  16. Fine structural lesions and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C C

    1980-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) produced ultrastructural lesions of thyroid follicular cells and a reduction in serum levels of thyroid hormones in neonatal (0, 7, 14, and 21 days of age) Osborne-Mendel rats exposed to 50 or 500 ppm PCB in utero and by the milk. Litter size was decreased significantly in rats fed 500 ppm PCB. Body weights at 21 days of age were reduced in rats exposed to 50 and 500 ppm PCB. The ultrastructural lesions in follicular cells were dose- and age-dependent but were ...

  17. Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing sarcoma of the bone is a highly malignant round-cell tumor that typically presents between 10 to 20 years of age and is more common in boys. It can have an extraosseous origin, although it is rare. We report a case of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the thyroid gland in a 9-year-old girl. (orig.)

  18. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  19. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

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    ... positioned on the examination table, the radiologist or sonographer will apply a warm water-based gel to ... need to extend your neck to help the sonographer (technologist) examine your thyroid with ultrasound. If you ...

  20. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thyroid Hormones Concentration and Histopathological Changes of Thyroid Gland in Sheep

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    M. Nouri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the thyroid histological and hormonal changes in response to ambient temperature variations, thyroid glands and blood samples were randomly collected from 410 indigenous sheep of either sex and different age groups from municipal Ahvaz slaughter house. The extent of fluctuations in triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, T3 uptake and Free Thyroxin Index (FTI and thyroid histopathological lesions were scrutinized in 2 months in year 2003, viz February (the coldest month and August (the hottest month. A marked decline was discernable in T3, T4 and FTI in August compared to February, but mean value for T3 uptake increased. Out of 410 pairs of thyroid glands, 169 (41.2% had lesions in which histopathological changes were categorized as follicular atrophy (43.6%, ultimobranchial cyst (30.2%, paranchymal cyst (6.4%, lymphocytic thyroiditis (6.2%, hyperemia/hemorrhage (5.5%, follicular cell hyperplasia (4%, C cell hyperplasia (1.4%, colloid goiter (1.1% and adenoma (1.1. Mean of thyroidal parameters for T4 and FTI was higher in lesioned group (p<0.05. The frequency of lesioned thyroid was higher in summer than winter (p<0.05. The result of this study showed that high ambient temperature has profound effect on thyroid function, secretion and pathological changes in sheep.

  2. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

  3. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals...Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food....

  4. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

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    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or laboratory examinations. Parathyroid scan is a noninvasive method used in determining parathyroid adenoma, and Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4} subtraction methods are commonly applied. The thyroid gland was not visualized on Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy of suppressed thyroid tissue in a study by Turkolmez et al.. It should be taken into account that sometimes we may not be able to visualize a normal thyroid gland, and in these cases we might encounter suboptimal visualization in T1-201 subtraction method as well. Erdil et al. foun that Tl-201 is superior to Tc-99m MIBI in the visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue with a toxic thyroid nodule. Kiratli et al. mentioned decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the thyroid gland in hemodialysis patients. However, no patient presented an absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in the thyroid gland with secondary hyperthyroidism. In this case, the thyroid was not suppressed and the TcPO{sup -4} scan thyroid gland was normal, but the thyroid gland was not visualized with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, and Tl-201 accumulation in the thyroid gland was not sufficient. To the best of our knowledge, from a search of the published literature, there has been no case like this previously reported.

  5. Ultrasonographic examinations of the thyroid gland in women at confirmed risk of familial neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of new gene mutations, which increase the risk of neoplasm (e.g. breast and thyroid gland) improves the examinations that can help in early diagnosis and quick treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of asymptomatic focal lesions in ultrasonographic examinations of women at confirmed risk of family neoplasm aggregation. A total of 445 women aged 25-60 years were examined in 2004-2005. 278 patients descended from families with higher frequency of confirmed risk of familial neoplasm (I group), 167 belonged to the control group. Ultrasonographic examinations of the breast and thyroid gland were performed in all women. Patients were divided into selected groups depending on the kind of changes. In the analyzed material asymptomatic focal changes in the thyroid gland were found in 46, 5% of the first group and 61,6% of the control group. The solid-cystic lesions in this material were ascertained in 36% of the first group and 51% of the second group. A large frequency (almost 50%) of the asymptomatic focal changes in thyroid glands were found. Detections of lesions were similar in both groups: the confirmed risk of familial neoplasm group and the control group. On the basis of these findings we can conclude, that it is reasonable to perform screening examinations of thyroid glands in connection with breast's diagnostics. (author)

  6. Sonography of the thyroid gland with high resolution real time apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of sonography of thyroid glands in 131 patients were compared with the findings on palpation and from scintigrams. High resolution sonography is the most accurate method of examination for demonstrating changes in the thyroid. In 40% cases sonography demonstrated lesions additional to the single abnormality found clinically. In 10% cases a suspected thyroid abnormality on palpation proved to be due to extra thyroid disease. Evaluation of the number, size and localisation of space-occupying lesions by means of sonography is superior to all other kinds of investigation. It is, however, not possible to determine whether a lesion is benign. An attempt has been made to define the usefulness of thyroid sonography and its place during routine diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Disorders of thyroid gland in India.

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    Desai, M P

    1997-01-01

    The profile of thyroid disorders encountered in pediatric and adolescent age groups in India is similar to that seen in most parts of the world except for the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders in certain endemic regions of this country. Clinical presentation is most commonly for hypothyroidism and goiters and infrequently for hyperthyroidism. Of nearly 800 children referred for thyroid problems, 79% had hypothyroidism (goitrous as well as nongoitrous), 19% had euthyroid goiters and 2% had hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism was due to thyroid dysgenesis in 75% (aplasia/hypoplasia--50% and ectopic thyroid gland 25%), thyroiditis in nearly 5% and dyshormonogenes is in 20%. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in our experience of screening nearly 40,000 newborns is about 1 in 2,640, which is much higher than the worldwide average of 1 in 3,800. Diagnostic delay in hypothyroidism is common and is related to lack of awareness amongst primary healthy care practitioners and family physicians as well as the cost and availability of laboratory investigations. This delay, compounded with inadequate therapeutic surveillance is responsible for the poor outcome in affected children. High incidence of dyshormonogenesis, inherited as autosomal recessive trait also calls for genetic counselling and routine sibling examination. Our results of family studies on first degree relatives of children with thyroiditis revealed presence of antimicrosomal antibodies in 43% and thyroid disease in 26%. Many etiologic factors cause goiters which may be functionally euthyroid or hypothyroid with almost equal frequency in our series. In nearly 200 schools children surveyed for goiter prevalence, 8% in high socioeconomic groups and about 21% in the low income group, had goiters. Female predominance was marked. However, iodine deficiency was not the sole cause as revealed by dietary survey and urinary iodine estimations. Hyperthyroidism is infrequent, less severe and in our experience responded well to long-term administration of antithyroid drugs. A high index of clinical awareness and education of primary health workers will help a great deal in improving the ultimate outcome in children with thyroid disorders/hypothyroidism. PMID:10771808

  8. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  9. Development of a new type thyroid glands dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new dosimeter of 125I in thyroid gland is described. The dosimeter consists of NaI(Tl) detector and intelligent data recorder. Single-chip-microcomputer is used for data handling. The activity of 125I in thyroid glands of human being is measured directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent. The measuring range of 125I in thyroid glands is 10-2 x 106 Bq. The dosimeter has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability

  10. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

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    Keith Herr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  11. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

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    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  12. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

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    Kova?ev-Zaviši? Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction, is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consequences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

  13. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  14. Morphogenetic aspects of biomineralization in thyroid gland tumor diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Reznik, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of differential diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid proliferative diseases is extremely important and difficult issue. One unexplored morphological phenomena is biomineralization of tissue. This process accompanies most proliferative processes in the thyroid gland. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/33573

  15. Burkitt Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland in an Adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, K.; Gangadharan, A.; R. S. Arora; R. Shukla; Pizer, B.

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt Lymphoma is a highly aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that in nonendemic areas has abdominal primary sites. We report a very rare case of Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid swelling in a 14-year-old white Caucasian British male with no preexisting thyroid or medical problems. The diagnosis was confirmed by an open wedge biopsy following a fine needle aspiration. The patient was treated according to the Children's Cancer and Leukaemia...

  16. Goiter gland clinical examination using thyroid uptake equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiter Gland Clinical examination using thyroid uptake equipment developed by BATAN has been performed. The clinical examination was performed in the Ario Wirawan Lung Hospital in Salatiga. The gland functionality was determined by measuring the absorption of 131I by the goiter gland, which was performed by placing the detectors in front of the patient's throat. To obtain the diagnosis result rapidly, the thyroid uptake device equipped with a devasys USB interface capable of receiving digital data. The data is processed by computer to obtain uptake curves. The result were then compared with the patient's blood analysis result obtained using standard Radioimmunoassay equipment. (author)

  17. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimashkieh Haytham

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (<50, 51–500 or >500 cells, cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation, cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin, and background (colloid-like material and macrophages. Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51–500 cells with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma. Immunocytochemical analysis for PHT was performed for 14 cases (6 destained smears and 8 cell blocks which showed distinct cytoplasmic positivity. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland. Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin. Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology. Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

  18. Sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to establish the sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in the first week of life in 107 term neonates. The serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was normal in all neonates. Their gestational age at birth was range from 37 to 41 weeks and birth weight was 3305 ± 457.74 g. Sonography was performed with 7.5 MHz linear array transducer (SA-8800 MT, Medison, Korea) within the first week of postnatal age. Maximal transverse (T), anteroposterior (AP), and longitudinal (L) dimensions of thyroid gland were measured. The volume of each lobe was estimate by using standard geometric formula; volume of a prolate ellipsoid = T X AP X L X ?/6. The total volume of the thyroid gland was calculated as the sum of the each lobe. The correlations with total thyroid volume and weight, height, the body surface area, gestational age of the neonate were estimated by Pearson's coefficient and p volume on Bivariate correlation analysis. Total thyroid volume was 0.68 ± 0.23 cm3, left and right lobe volumes of thyroid gland were 0.32 ± 0.12 cm3 and 0.36 ± 0.14 cm3, respectively. T, AP, and L dimension of right lobe were 0.69 ± 0.14 cm, 0.71 ± 0.13 cm, 1.37 ± 0.22 cm respectively. And those of left lobe were 0.70 ± 0.11 cm, 0.65 ± 0.13 cm, 1.31 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. The Pearson's coefficients for total thyroid volume with the weight, and body surface area of neonate were 0.385, 0.395 (p3 and was significantly correlated with the weight and body surface area.

  19. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... to get into the thyroid itself, but the placement of the incision, is that done in a ... might be having a problem with their thyroid? Well outside of a goiter there are other conditions, ...

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ... decide if the symptoms are consistent with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What ...

  2. Histopathological Study on Thyroid Gland of Goat in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafour Mousavi; Daryoush Mohajeri; Mehrdad Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland in most animal species has two lobes, one on each lateral surface of the trachea. In pigs, the main lobe of the thyroid gland is on the midline in the ventral cervical region with dorsolateral projections from each side. The thyroid structural changes in gouts were investigated. About 386 pairs of thyroid glands collected from gout at the local municipal abattoir in Tabriz city of East Azerbaijan province. A total of 386 thyroid specimens examined, 8 cases were follicular at...

  3. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-06-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland.

  4. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland

  5. Metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Mohamed T; Hegazy, Mohamed A; Abd Elwahab, Khaled; Arafa, Mohammad; Abdou, Islam; Refky, Basel

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland is a known but an unusual site for metastatic tumors from various primary sites. Despite the fact that it is one of the largest vascular organs in the body, clinical and surgical cases have given an incidence of 3?% of secondary malignances of the organ. Nevertheless, thyroid metastases are not an exceptional finding at autopsy, they are encountered in 2?% to 24?% of the patients with malignant neoplasm.

  6. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ?110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The Islet cell hyperplasia was found to be more frequent in male rats at ?110 weeks of age. PMID:26414849

  7. Malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Noriko; Ozawa, Yasunori

    2005-07-01

    Reported herein is a rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 71-year-old woman with a past history of chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaints were rapidly growing neck mass, weight loss and hoarseness. Presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood, and an increase in anti-microsome antibodies and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were found on preoperative laboratory tests. A diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto's thyroiditis was made, and a total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD4 predominance. Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed. No adjuvant therapy was performed because of the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 25 months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. The present case suggests that Hashimoto's thyroiditis might play an important role in the carcinogenesis of thyroid lymphoma not only of B-cell lineage but also of T-cell lineage. PMID:15982218

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THYROID LESIONS IN WARDHA DISTRICT OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarth Shukla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To establish a significant predominance of thyroid lesions in and around Wardha district, and to establish specific etiological link for the predominance the thyroid lesions. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This was a hospital based analytical prospective study, conducted in Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital (A.V.B.R.H. involving 108 patients. The study was carried over a duration of 1 year January 2010 to December 2010. Patients attending endocrinological clinics and the newly detected cases of thyroid lesions, within set parameters of study, were the subjects of this study. OBSERVATION: Thyroid lesions which we came across in the course of the study were Thyrotoxicosis, Myxoedema, Thyroiditis, Diffuse goitre, Nodular Goitre and Carcinoma Thyroid . These were correlated with epidemiological factors like Age, Sex, Region, Diet and Iodine Intake. Significant relationship between thyroid function, age of patient, diet was seen in comparison to individual thyroid lesions. CONCLUSION : G oitre was the commest pathology encountered . Almost all of the thyroid lesions were of hypothyroid in their function with exception of thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma. Thyroid lesions were found predominantly in females, Age related lesion pathology was significant, and vegetarian and non - vegetarian diets along with low and high iodine salt uptake had obvious pathological effects on thyroid

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... the thyroid was manufacturing. I see. And if only part of the thyroid is removed, is the ... the vocal cords, to the nerves. If it’s only one nerve then it’s (INAUDIBLE) and there’s treatment ...

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... someone who has thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as ... home tomorrow. Wow. Now, what is typically the pain level post-surgery? Everyone’s tolerance to pain i s ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... if you can regulate the thyroid? Me dication primary, and then surgery if there’s some anatomic abnormalities. ... we tried to separate the meat from the bone or the skin from the meat. ... possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters ...

  12. Isotopic ratios of 129I/127I in mammalian thyroid glands in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic ratios of 129I/127I in cattle thyroid glands collected from various areas of Japan were measured by neutron activation analysis with combustion pre-treatment. Pig and human thyroid glands were also analyzed by the same method. The iodine isotopic ratio in cattle thyroid glands in Japan is comparable with that observed in Europe. The isotopic ratio in human thyroid glands in Japan is remarkably lower than that in Europe, which has been reported to be comparable to that of cattle. The isotopic ratio in pig thyroid glands is also lower than that in cattle. (author) 7 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities in western Canadian foals: reexamination of a previously described syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A L; Doige, C E; Fretz, P B; Townsend, H G

    1994-01-01

    A syndrome of neonatal foals characterized by hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities (TH-MSD) has been described in western Canada and may be increasing in incidence. In an attempt to improve recognition and understanding of this syndrome, 2946 records of equine abortuses, stillborns, and dead neonatal foals were examined to determine the laboratory involved, the year and month of submission, the breed and sex of the fetus or foal, the type of perinatal loss, the length of gestation, and whether or not the submission had evidence of a lesion of the thyroid gland, the musculoskeletal system, or other abnormal clinical or postmortem findings. One hundred and fifty-four (5.2%) records indicated the presence of an abnormal thyroid gland. Of these, 79 (2.7%) had additional lesions consistent with the TH-MSD syndrome described in the 1980s, while 75 (2.5%) were without these additional lesions. Comparisons among these two groups and a third group of fetuses and foals without lesions of the thyroids glands are described. The results confirm that the TH-MSD syndrome is a specific and unique disease with no breed or sex predilection. It is argued that there may be an "exposure-related" cause, and based on a review of similar disease syndromes of the horse, it is suggested that an examination of the feed is indicated in outbreaks of the TH-MSD syndrome. PMID:8044756

  14. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

  15. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NON - NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THYROID: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Purushotham Krishnappa; Dr Sowmya Ramakrishnappa

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are one among the common clinical encounters, which range from congenital disorders to the malignant lesions. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid is accepted globally as the best screening tool to differentiate neoplastic versus non neoplastic lesions. The cytological features of the non-neoplastic disorders of thyroid have a good amount of overlap between them and with a few neoplastic lesions as well, thus leading to wrong interpretation and possible inappropriate mana...

  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... How do you identify that it is in fact the thyroid that is the issue? Basically, it’s ... experiencing this more than men. It does, in fact, have something to do with hormonal changes during ...

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... thyroid is so important when it comes to hormone production in the body and how it can ... in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women? All related to hormones. It is all related to hormones. And how ...

  18. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead ... you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will ...

  19. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... also, during that time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid- ... the “Ask” icon on your screen. You can send in your questions live via the web to ...

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... some spread, it will destroy the other living cells that are too small to remove surgically that ... often that an enlarged thyroid presents with cancerous cells? It may, yes. Okay. And, again, I believe ...

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... get started and move over to your surgical team. And if you’d be so kind as ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... of the surgery. This shows some of the structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, ... that you can visualize all the important anatomic structures. And people at home may be hearing a ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Well outside of a goiter there are other conditions, there are hyper and hypo metabolic states that ... be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... and ask for the blood test that would check the thyroid? Well, clearly, the doctor would need ... to their endocrinologist in about 30 days to check the level of hormone to be certain that ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... above on both sides. And, Dr. T, what causes an enlarged thyroid to begin with? A goiter ... we could talk about some of the other causes in more detail for having to have your ...

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... you speak to why the thyroid is so important when it comes to hormone production in the body and how it can affect your overall health if it’s failing to work properly? It regulates ...

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... also a lot longer. There also is a learning curve and there have been a lot of ... who have hypo-functioning thyroids can actually have problems with mentation, with fatigue, with normal function. They ...

  8. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... would take place had she been given a diagnosis of a cancerous thyroid? Correct. Although, the procedure ... women as well. So if you have a diagnosis of Hashimoto’s Disease you would be on the ...

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... above on both sides. And, Dr. T, what causes an enlarged thyroid to begin with? A goiter ... be malignant, and so we’re trying to prevent her from having a nodule that is cance ...

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... diagram and explain a little bit about the anatomy involved in this procedure and how the thyroid ... easily to all of these parts of the anatomy. Correct. This is the trachea here, and this ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... They can have fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel sluggish, they can be hyperactive, ... thyroid, the symptoms would be what? Fatigue, feeling cold, having no energy, listless. And is surgery usually ...

  12. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... involved in this procedure and how the thyroid functions in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a ... you today and tell us what each person’s function is in the o perating room. OR Live ...

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the ... plastic closure. The patients recover very nicely. The robotic surgeries are requiring up to three surgeons. Oh, ...

  14. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... type of surgery, and it’s critical where this technology has evolved over the last several years. All ... effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the ...

  15. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... it’s failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ... body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is there some reason that ...

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... enlarged thyroid. If you were to take an average-sized walnut and open it and remove the ... to ask you questions coming in from the web. And people at home, thank you for sending ...

  18. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... replacing the normal hormone that the thyroid was manufacturing. I see. And if only part of the ... some spread, it will destroy the other living cells that are too small to remove surgically that ...

  19. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland 15 years after nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Fleischer, Jens Geelmuyden

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the thyroid gland is rare and can mimic primary thyroid carcinoma leading to diagnostic difficulties. We present a case of a 55-year-old female with RCC metastasis to the thyroid gland 15 years after nephrectomy. Diagnosis was made after total thyroidectomy. This case emphasizes the importance of considering metastasis in patients with increasing growth of the thyroid gland over a short period of time known with earlier RCC, even decades after nephrectomy.

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... patient will go on to receive radioactive iodine treatment. And what does that do? In certain types ... gland. Those patients that are refractory to the treatment or who may be allergic to the medications ...

  1. The structure of thyroid gland in its pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin R.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the microscopic features of the structure of the thyroid gland in different forms of its pathology. Materials and Methods. The study is based on the thyroid glands of 199 patients of both sexes aged 21 to 74 years. Results. At the micro-macrofollicular nontoxic goiter was found flattened thyroid epithelium with flattened normochromic nucleus, the small size of cells and nuclei, low nuclear-cytoplasmic index, intrafollicular moderate epithelial proliferation, homogeneous colloid and moderate diffuse lymphoid infiltration. At the micro-macrofollicular toxic goiter detected cubic epithelium with rounded normochromic kernel, smallest size of cells and nuclei, nuclear-cytoplasmic minimum index intrafollicular focal proliferation of the epithelium, colloid mesh boundary with severe vacuolization, focal lymphoid infiltration and hemorrhage. When diffuse toxic goiter detected cubic form cells of medium size with a fairly high nuclear-cytoplasmic index, rounded normochromic kernel, rare intrafollicular epithelial proliferation, homogeneous colloid with an edge vacuolization. With the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis was observed flattened epithelium with rounded normochromic nucleus, the small size of cells and nuclei, found the average nuclear-cytoplasmic index, homogeneous colloid and extensive lymphoid infiltration with light propagation centers. Adenoma of the thyroid gland epithelium was found with a cubic cell shape, round hyperchromatic nucleus, the large size of cells and nuclei, high nuclear-cytoplasmic index intrafollicular diffuse proliferation of epithelial and dense colloid. When thyroid cancer found the prevalence of papillary structures with short broad papillae formed polymorphic cells with round hyperchromatic nucleus, there is the largest size of cells and nuclei, nuclear-cytoplasmic maximum index expressed intrafollicular diffuse proliferation of the epithelium. Conclusions. Each form of thyroid disease, along with well-known typical microscopic manifestations is a characteristic regional feature of the microstructure.

  2. [Thyroid gland and pregnancy - summary of important findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zde?ka

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid hormones play fundamental role in conception and pregnancy and are essential for normal adult health, fetus and childhood development. Many studies have shown an association between maternal thyroid diseases esp. hypothyroidism with obstetric problems and/or psychomotoric impairment in the offspring. The prevalence of undiagnosed lower thyroid function in pregnancy is present in about 4-8 % of pregnant women, and euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity (6-8 %) are further candidates for thyroid disorders in pregnancy. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50 % more thyroxine in pregnancy to maintain an euthyroid state to keep TSH ideally 2.5 mIU/l in the first trimester of pregnancy and TSH 3.0 mIU/l in the second and third trimester. Consequently, there is a need to start the substitution therapy as soon as diagnosis of subclinical and /or overt hypotyroidism is established, and in majority of euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease there is a need to start therapy as well. Most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant. As maternal thyroid disease is a quite prevalent condition and often asymptomatic, but easily diagnosed and for which an effective, safe and cheap treatment is available, endocrinological societies including ?ES ?LS JEP worldwide are suggesting the need of thyroid dysfunction screening as a simple prevention attitude. Hormone determination of TSH and TPOab antibodies should be performed early during the first trimester, using trimester-specific reference values. Furthermore, adequate iodine supplementation during pregnancy is critical and if feasible it should be initiated before the woman attempts to conceive.Key words: anti TPOab - pregnancy - screening of thyroid dysfunction - thyroid - TSH. PMID:26486478

  3. Rare localisation of breast cancer metastasis to thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarevi? Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Metastases to the thyroid gland are very rare. They are usually seen in malignant melanoma, kidney, breast cancer and lung cancer. Case report. We presented a 54- years-old female patient with breast cancer diagnosed in 2002. The adequate surgical procedure was done and the tumor and axillary lymph nodes were removed. The patient also received adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. After seven years of a disease free period, the first relapse of the disease was detected as thyroid gland tumor with axillary lymphadenopathy. The patient had a good response to systemic treatment so the surgical removal of thyroid gland and enlarged lymph nodes was performed. Histopathological analysis confirmed metastasis with breast cancer origin. Radical mastectomy was also preformed. Second relapse of the disease was detected 10 months later, while the patient was on hormonal therapy. It was manifested as the appearance of bone and skin metastases, pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. Conclusion. This case report emphasized the importance of detailed examination of any new onset of thyroid swelling in a patient with previous history of malignancy.

  4. Tendency to form autoimmune processes in thyroid gland of children depending on dose load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland of children at long terms after the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant was studied. It has been shown that the children who stayed in immediate proximity to the epicenter of the accident and exposed to high dose load to the thyroid gland develop a tendency to thyroid changes of autosomal type. This tendency, though less marked, was observed in permanent residence of Kyiv. Correlation between these changes and the dose load to the thyroid gland is noted. In some patients, prepathological state of the thyroid gland was revealed with ultrasound and laboratory studies

  5. 131I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V., Torlak; T., Zemunik; D., Modun; V., Capkun; V., Pesutic-Pisac; A., Markotic; M., Pavela-Vrancic; A., Stanicic.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic doses of 131I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of 131I (64-277 µCi). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (u [...] ntreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before 131I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following 131I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 ± 8.16 to 55.0 ± 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 ± 6.9 to 25.4 ± 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after 131I administration to rats, which was not 131I dose dependent.

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Okay. Dr. T, can you talk about the risks involved with this surgery? Well the biggest risk (INAUDIBLE) because if you have bleeding and you ... protocol for heading off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters ...

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when it comes to hormone production in the body and how it can affect your overall health if it’s failing to work properly? ... once the thyroid is removed, how does the body continue to function without it? By taking ... are there any side effects – long-term side effects to being on the ...

  8. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... one pill a day. And are there any side effects – long-term side effects to being on the medication for that long? No, because it’s basically replacing the normal hormone that the thyroid was manufacturing. ... So are you now done with that side, almost done with that side? Almost, we’ve ...

  9. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Weight ... and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your Best Life with Diabetes ... vs Fact Patient Alerts Scientific Statements ...

  10. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seen in patients taking the drugs interferon and amiodarone. Thyroiditis FAQs WHAT ARE THE CLINICAL SYMPTOMS OF ... the gland. Finally, drugs such as interferon and amiodarone, can also damage thyroid cells and cause thyroiditis. ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that monitor will be checking that the nerv es to the vocal cords are not in harm’s ... An enlarged gland like this, identifying the nerv e oftentimes can’t be done until you’ve ...

  12. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschowitz Sharon; Sayre James W; Ju JW; Ragavendra Nagesh; Chopra Inder; Yeh Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In ...

  13. Diagnostic value of CD-10 marker in differentiating of papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using of CD10 in accordance with clinical and histological features of thyroid lesions could be used as both diagnostic and prognostic tool, which consequently influence the management and their prognosis for survival of patients with thyroid neoplasms especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. The aim of this study was to determine its expression in PTC and different benign thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, paraffin-embedded tissues of patients with definitive pathologic diagnosis of different benign thyroid lesions and PTC were retrieved. Immunostained sections of each slides was performed using immunohistochemistry methods and expression of CD10 was compared in two groups of benign thyroid lesions and PTC. Results: From selected cases 134 sections studied in two groups of PTC (n = 67 and benign thyroid lesions (n = 67. CD10 were immunohistochemically positive in 29.9% of PTC cases, but in none of the thyroid benign lesions (0% (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that due to the higher expression of CD10 in PTC than benign thyroid lesions it might be used for differentiating mentioned lesions. But for using it as a diagnostic tool further studies with larger sample size and determination of its sensitivity, specificity and cut-off point is necessary.

  14. The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

  15. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T?) and thyroxine (T?) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function. PMID:21388520

  16. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was unknown) were nearly twenty-times the average background concentration, while the concentration in the person who ingested Ra-226 in a medicinal preparation was about two-hundred times our background concentration. A variety of studies of small cohorts of persons either occupationally exposed to Ra-226, given Ra-224 as part of medical treatments, or among beagle dogs given Ra-226 in long-term health studies, has shown evidence of a small but significant increase in thyroid cancer rates. The findings presented here have implications for improving dosimetry models of Ra-226 in soft tissues and for projecting health risks from natural radium intake. (author)

  17. An analysis of preoperative localization of parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism associated with thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently hyperparathyroidism associated with some thyroid diseases, especially nonmedually thyroid carcinoma has been payed attention to. In this study we analyzed 12 cases of hyperparathyroidism (6 cases independent of thyroid diseases and 6 cases associated with thyroid diseases) and estimated the affect of association with thyroid diseases on the preoperative localization of the parathyroid glands. The results of preoperative localization of the parathyroid glands in cases independent of thyroid diseases were relatively satisfactory. On the other hand, the preoperative localization in cases associated with thyroid diseases came to false result in about half of them. It was far from satisfactory. Association of thyroid diseases strongly affected the preoperative localization of the parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism. Conventional imaging such as ultrasonography, CT, MRI and 201Tl-99mTC subtraction scintigraphy alone were not satisfactory. Now 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy is expected to be one of reliable imaging methods for progress in the preoperative localization. (author)

  18. Cytodiagnosis of thyroid lesions-usefulness and pitfalls: A study of 288 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhamallick M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been widely and successfully utilized for diagnosis. Aim: Our aim was to demonstrate the effectiveness of this cheap and simple procedure for the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions, particularly, differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions. In addition, we sought to highlight probable causes of error and possible remedies in the cases showing lack of correlation between cytological and histological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 cases of thyroid swellings were aspirated in our two-year study period. Cases were divided into four groups, namely, aspiration inadequate where diagnosis was not offered; a nonneoplastic group which included different goiters and thyroiditis; an indeterminate group which included cases showing features of follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasms, and a malignant group that included nonfollicular malignant tumors of the thyroid. Cases showing cytohistologic disparity were reevaluated. Results: Almost 14% of the cases could not be reported because of inadequate aspiration, however, an overall cytohistological correlation was achieved in 82.66% of all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy were 92.7 and 98.2%, respectively. There were four false negative malignant cases with one false positive case and 13 cases failed to show any cytohistological correlation. Conclusions: FNAC is the single most important test for preoperative assessment of thyroid pathology if attention is paid to the clinical features and collection of samples from proper sites.

  19. Digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands of human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands is described. This instrument is used to measure the activity of 125I in thyroid glands of human being directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent

  20. Primary angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland in an young Iranian woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Navabii, Hossein; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Zand, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    Angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland is a rare and aggressive primary malignant tumour of the thyroid, originally reported in patient from Swiss Alpine region. Here, the authors describe a case of primary angiosarcoma of the thyroid in an 21-year-old Iranian woman who presented with a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with compressive symptoms. PMID:22693296

  1. Histopathological Study on Thyroid Gland of Goat in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafour Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland in most animal species has two lobes, one on each lateral surface of the trachea. In pigs, the main lobe of the thyroid gland is on the midline in the ventral cervical region with dorsolateral projections from each side. The thyroid structural changes in gouts were investigated. About 386 pairs of thyroid glands collected from gout at the local municipal abattoir in Tabriz city of East Azerbaijan province. A total of 386 thyroid specimens examined, 8 cases were follicular atrophy, 4 cases were thyroid fibrosis, 71 cases were diffuse hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells, 5 cases were colloid goiter, 10 cases were parenchymal cysts, 3 cases were nodular hyperplasia, 1 case was C-cell adenoma and 1 case was C-cell carcinoma.

  2. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschowitz Sharon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In a prospective study, 609 solid thyroid gland tumors were percutaneously probed using standard 25 gauge fine needles, their tissue toughness ranked on the basis of the nature and strength of the haptic force feedback cues, and subjected to standard fine needle biopsy. The tumors' toughness rankings and final cytological diagnoses were combined and analyzed. The interpreting cytopathologist was blinded to the tumors' toughness rankings. Results Our data showed that cancerous and noncancerous tumors displayed remarkable haptically distinguishable differences in their material toughness. Conclusion The qualitative method described here, though subject to some operator bias, identifies a previously unreported in vivo approach to classify fracture toughness of a solid tumor that can be correlated with malignancy, and paves the way for the development of a mechanical device that can accurately quantify the tissue toughness of a human tumor.

  3. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the key statistics about thyroid cancer? What is thyroid cancer? Thyroid cancer is a cancer that starts ... structure and function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland The thyroid gland is below the thyroid ...

  4. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 ± SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 ± SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

  5. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  6. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  7. AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  8. Ultrasonography-histopathology correlation in major salivary glands lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Cecilia; Nekula, Diana Maria; Mocan, Simona Liliana; Void?zan, Toader Septimiu; Co?arc?, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Major salivary glands display a various and complex pathology, showing different evolution and prognosis, depending on the histopathological form. The choice of an appropriate treatment plan for the best outcome, therefore the proper surgical approach, would imply preoperative knowledge of the histopathological diagnosis. However, any core-biopsy performed prior to surgery presents the risk of a false result and increases the difficulty of latter surgery. Therefore, some complementary examinations are used, among these, ultrasonography. The retrospective study (April 2010-March 2013) conducted in the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Tirgu Mures, Romania, aims to evaluate the relevance of the ultrasonography by itself in leading towards a proper preoperative assessment and diagnosis, and thus, in choosing the proper treatment plan. The study included 33 lesions of the major salivary glands, undergoing first ultrasonography, then curative surgery. Different characteristics (shape, dimension, consistency, vascularization, homogeneity, delimitation) were assessed on ultrasonography as well as on histopathology; finally, the correlation between those two examinations was evaluated, by comparing diagnoses. The results of our study are similar to others, showing that ultrasonography can diagnose preoperatively the majority lesions of major salivary glands. The conclusions of the study sustain the importance of ultrasonography as a routine examination in major salivary glands lesions. PMID:26193218

  9. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45?GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Misa Agustiño, María José; Leiro, José Manuel; Jorge Mora, María Teresa; Rodríguez-González, Juan Antonio; Jorge Barreiro, Francisco Javier; Ares-Pena, Francisco José; López-Martín, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45?GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-fo...

  10. Radiation dose to the ocular lens and thyroid gland during high resolution CT of the teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose to the ocular lens and thyroid gland during high resolution CT of the jaw was measured in a head phantom and in 9 patients. The dose for the lens and thyroid gland resulting from 10 cuts was 0.7 and 0.9 mGy, respectively. By shielding the thyroid gland against scatter a reduction of 20% is possible. Radiation exposure is considerably higher than during conventional dental X-ray examinations. Compared with CT examinations of the head and neck region, radiation exposure of both organs is about the same. (orig.)

  11. Modular Measuring System for Assesment of the Thyroid Gland Functional State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rosik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed modular system BioLab for biophysical examinations enabling assessment of the thyroid gland functional state is presented in the paper. The BioLab system is based on a standard notebook or desktop PC connected to an Ethernet-based network of two smart sensors. These sensors are programmed and controlled from PC and enable measurement of selected biosignals of the human cardiovascular and neuromuscular system that are influenced by the production of thyroid gland hormones. Recorded biosignals are processed in a PC and peripheral indicators characterizing thyroid gland functional state are evaluated.

  12. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-09

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  13. [Mathematical methods in the diagnosis of the thyroid gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshkin, K I; Slesarenko, S S

    1978-01-01

    At present effective diagnosis of deviations from euthyroidism in diseases of the thyroid gland presents certain difficulties. The most rational direction in the solution of this problem is introduction of quantitative methods into the diagnosis. Symptoms encountered in case histories of 1500 patients with goiter transformation were coded for this purpose according to the chosen algorhythm. Only those symptoms which were present in all the case histories were selected for this study. The data obtained were treated on "Ypapi-2" computer. A table in which every sign of the disease had a quantitative expression was drawn on the basis of the results. Diagnosis according to the mentioned mathematical table is more effective, and, besides, there is no subjectivism in the diagnosis. PMID:353790

  14. Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

  15. Hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C E; Usborne, A L; Starost, M F; Tarara, R P; Hill, L R; Wilkinson, L M; Geisinger, K R; Feiste, E A; Cline, J M

    2006-07-01

    Macaques provide an important animal model for the study of hormonal agents and their effects on risk biomarkers for breast cancer. A common criticism of this model is that spontaneous breast cancer has rarely been described in these animals. In this report, we characterize 35 mammary gland lesions ranging from ductal hyperplasia to carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Based on a retrospective analysis, we estimated the lifetime incidence of mammary gland neoplasia in aged female macaques to be about 6%. Hyperplastic lesions (n = 19) occurred segmentally along ducts and included such features as columnar alteration, micropapillary atypia, and fibroadenomatous change. In situ carcinomas (n = 8) included solid, comedo, cribriform, and micropapillary elements, encompassing 4 of the major architectural patterns seen in human lesions. Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 8) were generally solid, with prominent central necrosis and mineralization, often on a background of micropapillary ductal hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma. Cytologic changes of invasive lesions included increased mitoses, nuclear pleomorphism, extensive microinvasion, and stromal desmoplasia. Axillary lymph-node metastases were confirmed in 5 of the 8 invasive carcinomas. On immunohistochemistry, intraductal and invasive carcinomas had increased Ki67/MIB1 and HER2 expression and selective loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors. These findings suggest that breast cancer is an underreported lesion in macaques and highlight unique morphologic and molecular similarities in breast cancer between human and macaque species. PMID:16846989

  16. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  17. Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(?g/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.)

  18. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Junkichi; Ito, Shin; Ohba, Shinichi; Fujimaki, Mitsuhisa; Sato, Eriko; Komatsu, Norio; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Hanaguri, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto's thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently. PMID:22515161

  19. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Junkichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

  20. Effect of vertical angulation to dose of thyroid glands in periapical radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoi, Keitaro; Satoh, Keiji; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-10-01

    Much attention has been given to reducing the dose of radiation in dental radiography in terms of the highest risk for the head and neck. Organ doses in intraoral radiography vary greatly with subtle differences in vertical angulation. Quantitative determination of doses delivered to the thyroid gland is thus necessary in determining adequate doses and risk for dental radiography. A personal computer program, prepared for estimating organ doses under various radiographic conditions, was used to evaluate the effect of vertical angulation on the dose delivered to the thyroid gland in radiography of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Review of the literature revealed that the calculated dose delivered to the thyroid gland is approximately in accordance with the data of the actual determination under the same radiographic conditions. The dose-dependence of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland on vertical angulation of the maxilla was much more than that of the mandible. In the mandible, the dose delivered to the thyroid gland increased about three fold at a field size of 6 cm[phi] and about 1.5 fold at 8 cm[phi] when the vertical angulation changed from -40deg to 0deg. In the maxilla, the delivered dose increased about 480 times at a field size of 6 cm[phi] when vertical angulation changed from 0deg to 50deg and rapidly increased about 280 times at 8 cm[phi] when the angulation changed from 0deg to 40deg. The dose of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland was evaluated as a function of product of the irradiated volume within the primary beam directed at the thyroid gland and the inverse square of the distance between a subject's surface and the thyroid gland. (N.K.).

  1. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ak?n

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  2. Metabolic Pathways of Tetraidothyronine and Triidothyronine Production by Thyroid Gland: A Review of Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mansourian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetraidothyronine (T4 and Triiodothyronine (T3 are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT and diiodothyrosine (DIT on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction , or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO, which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin to show themselves.

  3. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin, Laurys; Fakhry, Nicolas; Chetaille, Bruno; Perrot, Delphine; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Daidj, Nassima; Guiramand, Jérôme; Sarran, Anthony; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Bertucci, François

    2014-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SVS) of the thyroid gland is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a rapidly growing 7-cm neck mass. Because of suspicion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was planned, without preoperative cytology. During surgery, the tumor ruptured, leading to fragmented and incomplete resection. The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects suggested thyroid SVS, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (SYT gene rearrange...

  4. Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response

  5. Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, M.C.; Dake, M.D.; Okerlund, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response.

  6. Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

  7. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of [131I] and [99mTc]pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter

  8. Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

  9. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = ?/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects

  10. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Michael [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: ormying@polyu.edu.hk; Sin Manhong [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Shuk-fan [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-11-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = {pi}/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects.

  11. Histological investigations on the thyroid glands of marine mammals (Phoca vitulina, Phocoena phocoena) and the possible implications of marine pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, U.; Zahler, Stefan; Horny, H. -P.; Heidemann, Günter; Skirnisson, K.; Welsch, U.

    1993-01-01

    In 1988 and 1989, thousands of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) died in the North Sea from phocine distemper infection. The morphology of thyroid glands from 40 harbor seals found dead on the North Sea coastlines of Schleswig-Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany, during an epizootic of phocine distemper, was compared with the morphology of thyroid glands from five healthy harbor seals collected in Iceland. Thyroid glands from seven harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) found dead in 1990 on the ...

  12. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama Junkichi; Ito Shin; Ohba Shinichi; Fujimaki Mitsuhisa; Sato Eriko; Komatsu Norio; Ikeda Katsuhisa; Hanaguri Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody an...

  13. Distribution of 129I in soil and in cattle thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depth profile of 129I in surface soil was measured with some long-lived radionuclides. In the organic rich soil 129I remained in the surface. Distribution ratio of radioiodine in surface soil decreased after heated, irradiated by ?-ray, and fumigated with chloroform. So radioiodine were trapped by the effect of living in the surface soil. Iodine and 129I in thyroid gland of cattle and human were measured by neutron activation analysis and compared each other. 129I/127I ratio in Japanese thyroid gland are lower than cattle. And also those data of Japanese human thyroid were lower than European. (author)

  14. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min [College of Medicine, Chungang University, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Seo Hyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall. In summary, the radiofrequency ablation therapy for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules located in anterior aspect (within a 5 mm radius) of the thyroid gland in human suggests this is an effective treatment, though this was an animal study performed on dogs.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of endocrine cells in the rat respiratory tract after thyroid and parathyroid gland removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, B; Kasacka, I; Azzadin, A; Dadan, J; Malla, H; Nowosielski, C; Buczko, W; Nikli?ska, W

    2001-01-01

    The complete thyroid and parathyroid gland removal leads to the abrupt reduction of calcitonin, which can be a factor stimulating growth and intensified activity of APUD system cells in the respiratory tract. Thus, neuroendocrine cells in the lungs and trachea in rats after thyroid and parathyroid removal were evaluated. Paraffin specimens of the examined organs were stained with H+E and impregnated with silver. Calcitonin, synaptophysin, somatostatin, and neuronal-specific enolase were detected immunohistochemically by the use of rabbit specific antibodies. Antibodies used in the study immunostained neuroendocrine cells of the examined organs. Rats with removed thyroid and parathyroid glands presented weakened reaction compared to the control group. PMID:11374821

  16. Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko O.O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

  17. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 ? 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 ? 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall. In summary, the radiofrequency ablation therapy for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules located in anterior aspect (within a 5 mm radius) of the thyroid gland in human suggests this is an effective treatment, though this was an animal study performed on dogs

  18. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  19. Thyroid Gland Removal With or Without Central Lymph Node Dissection in Treating Patients With Node Negative Thyroid Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well thyroid gland removal with or without central lymph node dissection works in treating patients with thyroid cancer or suspected thyroid cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes. Currently, the standard treatment for thyroid cancer is total thyroidectomy, or complete removal of the thyroid. Sometimes, the lymph nodes in the central part of the neck may also be surgically removed, called central lymph node dissection.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of 296 diagnosed cases of thyroid nodules referred to cytology unit, pathology department, NCI, who underwent FNAC for diagnosis. The results were categorized according to the recent Bethesda classification into: insufficient for diagnosis, benign, atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant sampling. The final histologic diagnosis and/or clinico-radiologic follow-up assessment for non-neoplastic lesions were considered the gold standard. Results: The study included 296 cases presented with thyroid nodules who underwent diagnostic thyroid FNAC. Female to male ratio was 5.2:1, and the median age was 44 years. Ninety-eight cases (33.1%) were diagnosed as benign, 40 cases (13.5%) as follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 49 cases (16.5%) as follicular neoplasm, 30 cases (10.1%) as suspicious for malignancy, 58 cases (19.5%) as malignant, and 21 cases (7.1%) as unsatisfactory. Nodular hyperplasia represented the majority of benign cases (89.8%), while papillary carcinoma was the most frequent malignant lesion (72.4%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with their corresponding final histologic ones. FNAC achieved a sensitivity of 92.8, a specificity of 94.2%, a positive predictive value of 94.9%, a negative predictive value of 91.8%, a false positive rate of 7.2%, a false negative rate of 5.8%, and a total accuracy of 93.6%.

  1. Functional Condition of Thyroid Gland in the Perimenopausal Period at the Women in Iodine Deficient Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E G Deryabina

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study features of a functional condition of thyroid gland in the perimenopausal period at the women in iodine deficient region. Material and methods. Population study of 512 women in the age of 45—55 years chosen by a casual way on a database of obligatory medical insurance of Ekaterinburg. The inspection included definition thyroid stimulating hormone, autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase, ultrasonic research of thyroid gland. Three groups are allocated: premenopause (n = 282; natural menopause till 2 years (n = 94; natural menopause more than 2 years (n = 90. Results. The disfunction of thyroid gland revealed at 19.5% (100/512 perimenopausal women. The most often infringement was hypothyroidism — 16.7% (86/512. Its reasons were autoimmune thyroiditis — 86.0% (74/86 and surgical intervention on thyroid gland — 14.0% (12/86. The frequency of hypothyroidism was higher in 1,9 times (? = 0.03 per first two years of menopause, and was higher in 1,6 times (? > 0.05 the next years, than in premenopause. Hyperthyroidism met more often per first two years of menopause (? > 0.05. Autoimmune thyroid pathology per first two years was at 25.5% (24/94 women, that in 1,9 times is more often (? = 0.03, than in premenopause — 13.5% (38/282, and in 1.6 times are more often (? > 0.05, than in menopause more than 2 years — 15.6% (14/90. Conclusions. During perimenopause most of all functional thyroid disorders revealed per the first two years of menopause. These infringements frequently have autoimmune nature. These changes can be temporary and require the observation in dynamics. Key words: thyroid gland, hypothyroidism, menopause.

  2. Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA MATAMALA S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3% se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73% correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27% a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total, 4 (36,3% con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18% con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18% con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9% con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9% con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9% con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología.Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81% had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%. were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36% had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18% had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18% had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

  3. Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores / Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA, MATAMALA S; MIGUEL, GONZÁLEZ P; GONZALO, ROSSEL D; CONSTANZA, NIEME S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósi [...] to de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología. Abstract in english Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical [...] service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

  4. An Abattoir Study of Ovine Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Lesions and the Respective Serum T3 andT4 Levels in an Endemic Goiter Region in Iran

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    Farid Barati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of histologic thyroids lesions and the respective thyroid hormones changes of ewes in an endemic goiter region and to find out any impact of this condition on the fetal thyroid structures and serum thyroid hormones. In the present study a total number of 100 pregnant ewes and their fetuses slaughtered at slaughterhouse were selected for the study. The sera were prepared from the jugular vein blood of ewes and fetuses umbilical cords. The ewes and fetuses thyroids subjected to histopathological examination and radioimmunoassay procedure was used for sera T3 and T4 assay. The results showed a high prevalence of thyroid lesions in ewes and their fetuses. The different kinds of lesions including cysts, follicular hyperplasia, hemorrhage and inflammation were seen in ewes. In the fetuses thyroid structural changes were cysts resemble structures; hemorrhage and hyperemia. Mean T4 concentration was significantly higher in the ewes with pathologic thyroid compared to normal animals. However, there was not any significant difference between pathologic and normal ewes’ thyroids on serum T3. Although, existence of lesions on fetal thyroids did not affect the serum concentrations of T4 and T3, there was a significant correlation between T4 and T3 serum concentrations of fetuses and their age. In conclusion, the significant prevalence of fetal and maternal thyroid pathological changes in the endemic goiter region raises a question about probable congenital source of these variations. The thyroid lesions significantly influenced the functions of mothers' gland but not fetuses.

  5. Studying the role of thyroid hormone receptor expression in the lacrimal gland in the autoimmune orbitopathy

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    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To explore the role of thyroid hormone’ receptors in the development of the autoimmune process in orbita.Methods: The intraoperative biopsy material of the lacrimal gland obtained from orbital decompression in patients with autoimmune orbitopathy (AOP was studied and compared with biopsy material of normal lacrimal gland.Results: The expression of isoforms of thyroid hormone’ receptors in various cellular elements of the lacrimal gland is improved in normal, as well as change their expression when the AOP. This process is associated with change of structure of the lacrimal gland and organ infiltration cells.Conclusion: The findings support the assumption that the lacrimal gland is the target organ, along with orbital and muscles for autoimmune aggression in the AOP.

  6. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs. PMID:22688583

  7. Chronic urticaria in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: Significance of severity of thyroid gland inflammation

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    Mustafa Gulec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a clear association between autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and chronic urticaria/angioedema (CUA. However, not all patients with AT demonstrate urticaria. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate in which patients with AT did CUA become a problem. A sensitive inflammation marker, neopterine (NP was used to confirm whether the severity of inflammation in the thyroid gland was responsible for urticaria or not. Methods: Neopterine levels were assessed in patients with AT with urticaria and without urticaria. Furthermore, levels were compared in relation to pre and post levothyroxine treatment. Twenty-seven patients with urticaria (Group 1 and 28 patients without urticaria (Group 2 were enrolled in the study. A course of levothyroxine treatment was given to all patients, and urine neopterine levels before and after the trial were obtained. Results: All patients completed the trial. Mean age in Group 1 and Group 2 was similar (35.70 ± 10.86 years and 38.36 ± 10.38 years, respectively (P=0.358. Pre-treatment urine neopterine levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P=0.012. Post-treatment levels decreased in each group, as expected. However, the decrease in the neopterine level was insignificant in the patients of Group 2 (P=0.282. In Group 1, a significant decrease in post-treatment neopterine levels (P=0.015 was associated with the remission of urticaria. Conclusion: In patients with CUA and AT, pre-treatment elevated levels of NP, and its decrease with levothyroxine treatment along with symptomatic relief in urticaria, may be evidence of the relationship between the degree of inflammation in thyroid and presence of urticaria.

  8. Effect of furosemide on radioiodine-131 retention in mice thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovic, Milovan D; Jankovic, Slobodan M; Jeremic, Marija; Novakovic, Milan; Milosev, Milorad; Vlajkovic, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Retention of iodine in the thyroid gland is the result of renal excretion and transport of iodine to thyroid cells. Both processes are affected by furosemide. The aim of our study was to test whether furosemide influenced radioiodine-131 ((131)I) retention in the thyroid gland of living mice. Our methods were as follows: After 15 days of low-iodine diet, 19 Swiss mice received an intra-peritoneal injection of 0.37+/-0.03 MBq of (131)I. Thereafter, 11 mice were treated with intraperitoneal injections of furosemide (0.3 mg/kg, every 8 h, for 72 h), Group A and 8 mice served as controls, Group B. Seventy-two hours after (131)I administration, the mice were anaesthetized, their thyroids were carefully extirpated, and their radioactivity was measured by a gamma counter. Our results showed that the mean value of (131)I retention after 72 h was 63.09% in Group A and 82.25% in Group B. The difference between these two groups was significant (T=3.0919, P=0.0033). In conclusion, furosemide after the administration of (131)I, decreases retention of (131)I in the thyroid gland in mice. The well known increase of iodine renal excretion by furosemide and consequently decrease of iodine blood pool may be the reason for this decreased (131)I retention by the thyroid gland. PMID:19675865

  9. Age and its influence on effects of iodine-131 in guinea pig thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the differences in age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, we exposed fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs to single graded doses of 131I. Injected quantities ranged from 1 to 100 ?Ci 131I, depending on the age group, and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rad. At approximately 100 days of age (or 100 days after dosing for adults), a single microcurie of 131I was given and animals were killed 1 day later to provide data on thyroid weight and percentage 131I uptake. Analysis of these data and information on pathology suggested that the fetal and weanling guinea pig thyroid glands were more radiosensitive than the adult thyroid; the neonatal thyroid appeared less radiosensitive than that of the adult. The increase in radiosensitivity of the young thyroid glands over the adults, however, did not appear to be greater than twofold. Nevertheless, the demonstration of age-related radiosensitivity requires that it be considered by those who assess radiologic risks to human populations

  10. Interfering factors in in vivo diagnostics of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anamnestic iodine contamination and medication with thyroid drugs were registered in 260 patients of a clinical thyroid care unit and 200 patients of a thyroid doctor's office in the southern German endemic goiter region. We found in the university clinic 54% patients with interfering factors, 30% with iodine contamination and 20% with multiple interferences. In the physician's practice there were 18%, nearly all treated with thyroid hormone. The influence of those factors on thyroidal technetium uptake and the resulting restriction on its diagnostic value is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Focal Lesious of Thyroid Gland: efficacy of individual Iouide Prophylaxis

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    I Martirosiyan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effectiveness of potassium iodide (200 mkg to focal changes there was a clinical study taken. Only the patients with focal changes in thyroid were included. The main group was represented with 29 patients with normal thyroid volume and took potassium iodide. 27 patients were included into the group under control and underwent dynamic examination. The third group was consisted of 13 patients with thyroid goiter and getting potassium iodide (200 mkg. The examination of the patient with focal changes of thyroid was suspected to check thyroid status: thyroid ultrasound study, TSH serum level and antibodies to TPO at the beginning, in six months and in 12 months. Follow-up period for each patient was 12 months. Physiological iodide dose recommended with the aim of prophylaxis was apt to prevent the growth of the existent focal changes in thyroid tissue but not led to their full regression; prevent new focal changes in thyroid tissue; normalize thyroid volume in patients with thyroid goiter; do not influence on TSH levels and antybodies to TPO in patients with focal changes in thyroid tissue.

  12. ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results

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    Ioan Sporea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men: 44 (32.3% without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3% with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD, 37 (27.2% with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests, 4 (2.9% with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2% cases with thyroid pathology induced by amiodarone. In all patients, 10 elastographic measurements were made in the right thyroid lobe and 10 in the left thyroid lobe, using a 1-4.5 MHZ convex probe and a 4-9 MHz linear probe, respectively. Median values were calculated for thyroid stiffness and expressed in meters/second (m/s. RESULTS: Thyroid stiffness (TS assessed by means of ARFI in healthy subjects (2 ± 0.40 m/s was significantly lower than in GD (2.67 ± 0.53 m/s (P < 0.0001 and CAT patients (2.43 ± 0.58 m/s (P = 0.0002, but the differences were not significant between GD vs CAT patients (P = 0.053. The optimal cut-off value for the prediction of diffuse thyroid pathology was 2.36 m/s. For this cut-off value, TS had 62.5% sensitivity, 79.5% specificity, 87.6% predictive positive value, 55.5% negative predictive value and 72.7% accuracy for the presence of diffuse thyroid gland pathology (AUROC = 0.804. There were no significant differences between the TS values obtained with linear vs convex probes and when 5 vs 10 measurements were taken in each lobe (median values. CONCLUSION: ARFI seems to be a useful method for the assessment of diffuse thyroid gland pathology.

  13. The thyroid gland state in the children after the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the postaccident early examination (May-July 1986), the dose-dependence hypertyroxinemia with the reactive reduction of TTg was determined. The dependence of T4 level in the blood from the age of the children was found out during the three year observation. The thyroid gland of the children having had the contact with the ionizing radiation reacted by increasing the hormone secretion on this situation, it was the most strongly pronounced in the early children. The thyroid-cancer morbidity in the Ukrainian children has been increasing. The determined decrease of the latent period in the thyroid-cancer development of the Ukrainian children is connected with the summation of the effects from the influence of radionuclids, chemical factors (nitrates pesticides, inductry poisons) on the thyroid gland as well as the iodine deficit in the goiter endemic territories. 6 tabs

  14. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  15. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  16. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Soares Corrêa Silva; Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro Chagas; Maurício Buzelin Nunes; Rodrigo Assis de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial.Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid folli...

  17. Chronic gamma-radiation impact upon the state of thyroid gland of tundra voles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The histomorphological estimation of the thyroid gland status of tundra voles living in the radiation polluted sites (30-km zone around Chernobyl nuclear plant and the Komi Republic) was given in the experiment. Nature populations of tundra voles have more high variety of the thyroid parenchyma morphological reconstructions in comparison with the experimental animals. Mechanisms of the response to the radiation influence in the nature and in the experiment are different. (author)

  18. Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ohbuchi Toyoaki; Tabata Takahisa; Nguyen Khac-Hung; Ohkubo Jun-ichi; Katoh Akiko; Suzuki Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and ex...

  19. Prevention pathways of thyroid gland diseases under the radiation impact and endemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant increase in thyroid gland diseases as a result of radiation, endemic factors and unbalanced nourishment needed for the development of effective prophylactic measures. The scientists of Research Center for Radiation Medicine have realized a complex approach to the solution of microelement deficiency problem, i.e. creation of food substance, medications enriched with both iodine and a complex of microelements, vitamins, polysaccharide and other nutrients for prophylaxis of thyroid, erythroid, immune system diseases and minimization of internal irradiation dose

  20. Postirradiation changes in the thyroid gland and skeletal muscle of rats injected with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional status of rat skeletal muscles was studied at dormancy and during the intensive muscular work under conditions of repeated administration of iodine 131 in doses causing reversible and irreversible damages to thyroid gland (the absorbed doses were from 0.27 to 266 Gy). The biochemical changes in muscles were transient; they correlated with the thyroid gland status and lifetime of animals and were displayed during the first 15 days and 2-12 months after the start of the isotope injection

  1. Histoarchitectonics of a thyroid gland in the conditions of a blastomogenesis

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    Khripkov I.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment has been supplied on 20 white rats-males in mass of 140-160 g to whom under a skin the tumoral strain of a Guerin’s carcinoma has been transplanted. The purpose of the real research was studying distant tumour influences on histotopography structural components of a thyroid gland. Distant influence of a tumour on a thyroid gland calls essential rearrangements of a stroma and a parenchima of an organ which are accompanied bydepression of functional activity thyro-cyties and reduction of quantity of haemocapillars of a stroma of an organ.

  2. A postmortem study on the volume of the human thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurunnabi, A S M; Ara, S; Jahan, M U

    2012-04-01

    The present study was designed to find out the difference in volume of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex and to compare with previous local and foreign studies. It was a Cross-sectional descriptive type of study. The hospital based study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, from January to December 2008. The present study was performed on 60 post mortem human thyroid gland (39 of male and 21 of female) collected from unclaimed dead bodies which were in the morgue under examination in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka. The samples were divided into three age-groups including group A (10-20 years), group B (21-50 years) & group C (>50 years) and the volume of the thyroid glands were measured by fluid displacement method and recorded. No difference was found in mean volume of the thyroid gland between male and female. However, significant difference was found in between age groups. The volume of the gland was found to increase from early childhood and puberty up to 50 years of age and then decreased. PMID:22545343

  3. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Assay as the First Line Biochemical Parameter to Determine Thyroid Gland Abnormalities

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    Taiwo Abayomi Banjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased cellular catabolic activities observed in hyperthyroid state had been established. This is consequent to excessive hormones secreted by the thyroid gland during this condition. A total of 60 subjects comprising of 45 females mean age 43.02±1.90 (range 22-70 years and 15 males mean age 50.40±3.59 (range 25-68 and 60 controls comprising of 45 females mean age 41.18±1.68 (range 22-68 years and 15 males mean age 40.53±2.88 (range 25-65 were recruited for the study. The plasma level of T4, T3 and TSH were determined in both the experiment group and the controls. A significant increase (p<0.05 in plasma T4, T3 and a significant decrease (p<0.05 in plasma TSH were observed in the experiment group in comparison to the controls. Also, an inverse relationship was noted to exist between the plasma T4 and T3; and TSH in primary hyperthyroid state.

  4. Effect of medical external exposure on thyroid gland's function in early stage after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in thyroid gland function of the patients with head and cervix tumor after therapy by local external exposure are discussed. The results indicated that the concentrations of T3, T4 decreased in early stage (5-7 weeks) after treating by local external exposure, the hypothyroidism could be found after several months or several years following the local external exposure. (authors)

  5. Comparative radioisotope study on the function of the thyroid gland of some farm animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope functional investigations of the thyroid gland were carried out with weaned lambs and pigs. The 131I captation capacity of the thyroid gland was studied to characterize the inogranic phase of iodine exchange. The evaluation of the hormone producing function of the thyroid gland required the determination of the level of the protein-bound 131 I (PB 131 I), T3-binding capacity of the thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) and the ratio of the T3-binding capacity of TBG and the free thyroxine (T4) calculated as the FT4 index.Established was the species peculiarity of the 131 I captation capacity of the thyroid gland in weaned lambs and pigs in the early phases of investigation. At the second hour the percent captation was calculated as 7.2+-0.8 and 1.11+-0.21%, respectively. The values of PB 131 I, T3-binding capacity of TBG and FT4 of pigs varied within the limits of 1.20+-0.05%, 0.605+-0.012, and 0.976+-0.015 and of weaned lambs they were 0.954+-0.009%, 0.912+-0.017 and 0.890+-0.03. (authors)

  6. Bayesian classification of sonograms of thyroid gland based on Gaussian mixtures.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesa?, Ludvík; Smutek, D.

    Stavanger : NOBIM, 2004, s. 36-40. [NOBIM 2004. Stavanger (NO), 27.05.2004-28.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA102/03/0049; GA MŠk LN00B107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : thyroid gland * Bayesian classification * Gaussian mixtures Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  7. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

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    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  8. Relationship between expression of the sodium/iodide symporter and 131I uptake in recurrent lesions of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is known to be responsible for the active accumulation of iodide within the thyroid gland. We evaluated the relationship between the expression of NIS in primary or lymph node lesions and iodine-131 uptake in recurrent lesions of differentiated thyroid cancer. In 67 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (5 follicular and 62 papillary carcinomas), the expression of NIS was analysed by immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal antibodies against human NIS. We used paraffin block tissues of primary tumours or metastatic lesions, and also assessed 131I uptake in recurrent lesions of thyroid cancer on post-operative 131I whole-body scan. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in 22 patients (32.8%), including 2 of 5 follicular and 20 of 62 papillary carcinomas. Recurrence was confirmed in 40 patients pathologically or clinically by serum thyroglobulin, 131I scan, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and/or computed tomography. Among these 40 patients, 28 showed positive uptake on 131I scan. Fourteen tumour specimens out of 28 (50%) were positive by NIS immunohistochemical staining. The remaining 12 patients with recurrent cancer showed negative 131I scans, and all specimens were negative by NIS immunohistochemical staining. Thus, NIS immunohistochemical staining predicted 131I uptake in recurrent cancer with a 100% positive predictive value and a 46.2% negative predictive value. There was no difference in the positivity of NIS according to the site of recurrence on 131I scan. Outcome of 131I therapy could be assessed in 22 of the 28 patients who showed 131I uptake in recurrent lesions. Patients with positive NIS immunostaining responded to 131I therapy better than did patients with negative immunostaining (P131I accumulation and effectiveness of 131I therapy in recurrent lesions. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  10. The thyroid gland function assessment in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy during breast cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: For many years much attention has been focused on an interaction between the breast disease and the thyroid gland function in the literature. In those studies the question whether disease changes in the thyroid gland can induces the breast disease was addressed. On the other hand there are a few works concerning the inverted question whether the breast cancer therapy, in particular after mastectomy and chemotherapy, can disturb the thyroid gland function. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the mastectomy and chemotherapy on the thyroid gland function in women after breast cancer therapy. Material and methods: 173 patients aged 30 - 80 (average 56) were included in this study. The studied group comprised 97 women after breast cancer therapy (average age 60). The control group consisted of 76 patients (average age 55). 75 patients after mastectomy of the studied group were additionally treated with chemotherapy, but in 22 women chemotherapy was not applied. The following methods were used to carry out the research: the USG method was applied to evaluate thyroid morphological condition in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy; the color Doppler technique was used for dynamic presentation and fine- needle aspiration biopsy: examination of the thyroid functional state by measuring the TSH, fT3, fT4 hormone concentration and the level of antithyroid antibodies. Results: An average concentration of antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and anti-Tg was found significantly higher in the studied group of women after chemotherapy, comparing with the control group. The level of fT3 hormone concentration was comparable in all investigated groups. Nevertheless, the average concentration of TSH was found higher in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy and as a consequence leading to hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the high level of the concentration of antithyroid antibodies: (anti-TPO and anti- Tg), which lead to destruction of the thyroid gland tissue, the thyroid gland function of the women after mastectomy and chemotherapy should be monitored morphologically as well as functionally. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45?GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misa Agustiño, María José; Leiro, José Manuel; Jorge Mora, María Teresa; Rodríguez-González, Juan Antonio; Jorge Barreiro, Francisco Javier; Ares-Pena, Francisco José; López-Martín, Elena

    2012-09-15

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45?GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30?min to 2.45?GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR), which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01) after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10?W/Kg or 0.104±5.10(-3)?W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45?GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:23213477

  12. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso / Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Soares Corrêa, Silva; Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro, Chagas; Maurício Buzelin, Nunes; Rodrigo Assis de, Paula.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idad [...] e, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial. Abstract in english Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its cl [...] inical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

  13. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares Corrêa Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial.Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its clinical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

  14. Thyroid lesions in children and adolescents after the Chernobyl disaster: Implications for the study of radiation tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the most obvious effect is manifested by an increase in the prevalence of thyroid gland diseases in the exposed children and adolescents. In this study, we describe a comparative analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and morphological features of 92 malignant and 59 benign thyroid lesions from patients 5-18 yr of age exposed to radiation in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. All of them were operated at the same institution during the period from September 1991 through December 1992. The highest number of patients that subsequently developed thyroid carcinomas was in the group that was less that 1 yr of age at the time of Chernobyl, and this number decreased progressively through age 12 yr. Conversely, none of the patients with benign lesions only was less than 2 yr old at the time of the accident, and an exposure age of 5-6 yr was a threshold separating significant prevalence of malignant tumors in younger children from the more frequently benign lesions in older patients (P ? 0.001). Fifty-two percent of the children with carcinomas and only 24% with benign lesions (P ? 0.005) were residents of the Gomel region, which is the most contaminated in Belarus. The morphology of thyroid tissue adjacent to carcinomas showed a high prevalence of multinodular and diffuse changes, but not of adenomas or solitary adenomatoid nodules. There was a high prevalence of focal micropapillary hyperplasia with graded degrees of severity, which we hypothesize may correspond to precursors for papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl radiation-associated tumors. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Kandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions. TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave?s disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto?s thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.

  16. Effect of 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ after surgery on the function of parathyroid gland in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, ZHI-HUA; LI, FENG-QI; HAN, JIAN-KUI; LI, XIAN-JUN

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignant tumor of the endocrine glands. Although surgery is the optimal treatment utilized, the disease is characterized by recurrence and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of iodine-131 (131I) ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ following surgery on the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and its effect on the function of the parathyroid gland. A total of 160 patients diagnosed with DTC, who were consecutively admitted to our Hospital between June 2012 and June 2014 and underwent total thyroidectomy or subtotal resection, were included in the present study. After three months, the patients were administered 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment and underwent a whole body scan after 1 week to determine whether ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment was successful or not. The treatment was repeated within 3 months if not successful. Of the 160 patients, 24 patients had cancer metastasis (15.0%). The average dose of 131I used for the first time was 6.4+1.2 GBq and the treatment was successful in 66 cases (41.3%). The average treatment time was 2.8±0.6 therapy sessions. The results showed that, prior to and following the first treatment and at the end of the follow up, levels of the parathyroid hormone, serum calcium and phosphorus were compared, and no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) was observed. There were 5 patients with persistent hypothyroidism and 8 patients with transient hypothyroidism. The levels of thyroglobulin were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). A total of 48 patients (30%) with hypothyroidism were identified. In conclusion, the results have shown that DTC resection and 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment did not significantly impair the parathyroid function, thereby improving the treatment effect.

  17. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Land, C.; Hartshorne, M. [and others

    2000-05-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound. Thyroid screening participants were invited, with informed consent, from 6 exposed and 2 non-exposed villages of the Semipalatinsk region. Of those screened, 1320 were presumably exposed and 1678 presumably were not. This collaborative research project was supported by the CRDF, USA, International award no.KN2-434. Reconstructed average gamma dose was used as a preliminary index of total thyroid dose from internal and external sources of radiation exposure. Nodular thyroid gland was identified in 920 participants, of whom 500 were recommended for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). Nodule prevalence was 18% among men and 39% among women with a 3.5% per year positive gradient in prevalence overall by age at screening, and was significantly associated with estimated gamma radiation dose. Excess prevalence rate was approximately the same among men and women, with a 3-fold higher dose-specific relative risk among men compared to women. Prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased non-significantly with dose, but prevalence of follicular neoplasm was not associated with dose. Cytopathology review identified 30 papillary carcinomas in 27 cases and 10 follicular neoplasms in 10 cases. Some patients with thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer were referred to surgical department. They have been treated successfully by surgery or by percutaneus injection of erythrocyte pharmacocytes in accordance with our own procedure. Intraoperative thyroid tissue sampling was done to do some molecular and genetic investigation. Several aspects related to hormone status of thyroid patients, the thyroid gland function among various group of patients, morphological findings, surgical tactics and rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities living around the SNTS, will be presented. (author)

  18. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound. Thyroid screening participants were invited, with informed consent, from 6 exposed and 2 non-exposed villages of the Semipalatinsk region. Of those screened, 1320 were presumably exposed and 1678 presumably were not. This collaborative research project was supported by the CRDF, USA, International award no.KN2-434. Reconstructed average gamma dose was used as a preliminary index of total thyroid dose from internal and external sources of radiation exposure. Nodular thyroid gland was identified in 920 participants, of whom 500 were recommended for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). Nodule prevalence was 18% among men and 39% among women with a 3.5% per year positive gradient in prevalence overall by age at screening, and was significantly associated with estimated gamma radiation dose. Excess prevalence rate was approximately the same among men and women, with a 3-fold higher dose-specific relative risk among men compared to women. Prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased non-significantly with dose, but prevalence of follicular neoplasm was not associated with dose. Cytopathology review identified 30 papillary carcinomas in 27 cases and 10 follicular neoplasms in 10 cases. Some patients with thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer were referred to surgical department. They have been treated successfully by surgery or by percutaneus injection of erythrocyte pharmacocytes in accordance with our own procedure. Intraoperative thyroid tissue sampling was done to do some molecular and genetic investigation. Several aspects related to hormone status of thyroid patients, the thyroid gland function among various group of patients, morphological findings, surgical tactics and rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities living around the SNTS, will be presented. (author)

  19. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Ga Ram [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.

  20. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.

  1. Thyroid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the world is a thyroid? What Is the Thyroid? The thyroid (say: THYE-royd) is a gland, ... keeps the temperature just right. Continue What Is Thyroid Disease? There are two main kinds of thyroid ...

  2. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  3. Clinical Significance of Diffuse 18F FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent 18F FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse 18F FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2±1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0±664.6 vs. 57.3±46.4, P18F FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The 18F FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  4. Automated segmentation of thyroid gland on CT images with multi-atlas label fusion and random classification forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Chang, Kevin; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    The thyroid gland plays an important role in clinical practice, especially for radiation therapy treatment planning. For patients with head and neck cancer, radiation therapy requires a precise delineation of the thyroid gland to be spared on the pre-treatment planning CT images to avoid thyroid dysfunction. In the current clinical workflow, the thyroid gland is normally manually delineated by radiologists or radiation oncologists, which is time consuming and error prone. Therefore, a system for automated segmentation of the thyroid is desirable. However, automated segmentation of the thyroid is challenging because the thyroid is inhomogeneous and surrounded by structures that have similar intensities. In this work, the thyroid gland segmentation is initially estimated by multi-atlas label fusion algorithm. The segmentation is refined by supervised statistical learning based voxel labeling with a random forest algorithm. Multiatlas label fusion (MALF) transfers expert-labeled thyroids from atlases to a target image using deformable registration. Errors produced by label transfer are reduced by label fusion that combines the results produced by all atlases into a consensus solution. Then, random forest (RF) employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled thyroids to recognize features. The trained forest classifier is then applied to the thyroid estimated from the MALF by voxel scanning to assign the class-conditional probability. Voxels from the expert-labeled thyroids in CT volumes are treated as positive classes; background non-thyroid voxels as negatives. We applied this automated thyroid segmentation system to CT scans of 20 patients. The results showed that the MALF achieved an overall 0.75 Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the RF classification further improved the DSC to 0.81.

  5. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  6. Ocular surface and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Pelinsari Lana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Many reports have indicated an association between thyroid dieases and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of the tests used for dry eye diagnosis and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods: Forty-two patients (group 1 with autoimmune thyroid disease and 30 controls (group 2 were selected. Tear film break up time, Schirmer I test, Schirmer II test, ocular staining with 1% rose Bengal and salivary gland cintilography were performed in both groups. Results: Regarding the ocular surface damage observed by Rose Bengal test there was no difference between groups (p=0.77. For tear film break up time the groups did not differ statistically (p=0.46. There was no statistical difference between groups 1 and control in scintigraphy of the salivary gland (p=0.99. A statistical difference between the patients with thyroid disease and the control group was seem only in the Schirmer II test (p=0.0009. Conclusions: No patients fulfilled all criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. It is possible that it could be underestimated.

  7. Use of 131-I metaiodinebenzylgunidine (131-I MIBG) in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most common problems of modern oncology practice and nuclear medicine is the treatment of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), which is considered to be the tumor of the APUD system. The neoplasm originates from C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland. The tumor is hormone-active and can produce calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland constitutes 3-13% of all malignant thyroid tumors. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes, mediastinum, lungs, liver, bones are frequent. The purpose of our work was to review the efficacy of MCT treatment done in our centre. Since 1999 131I-MIBG (Amersham-Nycomed) has been used in the treatment of MCT at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology. During 1999-2002, 131I-MIBG was administered in various doses (100 to 300 mCi) to 12 patients with different stages of MCT. Four non-radically operated patients with local dissemination of the tumor were cured following 131I-MIBG therapy (total activity 200-300 mCi, follow up period - 2 years). In four patients reduction in the tumor volume and/or disappearance of metastases in the cervical nodes (follow-up period 1.5 years, total activity of 131I-MIBG 100 - 200 mCi) was noticed. Three patients are still on follow up since 1.5 years (total activity of 131I-MIBG 100-200 mCi). One patient died due to the progression of disease. Myelosuppression was not observed in any of the treated patients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promising radiopharmaceutical for treatment medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  8. Effect of bone-marrow protection on the development of radiation reaction in the thyroid gland in chronic X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexually mature mice were irradiated every day totally (whole body) or partially (subtotally) /with lead shielding of the lower extremities/ with a dose of 100 rad. Histological preparations of the thyroid gland were prepared on the first day after achievement of different total doses from 800 to 3200 rad. The morphological and functional state of the gland was evaluated by the height of the epithelian cells, the percentage of the gland components: epithelia, colloids and connective tissue and the percentage of follicules with colloid resorption zones. Once a total dose of 800 rad has been achieved in totally and subtotally exposed mice, a heterogeneous morphological pattern was observed - a manifestation of transition in the functional state of the gland from excitation to total inhibition. Identical morphological inhibition pattern was observed in totally and subtotally irradiated animals with 1600 rad. After total irradiation with 2400 rad an activation was more pronounced in shielded mice. After irradiation with the maximal total dose of 3200 rad, all totally irradiated animals were killed. In survived animals - subtotally irradiated with the same dose - parallel with areas of severe destructive lesions, areas of strumogenesis were observed as well. Thirty days after irradiation (with a total dose of 1600 rad) the restoration processes in the gland of subtotally irradiated mice were more complete and active. After a functional load - administration of the antithyroid preparation 6-methyl thiouracyl - the changes in the thyroid of totally irradiated animals were more serious than in subtotally irradiated ones. The results of this investigation indicate that bone marrow protection by shielding of sections of the bone marrow exerts beneficial influence on the radiation reaction in the thyroid gland, in the sense of a more rapid and complete course of the restoration processes in it. (A.B.)

  9. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34?E-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34?E-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  10. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34?E-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34?E-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions

  11. Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    de Matos Leandro; Del Giglio Adriana; Matsubayashi Carolina; de Lima Farah Michelle; Del Giglio Auro; da Silva Pinhal Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19), galectin-3 (Gal-3) and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1). However, current results remain cont...

  12. Impact of TNM classification categories on thyroid gland carcinoma.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, P.; Vl?ek, P.; Jirsa, Ladislav; Personová, K.

    Glasgow : BioScientifica, 2006. s. 938-938. ISSN 1470-3947. [European Congress of Endocrinology incorporating the British Endocrine Societies /8./. 01.04.2006-05.04.2006, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100750404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : TNM * thyroid carcinoma * tumor size * misclassification Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  13. Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

  14. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  15. Follicular lesion of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walts, Ann E; Mirocha, James; Bose, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the validity of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), an indeterminate diagnostic category of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). According to BSRTC, FLUS carries a 5-15% risk of cancer. This study was designed to determine if cytomorphology could stratify FLUS into subgroups with different risks of malignancy. Reports of 127 consecutive FNAs reported as FLUS with subsequent tissue diagnoses were evaluated for the presence of various cytologic features and the results were correlated with histological diagnoses. FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia (nuclear overlap/crowding, nuclear grooves/membrane irregularities, nuclear enlargement, and/or nuclear pseudoinclusions) were more frequently malignant on excision whereas those with architectural atypia (microfollicles) were more often benign on excision (P architectural atypia were adenomas or hyperplastic nodules on histological evaluation. BSRTC recommends that thyroid aspirates containing follicular cell nuclear and/or architectural atypia insufficient for a diagnosis of suspicious for follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy or malignant be classified as FLUS. Our findings indicate that FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia carry a risk for malignancy that is substantially higher than that assigned to FLUS and are best classified as suspicious. FLUS cases lacking these atypical nuclear features have a risk for malignancy that approximates the risk BSRTC has assigned to FLUS. PMID:23894017

  16. Thyroid Tissue Connected to Normally Located Thyroid Gland: Ectopic or Exophytic?

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Keles; Sule Ozkara; Turgut Karlidag; ?brahim Hanifi Ozercan

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue is seen rarely. It is often seen in cervical midline, and rarely in other areas such as submandibular area. Diagnosis is made histopathologically by fine needle biopsy after the elimination of malignancy. In the treatment of ectopic thyroid tissue, surgical excision is mostly applied. According to our knowledge, there is no exophytic thyroid tissue reported in the literature. In this paper, a 32-year-old woman who presented with a swelling under the right jaw and found ...

  17. Features of radionuclide research after thyroidectomy at the thyroid gland cancer

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    David ? Dolidze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AimTo clarify the possibility of postoperative radioisotope studies in determining the remnants of thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid carcinoma.Materials and methodsThe work is based on the study results of surgical treatment and postoperative examination of 120 patients with thyroid cancer, at the Botkin hospital during the period from 2007 to 2013. All patients were performed extrafascial intervention. 118 (98.3% patients were provided thyroidectomy (including lymph node dissection. For all patients in the postoperative period after 2–4 weeks were performed thyroid and whole-body scan with iodine and technetium, as well as ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck and the chest cavity.ResultsDuring the research, 16 (13.3% patients after scanning with 123I (7 (5.8% patients, 131I (3 (2.5% patients, 99mTs-Pertechnetate (6 (5% patients and applying them consistently (6 (5% patients received the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the operation area, as in the midline in the area of the isthmus, and the locations of the right, left and pyramidal thyroid share. These facts were interpreted as an accumulation of the isotope in the remnants of thyroid tissue after surgery. With additional research methods were revealed swelling and infiltration of tissues in 10 (8.3% cases in the sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles, and in 6 (5% cases – in the paratracheal and paralaryngeal areas. After fine-needle aspiration biopsy from infiltrative zone was received cytology of nonspecific inflammation. All patients received antiinflammatory and antibiotic therapy with a positive effect. Control ultrasound noted a gradual reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. After 6 months of thyroid scan was recorded decrease area of uptake, and a year later its complete disappearance.ConclusionsThus, postoperative radionuclide scanning in patients with thyroid gland carcinoma in some cases gives false-positive results, regardless of the type of used radiopharmaceutical.

  18. Morbidity of the thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area after the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of accident on the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPP all the territory of Bryansk area underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. The density of losses has made from 1-5 up to 30 and more Ci/km2 on different areas. Besides in the territory of Bryansk area the deficiency of iodine is registered from easy weight up to an average degree. Among the problems of modern thyroidology the thyroid gland cancer takes a special place in connection with progressing increase of its frequency in zones of ecological trouble and iodic deficiency. The purpose of the given work consisted in estimation of dynamics of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area before and after accident on the Chernobyl NPP. For the period from 1975 to 1985 on the territory of Bryansk area 308 cases of thyroid gland cancer, including 2 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children (in 1975 and 1984) have been revealed. These years morbidity in Bryansk area has changed from 0,78 on 100000 population in 1975 up to 2,6 in 1981-1982. Since 1986 up to 2004 on territory of Bryansk area 2638 cases of thyroid gland cancer have been revealed. Morbidity of the given pathology has increased from 3,3 on 100 thousand population in 1986 up to 23,6 on 100 thousand in 2004. The highest all-Russian parameter of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer was in 2003 - 5,4. Thus, morbidity of thyroid gland cancer in our area since 1989 up to 1999 was on the average 2 times more, than across the Russian Federation, and in 1999-2004 - more than 3 times. Thus rates of the increase of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer at inhabitants of southwest territories (density of radioactive pollution of Cs 137 over 5 Ci/km2, more than at inhabitants of Bryansk area. The highest parameter on these territories is noted in 2004 (27,3), more than in 5 times more, than in the Russian Federation. The parity of men and women among inhabitants of Bryansk area, who fell ill with thyroid gland cancer before accident on the Chernobyl NPP changed from 1:4 up to 1:8. Laws of the parity of quantity of thyroid gland cancers revealed at men and women before accident in comparison with data after accident are not noted. For the after accident period (1986-2004) 57 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children of Bryansk area have been revealed, among them 49 underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. Since 1986 for 1990 it is the 5-4 years period after accident on the Chernobyl NPP, during this period the thyroid gland cancer has not been revealed at a single child. The basic peak of morbidity of children of Bryansk area by thyroid gland cancer has fallen to 1992-1999 when parameters of morbidity were at 10-20 time more, than across the Russian Federation. Thus parameters of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer among children of southwest territories exceeded the data on Bryansk area in several times. Possibly, growth of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer, both at children, and at adult inhabitants of Bryansk area is possible to consider as the phenomenon of oncoepidemiological character, connected with influence of radiation factors after the Chernobyl NPP accident

  19. Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat

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    Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml. The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3, thyroxine (T4, thyrotrophin (TSH, interleukin 6 (IL6, tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001 were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001 of serum (T4 & T3 with Concomitant suppression of (TSH (P<0.001. Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001. Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of epithelial hyperplasia with atypical nuclear features. Thyroid tissue damage with haemorrhage and necrosis. Electron microscopic examination showed a remarkable cellular changes in the form of dilated rouph endoplasmic reticulum, inclusion lysosomes, dilated Golgi bodies, mitochondrial distension and nuclear degeneration. In both treated groups these changes were dose related.

  20. Evaluation of focal thyroid lesions incidentally detected in fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography images

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    O Yaylali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Increased uptake in the thyroid gland (TG is often identified as an incidental finding on the whole body fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT in non-thyroid cancer patients. Currently, there is no consensus on the appropriate approach for the management of these cases. Thyroid ultrasound, scintigraphy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB are suggested to exclude malignant thyroid lesions. Our aim is to determine the importance of increased F-18-FDG uptake in the TG on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scans in patients who are being screened for various forms of non-thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 2000 cases undergoing whole body PET/CT scanning between April 2011 and October 2012. The age, sex, type of primary cancer, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max , size of the thyroid nodules and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs on 18 F-FDG PET/CT images and if available, the biopsy results were evaluated. Results: In total, 57 patients (23 men, 34 women, mean age ± standard deviation (SD, 60.89 ± 14 years showed an increased fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG uptake by the TG (average SUV max : 4.07 ± 3.7. The CLNs were detected in 19/57 patients (33%. Only 20 cases (35% received FNAB. The final histopathological diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma in seven patients (mean SUV max ± SD: 6.0 ± 5.43 and benign thyroid disease in seven patients (mean SUV max ± SD: 2.36 ± 0.63. The FNAB results were undetermined for six patients. Conclusion: Focal high 18 F-FDG uptake in the TG may be associated with an increased risk of malignancy, but the clinical significance is unclear. More data are needed to elucidate the role of the SUV in the differentiation of benign and malign thyroid lesions. If a focal increase in 18 F-FDG uptake in the TG on PET/CT is present, a prompt histopathological evaluation should be suggested to clinicians for definitive diagnosis.

  1. Impact of siRNA transfection on tumor development under experimental pathology of thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Zaporozhan V. M.; Maryniuk G. S.; Kholodkova O. L.; Bubnov V. V.; Andronov D. U.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To assess the impact of siRNA transfection on the tumor development under experimental pathology of the thyroid gland. Methods. Experiments were performed on rats weighing 180 ± 20 g, which were divided into five groups: IA and IB – animals with simulated hypo- and hyperthyroid states and transplanted Guerin’s carcinoma; IIA and IIB – animals with simulated hypo- and hyperthyroid states and transplanted Guerin’s carcinoma in combination with siRNA transfection; III – control group with t...

  2. Thyroid gland volume estimated by use of ultrasound in addition to scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of estimating the mass of the thyroid gland from the area of the scintigraphic image has been compared with a method combining ultrasonic wtih scintigraphic images. The results for both methods were compared with surgical findings, and the scintiscan method alone was found to produce estimates which were on an average 79.5% of the surgical results. The corresponding estimates for the combined method were, on average, 100.4%. (Auth.)

  3. Anatomical and Histochemical Studies of the thyroid gland of two Egyptian reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshra A. El-Salkh; Zaki T. Zaki; Ibrahem G. Ibrahem and Samia Saad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of lizards are used in the present work Eumeces schneiderii as a hibernating reptile and Laudakia stellio brachydactyla as a non-hibernating one. Macroscopically, the thyroid of Eumeces schneiderii is formed of separate paired structures lying on both sides of the bifurcation of left and right carotid arteries. The thyroid of Laudakia, is formed of two well defined lobes each lying on either side of the trachea with a narrow connecting isthmus. Microscopically, the thyroid gland in both animals is composed of a big number of follicles which are held together by a loose connective tissue. The Interfollicular spaces are filled with blood sinusoids. Each follicle is composed of one layer of epithelial cells, which vary in their heights from winter to summer. In Laudakia, the gland never become completely inactive during winter. In Eumeces schneiderii , it is completely inactive during hibernation. Intracellular colloid droplets are rarely found in the thyroid of Laudakia, while they are very frequent In Eumeces schneiderii. This colloid shows regular seasonal changes in both animals depending on the degree of activity of acini.

  4. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  5. Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide / Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Augusto T., Bertelli; Luiz Cláudio Bosco, Massarollo; Erivelto Martinho, Volpi; Rubens Yassuzo Ykko, Ueda; Elci, Barreto.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e [...] podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento. Abstract in english Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may [...] be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

  6. [Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and the APUD system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neradilová, M

    1992-08-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma, MTC, accounts for 8-10% of all thyroid malignancies. It occurs in the sporadic form (70-75%) and the familial variant (25-30%). In familial MTC the autosomal dominant type of heredity is involved. This variant is found frequently in association with other endocrine hyperplasias or tumours within the framework of the APUD system and is thus an indispensible condition of the MEN 2 syndrome, either MEN 2A (MTC and pheochromocytoma and/or hyperparathyroidism) or MEN 2B with the frequent concurrent presence of pheochromocytoma and a typical phenotype, in particular multiple neurofibromas on the lips and tongue. The type of MTC determines also to a certain extent the prognosis of the disease. MTC in the framework of MEN 2A are usually most benign, while the prognosis is poorest for MEN 2B. The sporadic variant has a poorer prognosis, as compared with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The only effective and rational treatment of MTC is radical surgery. In all instances where we confirm the diagnosis before surgery we indicate bilateral total thyroidectomy. In the familial variant where the tumour is usually multifocal and in both lobes this indication is absolute, in sporadic forms with possible early intrathyroid dissemination of the primary tumour also to the other side, bilateral surgery is also indicated. Moreover we know that a certain ratio of assumed sporadic forms are genetically conditioned tumours and thus are familial. The histological finding of hyperplasia of the C-cells suggests the familial variant even when tumourous transformation did not occur yet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1356639

  7. Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto T. Bertelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento.Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

  8. Ameliorative Role of Marjoram Against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes in Thyroid Gland in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of marjoram, grey green leaf, against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland of male albino rats. Marjoram (100 mg/kg/day) was given to rats via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4.5 Gy) and the last dose of marjoram was administered 24 hr before irradiation. Thyroid gland was taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15 th day post-irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed significant decrease in serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and blood glutathione (GSH). Treatment with marjoram (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation induced toxicity in thyroid gland tissues which was evident by improved status of most parameters under investigation. These results suggest that marjoram could increase the antioxidant defence systems of thyroid gland and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation.

  9. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: A puzzling entity on fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nasit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT is a rare unique but controversial thyroid neoplasm, characterized by prominent trabecular growth pattern and stromal hyalinization. Whether HTT is a benign tumor or a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is still unclear. Cytology findings of HTT have been described in few reports. Cytological features of HTT frequently overlap with those of PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma, which can lead to frequent misdiagnosis. In order to avoid overtreatment like total thyroidectomy, pathologist should be aware of cytological features of HTT. We present a case of 35-year-old female with a right-side thyroid swelling for three years. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed. According to The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, cytological diagnosis of benign thyroid neoplasm was made. Histopathology of the right thyroidectomy specimen showed HTT. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of HTT requires a very meticulous and cautious approach in the evaluation of cytological features. Trabecular pattern of cells, vague curved nuclear palisading, radiating arrangement of cells around hyaline material, spindled to elongated cells, filamentous cytoplasmic processes with ill-defined cell border and yellow bodies are important diagnostic features of HTT. Nuclear features alone are insufficient for the diagnosis of HTT. Any suspicious cytology of thyroid lesion should follow hemithyroidectomy and histopathological evaluation.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ? 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

  11. Criteria to form a > of thyroid gland diseases appearance in those who took part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report and discuss the results of clinical study of the thyroid gland and hormonal thyroid state in 100 male patients who had taken part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects. The revealed changes in the thyroid homeostasis state depending the terms of observation and enlargement of the thyroid gland (stage 1 - 2) in 32% of the patients suggest of appearance of predisposing factors to development of the thyroid gland pathologic conditions. Criteria to form a > of thyropathy appearance in those who took part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects were determined

  12. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Iodine I 131 and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  13. Estereología de la Glándula Tiroides Humana Stereology of the Human Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Salgado A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La glándula tiroides es una glándula endocrina voluminosa, impar, mediana y simétrica, que ocupa la parte anterior del cuello, en la unión del tercio inferior con los dos tercios superiores. La unidad funcional y estructural de la glándula tiroides es el folículo tiroideo. Los folículos están separados unos de otros por escaso tejido conectivo interfolicular. Se ha observado en modelos experimentales animales, diversos valores estereológicos de células foliculares, parafoliculares y coloide. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si existe un patrón estereológico en la glándula tiroides humana en un grupo etáreo y sexo definidos. Para ello, se ocupó una muestra de 6 glándulas tiroides humanas extraidas de cadáveres no fijados, de individuos adultos de sexo masculino, sin antecedentes de patología o alteración tiroídea.Se procesaron histológicamente con H-E para su estudio estereológico. Los resultados mostraron valores promedio para la densidad de volumen del tejido glandular (33,8% y del coloide (63,17%, densidad de superficie del folículo tiroídeo (21,09 mm2/mm3, densidad de número de células foliculares (10,81 x 105 células/mm3 y parafoliculares (1,81 x 105 células/mm3. Conocido el volumen promedio de la glándula (21,3 mm3, se determinó el número total de células foliculares (230,22 x 105 y parafoliculares (38,33 x 105. Además, se determinó el número de folículos por mm2 (46,18 folículos/mm2. El conocimiento previo de los valores numéricos y proporciones normales estereólogicos permite establecer parámetros que determinen la alteración hiper o hipotrófica de origen endémico o exógeno que lleven a estratificar ciertas alteraciones, hecho observado en modelos experimentales donde las diferencias son significativas.The thyroid gland is a an extensive, medium and symmetrical endocrine gland situated on the anterior side of the neck at the lower third and the upper third junction. The thyroid follicle is the functional and structural unit of the thyroid gland. Follicles are separated from each other by narrow interfollicular connective tissue. Stereological values of follicular, parafollicular and colloid containing follicles have been observed in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of a stereological pattern in the human thyroid gland defined by age and sex. A sample of six human thyroid glands of adult males with no history of thyroid disease or disorder obtained from non fixed human cadavers; of these cadavers the gland was removed and processed for thyroid follicle density (21.09 mm 2/mm 3, follicular cell number density (10.81 x10 5 cells/mm3 and parafollicular (1.81 x 10 cells/mm 3. With the average gland volume (21.3 mm 3 we determined the total number of follicular cells (230.22 x 10 5 and parafollicular (38.33 x 105. The number of follicles per mm 2 (46.18 follicles/mm2 was also determined. Prior information and knowledge of numerical values and normal stereological proportions provides excellent parameters for determining hyper or hypotrophic endemic or exogenous alterations leading to stratification of certain disorders which was already observed in experimental models where differences amongst models were significant.

  14. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Kyriakos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid metastases are rarely seen in clinical practice but should be considered particularly in patients with a history of non-thyroidal malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common tumor to metastasize to the thyroid gland and may present many years after a nephrectomy. Thus, patients require a long-term follow-up and, physicians should have a high index of suspicion particularly in patients with benign disorders of the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and thyroglobulin immunohistochemical staining are considered the most effective methods for diagnosis. Surgical treatment of solitary thyroid metastases is recommended and prolongs survival. Adjuvant medical treatment may also be useful in specific situations. We present the unusual case of a relative young patient with goiter who presented with an intrathyroidal metastasis of RCC. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 58-60

  15. Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

  16. Determination of the iodine concentration of the thyroid gland in an endemic goiter area by computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the CT density of the thyroid gland in 60 patients with normal thyroids and 176 patients with various thyroid disorders. The density was 75±6.2 H.U. in normal thyroids, which was markedly higher than in goiters (66±6.0 H.U.), while there was a considerable further decrease in patients with immunogenic hyperthyrodism, the density being 48.5±7.9 H.U. The thyroids of patients with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism differed from these by virtue of a significantly greater density, 79.8±12.5 H.U. The clinical importance of CT investigation of the thyroid is its ability to distinguish rapidly between immunogenic hyperthyroidism without ocular symptoms and the (mostly iodine induced) nonimmunogenic form. There is a linear correlation between CT density and iodine concentration in the thyroid tissue; this was determined in surgical specimens from 17 patients. Iodine concentration in the thyroid, as well as the iodine content of the whole gland, can thus be calculated from the measured CT density at any time by estimating the volume of the gland with ultrasound and combining this value with the measured iodine concentration. The results correlate well with those found using the X-ray fluorescence method. (orig.)

  17. Experimental investigation with 198Au colloid as to lymph communications between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of a direct connection of lymph drainage between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland was examined using the lymphotropic radioactive tracer 198Au colloid. Twelve rabbits were examined. Six animals were injected with 50 ?Ci198Au colloid into the right thyroid lobe and six animals into the right retrobulbar space. Distribution and total bodyradioactivity was measured in vivo using a scintillation camera with a computer. After 6 hrs tissue specimens of different organs were measured in a well-counter. The discharge of activity from the thyroid after 6hrs was significantly higher than that from the retrobulbar space (63% versus 33.5%). This was probably due to a higher vascularisation and to a higher degree of lymph drainage of the thyroid. The lymph drainage of the thyroid gland as well as of the retrobulbar space occured mainly via the lymphonodi cerv.proff. No significant activity was found in the retrobulbar space after thyroid injection or in the thyroid after retrobulbar injection. It may be concluded from these results that there are not direct lymph connections between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland. However, indirect communications via the deep cervical lymph nodes cannot be excluded in the event of reverse lymph flow. (orig.)

  18. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  19. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  20. Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

  1. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  3. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADRIANA P.S., OTERO; RICARDO V., RODRIGUES; LUÍS A., SAMPAIO; LUIS A., ROMANO; MARCELO B., TESSER.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ontogenia dos folículos da tireóide em Rachycentron canadum. Larvas foram coletadas diariamente (n= 15 – 20) desde a eclosão até 15 dae (dias após eclosão). Posteriormente foram coletadas a cada dois dias até o 28 dae; uma nova amostragem ocorreu aos 53 dae. A [...] s larvas foram desidratadas e emblocadas em Paraplast e secções de 3 µm foram desparafinadas, reidratas e coradas com HE e PAS. Um folículo estava presente ao 1 dae e três foram encontrados aos 8 dae. O número de folículos aumentou até 19 aos 53 dae. O diâmetro dos folículos e a altura das células foliculares foram menores ao 1dae (68,3 ± 1,00 e 4,6 ± 0,01 µm), mas aumentou a partir do 8 dae (24,03 ± 0,46 µm e 6,43 ± 0,46 µm). A partir do 8 dae a presença de vesículas de reabsorção foi observada no colóide e a partir de 19 dae alguns folículos não apresentaram colóide. O surgimento precoce do folículo da tireóide no bijupirá assim como a grande quantidade de folículos sem colóide e/ou com a presença de vesículas mesmo após a metamorfose podem ser a explicação do rápido crescimento da espécie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were d [...] ehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  4. Pathologic Significance of a Recurrent Nodular Goiter After the Operations on the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menkov A.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to determine the pathologic significance of a recurrent nodular goiter on the basis of the follow-up results analysis after the operations on the thyroid gland. Materials and Methods. 64 patients (58 females and 6 males aged 32—63 years (46.4±8.3 years with a recurrent nodular goiter after the operations on the thyroid gland have been included into the study. The follow-up period was 5 years. Results. The absolute reoperation indications were revealed only in 9 patients (14.1%. They underwent thyroidectomy. A transitory unilateral laryngoparesis developed in 2 patients in a postoperative period. During the follow-up period euthyroidism persisted in patients with a recurrent nodular goiter required no operative intervention. Only 4 of 13 patients needed to take levothyroxine sodium required a substitution therapy correction. No significant increase of the node size was observed according to the ultrasonoscopy data. The average indicator of life quality corresponded to a good result (10.1±0.4 points. Conclusion. A recurrent nodular goiter after thyroid tissue preserving operations has no clinical manifestations in the majority of patients.

  5. Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohbuchi Toyoaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and extending nearly to the anterior cervical skin. A migratory fish bone was suspected, and the foreign body was removed under general anesthetic, combined with a hemithyroidectomy. The injured esophageal mucosa was sutured and closed. Our patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and she was allowed oral food intake seven days after the surgery. No evidence of recurrence was seen over the postoperative follow-up period of 42?weeks. Conclusion We should be aware that fish bone foreign bodies may migrate out of the upper digestive tract and lodge in the thyroid gland.

  6. Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter. Initial feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine (RI) such as 131I or 124I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with ?-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of 124I. Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) or ?-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies. (author)

  7. Body, heart, thyroid gland and skeletal muscle weight changes in rats with altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zacha?ová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Jirmanová, Isa

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 6 (2001), s. 619-626. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA304/00/1653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid state * skeletal muscles * body and organ weight Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  8. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in AIDS patients: CT characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast agent-enhanced CT scans in nine male patients with histologically proved benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the perotid gland were reviewed. All scans showed cystic-appearing masses with peripheral rim enhancement corresponding to the macroscopic appearance of the lesion. Five patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or had infections seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Three patients were members of high-risk groups. Only one patient had symptoms of the SICCA syndrome. Once a rare cause of parotid gland enlargement, benign lymphoepithelial lesions have recently been seen with increasing frequency in patients with HIV infection. Although the CT appearance is not pathognomic, correlation results of aspiration cytology and with clinical history can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion

  9. Rapid measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland using a portable Ge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid yet accurate measurement of the 131I activity in the thyroid gland as well as in the air, water and vegetation may have an important role in obtaining quantitative information on internal doses for the people living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities shortly after an accidental release of radionuclides. Whole body counting technique is still the standard method for measuring radionuclides in the body while necessity for in situ measurement techniques has considerably increased especially after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. For measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland in emergency situations, NaI (Tl) detectors, as in a scintillation survey meter as in the simplest case, are most often used while measurement of urinary excretions for members of the public may also effective. The scintillation survey meter method, being easily implemented, may not have enough selectivity for radioiodine and even be liable to an elevated background radiation spectrum. This would possibly lead to higher detection limits and lower accuracy. A use of a laboratory Ge (Li) detector system in the thyroidal radioiodine measurement was suggested to overcome the problem. A real measurement with a similar instrument was reported for the residents in U.K. after the Chernobyl accident. A use of a scintillation spectro-survey meter with a NaI (Tl) probe with lead collimation to thyroidal radioiodine measurement was also reported to give satisfactorily accurate evaluation of the thyroidal 131I burden. In this paper, a movable Ge system was developed for the above purpose and preliminarily evaluated particularly for counting efficiency. It is consisted of a portable high-purity Ge detector and a battery-operated MCA. It employs a laboratory made thin Pb shield with a collimation window and an elevator for the detector platform. The elevator was designed to adjust the height of the thyroid radioiodine probe in relation to the height and position of the neck of a subject sitting in a chair. Gamma spectra were analyzed and stored by the portable MCA. The acquired spectral information, sent to a notebook computer on line, was processed for determination of the 131I activity. In the preliminary measurement, the system was checked for its counting efficiency for 131I radioactivity by using neck-thyroid phantoms for the adult and some different ages that were previously prepared. The absolute counting efficiency was observed to be satisfactory, i.e. 0.20 to 0.28%. However, it was suggested that certain modification in the shield part of the probe might improve counting efficiency. (author)

  10. Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are abundant experimental and clinical data to associate radiation exposure and thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer increases with increasing doses of thyroidal radiation from 6.5 rads to 1,500 rads, but higher doses tend to destroy the gland and are associated with hypothyroidism rather than cancer. The peak occurrence of thyroid tumors is between five and 30 years after exposure, but a person may develop thyroid tumors as long as 50 years after irradiation. Multiple thyroidal lesions or disorders, including adenomas, thyroiditis, and hypothyroidism as well as malignant neoplasms, can occur after radiation exposure. It is imperative, therefore, to study carefully all patients with a history of radiation exposure to the gland and to observe them carefully for life. Suggestions are made for the management of thyroid disease in these patients

  11. Effects of Menopause and Diabetes on the Rat Thyroid Gland: A Histopathological and Stereological Examining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Yetim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Menopause is described as the arrest of the menstruation cycle and ending of reproductive potential. Diabetes mellitus (DM occurs with Type 1 diabetes that is originated from the absence of insulin and Type 2 diabetes depending on insulin resistance. It is one of the most common endocrine disorders encountered in clinical practice that can cause serious health complications. Therefore, the objective of the present thesis was to investigate the effects of menopause and diabetes upon the thyroid using a rat model. Materials and Methods: 24, 12 weeks old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into; non-diabetic healthy control group (Group I, n = 6, diabetic group (Group II, n = 6, ovariectomy group (Group III, n = 6, and ovariectomy plus diabetic group (Group IV, n = 6, respectively. Results: In histopathological examinations, the thyroid gland of the diabetic group had large follicles with cuboidal or almost squamous epithelial lining surrounding wide lumen. There were areas of disorganized follicles with decreased colloid. In the ovariectomized (OVX rats, there was hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and disorganized follicles with complete obstruction of their lumina. Mitotic cells were available. Some parafollicular cells had lack of cytoplasm. Post ovariectomy diabetes-induced group (Group IV, there were some species between follicles and remarkable reduction of colloid. Hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles, solid cell nests, and mitotic cells were also seen increasingly in this group. Follicular lumen area of ovariectomy group is closer to the control group. The increase of the lumen area in the DM group was the largest, diabetes+ovariectomy group also had an increase in the follicular lumen area. Conclusion: Finally; postmenopausal aging and diabetes in rats, may cause thyroid degeneration. DM and menopause both cause oxidative stress. But their damages on thyroid tissue are different. It means they cause oxidative stress via different ways. DM + OVX group compared to other groups has the greatest damage. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(2.000: 49-53

  12. The contribution of different ways of an iodine-131 intake to a general radiation dose of a thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident on the Chernobyl NPP an iodine-131 intake in a thyroid gland, caused by an inhalation and a peroral intake with a foods, was the main source of a formation of a thyroid dose. On the basis of an estimation of the thyroid doses of the cohort subjects of the Belarus-US scientific project aimed to study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in Belarus following the Chernobyl accident (1997 - 2002) a study of a relative contribution of the iodine-131 intake with inhalation and the iodine-131 peroral intake with a milk, a green leaf vegetables and a milk products was conducted. The research has shown, that, on the average, the iodine-131 intake with inhalation contributes 5 % to a general thyroid dose, the iodine-131 peroral intake: (1) with milk - 62 %; (2) with green leaf vegetables - 20 %; (3) with milk products - 13 %. (Authors)

  13. Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of radiation dose to the radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues - ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands - during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty (DCP). Method: Radiation dose was determined in an Alderson Rando phantom and in 13 patients. Radiation dose was measured directly using Ca-F2-thermoluminescent dosimetry crystals (TLD) which were placed on each eyelid, parotid gland and thyroid gland. Results: The mean radiation dose to the lens placed next to the path of radiation was 6.58 mGy in the Alderson-Rando phantom and 5.43 mGy in patients during DCP. The mean radiation dose to the contralateral lens was 1.37 mGy and 1.7 mGy to the parotid gland placed next to the X-ray tube. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland was max. 0.4 mGy during DCP. Conclusion: Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid gland and throid gland during fluoroscopy-guided DCP was 25 times higher than during diagnostic dacryocystography. The radiation dose to radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues during fluoroscopy-guided DCP is much below the threshold dose for ocular lens cataract. (orig.)

  14. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Kwon, Kye Won; Kim, Sang Wook [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Youn, In Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT) is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

  15. Effect of reserpine on salivary gland radioiodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients with thyroid cancer were treated with reserpine in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure to the salivary glands from 100-150 mCi doses of I-131 therapy to thyroid remnants or metastases. Three control patients were not treated with reserpine but did receive 100-150 mCi of I-131. Parotid/background ratios of activity after radioablative doses of I-131 in patients not treated with reserpine were significantly higher than the patients treated with reserpine, and this was also true seven days after the radioablative dose. Combined therapy with reserpine, chewing gum, lemon candies, and hydration is suggested for the prevention of sialadenitis and xerostomia due to large doses of radioiodine

  16. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer develops in the follicular cells of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck below the voice box. The thyroid gland secretes hormones that control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and weight.

  17. Incidence of malignant neoplasm in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligerman, J.; Braz, J.M.; Cabas Neto, J. (Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1982-12-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultrasound results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients.

  18. Distribution and binding of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic studies on the distribution and binding of 131I in the thyroid gland of the buffalo were undertaken after 12 and 48 hours of uptake. The majority of the follicles showed localization of radioiodine in the colloid which appeared as rings at the colloidcell junction, with about 30% of all follicles showing complete blackening of the lumen with an increase in uptake period upto 48 hours. The activity was consistently higher in the follicular epithelial cells than in the connective tissue between the follicles. Smaller follicles had a greater accumulation of the isotope than the larger follicles. (author)

  19. Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

  20. Carboxylic ester hydrolases in the thyroid gland of the guinea-pig. A light microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S

    1976-01-01

    The location of cholinesterase and non-specific esterase in the thyroid gland of the guniea-pig was studied with the light microscope. It was found that the idoxyl method for non-specific esterase activity under special conditions is superior to the cholinesterase method in a number of respects for the demonstration of the intra-, inter- and parafollicular cells. When using the indoxyl method the incubation period can be reduced from 2.5-3 hr to 40-50 min. Further, the reaction can be followed d...

  1. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  2. Radio-in-vitro investigation of the thyroid gland situation of full term newborn babies immediately post partum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, H.J.; Grebe, S.F.

    145 cord sera from full term, vital eutrophic newborn babies of uncomplicated pregnancies have been tested for the thyroid gland parameters RT/sub 3/-U, ST/sub 3/-U, T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4//T/sub 3/-ratio, total balance of free iodine-hormone indices and TSH to answer the questions of the thyroid gland situation. In the full term newborn baby an euthyroid metabolic balance was found on comparison with the simultaneously determined thyroid specific situation of the adult. The T/sub 3/-situation is identical with that of the euthyroid adult. Thyroid levels, the conversion of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ as well as the values of the total balance are slightly elevated, like in women under contraceptive hormone therapy. The basal TSH secretion immediately post partum is similar to the one on day 5 post partum.

  3. Radio-in-vitro investigation of the thyroid gland situation of fullterm newborn babies immediately post partum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    145 cord sera from fullterm, vital eutrophic newborn babies of uncomplicated pregnancies have been tested for the thyroid gland parameters RT3-U, ST3-U, T4, T3, T4/T3-ratio, total balance of free iodine-hormone indices and TSH to answer the questions of the thyroid gland situation. In the fullterm newborn baby an euthyroid metabolic balance was found on comparison with the simultaneously determined thyroid specific situation of the adult. The T3-situation is identical with that of the euthyroid adult. Thyroid levels, the conversion of T4 to T3 as well as the values of the total balance are slightly elevated, like in women under contraceptive hormone therapy. The basal TSH secretion immediately post partum is similar to the one on day 5 post partum. (orig.)

  4. The effect of HeNe laser radiation on the thyroid gland of the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Lerma, E.; Hevia, A.; Rodrigo, P.; Gonzalez-Campora, R.; Armas, J. R.; Galera, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although laser irradiation is becoming common practice in medicine, there is not always a clear understanding of the possible side-effects. The present report is a light and electron microscopic study of the effects of fixed low intensity doses of soft HeNe laser on the thyroid of Wistar rats. The immediate effects are mild multifocal degenerative changes; these lesions recover in less than 3 months. Long-term lesions are identified only by electron microscopy; they consist of an increased nu...

  5. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  6. Stereology of the Thyroid Gland in Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Comparison with Human (Homo sapiens): Quantitative and Functional Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kot, Brian Chin Wing; Lau, Thomas Yue Huen; Cheng, Sammy Chi Him

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels....

  7. Comparison of skin absorbed radiation dose in thyroid gland area during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Akhlaghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid gland is one of the critical organs during radiation in the head and neck region. The aim of this study was to compare absorbed radiation dose by skin in the thyroid area during spiral tomography and panoramic radiography by means of thermoluminance dosimetry (TLD.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six LiF (TLD-100 thermoluminescence dosimetry chips were utilized in this experimental in vitro study. One TLD chip was placed on the tube side and another was placed on the opposite side of the thyroid gland of a sliced anatomic Alderson head and neck phantom during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography. The dosimeters were read by a SOLARO 2A TLD reader twice followed by calculation of the absorbed dose. The results were analyzed by Wilcoxon’s test at a confidence interval of 95%.Results: The mean dose for screen-film panoramic radiographs was 34 µGy in the left thyroid and 39 on the right side. With spiral tomography the thyroid gland received a mean dose of 30?71 µGy. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean thyroid doses between anterior and posterior spiral tomography and panoramic examination (p value > 0.05.Conclusion: Skin absorbed radiation dose of a tomographic examination, which includes four sections with a specific thickness, are almost comparable to that with a panoramic radiographic technique. Key words: Absorbed dose, Spiral tomography, Panoramic radiography.

  8. Thyroid system morphofunctional state in children from Chernigiv Region after thyroid gland irradiation after the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    510 children from Chernigiv Region aged 6 - 14 were examined. The program of the examination included investigation of the thyroid system morphofunctional state when compared with the doses of thyroid gland irradiation with iodine-131 during the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station (CAPS). Relative hyperthyroxinemia and hyperthyroglobulinemia which did not depend on the dose have been revealed. The results of the investigation showed that 5 - 6 years after the accident at CAPS, deviations from the norm in the hormones level without marked clinical features of the disease were observed in the majority of cases. Due to this fact the children living in the contaminated with radionuclides areas should be included to the risk-group of appearance of radiation induced morphological and functional changes of the thyroid gland

  9. The usefulness of Al face block fabrication for reducing exposure dose of thyroid glands in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there are many studies being conducted around the world to reduce exposure dose to radiation for patients to receive medical treatments in a safe environment. We developed and fabricated of this shield that the patients are protected from the radiation and are need of safety control during breast imaging. In this study, for breast imaging, GE Senography 2000D were used and set at SID 65 cm, 28 kVp, and 63 mAs. The measuring instrument was Flukes Victoreen 6000-529. And we performed Face Block on with 30 patients. The chamber on the actual thyroid glands to take CC and MLO and measure the dosage before and after wearing the Face Block. For the results, after wearing the Face Block, exposure was decreased by 53.8%-100% and 65.8% in average in CC View and by 50%-100% and 60.7% in average in MLO View. The development of the Face Block that practically decreased the exposure dose of thyroid glands, crystalline eyes during breast imaging and reduced the patients anxiety during breast imaging. The Face Block is expected to improve patients satisfaction and contribute to reducing patients exposure dose, but more efforts should be made to reduce exposure dose to medical radiation

  10. The usefulness of Al face block fabrication for reducing exposure dose of thyroid glands in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Eun Ae [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Currently, there are many studies being conducted around the world to reduce exposure dose to radiation for patients to receive medical treatments in a safe environment. We developed and fabricated of this shield that the patients are protected from the radiation and are need of safety control during breast imaging. In this study, for breast imaging, GE Senography 2000D were used and set at SID 65 cm, 28 kVp, and 63 mAs. The measuring instrument was Flukes Victoreen 6000-529. And we performed Face Block on with 30 patients. The chamber on the actual thyroid glands to take CC and MLO and measure the dosage before and after wearing the Face Block. For the results, after wearing the Face Block, exposure was decreased by 53.8%-100% and 65.8% in average in CC View and by 50%-100% and 60.7% in average in MLO View. The development of the Face Block that practically decreased the exposure dose of thyroid glands, crystalline eyes during breast imaging and reduced the patients anxiety during breast imaging. The Face Block is expected to improve patients satisfaction and contribute to reducing patients exposure dose, but more efforts should be made to reduce exposure dose to medical radiation.

  11. The uptake of 125I by the thyroid gland and its morphological maturity in newly hatched duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histological observations revealed that in two-day-old ducklings the thyroids were very differentiated. In some birds they were very poorly developed, i.e. the tissue was not organized into follicles, whereas in others there was a structure almost typical of this gland. The thyroids of ducklings nine days old presented an almost normal histological picture and only small islands of the tissue not organized into follicles were visible. The less developed were the thyroids the higher was their 125I uptake. (author)

  12. The value of calcification in CT differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the diagnostic value of calcification in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: CT images of 318 consecutive patients with pathologically proven thyroid lesions were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The following characteristics of calcification on CT images were evaluated: (1) size (? 2 mm indicating microcalcification and >2 mm or shelly and irregular shape indicating macrocalcification, and both features indicating mixed calcification), (2) number (single or multiple) and (3) location (internal or edge). X2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results Of the 318 cases, 48 were diagnosed as malignant (papillary carcinoma 26, follicular carcinoma 7, medullary carcinoma 3 and microcarcinoma 12) and 270 were benign (nodular goiter 36, adenoma 170, nodular goiter with adenoma 38 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 26). Calcification was found in 60 cases (18.9%). Among them 21 (papillary carcinoma 12, microcarcinoma 6, follicular carcinoma 2 and medullary carcinoma 1) were malignant (43.8%) and 39 (nodular goiter 6, adenoma 13, nodular goiter with adenoma 19 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1) were benign (14.4%) (P0.05). Internal calcification was found in 15 cases of malignant lesions (71.4%) and 12 of benign lesions (30.8%); Edge calcification was found in 6 cases of malignant and 27 of benign, (P<0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of internal calcification for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma were 71.4% (15/21) and 69.2% (27/39), respectively. Conclusion: Internal calcification or (and) macrocalcification of t he thyroid lesions may strongly suspect thyroid carcinoma and fine-needle aspiration or surgery should be further performed. (authors)

  13. A THYROID GLAND SHOWING PYRAMIDAL LOBE WITH LEVATO R GLANDULAE THYROIDEA .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Literature is replete with wide range of common and rare variations of thyroid gland. The presence of pyramidal lobe (accessory lo be – a rostral directed stalk that results from the retention and growth of the caudal end of thyroglossal duct and fibrous or fibromuscular levator glandulae thyroidea (LGT ari sing from its apex are commonly occurring variations . A 50 yrs Old Male Cadaver showed leva tor glandulae thyroidea with cranio caudal extension from the body of the hyoid bone to the ap ex of pyramidal lobe which was projecting upwards from the left ¾ th of isthmus without any encroachment on the left lo be of the thyroid gland. In the groove clearly demarcating pyramidal lobe from the left lobe, a glandular branch of anterior branch of left superior thyroid artery w as seen. It entered the pyramidal lobe inferiorly, just above the lower border of the isth mus. Just adjacent to the right lobe a small portion of isthmus with prominent and free upper border and lower border is seen. Due its frequent presence it may not be fascinating to the Anatomists but can definitely challenge the skill o f operating neck surgeons performing thyroidectomies, lobectomies and isthmusectomies an d Otolaryngologists performing tracheostomies ,tracheotomies and laryngotomies. T he wide range of variations in the number, size, extent and consistency of the levator glandul ae thyroidea (LGT and pyramidal lobe necessitate the pre operative ultrasonographic examina tion or scintigraphical images or intense contrast enhancement on CT/MRI scan for total anato mical details enabling relatively a safer surgery.

  14. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ...

  15. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland evaluations in patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic examinations during tuberculosis therapy: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary abnormalities was determined in 91 women who received an average of 112 fluoroscopic chest examinations during pneumothorax treatment for tuberculosis more than 40 yr previously and in 72 women treated for tuberculosis by other modalities. Thyroid abnormalities were determined by physical examination, scintiscans, and measurements of serum free T4 index, TSH, and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Thyroid nodules were diagnosed in 7.7% of the exposed and 4.2% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 1.8; 90% confidence interval 0.6-5.7). Autoimmune thyroid disease was diagnosed in 15.2% of the exposed and 6.9% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-6.2). No salivary tumors were detected. Two exposed women and 1 comparison woman had primary hyperparathyroidism. Although absorbed dose to the thyroid could not be precisely determined, approximately 60 rads would be expected to yield the observed excess of thyroid nodules. While the prevalence ratios were not significantly increased in the exposed group, the results suggest that susceptibility of the thyroid to nodules from cumulative radiation doses of this magnitude could be increased even when the doses are accumulated over years and that such x-ray exposure of the thyroid gland may predispose the patient to the development of autoimmune disease

  16. Initial experience with software system JODNEW for evaluation biophysical characteristics related to treatment of carcinoma of thyroid gland by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research tries to exploit sophisticated methods for a balancing of positive and negative consequences of radionuclide applications. We have tailored Bayesian data processing in order to support decision making during treatment of thyroid diseases with help of 131I. After successful experimental phase we have implemented them. This novel in-house developed software system JODNEW i now tested. It aim at: (1) increasing quality of raw biophysical data exploited in diagnostics and therapy of thyroid diseases; (2) estimating cumulated activity so that MIRD methodology can be well used; (3) decreasing working load on staff. JODNEW is an extensive data-base system co-operating with advanced estimation algorithms coded in C++. The Bayesian methodology adopted allows us to exploit expert knowledge, models of observed processes as well as measured data in a consistent way. This is important in the considered case when the number of measurements is quite limited and influence of biological and physical variations is high. Moreover, all estimates are qualified by the remaining uncertainty. During diagnostics> The (functioning) volume of thyroid gland and body mass are measured. A diagnostic amount of 131I is administered. Three whole body measurements of elimination rate by urine (excretions) are made within 2 days after administration. The accumulated activities above thyroid gland and other lesions are registered within several days. Evaluation and measurements during therapy are: The accumulation ability is evaluated using diagnostic data. Consequences of 131I administration are judged, then, the therapeutic activity is selected and administered. The accumulation dynamics is supervised and reaching radio-hygienic limits influencing patient regime is predicted. The common features of these steps are: (1) Individual measurements are corrupted by a high and varying uncertainty; (2) The number of measurements is limited; (3) A significant expert experience is available; (4) The subsequent medical decisions have to be supported also by information about uncertainty of data. (authors)

  17. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens

  18. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens.

  19. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a common thyroid gland disorder. It can occur at any age, but is most often seen in ...

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule verses biopsy in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FNA biopsy of thyroid is a rapid, minimally invasive, and cost effective first line procedure in the evaluation of thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytological accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration (FNA) of solitary thyroid nodules in correlation with post-surgical histological findings. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Department of Pathology, Abbottabad International Medical College, Abbottabad from January 2009 to December 2010. A total of 81 patients with clinically palpable solitary thyroid nodule were included in the study. Thyroid function tests were initially performed followed by FNA of thyroid nodules later operated and histopathological examination was conducted on the excised nodules. FNA diagnoses were correlated with the histological findings. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the procedure were determined. Results: Out of 81 cases, 5 (6.2%) were unsatisfactory and 76 cases were satisfactory for cytological evaluation. Cyto-histopathological correlation was carried out for these cases. The study showed a diagnostic accuracy of 93% with sensitivity and specificity rates of 75% and 96% respectively. Positive predictive value is 81% and negative predictive value is 95%. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has evolved as an accurate and sensitive diagnostic tool for the initial screening of patients with thyroid nodules, and has reduced the need for unnecessary surgery. (author)

  1. Infection of the thyroid gland caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goegebuer, T; Verhaeghe, J P; Verlinde, A; De Laere, E; Surmont, I

    2007-01-01

    We report what we consider to be the first case of an abscess of the thyroid gland due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (C. fetus) in a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. C. fetus is known as a rare and opportunistic pathogen in humans, causing a broad variety of systemic infections. Acquisition by humans is thought to occur through contact with animals or animal products and to start as a gastro-intestinal colonization. The detection of C. fetus in stool is challenging, since culture efforts are generally directed in order to fulfil growth requirements of C.jejuni, a much more common enteric pathogen. Detection of C. fetus in non-stool samples is even more challenging since routine culture doesn't imply prolonged incubation (>72h), selective media and microaerophilic conditions. It is therefore not unlikely that human infections caused by C. fetus occur more often than generally assumed. PMID:17547296

  2. Correlation between quantitative shear wave elastography and pathologic structures of thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Matsuda, Eriko; Endo, Yukari; Takenobu, Masao; Izawa, Shoichiro; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between shear wave velocity (SWV) generated by acoustic radiation force impulse and the pathologic structure of thyroid lesions. A total of 599 thyroid tissue samples were divided into four groups based on pathologic structure: 254 normal thyroid tissue samples as a control, 128 with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) that demonstrated diffuse fibrosis, 165 with benign nodules that had high cell density and 52 with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) that showed high cell density and fibrosis. The mean SWVs in each group were as follows: 1.60 ± 0.18 m/s in normal thyroid, 2.55 ± 0.28 m/s in CAT, 1.72 ± 0.31 m/s in benign nodules and 2.66 ± 0.95 m/s in PTC. The SWVs of CAT and PTC were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid, (p < 0.001). SWV was significantly affected by fibrosis. PMID:26055967

  3. Stromal modulation and its role in the diagnosis of papillary patterned thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Sahar Aly; Esmail, Reham Shehab El Nemr; Hareedy, Amal Ahmed; Khalil, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The papillary patterned lesion of thyroid may be challenging with many diagnostic pitfalls. Tumor stroma plays an important part in the determination of the tumor phenotype. CD34 is thought to be involved in the modulation of cell adhesion and signal transduction as CD34(+) fibrocytes are potent antigen-presenting cells. Smooth muscle actin (SMA) positivity could be diagnostic for fibroblast activation during tumorigenesis. We aimed to examine the expression of CD34 and alphaSMA in the stroma of papillary thyroid hyperplasia, papillary thyroid carcinoma and papillary tumors of uncertain malignant potential in order to elucidate their possible differential distribution and roles. A total number of 54 cases with papillary thyroid lesions were studied by routine HandE staining, CD34 and ASMA immunostaining. ASMA was not expressed in benign papillary hyperplastic lesions while it was expressed in papillary carcinoma, indicating that tumors have modulated stroma. Although the stroma was not well developed in papillary lesions with equivocal features of uncertain potentiality, CD34 was notable in such cases with higher incidence in malignant cases. So ASMA as well as CD34 could predict neoplastic behavior, pointing to the importance of the stromal role. Differences between groups suggest that the presence of CD34 + stromal cells is an early event in carcinogensis and is associated with neoplasia, however ASMA+ cells are more likely to be associated with malignant behavior and metastatic potential adding additional tools to the light microscopic picture helping in diagnosis of problematic cases with HandE. PMID:25921136

  4. Congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters obtained from mothers subjected to immunization and the action of I13+H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I131 injected to rabbits immunized with homologous thyroid gland on the 19th - 20th day of pregnancy led to congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters in the first and second generations. The functional activity and the activity of proteolytic enzymes of the thyroid gland descreased by the 30th day of the postnatal development. A distinct correlation was revealed between the contents in the thyroid gland of the experimental litters of DIT+MIT and of organic forms -T3+T4. During the first days after birth the DIT+MIT content showed a sharp fall and increased by the 30th day; on the contrary, iodine binding into organic forms decreased with the age. Histological examination of the thyroid glands in the experimental litters demonstrated lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration, along with connective tissue proliferation, which led to a marked sclerosis and fibrosis of tissues, hypofunction. Beginning with the age of one month there was observed an extensive nodular proliferation, which possibly served as the beginning of the parenchymatous goiter formation. The appearance of lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland of the second generation could be considered as the result of a congenital predisposition to the autoimmune thyroiditis inlaid in the memory cells and intensified during birth

  5. The Dysfunction of the Thyroid Gland and Opportunities for the Homeopathic Treatment of Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fialkovi ova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The low levels of T4 (thyroxine and T3 (triiodothyronine can be observed in the dogs with hypothyroidism, but it could also reflect some other illness, in which the function of the thyroid gland is not disturbed. This phenomenon is called "sick euthyroid syndrom" (SES and it is mainly associated with the existence of the other endocrinopathies (Cushing`s syndrome, hyperestrogenism. The other endocrinopathies could be clinically manifest by very similar chronic changes in the skin and hair as those manifested in hypothyroidism. There are two cases of German shepherd dogs which were manifested by obesity, lethargy, infertility and chronic dermal findings. The level of T4 in the blood serum was very low in the first bitch T4 = 4.53 n mol l-1 and in the second bitch T4 = 12.84 n mol l-1. Diagnostic biochemical blood examination revealed results indicating the possibility of hypothyroidism, but at the same time also the possibility of another non- thyroid disease. Homeopathy can help to solve the problem of theraphy in such complicated cases. After homeopathic therapy the results of the biochemical and endocrinological examinations repeatedly showed the restored conditions of the patient. The level of the T4 in the blood serum was in the first bitch T4 = 27.31 n mol l-1 and in the second bitch T4 = 26.28 n mol l-1. This study presents the possibility to use homeopathic treatment in chronic dermatologic cases.

  6. Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas. Treatment results of 268 patients after thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of radioiodine therapy on differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas was checked out based on the following criteria from 268 patients: Histology, tumor expanse, type of metastasis, survival rate of treated patients and the frequency of tumor remains, respectively metastases, removal. The 5-year survival rate of the whole group lay near 92%, those with regional and distant metastases near 70%. With differentiation according to different histological forms of the carcinoma there were only slight differences. The therapeutical response rate varied with the different metastasis forms. Regional lymph gland metastases responded best to radioiodine therapy (76%), lung and bone metastases not as well with 21% and 14%. The standardized radioiodine therapy with relatively low single doses of 70 resp. 100 mCi 131-iodine proved itself as most tolerable. Serious therapy-dependent complications or even deaths did not appear. A comparison of the treatment results in this paper with those of other authors shows that the survival rates of these patients were mostly higher than the ones they were compared to. (TRV)

  7. The Role of Immunohistochemistry in Differential Diagnosis of Follicular Patterned Lesions of Thyroid

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    Gülçin YE?EN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study we aimed to assess the role of galectin- 3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular lesions.Material and Method: Fifty-four malignant and 50 benign lesions were evaluated and classified according to World Health Organization 2004 histological classification. Galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 were performed immunohistochemically and the slides were evaluated by two independent investigators. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed for each antibody tested.Results: Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were as follows respectively: Galectin-3: 59,25%, 84% and 71,15%; Cytokeratin 19: 70%, 82% and 75,4%; Thyroid peroxidase: 61%, 70% and 65,4%; CD44v6: 20,4%, 88% and 52,9%.Conclusion: The negativity for Galectin-3 and Cytokeratin 19 can not exclude malignancy but positivity can be thought as a sign of malignant feature or potential for lesions in which there is strong suspect of malignancy. Thyroid peroxidase immunostaining failed to differantiate benign from malignant oxyphilic tumors but decreased expression can be used as a malignancy marker together with Galectin-3 and/or Cytokeratin19 positivity in suspicious cases. CD44v6 does not seem to be reliable in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular patterned thyroid lesions.In conclusion, our approach is to take as much new samples or serial sections as possible in cases without clear-cut evidence of malignancy but with histological and immunohistochemical suspicion. Follicular variant papillary carcinoma has different criteria for malignancy and it should be always kept in mind while evaluating a benign-looking lesion with immunohistochemical signs that favor malignancy.

  8. Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis

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    de Matos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19, galectin-3 (Gal-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1. However, current results remain controversial. The aim of the present article was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CK-19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 markers, as well as their associations, in the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Methods A systematic review of published articles on MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library was performed. After establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 articles were selected. The technique of meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was employed and global values of sensitivity, specificity, area under the summary ROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (dOR were calculated. Results For the immunohistochemistry technique, the positivity of CK-19 for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions demonstrated global sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 73%; for Gal-3, sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 81%; and for HBME-1, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 83%. The association of the three markers determined sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 97%, and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.1. Similar results were also found for the immunocytochemistry assay. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that the three immunomarkers studied are accurate in pre- and postoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Nevertheless, the search for other molecular markers must continue in order to enhance this diagnostic accuracy since the results found still show a persistency of false-negative and false-positive tests. Virtual slides Http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3436263067345159

  9. Analysis of the behavior and characteristics of thyroid lesions identified by biopsy fine needle aspiration and gammagraphic diagnosis: Hospital Calderon Guardia: period 2004-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid lesions have meant one of the most important pathological entities in the Costa Rican population for many years, which have been increased by new diagnostic examinations and early detection and timely thanks to the preventive medicine that is exerted on the security of the country. After the nuclear accident Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union for several decades ago has shown an increase in neoplastic lesions as well as was appreciated after the implementation of the first atomic bomb in World War II, this behavior is the interest to see how thyroid pathology develops in the environment and what have been the Costa Rican experiences in correlation with the expected time to the global statistics. The behavior pattern observed of the lessons of the thyroid gland and based on clinical findings and in some cases together with scintigraphy have allowed to study the development seen through the ultrasound and cytopathological result. The behavior of the patients was similar to global statistics, being most frequent the benign lesions than malignant, and the scintigraphy correlation with lesions were found to be cold was significant for determination of malignant or suspicious for malignancy. Some of these lesions that were suspicious for malignancy scintigraphy and ultrasound were benign have been found to fall within the expected rate for this type of injury. The study consisted of sampling in 2023 noted that the prevalence was 9:1 in women compared with men, which agrees as thyroid diseases are more common in women than in men as well as the expected results in malignant lesions that remained the same behavior. As expected in the age ranges of suffering from thyroid lesions remained between the fifth and sixth decade of life, which has allowed to observe the frequency of different benign and malignant lesions that occurred during this study in the decades and periods covered. While before the study of thyroid lesions was occupied by scintigraphy and endocrinological management has been viewed that incidentalomas appreciated by the teams high-resolution ultrasound bring a benefit in the care of the patient early and fast like its minimally invasive intervention to characterize the thyroid lesions that are suspicious of malignancy or indeterminate by clinical and other diagnostic methods, a fact that increases in the routine study of thyroid pathology. In fact in the cost benefit study of FNA for early patient care is relatively cheap with a great evaluation of lesions and is important for determination of injury, because if there were suspected, sonographically, it is easier to seek the consent from patient and treating physician to take the sample and lead to better clinical guidance, histological and radiological, fact that will allow the patient a concise definition of your case. (author)

  10. Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice

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    Iwata Tomoyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS. Methods We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and total thyroxine (TT4 levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Results TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area. Conclusions An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.

  11. Evaluation of the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques

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    Hamid Badrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The use of sophisticated radiographic techniques is absolutely necessary in dentistry. The use of these techniques exposes the sensitive organs of head and neck to x-rays. The aim of the present study was to investigate the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 TLD GR-200 circular dosimeters (Thermoluminans Detector were used in male RANDO-like phantom (head and neck segment, i.e. the first 10 segments in order to determine the radiation dose absorbed by the thyroid gland. Then spiral computed tomographies were provided from the anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible along with a lateral Scout view as a guide. Conventional spiral tomographies were prepared from the maxilla, mandible and both jaws with a panoramic radiograph as a guide. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS 11.5 (a = 0.05. Results: The highest and lowest thyroid gland absorbed doses were observed with computed tomography of both jaws and conventional spiral tomography of the anterior maxilla, respectively (5.92 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ± 0.01 mSiv. The mean amount of the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland was lower in the conventional spiral tomography compared to computed tomography. The two techniques revealed significant differences in the absorbed doses except for conventional spiral tomography in the posterior and anterior regions of the mandible (p value = 0.276.Conclusion: According to results of the present study, the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in the conventional spiral tomography in different regions of the jaws was less than CT scan techniques. As a result, it appears the use of conventional spiral tomography is preferred over CT scans in limited regions where three-dimensional and cross-sectional views are required.Key words: Thyroid gland, Film dosimetry, Spiral Computed Tomography.

  12. [Thyroid gland volumetry using real-time sonography in children and adolescents in the Prague 10 District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikmund, J

    1991-03-01

    In 245 healthy children from Prague 10 sonographic examinations of the thyroid were made to assess normal values of the volume of the thyroid gland. The children were 5 days to 18 years old, healthy according to the case-history and clinical examination, and neonates also according to biochemical tests. The volume was calculated according to Brunn's formula, i. e. a. b. c. 0.479 (1). The results were compared with age, height and weight of the examined children and are presented in a table. PMID:1893443

  13. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of the neck. A retrosternal thyroid refers to the abnormal location of all or part of the thyroid gland below the breastbone (sternum). This article discusses ...

  14. Lack of Preemptive Analgesia by Intravenous Flurbiprofen in Thyroid Gland Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaodi Zhang, Haifang Zhao, Changsong Wang, Fei Han, Guonian Wang

    2011-01-01

    Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on postoperative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consumption and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery.Methods Ninety patients undergoing elective thyroid gland surgery were ra...

  15. Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate with the intensity of the administered activity of radioiodine, the previous condition of dental integrity and in patients living in the interior of our country in zones of 'bad' water containing tracers of arsenic and fluorine. In 13 patients submitted to intense treatment of dental problems posterior WBS showed a decrease of the positive maxilla areas or they were not found. The presence of metastasis in the active maxilla area was in all cases negative. Our observations confirm that radioiodine is deposited in maxillary bone in relation of dental lesions and that this 131-I move in a very slow place. This mechanism of fixation has to be determined. We fully recommended taking into account the existence of dental illness or incomplete dental treatments when the administration of higher activities than 3.7 GBq (150 mCi). (author)

  16. Frequency, structure and dynamics of thyroid gland cancer in the Semipalatinsk and North-East regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of oncological diseases and mortality from cancerous growths of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan indicates a steady rise of this pathology. Analysis of oncological disease causes shows that in most of the cases the diseases occur due to ecological factors. Radiation impact is one of the principal factors of thyroid gland cancerous new growths development. In relation to this study of the structure and frequency of cancerous diseases in ecologically bad areas is of high scientific and practical value. We have analyzed the results of pathologic and histologic research of thyroid gland operational material taken from 8560 patients having different non-cancerous and cancerous pathology of this organ in medical institutions of North-East region of the Republic of Kazakhstan during 1966-2000. Analysis of domestic material helped to find out in all the three regions that differentiated cancer prevails over the others and papillary cancer prevails over the follicular one. Other types of thyroid gland tumor (lymphosarcoma, hemangioma, angiosarcoma, reticulosarcoma) were found out in isolated instances. They, as non-classified tumors of thyroid gland, are related to the group of patients without verification. High frequency of thyroid gland cancer in Semipalatinsk region, if compared to the North-East region, can be associated not only with possible late effect of nuclear explosion products affecting factors on thyroid gland but also with prevalence of endemic goiter in combination with other different ecological factors. (author)

  17. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Thyroid Nodules Overview What is the thyroid? The thyroid is a small gland located at the base of your throat (near your ... which your body burns calories. What is a thyroid nodule? A thyroid nodule is a lump in ...

  18. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of atrophic orthotopic thyroid gland in a patient with acquired hypothyroidism: Evaluation with hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately one per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in one in 4,000 to 8,000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. Multiple ectopia in the presence of orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a 13-year-old boy with stunted growth and developmental delay caused due to acquired hypothyroidism. Technetium scan performed as per management protocol identified dual ectopia of thyroid. The role of hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy and Pitfalls of Preoperative Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Salivary Gland Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in salivary gland lesions. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 82 patients presented at NCI, Cairo University with salivary gland lesion who underwent preoperative FNAC diagnosis with subsequent excision and histopathologic assessment. Cytology results were classified as negative, positive, suspicious for cancer and inadequate. The definitive histopathologic report according to WHO Histological typing was the gold standard diagnosis against which FNAC was compared. Results: Our study included 82 patients who underwent preoperative FNAC of major salivary glands with subsequent surgical excision. Male to female ratio was 1.4: 1. The median age was 42 years. Parotid gland was involved in (68.3%), submandibular in (28%) and sub mental gland in (3.7%). Forty cases (48.8%) were cytologically diagnosed as benign lesions, 26 (31.7%) were malignant and 10 (12.2%) were suspicious. Cytological findings were non diagnostic in 6 (7.3%). The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma; 16 out of 40 cases (40%), while the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma; 22 out of 26 cases (84.6%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones and were true-negative in 37 (92.5%), true-positive in 33 (91.6%), false-negative in 3 (8.3%) and false-positive in 3 (7.5%) cases regarding detection of malignant tumors. The cytologic diagnosis achieved a sensitivity of 91.7%; a specificity of 92.5%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 92.5% and diagnostic accuracy 92%. The rates of agreement of histopathologic type for benign and malignant tumors were 89.2% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC were 91.7%, 92.5% and 92%, respectively. Attention to subtle morphologic changes, pitfalls and limitations are important to increase diagnostic accuracy. Multidirectional aspiration is preferred to avoid selective sampling. Re-aspiration of solid portion after cyst fluid aspiration is necessary to decrease the rate of inadequacy

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of NPY, VIP and 5-HT in the thyroid gland of the lizard, Podarcis sicula

    OpenAIRE

    L Varano; A Cavagnuolo; R Longobardi; F Virgilio; V Laforgia; Sciarrillo, R

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid gland of the lizard Podarcis sicula was immunohistochemically studied in adult male specimens using specific antibodies against NPY, VIP and 5-HT and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) procedure to localize the three peptides. Fine beaded VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers ran between the follicles, and VIP-immunoreactivity was evenly distributed in the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were found around the follicles, and, in the cells, immunore...

  1. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  2. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions—A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue® perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  3. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions-A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Andreas, E-mail: a.knopf@lrz.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Stock, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Nephrologie der II. Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue{sup Registered-Sign} perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  4. Radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during digital subtraction angiography of arteries supplying the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To find out the individual level of radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during DSA of arteries supplying the brain, considering the indication. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 72 patients during aortic arch and cerebral artery angiographies using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Results: During 20 aortic arch angiographies the measured values were within non-critical limits, whereas during carotid, vertebral or cerebral fourvessel angiography of the left ocular lens exposure values of more than 500 mGy (max. 782 mGy) were stated in two of 52 cases. The highest measured exposure relating to the right ocular lens was 126 mGy, to the thyroid gland 88 mGy. However, in 51 of 52 cases thyroid gland doses of below 51 mGy were measured. In 71 of 72 cases there was a lateral difference between right and left lens exposure up to twice the measured dose for the right ocular lens during aortic arch angiographies and up to sixteenfold in respect of the left lens during cerebral angiographies. (orig./AJ)

  5. Does amifostine have radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Guoming; Zuo, Shuyao [Qingdao University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Xie, Jiawei [Qingdao University, Medical College, Qingdao (China); Jiang, Zhongxin [Qingdao University, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao (China)

    2010-09-15

    To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled clinical trials which compared the effects of amifostine with those of placebo or acid-stimulating agents. Two randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 130 patients were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of amifostine and acid-stimulating agents on the incidence of xerostomia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01 to 9.52), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of {sup 99m}Tc by the parotid (RR 0.30, 95% CI -2.28 to 2.88) or submandibular glands (RR 1.90, 95% CI -1.46 to 5.26) at 12 months, or the reduction in blood pressure (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16). Neither of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. The results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The use of acid-stimulating agents to increase salivation should remain the first choice during radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients should also be well informed of the importance of hydration and acid stimulation. (orig.)

  6. Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands from turtles (Chrysemys dorbigni) pretreated with potassium iodide were incubated with 125I-insulin in the presence or absence of unlabeled insulin, in order to study its specific uptake. At 24 degrees, the specific uptake reached a plateau at 180 min of incubation. The dose of bovine insulin that inhibited 50% of the 125I-insulin uptake was 2 micrograms/ml of incubation medium. Most of the radioactive material (71%) extracted from the gland, after 30 min incubation with 125I-insulin, eluted in the same position as labeled insulin on Sephadex G-50. Only 24% eluted in the salt position. After 240 min incubation, increased amount of radioactivity appeared in the Na125I position. When bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone, a substantial reduction of radioactivity was observed in the insulin and Na125I elution positions. Dissociation studies were performed at 6 degrees in glands preincubated with 125I-insulin either at 24 or 6 degrees. The percentage of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble radioactive material in the dissociation medium increased with incubation time at both temperatures. However, the degradation activity was lower at 6 than at 24 degrees. The addition of bovine insulin to the incubation buffer containing 125I-insulin reduced the radioactive degradation products in the dissociated medium. Chloroquine or bacitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125I-hGH or 125I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

  7. Primary squamous cell carcinomas in the thyroid gland: an individual participant data meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas arising from the thyroid gland (SCCTh) is extremely rare diseases, which have never been fully studied. Thus, we performed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of published SCCTh cases, to understand the clinical characteristics and to identify the prognostic factors of primary SCCTh. A literature search was conducted within Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases and KoreaMed using the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: “primary,” “squamous,” “carcinoma,” “cancer,” and “thyroid.” Eighty-four patients' individual data from 39 articles and five patients' data in our institute were selected for analysis (N = 89). The mean age at diagnosis was 63.0 years (range, 24–90) and female preponderance (M:F = 1:2) was noted. The commonest complaint was the anterior neck mass, followed by dyspnea or dysphagia, and extension to the adjacent structure was found in 72%. The median survival was 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.0–23.0) and 3-year survival rate (3YSR) was 37.6% by Kaplan–Meier method, but only 20.1% by a shared frailty model for adjusting heterogeneity. Complete resection (R0) of tumors was the only significant prognostic factor in multivariable analysis, and the benefit of adjuvant treatment was not proved. The prognosis of patients with SCCTh is very poor (20% in 3YSR), but complete resection of disease is correlated with improved survival. To achieve complete surgical eradication of tumors, early detection and accurate diagnosis should be emphasized

  8. Thyroid lesions incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT ? a two centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamsek Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid on PET-CT examinations represents a diagnostic challenge. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax is one possible parameter that can help in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid PET lesions.

  9. Relation of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve to the superior pole of the thyroid gland : an anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Dhamari; Boon, J.M.; Mieny, Carel J.; Piet J. Becker; Van Schoor, Albert-Neels

    2007-01-01

    The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ELN) is intimately associated with the superior thyroid artery (STA) in relation to the superior pole of the thyroid gland, rendering it vulnerable to injury during the ligation of this vessel during thyroidectomy. Although most texts acknowledge the fact that the nerve is in close relation to the STA, there has not been an anatomical study to relate the position of the ELN to the superior pole of the thyroid gland. The aim of this study wa...

  10. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovi? Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 ?g/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 ?g/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  11. Structure of a Thyroid Gland Pathologies in a Population of Children and the Teenagers Living in Conditions Endemic Goiter of Northern Territories by Results of Ultrasonic Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Girsh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For studying structure pathologies of a thyroid gland at children and the teenagers living in northern territories Khanty-Mansiysk of autonomous region, for the period 2000–2008 the retrospective analysis of results of 3002 ultrasonic researches of a thyroid gland is lead To 32.7% of cases at children and teenagers attributes endemic goiter a craw are revealed. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, changes thyroid gland, are revealed in 4.2% of cases. The one-central and multinodal craw was made with 2.1 and 0.7%, accordingly. In 60.3% according to ultrasonic of inspection of pathology a thyroid gland it is not revealed. The basic ultrasonic models colloidal a craw, central cellular a craw and an adenoma of a thyroid gland are developed. The estimation of criteria the importance of the given models is lead, the estimation of results has allowed to consider, that the received ultrasonic models were adequate for ultrasound research.

  12. Clinical Significance of Diffuse {sup 18F} FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sung; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jandee; Soh, Euy Young; An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou Univ. School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2{+-}1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0{+-}664.6 vs. 57.3{+-}46.4, P<0.0001). Mean attenuation values in the diffuse uptake group were significantly lower (72.2{+-}15. vs. 97.0{+-}16.0, P<0.0001). An inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and mean attenuation values of residual thyroid in all patients (r=-0.57, P<0.0001) and subgroup with diffuse uptake (r=-0.31, P<0.05). In this study, diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The {sup 18F} FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  13. Cytogenetic analysis of tumoral thyroid tissues of thyroid glands of people from Gomel region as against Brest one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis in vivo of histologically normal and tumoral thyroid tissues has shown that in organism of examined patients with thyroid cancer mutation process taken place not only in tumor but in histologically normal tissue. As a result of investigations pursued a significant increase in the level of aberrant cells in thyroid cell populations was revealed in people from Gomel regions as against Brest one

  14. Radioiodine therapy effect on lacrimal gland function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objectives: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radioiodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected postradioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of I-131 (exposed group) for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months ago. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5 min) of this exposed group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with any other known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: The study demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to unexposed one. In the group of patients who have undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77% respectively. In evaluating the symptoms, 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the mentioned dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of the two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radioiodine therapy, which seems to be more severe in the majority of affected ones; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. (author)

  15. Radioiodine Treatment Effects on Lacrimal Glands Function in Patients with Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fard Esfahani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi of I-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient. Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light one patient (2 eyes revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation.

  16. Thyroid tumors following 131I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 ?Ci of Na 131I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for 131I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor

  17. Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pujani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult. Thus, additional diagnostic features that can assist in this distinction would have great clinical usefulness. Aims: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Settings and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Ki-67 immunostaining was performed by peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and compared with mitotic counts. Results: Ki-67 labeling index (LI showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms. A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05 and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05. The correlation between mitotic counts and Ki-67 LI was found to be significant. Conclusions: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

  18. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-I; Park, Kwang-Kuk; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy. PMID:25232322

  19. Monitoring intervals for measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129I in thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the monitoring interval, which can be implemented in the Laboratorio de Contaminacion Interna del Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, for direct measurement in the thyroid gland of radionuclides 125I and 129I . Were used two measuring systems, one employing a scintillating detector and the other detector Phoswich. Both detectors were placed inside a depth camera, 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5m of dimension covered with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm lead, 1.8 mm tin and 1.5 mm of copper. Was calculated for each system, the minimum detectable activity, and based on this, the monitoring interval is determined. Was obtained, for 125, all tested intervals, 120, 90,60,30 , 14, and 7 days may be implemented with both systems. In the case of the radionuclide 129 I, with the installation of scintillating detector can only be implemented the intervals 120, 90, and 60 days , and for installation with Phoswich, all evaluated

  20. Histological changes in the thyroid gland after treatment of hyperthyroidism with 131I, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first, degeneration and destruction of follicular epithelium appears and its regeneration occurred after the first time administration of 131I to hyperthyroidism. This regenerated follicule was tidy and could be called regeneration with low grade atypism. The second time administration of 131I was made in the most active regeneration period, that is, 3.5 - 5 months after the first administration of 131I. Degeneration and destruction of follicular epithelium were occurred strongly again, and after that, regeneration was occurred again. Regenerated folliculer epitherium in this case shaped comparatively distortion, and it could be called 'regereration with high grade atypism'. In the groups administered 131I two or three time, the regenerated figure which is highly atypical remained for a long time, and at the same time, many adenoma-like proliferation figures were found in cases taking long clinical course of this group. It was thought that this process would give a lead to clarify the cause of occurrence of thyroid gland tumors following treatment with 131I. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Thyroid Disease and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other parts of your body. Continue What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland ... medication adjustments as needed. Back Continue Goiters and Thyroid Nodules It can take months or years for ...

  2. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound. Longitudinal growth data from birth were available. RESULTS: TV increased significantly with age (r = 0.487; P < 0.001). Mean TV +/- sd for different age groups were as follows: 4 yr, 2.2 +/- 1.4 ml; 5 yr, 2.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 6 yr, 2.8 +/- 1.3 ml; 7 yr, 3.2 +/- 1.3 ml; 8 yr, 3.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 9 yr, 3.7 +/- 1.3 ml. We found a significant positive association between IGF-I and TV (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in multiple regression analyses, TSH (P < 0.013), free T(4) (P < 0.001), lean body mass (P < 0.001), and body surface area (P < 0.001) as well as other anthropometrical measurements were identified as factors significantly associated with TV. Family history of thyroid disease and presence of incidental abnormal ultrasound findings were also positively associated with TV (P = 0.025 and 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of prepubertal Danish children, the GH/IGF-I-axis was positively correlated with thyroid size, suggesting a role in the regulation of thyroid growth. Moreover, anthropometric measurements, in particular body surface area, were the best predictors of TV.

  3. MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 ± 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 ± 25 ml, with 2.1 ± 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high. (orig.)

  4. MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Ivanova, T.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 {+-} 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 {+-} 25 ml, with 2.1 {+-} 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high. (orig.)

  5. Thinking About Your Thyroid: Get to Know This Small But Mighty Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Thinking About Your Thyroid Get to Know This Small ... September 2015 search Features Better Nutrition Every Day Thinking About Your Thyroid Wise Choices Links Symptoms of ...

  6. Monosomy and ring chromosome 13 in a thyroid nodular goiter-do we underestimate its relevance in benign thyroid lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendt, Wolfgang; Rippe, Volkhard; Flor, Inga; Drieschner, Norbert; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2012-03-01

    Classical cytogenetic examination of a thyroid nodular goiter revealed the existence of two different cytogenetically aberrant cell clones. They were characterized by monosomy 13 as the sole abnormality in one clone, and loss of one chromosome 13 and a ring chromosome that was found to consist of chromosome 13 material by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the other clone. We have concluded that during the course of karyotypic evolution, the instability of the ring chromosome has led to its loss and subsequent monosomy 13. In the literature, two cases of partial monosomy 13 have been reported in adenomatous goiters, suggesting that this abnormality characterizes a rare but distinct subgroup of benign thyroid lesions histologically presenting as adenomatous goiters. Possible target genes of these deletions are the retinoblastoma (RB1) gene locus and the MIR16-1/15A cluster. Based on similar changes in other tumors, it seems reasonable to also analyze a large number of adenomatous goiters for submicroscopic deletions of the long arm of chromosome 13. PMID:22469512

  7. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients undergoing radiation therapy to neck where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland.

  8. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  9. Low dose radiation in the treatment of HIV related benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the effectiveness of Radiation Therapy (RT) in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related benign lymphoepithelial (BLL) of the parotid gland. Materials and Methods: The records of 16 patients treated between 1991 to 1995 with BLL were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had bilateral disease, thus 19 parotid glands were radiated. Only (2(16)) had AIDS. Virtually all patients were on antiretroviral therapy. There were 11 males and 5 females. The median age was 38 years (range 31 to 58 years). The median duration of parotid enlargement was 1.5 years (range 1 month to 6 years). All patients had biopsy prior to treatment. Histopathology revealed two patterns: solid or cystic. Patient were treated using electron beam RT. The beam energy was determined by computed transaxial tomography. The median dose delivered was 1000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days (range 600 cGy to 2160 cGy in daily fractions ranging from 180 cGy to 200 cGy). Results: Six parotid glands achieved a complete response (CR), 5 a partial response (PR), while 8 were non-responders (NR). Our overall response rate was therefore 58% Of the NR's, 3 patients were re-treated. Two achieved a PR, one was an NR. Toxicity was minimal and limited to mild xerostomia. Conclusion: RT in patients with HIV related BLL is well tolerated. Our preliminary results show that while this modality of treatment has marked activity in the solid pattern. Higher doses may be required for large lesions or cystic in nature

  10. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  11. Silent thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation) of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism , followed by hypothyroidism . ... The cause of this type of thyroiditis is unknown, but it is ... also be caused by medicines such as interferon and amiodarone.

  12. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions / Imaginologia das lesões das glândulas adrenais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Keith, Herr; Valdair F., Muglia; Walter José, Koff; Antonio Carlos, Westphalen.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O crescente uso da tomografia computadorizada e da ressonância magnética levou a um aumento na identificação de nódulos adrenais incidentais, também chamados de incidentalomas, gerando um impasse diagnóstico para o radiologista, bem como um número significativo de pesquisas a fim de caracterizar ess [...] as lesões como benignas ou malignas. Apesar de a maioria dos incidentalomas representar um processo benigno, geralmente um adenoma, a possibilidade de a lesão ser maligna requer suficiente acurácia dos métodos de imagem para que esses possam auxiliar no manejo dos pacientes. Neste artigo nós apresentamos uma revisão da literatura dedicada à investigação radiológica das lesões adrenais, com ênfase na tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética e tomografia por emissão de prótons, e discutimos como os achados de imagem relacionam-se com a prática clínica. Tecnologias recentes, como a ultrassonografia com uso de contraste, a tomografia computadorizada com dupla fonte de energia e a espectroscopia de prótons por ressonância magnética são brevemente discutidas. Abstract in english With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indet [...] erminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  13. ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Sporea; Roxana Sirli; Simona Bota; Mihaela Vlad; Alina Popescu; Ioana Zosin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men): 44 (32.3%) without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3%) with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD), 37 (27.2%) with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests), 4 (2.9%) with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2%) cases with thyroid pathology induced by am...

  14. Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland and the thyroglossal duct remnant: a study using human fetal sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Honkura, Yohei; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the thyroglossal duct, we observed serial sagittal sections of eight embryos (crown-rump length (CRL) 6-12 mm; approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) as well as serial horizontal or cross-sections of 70 embryos and fetuses (CRL 15-110 mm; 6-15 weeks). In the sagittal sections, the thyroglossal duct was identified as a small sheet or mass of relatively large cells with vacuolization anterior, superior or inferior to the fourth pharyngeal arch artery. However, we found no continuous duct-like structure that reached the thyroid gland. Thus, previous classical schemes might have overestimated the continuity of the duct. Among cross-sections of 70 specimens, we found the thyroglossal duct remnant in only two specimens (CRL 15 mm and 100 mm), in contrast to the pyramidal lobe, which was seen in one-third of the specimens. The duct remnant ran downward along the lateral edge of the hyoid body to reach the anterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage. However, the connection between the pyramidal lobe and the duct remnant was interrupted by the anterior cervical muscles. Therefore, it was unlikely that the thyroglossal duct remnant would more frequently be evident in fetuses than in adults. The highly tortuous course of the duct along the lingual aspect of the hyoid body, which has been reported previously, appeared to become established near term. Descent of the thyroid gland was not evident after the CRL 20 mm stage (6 weeks): the gland appeared to retain its position at the level of the third-sixth cervical vertebrae. PMID:25458181

  15. Effect of Exogenous Thyroxine on Mophology and Development of Thyroid Gland in Marble Goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus Bleeker Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    M. Awang Soh; A.M.W. Effendy; Asmanelli; B. Abol-Munafi

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine effect of the exogenous thyroxine (T ) on ontogeny of thyroid 4 gland in marble goby larvae and to found out whether the exogenous T can alter the follicle structure and the 4 level of T in marble goby. The larvae were exposed for 1 h in T solution at 0.1 ppm. Untreated larvae (control) 4 4 were not immersed in T hormone. It was found that T levels in treated larvae were higher than control, but the 44 development patterns in both treated larvae and control...

  16. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Diego Mendonça Uchôa; Vanessa Yépez

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellul...

  17. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tolia, Maria; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kyrgias, George; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n = 43) and malignant (n = 44) lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells' proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005, resp.). Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0097 and p = 0.0110, resp.). In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0301). Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p = 0.1165), lymphatic (p = 0.1989), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0555), as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.1165), at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia. PMID:26539529

  18. Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi Mudanças na glândula tireóide durante o ciclo reprodutivo masculino em um morcego vespertilionídeo Scotophilus heathi

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, A; SINGH, K.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4) concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during bre...

  19. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer; Rekonstruktion der Schilddruesendosis fuer Kinder mit Schilddruesenkrebs in Weissrussland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robl, R.; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1997-10-01

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope {sup 131}I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of {sup 1}31 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I. The inferred {sup 131}I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs-deposition density and a few {sup 131}I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of {sup 131}I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the {sup 129}I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the {sup 129}I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  20. Malignant glomus tumor of the thyroid gland where is heretofore an unreported organ: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Na Rae; Kim, Taeeun; Ahn, Jungsuk; Lee, Sangho; Lee, Young Don; Cho, Hyun Yee

    2015-03-01

    Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon clinically benign tumors. Malignant glomus tumors are rare, and only a small number develop metastatic foci. The usual location is deep dermis or subcutis, but it has been reported in various locations. A 55-year-old man presented with an incidentally found thyroid mass. Neck ultrasound showed a mass with a heterogeneous hypoechoic calcific mass in the right lobe. Right lobectomy specimen showed the 3.6-cm-sized calcified mass composed of sheets of uniform round to polygonal cells and intervening staghorn-shaped vessels. Occasional cellular atypism and necrosis with increased mitotic activity (up to 7 per 10 high-power fields) were found. Infiltration to the residual thyroid parenchyma, vessel, thyroidal capsule, and strap muscle was found. These tumor cells were strongly positive for smooth muscle actin, collagen type IV, and vimentin with pericellular reticulin-cuffing. Ultrastructurally, closely packed oval-shaped tumor cells having cytoplasmic mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulums with pinocytotic vesicles along the plasmalemmal surface and thin filaments of 6 nm in diameter were surrounded by thick basal lamina. That mass was diagnosed as a malignant glomus tumor. Incidentally, a 0.5-cm-sized papillary carcinoma was found through entire embedding. Complete thyroidectomy with chemotherapy was done. Thirty months later, multiple metastases developed in the brain and lung, and he expired. To our knowledge, neither benign nor malignant thyroid glomus tumor has been previously described. Here, we describe the first case of a malignant glomus tumor in the thyroid gland. PMID:25544269

  1. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas an...

  2. Analysis of thyroid hormones in gland and serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (THs), which are critical for growth and development in all vertebrates, can be impacted through chemical perturbation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Amphibian and mammalian models are being used to address this research priority within US EPA...

  3. Brain metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer in patients treated with radioiodine for bone and lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) often is detected during treatment of other remote lesions. We examined the prevalence, risk factors and treatment outcome of this disease encountered during nuclear medicine practice. Of the 167 patients with metastasis to lung or bone treated 1-14 times with radioactive iodine (RAI), 9 (5.4%) also had lesions in the brain. Five were males and 4 females, aged 49-84, out of the original population of 49 males and 118 females aged 10-84 (mean 54.7) years. Three of them underwent removal of their brain tumors, 5 received conventional external beam irradiation, and 2 had stereotactic radiosurgery with supervoltage X-ray. None of the brain lesions showed significant uptake of RAI despite demonstrable accumulation in most extracerebral lesions. Seven patients died 4-23 (mean 9.4) months after the discovery of cerebral metastasis, brain damage being the primary or at least a contributing cause. The 8th and 9th patients remained relatively well for more than 42 and 3 months, respectively, without any evidence of intracranial recurrence. Our results confirmed that the brain is a major site of secondary metastasis from DTC. No statistically significant demographic risk factor was detected. Any suspicious neurological symptoms in the course of RAI treatment warrant cerebral computed tomography. As for therapy, from out initial experience, radiosurgery seemed promising as an effective and less invasive alternative to surgical removal. (author)

  4. Comparison between ultrasonography and computed tomography for detecting the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland: A prospective multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Na [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, busan (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jin Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To compare the detection rates of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland (TPL) using ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in a prospective multi-center study. We enrolled 582 patients who underwent neck CT at six institutions. Each radiologist prospectively evaluated the presence and features of TPLs on thyroid US. Radiologists were divided into two groups according to their previous experience in detecting TPL on US or CT. The same radiologist also retrospectively assessed CT findings, blinded to the corresponding US findings. The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid glands were detected in 230 cases (39.5%) on US and in 276 cases (47.6%) on CT. The TPL detection rate at the six institutions ranged from 22.0% to 59% for US and from 34.1% to 59% using CT. There were significant differences between US and CT in the detection rate, length, anteroposterior diameter, volume, and superior extent of TPL (p < or = 0.027). The TPL detection rates on both US and CT (p < 0.001) differed significantly according to the experience level of the radiologists. When the CT result was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, as well as the accuracy of US for TPL detection were 72.6%, 91.5%, 89.3%, 77.3%, and 82.1%, respectively. Our prospective multicenter study revealed that US could detect TPL with relatively high diagnostic accuracy compared to CT. Because the detection rate of TPL varied significantly according to the radiologists' level of experience, careful inspection is necessary to avoid imaging pitfalls and ensure appropriate evaluation of TPL on both US and CT.

  5. An Abattoir Study of Ovine Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Lesions and the Respective Serum T3 andT4 Levels in an Endemic Goiter Region in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Barati; Annahita Rezaei; Mohammad Nouri; Mohammad Darakhshesh

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of histologic thyroids lesions and the respective thyroid hormones changes of ewes in an endemic goiter region and to find out any impact of this condition on the fetal thyroid structures and serum thyroid hormones. In the present study a total number of 100 pregnant ewes and their fetuses slaughtered at slaughterhouse were selected for the study. The sera were prepared from the jugular vein blood of ewes and fetus...

  6. Effect of Exogenous Thyroxine on Mophology and Development of Thyroid Gland in Marble Goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus Bleeker Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Awang Soh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine effect of the exogenous thyroxine (T on ontogeny of thyroid 4 gland in marble goby larvae and to found out whether the exogenous T can alter the follicle structure and the 4 level of T in marble goby. The larvae were exposed for 1 h in T solution at 0.1 ppm. Untreated larvae (control 4 4 were not immersed in T hormone. It was found that T levels in treated larvae were higher than control, but the 44 development patterns in both treated larvae and control were similar in which occurred a decreasing of T levels 4 from 3-7 days after hatching (dAH, and then increased again from 10 dAH onwards. The histological evidences that the follicles structure in treated larvae were difference than control, in which suggested abundance of thyroid hormone. These findings suggested that thyroid hormones (THs may play an important role during early larvals life and metamorphosis period. High total T levels in the treated larvae suggested that exogenous 4T has a predictable role to increase T level, especially in early larval stage of marble goby.

  7. Lack of Preemptive Analgesia by Intravenous Flurbiprofen in Thyroid Gland Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhaodi; Zhao, Haifang; Wang, Changsong; Han, Fei; Wang, Guonian

    2011-01-01

    Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on postoperative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consumption and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery.

  8. Modification of the activity of lymphocytes by xenotransplantation of thyroid gland tissue and by the transfer factor of immune reactivity in the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of a thyroid tissue is one of the possible methods for the curing of functional disorders of thyroid gland that appear due to the influence of insufficient environmental conditions on organism. By the micro method of lymphocyte blast transformation reaction, the functional activity of Wistar rat's splenocytes is studied. In the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis before and after xenotransplantation of the organic cell culture of thyroid gland of newborn pigs, the opportunities for correction of immunological disorders with the help of transfer factor preparations are investigated. The transfer factor is a low-molecular weight leukocyte extract (? 10kD) with immuno modulating activities. The reducing of self and PHA-stimulated proliferation of rat's splenocytes with [J131]-induced hypothyrosis is found. Bovine and human transfer factor preparations activate the proliferation of splenocytes from animals with hypothyrosis and animals with xenotransplantation

  9. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as lymphocytes. In many patients with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, lymphocytes make antibodies against their thyroid that either stimulate or damage the gland. Two common antibodies that cause thyroid problems are directed against thyroid cell proteins: ...

  10. Variation of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) estimates of radiation-induced hypothyroidism in relation to changes in delineation of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RØnjom, Marianne Feen; Brink, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background. To examine the variations of risk-estimates of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (HT) from our previously developed normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in relation to variability of delineation of the thyroid gland. Patients and methods. In a previous study for development of an NTCP model for HT, the thyroid gland was delineated in 246 treatment plans of patients with HNSCC. Fifty of these plans were randomly chosen for re-delineation for a study of the intra- and inter-observer variability of thyroid volume, Dmean and estimated risk of HT. Bland-Altman plots were used for assessment of the systematic (mean) and random [standard deviation (SD)] variability of the three parameters, and a method for displaying the spatial variation in delineation differences was developed. Results. Intra-observer variability resulted in a mean difference in thyroid volume and Dmean of 0.4 cm(3) (SD ± 1.6) and -0.5 Gy (SD ± 1.0), respectively, and 0.3 cm(3) (SD ± 1.8) and 0.0 Gy (SD ± 1.3) for inter-observer variability. The corresponding mean differences of NTCP values for radiation-induced HT due to intra- and inter-observer variations were insignificantly small, -0.4% (SD ± 6.0) and -0.7% (SD ± 4.8), respectively, but as the SDs show, for some patients the difference in estimated NTCP was large. Conclusion. For the entire study population, the variation in predicted risk of radiation-induced HT in head and neck cancer was small and our NTCP model was robust against observer variations in delineation of the thyroid gland. However, for the individual patient, there may be large differences in estimated risk which calls for precise delineation of the thyroid gland to obtain correct dose and NTCP estimates for optimized treatment planning in the individual patient.

  11. Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on the Morphology of Thyroid Gland in Male Wistar Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Onu*, B. O. Oke1, P. C. Ozegbe1 and J. O. Oyewale2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted to document the effect of alcohol on the morphology of thyroid gland of male rat offspring whose dams consumed alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. Seventy-five female rats divided into three groups, 1, 2, and 3, of 25 each and their offspring were used. Group 1 served as control (C, group 2 was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and lactation (APL while group 3 was exposed to alcohol during lactation only (AL. At day 35 and 49 postpartum 5 male rat offspring were randomly selected from the three groups and sacrificed. After the sacrifice, the thyroids were dissected out and their absolute and relative weights determined. Thereafter, the thyroid tissues were prepared for routine histological examination. The results of the investigation showed significant reduction (P<0.05 in the weights of the thyroid and thyroid follicles. There was also disorganization and desquamation of follicular cells. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake during pregnancy and/or lactation could be injurious to the thyroid glands of the offspring.

  12. Evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology as a screening tool in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Methods: The retrospective study comprised data of all patients who presented for fine needle aspiration cytology at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, between January 2009 and April 2011. The data was retrieved from the departmental records and the results were recorded. All cases who underwent subsequent surgery were also retrieved and histopathology results were compared with the cytology results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Results: Of the 327 patients, the results were inconclusive in 18 (5.5%), benign in 230 (70.3%), suspicious in 64 (19.6%) and malignant in 15 (4.6%) cases. Besides, 59 (18%) of these patients underwent subsequent surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology was calculated to be 85.7%, 73.3%, 50% , 94.2% and 76.2% respectively. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a reasonably sensitive, specific and accurate initial diagnostic test for pre-operative evaluation of patients with thyroid swellings. The clinicians should be encouraged to use the procedure as it is minimally invasive and easily performed in an outpatient setting. (author)

  13. Fine needle aspiration of secondary synovial sarcoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murro, Diana; Slade, Jamie Macagba; Syed, Sahr; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Synovial sarcomas (SS) of the head and neck region are extremely rare and arise in only 5% of cases. We present a case of secondary SS of the thyroid originally diagnosed as medullary carcinoma on fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 41-year-old man presented with several weeks of dysphonia and a left thyroid mass. FNA of the thyroid nodule showed a cellular smear composed of loosely cohesive oval to spindle-shaped cells with irregular nuclear borders, finely granular chromatin, and inconspicuous nucleoli. The patient was diagnosed with medullary carcinoma and underwent a total thyroidectomy. Intro-operatively, the mass was found to arise from the tracheoesophageal groove with spread to the left thyroid. Microscopic examination of the thyroid tumor revealed a dense spindle cell proliferation with abundant mitoses, scant cords and nests of epithelial cells and foci of necrosis. The spindle cells were positive for bcl2 and vimentin and the epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratin 8/18 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Both spindle and epithelial cells were negative for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, synaptophysin and chromogranin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated translocation (X;18)(p11;q11), confirming the diagnosis of SS. The patient underwent a total laryngopharyngoesophagectomy with subsequent adjuvant therapy and is currently disease free. Only 6 cases of histologically confirmed primary SS of the thyroid have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of FISH-confirmed secondary SS of the thyroid and also the first case of SS arising from the tracheoesophageal groove. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:928-932. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26304470

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of NPY, VIP and 5-HT in the thyroid gland of the lizard, Podarcis sicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sciarrillo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland of the lizard Podarcis sicula was immunohistochemically studied in adult male specimens using specific antibodies against NPY, VIP and 5-HT and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC procedure to localize the three peptides. Fine beaded VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers ran between the follicles, and VIP-immunoreactivity was evenly distributed in the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were found around the follicles, and, in the cells, immunoreactivity was localizated only in the cellular apices. Immunoreactivity to 5-HT was observed in the colloid, with a concentration in the follicular lumen exceeding that in the follicular cells. In fact, most follicles showed immunoreactivity in the cytoplasmic bridges formed between the apical portion of the follicular cells and the colloid.

  15. Conduta conservadora no carcinoma papilífero da glândula tireóide Partial resection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josias de Andrade Sobrinho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento do carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo da glândula tireóide, através de tireoidectomia parcial com seguimento superior a cinco anos. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 105 prontuários de pacientes portadores de carcinoma diferenciado da glândula tireóidea operados no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo de 1977 a 1997 e selecionados 31 casos que apresentavam nódulos limitados a um lobo da glândula com seguimento superior a cinco anos e submetidos à lobectomia total mais istmectomia. RESULTADOS: Observamos somente um caso (3% de disfonia transitória com paresia de prega vocal unilateral que regrediu espontaneamente. Não houve casos de hipoparatireoidismo transitório ou definitivo. O seguimento médio foi de 12,6 anos, sendo todos com seguimento superior a cinco anos; 10 casos (32% com seguimento entre 10 e 15 anos e 10 casos (32% com seguimento além de 15 anos. Não foram observados casos com recorrência loco-regional ou metástase à distância, estando todos eles assintomáticos e sem doença. CONCLUSÃO: Nesta série, a tireoidectomia parcial para carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo, mostrou-se eficaz.BACKGROUND: To analyse the survival rate after partial resection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland. METHODS: After a retrospective study of 105 files of patients operated on at Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo from 1977 to 1997, 31 patients with a single node were selected. They were submitted to partial resection (total lobectomy plus istmectomy, and evaluated for five years or more postoperatively. RESULTS: It was observed one case of transitory disphony (3% with spontaneous regression.There were no cases of hypoparathyroidism. Medium follow up was of 12,6 years, with 10 (32% with follow up between 10 and 15 years and 10(32% with more than 15 years. No regional or distant recurrences were observed , and all patients are doing well. CONCLUSION: In this series, partial thyroidectomy was efficient as radical therapy for papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland.

  16. Effectiveness of Toyota process redesign in reducing thyroid gland fine-needle aspiration error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen S; Grzybicki, Dana Marie; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Balassanian, Ronald; Janosky, Janine E; Vrbin, Colleen M

    2006-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Toyota Production System process redesign resulted in diagnostic error reduction for patients who underwent cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. In this longitudinal, nonconcurrent cohort study, we compared the diagnostic error frequency of a thyroid aspiration service before and after implementation of error reduction initiatives consisting of adoption of a standardized diagnostic terminology scheme and an immediate interpretation service. A total of 2,424 patients underwent aspiration. Following terminology standardization, the false-negative rate decreased from 41.8% to 19.1% (P = .006), the specimen nondiagnostic rate increased from 5.8% to 19.8% (P Toyota process change led to significantly fewer diagnostic errors for patients who underwent thyroid fine-needle aspiration. PMID:16938657

  17. Comparative sonographic and scintigraphic investigations in autonomous adenomas of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of active thyroid tissue can be detected on scintigraphic images and consequently the diagnosis of an autonomous thyroid adenoma is established on the basis of scintigraphic examinations. The sonographic examination is considerably supplemented by scintigraphic information. Domain of sonography is the determination of size and structure of adenomas and of the extranodular tissue. In the primary diagnosis of a decompensated autonomous a adenoma, sonography permits the fast differential diagnostical delineation of a shape anomaly or an aplasia of the thyroid lobes and the detection of the contralateral lobe (for example due to a tumor, a focal inflammation, a cyst). When the diagnosis has been confirmed, besides in-vitro tests sonography is the preferential non-invasive follow-up technique which can be repeated at choice. One disadvantage of this method is that retrosternal parts of larger struma and adenomas cannot be imaged and detected sonographically. (orig./MG)

  18. The influence of elevated iodine supply on the autonomously functioning thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pharmacokinetic two-compartment model of iodine metabolism has been established on the basis of data from the literature and our own experimental investigations. By this model it is possible to estimate the effect either of prolonged elevation of iodide supply or of a single administration of a high dose of inorganic iodide in the presence of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue. Prolonged elevation of iodide supply in regions of iodine deficiency will cause manifest hyperthyroidism in many cases of thyroidal autonomy (cases with facultative hyperthyroidism). The administration of a single high dose of iodide, as it is proposed for the situation of an accident in a nuclear power station (100 mg NaI) in order to reduce the radiation burden to the surrounding population, carries almost no risk in cases of thyroid autonomy. (orig.)

  19. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  20. Effects of metamorphosis and captivity on the in vitro sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was tested in vitro. Thyroids were taken from subjects representing metamorphic stages I (premetamorphic larvae), II (onset of climax), and VII (completion of gill resorption), as well as from captivity control larvae. Exogenous TSH reduced the cumulative uptake of 125I in vitro by thyroids from stage I larvae after 24 and 48 hr. The capacity of thyroids to release thyroxine (T4) in vitro was used subsequently as a measure of their responsiveness to TSH. Baseline levels of T4 release in vitro were variable but did not differ significantly among developmental stages. A low dose of bTSH (5 X 10(-6) IU/ml) did not increase in vitro T4 release compared with that of controls. A larger dose (5 X 10(-4) IU/ml) caused greater increases in T4 release from thyroids of stage II and VII subjects than from those of controls. This dose produced only a small response by thyroids from captivity-control subjects. The results suggest that the thyroids of Ambystoma increase in their capacity to respond to TSH during the process of metamorphosis

  1. Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of NIS gene transcripts was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland. PMID:25448256

  2. Output parameters of the 131I bi-phasic vs. monoexponential biokinetics model in thyroid gland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, F.; Jirsa, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 107, ?. 4 (2006), s. 177-177. [Days of Medical Biophysics /29./. 16.05.2006-18.05.2006, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1ET100750404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thyroid activity * model of activity * effective half-life * residence time * radiation dose Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  3. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 ?IU/ml, median: 7.37 ?IU/ml, range: 0.074-211 ?IU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  4. No evidence of radiation risk for thyroid gland among schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess thyroid status among the schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan, and to evaluate the current status of iodine deficiency in this area, we performed medical screening of schoolchildren in two villages, Kaynar and Karaul villages, East Kazakhstan Region, Republic of Kazakhstan, located within 100 km of SNTS. A total of 196 schoolchildren were chosen at random. Control groups comprised 250 schoolchildren from Nagasaki, an iodine-rich area, and 100 schoolchildren from Gomel, an iodine-deficient area contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Ultrasound screening of thyroid revealed three cases of benign thyroid disease (two cases of goiter and one single cyst), but no cases suspicious of malignancy. The urinary iodine (UI) concentrations of subjects in Kaynar and Karaul ranged from 21.8 to 735.8 ?g/L, 4.3% of whom showed low UI concentrations (<50 ?g/L), compared with 0% in the Nagasaki group and 52% in the Gomel group. The median UI concentration in Kaynar and Karaul was 153.2 ?g/L, which was significantly lower than that in Nagasaki (366.3 ?g/L, p<0.0001) but higher than that in Gomel (47.3 ?g/L, p<0.0001). In conclusion, there was a low incidence of morphological abnormalities in the thyroid, and no evidence for severe iodine deficiency among the Kazakhstan children studied. These results suggest that there is no transgenerational risk for schoolchildren born from parents irradiated as a result of tests carried out in SNTS. (author)

  5. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen Hadj-Kacem; Rihab Kallel; Salima Belguith-Maalej; Mouna Mnif; Ilhem Charfeddine; Abdelmounem Ghorbel; Mohamed Abid; Hammadi Ayadi; Saber Masmoudi

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS), an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA), and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL). However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21) of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junc...

  6. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplowitz PaulB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10?mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  7. Population of antithyroid autoantibodies as a source of antibodies of various levels of specificity and functionality: the clinical importance of a phenomenon of combination theory at monitoring of patients with autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Andreeva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature is dedicated to comparative analysis of pathogenetic and clinicodiagnostic significance of antithyroid autoantibodies (autoAB differing in their specificity (?B to thyroglobulin (anti-TG and ?B to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, anti-TGPO, and functionality TG- and TPO-antibodies, namely antibodies-proteases in pathogenesis autoimmune diseases thyroid gland and possibility of their use in modern diagnostics of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  8. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in a patient with a normal thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Shilo, S; Hirsch, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism can develop even in the presence of an otherwise normal gland. One of the less common sources of iodine is tablets of seaweed, sold over the counter without prescription. We report the case of a 72 year old female who developed clinical and laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism while ingesting sea-kelp (Vitalia) tablets. Six months after stopping the tablets, the symptoms and laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism had disappeared. No evidence of pre-existing th...

  9. Should We Apply Suction During Fine Needle Cytology of Thyroid Lesions? A Prospective Study of 200 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Chowhan, Amit kumar; Babu, K V Sreedhar; Sachan, Alok; Rukmangdha, N; Patnayak, Rashmi; K. Radhika; Phaneendra, B V; Reddy, M Kumaraswamy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established first line diagnostic tool in evaluating palpable thyroid lesions. However, the technique depends on suction and thus is at times painful, sometimes traumatic and yield haemorrhagic material for cytological study. In more recent times, a modified technique called fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) has come into vogue which obviates the use of suction and therefore is more patient friendly.

  10. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  11. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauro, Ceccanti; Sara, De Nicolò; Rosanna, Mancinelli; George, Chaldakov; Valentina, Carito; Marco, Ceccanti; Giovanni, Laviola; Paola, Tirassa; Marco, Fiore.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to inve [...] stigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  12. Evaluation of surface radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the gonads during routine full-mouth intraoral periapical and maxillary occlusal radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyl Sheikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The quantitative aspects of radiation doses to critical organs can help the dental professionals to take the necessary radiation protective measures as deemed necessary and can help the general public to allay radiation exposure fear in dental radiography, if any. Our study determines the surface radiation dose to thyroid and gonads in full-mouth intraoral periapical (IOPA and maxillary occlusal radiography.Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 subjects participated in the study. The surface radiation dose was estimated to the thyroid gland and the gonads in full-mouth IOPA radiography using 10 IOPA (E speed films and in maxillary occlusal radiography. The measurements were calculated using a digital pocket dosimeter (PD-4507.Results: The average dose at the thyroid gland level during full-mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 10.93 mRads (1.093 ? 10 -2 mGy and 0.4 mRads (4.0 ? 10 -2 mGy, respectively. The average surface radiation dose at the gonadal region during a full mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 1.5 mRads (1.5 ? 10 -2 mGy and 0.15 mRads (1.5 ? 10 -3 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that although the radiation exposure doses to critical organs namely thyroid and gonads is within the safe limits still precautionary measures for these organs are advocated.

  13. Profile of salivary gland flow dysfunctions in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma submitted to radioiodine therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Clara Fontes, Vieira; Aline Sampaio Lima, Rodrigues; Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira da, Cruz; Fernanda Ferreira, Lopes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effects of radioiodine therapy on salivary flow in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: A sample comprising 88 patients submitted to ablation with iodine 131 was included in the study. The patients were submitted to sialometry and evaluation of the presence of x [...] erostomia before, 10 days and 3 months after radioiodine therapy. RESULTS: Xerostomia was observed in 36.4% of the patients before radioiodine therapy, 59.15% at 10 days after therapy, and 25% at 3 months after therapy. Significant differences were observed in non-stimulated salivary flow rates between the second and third evaluations (p

  14. Galectin-3 immunostaining in thyroid neoplasms Imunomarcação por galectina-3 em neoplasias de tireóide

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Emanuel de Alcântara Segura; Albino Verçosa de Magalhães

    2005-01-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland is the most important presurgical proceeding in defining the malignancy of a nodular lesion, it has limitations such as shared cytological morphology between malignant and benign lesions. Galectin-3, a b-galactoside-binding lectin is expressed mainly by malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fifty-seven specimens, including 14 papillary carcinomas, 22 follicular carcinomas and 21 follicular adenomas were tested for immunohistochemical s...

  15. Thyroid cancers and benign thyroid pathologies among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work is to detect the frequency and the character of thyroid diseases manly with thyroid cancer diagnosed among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia. Conclusions: Usually, in Latvia every year there are 2-3 thyroid cancer cases per 100 thousand inhabitants, but there are 3 cases per 5 thousands Chernobyl clean-up workers - that mean 20 times more than in general population. The first case of thyroid follicular and papillary carcinoma in the Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia was diagnosed after a latent period of 10 years. Among benign thyroid lesions, cystic colloid goiter and nodular colloid goiter seem to be commonly associated with radiation exposure to the thyroid gland

  16. A Study on the Effects of the X-Ray Irradiation and Thyroid Gland on the Erythropoietic System in Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of X-ray irradiation and the thyroid gland on the erythropoietic system were studied in the white male rabbits. The total body irradiation was done in doses of 250r and 500r to each of 5 rabbits for 10 days. The factors were 220 KV, 10 mA, FLI/4 Cu+1 mmAl (HVL:2.0 mmCu) 50 cm F.S.D. The thyroid dysfunction was experimentally induced by giving 2 mg of thyroid tablets per kg body weight for 15 days in 5 rabbits for hyperthyroidism and by giving 1.5 mC of 131I per kg body weight in another 5 rabbits for hypothyroidism. Fourteen healthy rabbits were used as control. The hematologic changes and ferrokinetic data obtained from 59Fe and apparent half survival of the red blood cells obtained from 51Cr were compared. Following were the results: A. X-ray irradiated group; 1) There were no significant changes in hematologic findings except for leucopenia. A slight decrease of red blood cells was observed in 500r irradiated animals. 2) The decrease in the iron turnover rates of the plasma and red blood cells as well as in the red cell renewal rate were found in both groups. A significant decrease of the red cell iron utilization rate was observed in the 500r irradiated animals. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were slightly, in the 250r (12.1±0.80 days), and markedly shortened in the 500r irradiated animals (9.8±1.38 days), the normal being 14.0±1.6 days. 4) It appears, therefore, that the anemia caused by X-ray irradiation is due to the inhibition of hemopoietic function and the excess destruction of the red blood cells. B. 1) The slight increase of the red blood cell count and circulating blood volume with the normal serum iron level were observed in the hyperthyoid group, while the decrease of the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values with a marked decrease of the serum iron level in the hypothyroid group. 2) A marked decrease of the plasma iron disappearance rate with increase of plasma iron turnover, red cell iron utilization and red cell iron turnover were observed in the hyperthyroid group, while the marked delay and decrease in the hypothyroid group. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were almost the same with the control in the hyperthyroid group, (14.0±1.58 days) while a marked shortening in the hypothyroid group (10.6±0.30 days). 4) It was reconfirmed that the thyroid hormones bear a close relationship with the erythropoietic system, namely, the latter is stimulated by the former. The lack of the thyroid hormones thus induces the bone marrow depression leading to anemia the major cause of which, therefore, is not hemolysis.

  17. A Study on the Effects of the X-Ray Irradiation and Thyroid Gland on the Erythropoietic System in Rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kong Keun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-03-15

    The effects of X-ray irradiation and the thyroid gland on the erythropoietic system were studied in the white male rabbits. The total body irradiation was done in doses of 250r and 500r to each of 5 rabbits for 10 days. The factors were 220 KV, 10 mA, FLI/4 Cu+1 mmAl (HVL:2.0 mmCu) 50 cm F.S.D. The thyroid dysfunction was experimentally induced by giving 2 mg of thyroid tablets per kg body weight for 15 days in 5 rabbits for hyperthyroidism and by giving 1.5 mC of {sup 131}I per kg body weight in another 5 rabbits for hypothyroidism. Fourteen healthy rabbits were used as control. The hematologic changes and ferrokinetic data obtained from {sup 59}Fe and apparent half survival of the red blood cells obtained from {sup 51}Cr were compared. Following were the results: A. X-ray irradiated group; 1) There were no significant changes in hematologic findings except for leucopenia. A slight decrease of red blood cells was observed in 500r irradiated animals. 2) The decrease in the iron turnover rates of the plasma and red blood cells as well as in the red cell renewal rate were found in both groups. A significant decrease of the red cell iron utilization rate was observed in the 500r irradiated animals. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were slightly, in the 250r (12.1{+-}0.80 days), and markedly shortened in the 500r irradiated animals (9.8{+-}1.38 days), the normal being 14.0{+-}1.6 days. 4) It appears, therefore, that the anemia caused by X-ray irradiation is due to the inhibition of hemopoietic function and the excess destruction of the red blood cells. B. 1) The slight increase of the red blood cell count and circulating blood volume with the normal serum iron level were observed in the hyperthyoid group, while the decrease of the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values with a marked decrease of the serum iron level in the hypothyroid group. 2) A marked decrease of the plasma iron disappearance rate with increase of plasma iron turnover, red cell iron utilization and red cell iron turnover were observed in the hyperthyroid group, while the marked delay and decrease in the hypothyroid group. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were almost the same with the control in the hyperthyroid group, (14.0{+-}1.58 days) while a marked shortening in the hypothyroid group (10.6{+-}0.30 days). 4) It was reconfirmed that the thyroid hormones bear a close relationship with the erythropoietic system, namely, the latter is stimulated by the former. The lack of the thyroid hormones thus induces the bone marrow depression leading to anemia the major cause of which, therefore, is not hemolysis.

  18. Diagnosing diseases of the thyroid gland by means of scintiscanning and puncture cytology taking into consideration the nodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains the results of scintigraphical and puncture-cytological examinations carried out during an observation period of appr. 3 years on 548 patients with goiters from the Upper-Bavarien endemis region. In total, we had 484 thyroid gland scintigrams which showed 335 uninodular, 71 multinodular, and 78 diffuse goiters. The 335 solitary nodular goiters were allocated 278 cold, 36 warm, and 18 hot nodes; in three cases, the scintigram could not be assessed due to exogenous iodine contamination. In the 71 multinodular goiters, we found 118 cold, 28 warm, and 9 hot nodes. Cytological findings were established in 548 patients. In 484 cases, the findings were negative, in 19 cases suspicious, and in 17 cases positive. The efficiency of cytological diagnosis of malignant tumours can be stated to be 87.5%. The rate of falsely negative smears was 12.5%; cytologically, in 10.9% of the preparations falsely suspicious diagnoses were established, and in 1.6% the diagnoses were falsely positive. (orig./MG)

  19. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using 124I PET(/CT) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after 131I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and ?96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq 124I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered 131I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The 124I PET(/CT) salivary gland dosimetry indicated that lemon juice stimulation shortly after 131I administration in radioiodine therapy increases the absorbed doses to the salivary glands. (orig.)

  20. Development of an iodine captor for the study of the performance of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detection-measurement system (DETEC - PC) to be used in those studies of iodine reception in thyroid. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind module of measurement and the application software. The measurement module, communicates through an interface RS-232 series with the Personal Computer where the application software resides (DETEC). The software was designed chord with the principles from the Guided Programming to Objects and it was programmed in C++. The software besides the measurement of the patients, carries out the statistical processing of the lot of samples to use, fixed automatically the spectrometric parameters for the measurement, it possesses a database where it is stored the information of the studied patients and a help with the options of the system. (Author)

  1. [Effect of thyroid hormones on the histotopography of lectin receptors in the rat salivary gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsik, A D; Iashchenko, A M; Detiuk, E S

    1987-04-01

    Using lectin-peroxidase technique, the influence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on histotopography of glycoconjugates has been investigated in rat submandibular gland. The following lectins were used: peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Laburnum anagyroides lectin (LAL) and concanavalin A (con A). It has been demonstrated that hyperthyroidism is accompanied by the loss of con A, WGA and LAL receptor sites. Hypothyrodism enhanced con A binding to granular duct cells with a parallel reduction in WGA and LAL binding to these or other duct cells. Hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism markedly enhanced PNA binding to duct epitheliocytes with redistribution of these lectin binding sites from the luminal surface of salivary ducts into the cytoplasm of duct cells. Possible interpretations of the observed phenomena are discussed. PMID:3567350

  2. Correlação entre níveis de iodo na urina e alterações anatomopatológicas em tireoide / Correlation between iodine urinary levels and pathological changes in thyroid glands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo César Ribeiro, Boasquevisque; Robson Dettman, Jarske; Cleia Coelho, Dias; Isabela Passos Pereira, Quintaes; Maria Carmen Lopes Ferreira Silva, Santos; Carlos, Musso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o aporte nutricional de iodo na população estudada e correlacionar os níveis de iodo encontrados em amostras casuais de urina (iodúria) com alterações anatomopatológicas observadas nas tireoides dessa população. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Determinou-se a iodúria em 30 amostras casuai [...] s de urina e realizou-se o estudo anatomopatológico de 55 tireoides colhidas de cadáveres que deram entrada no Departamento Médico Legal de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil, no período de maio a agosto de 2011. RESULTADOS: Em 29 amostras de urina (96,7%) encontrou-se iodúria acima do limite máximo preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) de 300 µg/L. Em 14 tireoides (25,5%) foi identificada a presença de quadros histológicos compatíveis com tireoidite. Níveis mais elevados de iodo na urina foram observados no sexo feminino e nos casos de tireoides com presença de achados inflamatórios (tireoidites). CONCLUSÕES: Podemos concluir que na população estudada houve um excesso de iodo em seu aporte nutricional e uma maior incidência de quadros inflamatórios tireoidianos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To determine iodine nutrition in the population and to correlate levels of iodine found in random samples of urine with pathological changes observed in thyroids collected in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urinary iodine was determined in 30 random samples of urine and the patho [...] logical study was carried out in 55 thyroid glands from corpses received by the Department of Forensic Medicine of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil from May to August 2011. RESULTS: In 29 urine samples (96.7%) urinary iodine was above the maximum limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), of 300 mg/L. Fourteen thyroids (25.5%) showed the presence of histological changes compatible with thyroiditis. Higher levels of iodine in urine were observed in females and in of thyroid that showed inflammation (thyroiditis). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, in this population, there is excess iodine intake, and greater incidence of inflammatory thyroid disease.

  3. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Presenting as a Focal Uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Tae Seok; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Diffuse increased uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F FDG PET) is a well-known finding of the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Nevertheless, a pathologic confirmation is needed in cases of a focal 18F FDG uptake in the thyroid gland. This article reports a rare case of a focal 18F FDG uptake lesion by PET, which was revealed pathologically to be lymphocytic thyroiditis

  4. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm / Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti, Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Karla Lais, Pêgas.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas [...] de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP), antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA), p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1) e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consi [...] sted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.

  5. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP, antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA, p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1 e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido.

  6. Treatment of differentiated carcinoma of thyroid gland with surgery and adjuvant radioiodine- 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: to analyse the results of differentiated thyroid cancer treatment by surgery and adjunctive radioiodine-131. Material and methods: we analysed retrospectively, from 1978 to 1993, with median age of 41.7±15.o years old (sd=1), including 86 females and with medium time follow-up of 5,3±4.0 years (sd=1); they corresponded to 50 cases of papillary carcinoma (pc), 40 cases of follicular carcinoma (fc) and six cases of Hurtle cells (hc). These cases were divided in two groups: 81 cases (47 pc, 28 fc and 6 hc) treated by thyroidectomy and complemental radioiodine; 15 cases (3 pc and 12 fc) treated by thyroidectomy and radioiodine to metastases; the study groups were analysed by age: less than 50 years old (72 cases) and more than 50 years old (24 cases), survival time and associated diseases. Results: group a showed one death (1.21%) and three cases (3.65%) of metastases in progression; group b, five deaths (33.33%) and five (33.33%) of metastases in progression. In patients less than 50 years old, mortality was 4.16%and metastases in progression = 5.55%; above 50 years,old the proportion were 12.5% and 16.66% respectively. All deaths and majority of distant metastases in progression occurred within 10 years of treatment. Nodular autonomous goitre was associated in seven cases (7.29%). General mortality and metastases in progression rates were 6.25% and 8.33% respectively, with all death and the most of distant metastasis in progression being due the follicular carcinoma. Conclusions: total thyroidectomy and ablation of residual thyroid tissue with radioiodine may yield the best results and be more safe; above 50 years of age the tumor has more aggressive evolution; the highest incidence of mortality and distant progressive disease occurred with 10 years of treatment; follicular carcinoma must considered as prognostic factor of risk; the association with nodular autonomous goitre is more common than usually though considered. (author)

  7. Comparison of various methods relating to radionuclide examination of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the medical images obtained using as a scintillation detector device either a gamma camera with pinhole collimator, a gamma camera with parallel hole collimator or a scanner equipped with a focussing collimator was compared on the basis of visual evaluation of 140 scintigrams of the thyroid, prepared following administration of 99 mTc pertechnetate. The following conclusions could be drawn: Decisive advantages of the scanner were colour contrast, non-distorted organ visualisation and uncomplicated localisation of palpatory findings. The images provided by the gamma camera and parallel hole collimator turned out to be unsatisfactory despite the use of such processing techniques as smoothing and contrast enhancement. The scintigrams obtained using the camera with pinhole collimator were characterized by the highest resolution capacity and thus permitted any details to be ascertained with a high degree of accuracy. Information in excess of the findings revealed by the scintiscanner and parallel hole collimator was provided in 40% and 55% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and ... a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and ...

  9. The thyroid hormone receptor gene (c-erbA alpha) is expressed in advance of thyroid gland maturation during the early embryonic development of Xenopus laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Banker, D E; Bigler, J.; Eisenman, R N

    1991-01-01

    The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptor, a ligand-dependent transcription factor which plays an important role in vertebrate growth and development. To define the role of the thyroid hormone receptor in developmental processes, we have begun studying c-erbA gene expression during the ontogeny of Xenopus laevis, an organism in which thyroid hormone has well-documented effects on morphogenesis. Using polymerase chain reactions (PCR) as a sensitive assay of specific gene e...

  10. Prevalence of salivary glands lesions from histopathologic diagnosis of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of PUCPR in the period of 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre BETTIO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesions that affect salivary glands are a group of clinic entities ranging from local pathological alterations to the manifestation of systemic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of cases of lesions regarding salivary glands in patients of dental clinic of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR. Material and methods: A total of 1990 histopathologic reports was analyzed in data of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, in the period of 1999 to 2008. Seventy-three cases of salivary glands diseases were analyzed, according to sex, age and histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Mucocele was the most prevalent lesion, with 58 cases (2.9%. Others diseases were diagnosed, such as: pleomorphic adenoma (0.3%, cystic adenoid carcinoma (0.1%, sialoadenitis (0.1%, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (0.05%, Sjögren’s syndrome (0.05%, ranula (0.05% and adenomatoid hyperplasia (0.05%. No predilection for sex was observed, but the majority of diseases occurred principally during the three first life decades. Conclusion: These findings reinforce that the occurrence oflesions associated to the salivary glands is low when compared to others oral diseases. The more common pathological entities that affect salivary glands are associated to traumatic agents and affect adult male young patients.

  11. Cirugía mayor ambulatoria de tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides / Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto Manuel, Luzardo Silveira; Juana Elisa, Eirin Arañó.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo sobre la ejecución de cirugía mayor ambulatoria para eliminar tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides, lo cual fue realizado en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany" de Santiago de Cuba dura [...] nte los años 1996-2008, ambos incluidos, previa valoración clínica de 74 pacientes en la consulta especializada de endocrinología, donde se decidió que podían ser operados con carácter definitivo. En la casuística predominaron el sexo femenino, los grupos etarios de 31-45 años, la hemitiroidectomía como técnica quirúrgica, la acupuntura como procedimiento analgésico y el adenoma folicular como resultado citohistológico. Se produjeron complicaciones leves en 5 integrantes de la muestra, pero la recuperación fue absoluta en todos, de manera que incluso 72 de ellos egresaron antes de las 24 horas. Este método operatorio, por la buena aceptación, es beneficioso para pacientes e instituciones hospitalarias. Abstract in english A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of "Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany" Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both in [...] cluded, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.

  12. [Sonography of the thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachselt, K; Adolph, W

    1989-09-15

    The thyroid gland provides ideal anatomic conditions for sonographic investigations. Apart from the scintigraphy the sonography of the thyroid gland, therefore, stands in the first place as imaging procedure. After a short description of the investigation method and its ability of statement typical sonographic findings are demonstrated. The differentiation into diffuse or nodous strumata, the proof of typical focal findings such as autonomous adenomas or tumours or an increased vascularization in the region of the thyroid gland present an essential enlargement of the spectre of the modern diagnostics of the thyroid gland. PMID:2686230

  13. Clustering of sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast cancer in a woman as a new cancer susceptibility disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple distinct tumors arising in a single individual or within members of a family raise the suspicion of a genetic susceptibility disorder. Case presentation We present the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid, followed several years later with subsequent diagnoses of breast cancer and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Although the patient was also exposed to radiation from a pipe used in the oil field industry, the constellation of neoplasms in this patient suggests the manifestation of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome. However, testing for the most likely candidates such as Muir-Torre and Cowden syndrome proved negative. Conclusion We propose that our patient's clustering of neoplasms either represents a novel cancer susceptibility disorder, of which sebaceous gland carcinoma is a characteristic feature, or is a variant of the Muir-Torre syndrome.

  14. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland : is the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 or galectin-3 in primary tumour an indicator of metastatic disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow an indolent course with an excellent prognosis. However, a more aggressive behaviour with regional and distant metastases does occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the immunohistochemical markers cyclin D1 or galectin-3 might indicate the presence of metastatic disease in patients with PMC at the time of diagnosis.

  15. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland: is the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 or galectin-3 in primary tumour an indicator of metastatic disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow an indolent course with an excellent prognosis. However, a more aggressive behaviour with regional and distant metastases does occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the immunohistochemical markers cyclin D1 or galectin-3 might indicate the presence of metastatic disease in patients with PMC at the time of diagnosis.

  16. Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Parenchymal impairment of salivary glands following high-dose radioiodine treatment is a well-known side effect in general caused by free radicals. Therefore, the radioprotective effect of the radical scavenger amifostine was evaluated prospectively in patients receiving high-dose radioiodine treatment. Patients and methods: Parenchymal function was assessed by quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy performed in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment with either 3 GBq 131I (n=21) or 6 BGq 131I (n=29) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-five patients treated with 500 mg/m2 amifostine intravenously prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment were compared to 25 control patients receiving physiological saline solution. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO-criteria. Results: In 25 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced parenchymal function of parotid and submandibular glands by 40.2±14.1% and 39.9±15.3%, respectively. Nine out of these 25 patients developed Grade I and 2 Grade II xerostomia. In contrast, in 25 amifostine-treated patients there was no significant (p=0.691) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage of salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.)

  17. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2011. A total of 1,834 thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I therapy and 1,834 controls (thyroid cancer without 131I therapy) selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score were enrolled. The cumulative 131I dose in each patient was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the effect of radiation from the 131I therapy on the risk of salivary and lacrimal gland impairment as well as second primary malignancies in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients treated with 131I therapy and in controls, the incidence rates of salivary gland dysfunction were 6.76 and 1.01 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 6.81, 95 % CI 0.74 - 55.3), the incidence rates of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) were 13.6 and 16.3 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.41 - 1.73), and the incidence rates of second primary malignancy were 76.7 and 62.4 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.88 - 1.72). The risk of salivary secretion impairment significantly increased with increasing administered doses (HR 14.3, 95 % CI 1.73 - 119.0). However, there was no increase in the incidence of KCS or secondary cancer in patients treated with higher doses. 131I therapy insignificantly increased the risk of salivary gland dysfunction and second primary malignancy. In patients with higher cumulative doses, an increase in the incidence of salivary gland dysfunction was observed. By contrast, we did not find an association between 131I treatment and KCS development. (orig.)

  18. DNA measurements after radiation-induced tissue structure of thyroid gland of rats Análise do conteúdo de DNA (ploidia) em tecidos de glândula tireóide de ratos após indução por radiação

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto de Souza Camargo; Neuza Kasumi Shirata; Eliana Ogassavara Setani; Eduardo Anselmo Garcia; Eduardo Pompeu; Eduardo Martella; Celso di Loreto; Adhemar Longatto Filho

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid gland exposures to radiation induce nuclear chromosomal alteration. Objective: To evaluate the DNA content of thyroid gland submitted to radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We radiated 75 rats while 25 were not radiated to be used as control group. Exposure was conducted by the use of Cobalt-60 radioactive source in the right anterior cervical region in a field of 3-30cm, comprising the second and the sixth tracheal rings with 600-centigray (cGY) doses. The DNA content (pl...

  19. Ocular surface and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease / Superfície ocular e envolvimento da glândula salivar em pacientes com tireoidite autoimune

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavia Pelinsari, Lana; Carolina Ramos, Mosena; Maria Emilia Xavier dos Santos, Araújo.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Muitos trabalhos mostraram uma associação entre doenças da tireoide e síndrome de Sjögren primária (pSS) . O objetivo do nosso estudo foi avaliar os resultados dos testes utilizados para o diagnóstico de olho seco e envolvimento das glândulas salivares em pacientes com tireoidite autoimun [...] e. Métodos: Quarenta e dois pacientes (grupo 1) com doença autoimune da tireoide e 30 controles (grupo 2 ) foram selecionados. Nos dois grupos foi realizada a mesma sequência de exames: tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, teste de Schimer I, teste de Schirmer II, avaliação da córnea e conjuntiva com corante de Rosa Bengala. Também foi realizado cintilografia da glândula salivar para avaliar seu envolvimento. Resultados: Em relação aos danos na superfície ocular observado pelo teste rosa bengala não houve diferença entre os grupos (p=0,77), o mesmo ocorrendo no tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal (p=0,46) e na cintilografia da glândula salivar (p=0,99). Apenas no teste de Schirmer II houve diferença estatística significante (p=0,0009). Conclusão: Nenhum paciente cumpriu todos os critérios para a síndrome de Sjögren. É possível que este resultado esteja subestimado. Abstract in english Purpose: Many reports have indicated an association between thyroid dieases and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of the tests used for dry eye diagnosis and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods: Forty-two pati [...] ents (group 1) with autoimmune thyroid disease and 30 controls (group 2) were selected. Tear film break up time, Schirmer I test, Schirmer II test, ocular staining with 1% rose Bengal and salivary gland cintilography were performed in both groups. Results: Regarding the ocular surface damage observed by Rose Bengal test there was no difference between groups (p=0.77). For tear film break up time the groups did not differ statistically (p=0.46). There was no statistical difference between groups 1 and control in scintigraphy of the salivary gland (p=0.99). A statistical difference between the patients with thyroid disease and the control group was seem only in the Schirmer II test (p=0.0009). Conclusions: No patients fulfilled all criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. It is possible that it could be underestimated.

  20. The ability to identify the intraparotid facial nerve for locating parotid gland lesions in comparison to other indirect landmark methods: evaluation by 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to know whether a parotid gland lesion is in the superficial or deep lobe for preoperative planning. We aimed to investigate the ability of 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with surface coils to identify the intraparotid facial nerve and locate parotid gland lesions, in comparison to other indirect landmark methods. We retrospectively evaluated 50 consecutive patients with primary parotid gland lesions. The position of the facial nerve was determined by tracing the nerve in the stylomastoid foramen and then following it on sequential MR sections through the parotid gland. The retromandibular vein and the facial nerve line (FN line) were also identified. For each radiologist and each method, we determined the diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions and superficial lobe lesions, as well as accuracy. These abilities were compared among the three methods using the Chi-square test with Yates' correction. Mean diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions, the diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions, and accuracy were 92%, 86%, 87%, respectively, for the direct identification method; 67%, 89%, 86%, respectively, for the retromandibular vein method; and 25%, 99%, 90%, respectively, for the FN line method. The direct identification method had significantly higher diagnostic ability for deep lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01), but significantly lower diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01). Direct identification of the intraparotid facial nerve enables parotid gland lesions to be correctly located, particularly those in the deep lobes. (orig.)

  1. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the 131 I accumulated in her thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of 131 I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with 131 I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of 131 I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  2. Two-orthogonal-view method for quantification of rad dose to neck lesions in thyroid cancer therapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique is described for the determination of the dose in rad to metastatic lesions in the neck following administration of 131I for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. The technique utilizes a high-energy pinhole collimator mounted on an Anger camera which can be rotated to record lateral and anterior views from known positions relative to the patient. A new algorithm is derivedfor the determination of lesion location in three dimensions, utilizing the distance of closest approach between back-projected rays from the two views. In addition, a new derivation is presented for the estimation of ellipsoid volume from two pinhole projections. The method makes use of a computer edge detection program to delineate the projected lesion boundaries. The output is either a mean estimate from one view or a more definitive upper bound derived from both views. The uptake in counts is determined from daily anterior images which are corrected for pinhole efficiency falloff with distance. This uptake is converted into microcuries by use of an in- air calibration curve. An attenuation correction is applied using the calculated lesion depth and an assumed attenuation coefficient. The dose rate is calculated using standard assumptions and is integrated graphically over the first few days when the rate peaks and by utilizing a single- decaying-exponential fit to the data over the remaining days. Illustrative patient data are presented in which doses are calculated for three neck lesions after an administration of 175 mCi of 131I. These doses include a lower bound of 2400 rad and estimates of 5300 and 9500 rad

  3. A Pilot Comparison of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT, Ultrasonography and 123I/99mTc-sestaMIBI Dual-Phase Dual-Isotope Scintigraphy in the Preoperative Localization of Hyperfunctioning Parathyroid Glands in Primary or Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: Influence of Thyroid Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Laure; Balogova, Sona; Burgess, Alice; Ohnona, Jessica; Huchet, Virginie; Kerrou, Khaldoun; Lefèvre, Marine; Tassart, Marc; Montravers, Françoise; Périé, Sophie; Talbot, Jean-Noël

    2015-10-01

    We compared F-fluorocholine hybrid positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT) with ultrasonography (US) and scintigraphy in patients with hyperparathyroidism and discordant, or equivocal results of US and I/Tc-sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestaMIBI) dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy. FCH-PET/CT was performed in 17 patients with primary (n?=?11) lithium induced (n?=?1) or secondary hyperparathyroidism (1 dialyzed, 4 renal-transplanted).The reference standard was based on results of surgical exploration and histopathological examination. The results of imaging modalities were evaluated, on site and by masked reading, on per-patient and per-lesion bases.In a first approach, equivocal images/foci were considered as negative. On a per-patient level, the sensitivity was for US 38%, for scintigraphy 69% by open and 94% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 94% by masked reading. On a per-lesion level, sensitivity was for US 42%, for scintigraphy 58% by open and 83% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 96% by masked reading. One ectopic adenoma was missed by the 3 imaging modalities. Considering equivocal images/foci as positive increased the accuracy of the open reading of scintigraphy or of FCH-PET/CT, but not of US. FCH-PET/CT was significantly superior to US in all approaches, whereas it was more sensitive than scintigraphy only for open reading considering equivocal images/foci as negative (P?=?0.04). FCH uptake was more intense in adenomas than in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. Thyroid lesions were suspected in 9 patients. They may induce false-positive results as in one case of oncocytic thyroid adenoma, or false-negative results as in one case of intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid cancer (4 cases) can be visualized with FCH as with Tc-sestaMIBI, but the intensity of uptake was moderate, similar to that of parathyroid hyperplasia.This pilot study confirmed that FCH-PET/CT is an adequate imaging tool in patients with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism, since both adenomas and hyperplastic parathyroid glands can be detected. The sensitivity of FCH-PET/CT was better than that of US and was not inferior to that of dual-phase dual-isotope I/Tc-scintigraphy. Further studies should evaluate whether FCH could replace Tc-sestaMIBI as the functional agent for parathyroid imaging, but US would still be useful to identify thyroid lesions. PMID:26469908

  4. Factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides en mujeres: Risk Factors Associated With Thyroid Cancer Gland in Women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabio Eduardo, Bosso; Vinícius, de Oliveira Boldrini.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: El cáncer como factor de estudio en el escenario mundial, la transición epidemiológica y la incidencia de la enfermedad en países emergentes. Objetivo: hacer un levantamiento bibliográfico sobre los factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de tiroides en mujeres. Material e Métodos: Fue real [...] izada una búsqueda en el primer semestre del 2011 en la base de datos virtual Embase utilizando tres escritores en ingles thyroid cáncer, risk factors y women. La búsqueda fue reducida para artículos publicados en los años 2010 y 2011 y estudios controlados. Fueron seleccionados trece artículos y fueron incluidos diez. Resultados: Fue posible agrupar los factores de riesgo presentados en los estudios incluidos en tres grupos: factor ambiental (n = 4), fármaco o tratamiento utilizado (n = 3) y, por fin, características de los individuos y sus hábitos cotidianos (n = 3). Conclusión: Mujeres, bajo IMC, edad de inicio del cáncer, obesidad, tiroiditis de Hashimoto y hábito de alimentarse con un consumo excesivo de vegetales crucíferos, son factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides Abstract in english Background: The cancer study as a factor in the global scenario, the epidemiological transition and the incidence of disease in developing countries. Objective: To review the literature on risk factors associated with thyroid cancer in women. Methods: We performed a search in the first half of 2011 [...] in virtual database EMBASE using three key-words in English: thyroid cancer, risk factors and women. The search was refined to articles published in the years 2010 and 2011 and controlled studies. We selected thirteen articles and ten were included. Results: Is possible cluster the risk factors presented in included studies into three groups: environmental factors (n=4), drug use or treatment (n = 3) and, finally, characteristics of individuals and their daily habits (n = 3). Conclusion: Women, low BMI, age at onset of cancer, obesity, Hashimoto’s thyroidits and eating habits with excessive consumption of cruciferous plants, are risk factors associated with thyroid cancer gland

  5. Factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides en mujeres: Risk Factors Associated With Thyroid Cancer Gland in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Eduardo Bosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: El cáncer como factor de estudio en el escenario mundial, la transición epidemiológica y la incidencia de la enfermedad en países emergentes. Objetivo: hacer un levantamiento bibliográfico sobre los factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de tiroides en mujeres. Material e Métodos: Fue realizada una búsqueda en el primer semestre del 2011 en la base de datos virtual Embase utilizando tres escritores en ingles thyroid cáncer, risk factors y women. La búsqueda fue reducida para artículos publicados en los años 2010 y 2011 y estudios controlados. Fueron seleccionados trece artículos y fueron incluidos diez. Resultados: Fue posible agrupar los factores de riesgo presentados en los estudios incluidos en tres grupos: factor ambiental (n = 4, fármaco o tratamiento utilizado (n = 3 y, por fin, características de los individuos y sus hábitos cotidianos (n = 3. Conclusión: Mujeres, bajo IMC, edad de inicio del cáncer, obesidad, tiroiditis de Hashimoto y hábito de alimentarse con un consumo excesivo de vegetales crucíferos, son factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroidesBackground: The cancer study as a factor in the global scenario, the epidemiological transition and the incidence of disease in developing countries. Objective: To review the literature on risk factors associated with thyroid cancer in women. Methods: We performed a search in the first half of 2011 in virtual database EMBASE using three key-words in English: thyroid cancer, risk factors and women. The search was refined to articles published in the years 2010 and 2011 and controlled studies. We selected thirteen articles and ten were included. Results: Is possible cluster the risk factors presented in included studies into three groups: environmental factors (n=4, drug use or treatment (n = 3 and, finally, characteristics of individuals and their daily habits (n = 3. Conclusion: Women, low BMI, age at onset of cancer, obesity, Hashimoto’s thyroidits and eating habits with excessive consumption of cruciferous plants, are risk factors associated with thyroid cancer gland

  6. Tumor trabecular hialinizante de glándula tiroides: un reto diagnóstico, a propósito de un caso / Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of thyroid gland: diagnostic challenge, case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio Cesar, Díaz Acosta; Pedro Luis, Forero Porras; Diego Andrés, Guarín Supelano; Martha Liliana, Alarcón Tarazona; Diego, Rangel Cantillo.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El tumor trabecular hialinizante de tiroides es una condición clínica incidental, infrecuente, de comportamiento incierto, representa un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico debido a que es difícil diferenciarlo de otros tumores tiroideos como el carcinoma papilar y medular por sus similitud [...] es histológicas. Reporte de caso: Paciente de 53 años quien acudió a consulta por crecimiento de la glándula tiroidea y disfagia. Se realizaron estudios diagnósticos previos los cuales orientaron hacia una condición benigna sin embargo por progresión de síntomas se decidió realizar tiroidectomía total. La histopatología de la masa reportó carcinoma medular y en la inmunohistoquímica como hallazgo incidental se realiza diagnóstico final de adenoma trabecular hialinizante de tiroides. Discusión: El tumor trabecular hialinizante de tiroides presenta un desafío continuo, por lo cual es necesario realizar pruebas inmunohistoquímicas que permitan realizar la diferenciación. El abordaje quirúrgico no es claro debido a su comportamiento incierto y a que las publicaciones que existen no son claras acerca del pronóstico y manejo. Conclusiones: El tumor trabecular hialinizante de tiroides es una enfermedad con bajas tasas de incidencia, frecuentemente mal diagnosticado y sobre el cual no existe información clara acerca de su manejo. El seguimiento clínico de estos pacientes y futuros estudios observacionales nos permitirá obtener conclusiones a futuro sobre su comportamiento y pronóstico. Abstract in english Introduction: The hyalinized trabecular tumor of thyroids is a clinical condition, rarely frequent of uncertain behavior and difficult diagnosis due to the fact that is hard to differentiate it from other thyroid tumors such as the papillary and medullar carcinoma due to its histological similaritie [...] s. Case report: 53 year old patient who attended medical consult because of an irregular growth in the thyroids gland and the dysphagia, previous diagnose studies were made and led to a benign pathology, but for symptomatology it was decided to make a total thyroidectomy. The histopathology of the mass reported a medullar carcinoma and in the immune-histo-chemistry as an incidental finding a final diagnose was made, showing a hyalinized trabecular adenoma of thyroids. Discussion: The hyalinized trabecular tumor of thyroids presented diagnosis and therapeutic challenges. Duo to is necessary necessary to make immune-histo-chemistry tests. The surgical approach is not clear because of its uncertain behavior and the lack of studies that report its forecast and treatment. Conclusions: The hyalinized trabecular tumor of thyroids is a disease with low rates of incidence, usually badly diagnosed, over which there is no clear existing information for its treatment. The clinical surveillance of these patients and future observational studies will allow us to make some conclusions in the future regarding its behavior and forecast.

  7. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting

  8. Iodine deficiency in Belarusian children as a possible factor stimulating the irradiation of the thyroid gland during the Chernobyl catastrophe.

    OpenAIRE

    Gembicki, M.; Stozharov, A N; Arinchin, A N; Moschik, K V; Petrenko, S.; Khmara, I M; Baverstock, K. F.

    1997-01-01

    Ten years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant catastrophe more than 500 children in Belarus are suffering from thyroid cancer. The major cause of the high incidence of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age appears to be contamination resulting from that catastrophe, mainly with isotopes of radioactive iodine. Another important factor may be iodine deficiency in the environment. A countrywide program for investigation of goiter prevalence and iodine deficiency has been established in ...

  9. Lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study over a period of five years in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Anjit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary Thyroid Lymphoma (PTL is uncommon, accounting for only 5% of thyroid neoplasms and less than 2.5 to 7% of extranodal lymphomas. The study aims to analyze the histopathological findings and to correlate it with clinical features. Methods: This study includes cases of PTL received in the department of pathology in a tertiary care center, Kerala, south India over a period of 5 years. Patient details and follow up data were obtained by communication with treating doctors and reviewing the hospital records. All cases had a minimum follow up of 6 months. Results: 15 cases of PTL were diagnosed over the five year period. In total 72 cases of extranodal lymphomas were diagnosed, thus forming 20.83% of extra nodal lymphomas. Lymphocytic thyroiditis was present in 93.3%. Most of the cases were Extranodal Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma (EMZBCL and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL. Conclusion: It is important to consider the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma in patients presenting with an enlarging neck mass especially with the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Random microscopic foci of DLBCL or small areas of MZBL could be overlooked examination or missed with limited sampling. The distinction between MZBL and DLBCL in the thyroid is clinically significant. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 579-582

  10. Cancer of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... figures represent those who have died from thyroid cancer. Green figures represent those who have survived 5 years or ... Age-Adjusted. More About This Cancer Show More Cancer and the Thyroid Figure: Thyroid And Parathyroid Gland Anatomy Click to enlarge. ...

  11. Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Wakamoto, H; MIYAZAKI, M.; Tatsumi, K.; Amino, N.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

  12. Dual thyroid ectopia-role of thyroid scintigraphy and neck ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid tissue where the thyroid gland is not located in its usual position. Dual thyroid ectopia is far rarer. This case of a 5-year-old euthyroid girl with thyroglossal cyst was planned for surgery. Presurgical ultrasonography (USG) of the neck followed by thyroid scintigraphy was performed. There was absent normal thyroid gland with single ETT in neck swelling on USG. However, thyroid scintigraphy revealed two ectopic foci of thyroid tissue; one was corresponding to neck swelling, and other was superior to it at the base of the tongue along with absent eutopic thyroid gland. The repeat neck USG could demonstrate the same. The present case emphasizes that, if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG; ETT should be evaluated with thyroid scintigraphy in case of thyroid dysgenesis

  13. Lack of Preemptive Analgesia by Intravenous Flurbiprofen in Thyroid Gland Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaodi Zhang, Haifang Zhao, Changsong Wang, Fei Han, Guonian Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on postoperative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consumption and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery.Methods Ninety patients undergoing elective thyroid gland surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A (Control was administered Intralipid® 2 ml as a placebo 15 min before the cervical plexus block and at the end of the surgery; Group B (Routine analgesia was administered a placebo 15 min before the cervical plexus block and flurbiprofen 50 mg at the end of the surgery; Group C (Preemptive analgesia was administered intravenous flurbiprofen 50 mg 15 min before the cervical plexus block and a placebo at the end of the surgery. Sufentanil administration during the surgery and the 24 h satisfaction score on analgesic therapy were both recorded. The analgesic efficacy was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the surgery, based on visual analog scales.Results Ninety patients were involved in the study. One patient from Group B did not have their scheduled surgery; eighty-nine patients completed the study. There were no significant differences in the patient demographics between the three groups. Visual analog scales: 1, 2, 4 h for Group A was significantly higher than Groups B and C (P<0.05; Sufentanil administration during surgery: Group C was obviously lower compared to Groups A and B (P<0.05; 24 h satisfaction score: Groups B and C were higher than Group A (P<0.05.Conclusion Preoperative administration of intravenous Flurbiprofen axetil reduced analgesic consumption during surgery, but not postoperative pain scores.

  14. Xenotransplantation of a thyroid gland organ culture as the method of hormonal compensation of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reestablishment of the thyroid function in rats with radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The serum total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) values in male Wistar rats, weighing of 100-150 g, fell to low levels by 2 weeks after 2.775 MBq 131-iodine administration. The values of serum TT4 in rats were generally in the euthyroid range by the 17th day after xenotransplantation (XTP) of 3-day old newborn pig thyroid organ culture by injection into the fat tissue of anterior abdominal wall. The serum TT3 values rose rapidly and reached normal levels by the 7th day after XTP. 7 days after XTP, all newborn pig thyroid xenografts showed 131-iodine uptake, and four of five xenografts were still functional bu the 17th day. These results indicate that the xenografted newborn pig thyroid organ culture allows a restoration of the thyroid function in rats with post radioiodine hypothyroidism

  15. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient\\'s age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with \\'red flag\\' symptoms.

  16. Diagnostic value of PET/CT combined with ultrasound for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions incidentally found by 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT combined with ultrasound (US) imaging for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions. Methods: Seventy-three thyroid lesions incidentally found by 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging were enrolled.Final diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology or cytology. Interpretations of PET/CT and US included a subjective classification on a 3-point scale (0: probably benign, 1: uncertain, 2: probably malignant), along with the longest diameter measure and SUVmax of the thyroid lesions. The accuracies of PET/CT, US and PET/CT + US for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions were compared by ROC curve analysis, with a Z test to compare the AUC. The Kappa test, t-test and ?2 test were also used. Results: Of the 73 thyroid lesions, there were 43 (59%) malignant and 30 (41%) benign lesions. The SUVmax of malignant lesions was significantly higher than that of benign lesions (7.0±8.1 vs 4.1±3.8; t=2.062, P=0.043), and the longest diameter of malignant lesions was smaller than that of benign lesions (2.0 ± 1.1 vs 2.7 ± 1.4; t=2.628, P=0.011). To differentiate malignant from benign thyroid lesions, the AUC of SUVmax was 0.580 (95% CI: 0.448-0.713). After analyzing the features of PET and CT images,the AUC of PET/CT was significantly improved to 0.763 (95% CI: 0.647-0.878; Z=2.033, P=0.042). The AUC of US (0.905, 95% CI: 0.826-0.983) and PET/CT + US (0.909, 95% CI: 0.840-0.979) were significantly higher than that of PET/CT (Z =1.992 and 2.112, both P<0.05) or SUVmax (Z=4.120 and 4.276, both P<0.001). The optimal sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were 42% (18/43), 83% (25/30), 59% (43/73), 78% (18/23), 50% (25/50) for SUVmax, 79% (34/43), 80% (24/30), 79% (58/73), 85% (34/40), 73%(24/33) for PET/CT, 84% (36/43), 90% (27/30), 86% (63/73), 92%(36/39), 79% (27/34) for US, and 98% (42/43), 67% (20/30), 85% (62/73), 81%(42/52), 95% (20/21) for PET/CT + US, respectively. Agreement was poor for SUVmax (Kappa=0.229, P=0.023), fair for PET/CT (Kappa=0.582, P<0.001), and good for US (Kappa=0.668, P<0.001) and PET/CT + US (Kappa=0.674, P<0.001). Compared with PET/CT, the sensitivity of PET/CT + US was significantly higher (?2=6.125, P=0.008), while the specificity had no statistical difference (?2=2.250, P>0.05). Conclusion: By combining PET/CT with US, the diagnostic efficacy is significantly improved in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions found by 18F-FDG PET/CT. (authors)

  17. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME, kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1. The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfagia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME, cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1. O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido.

  18. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia / Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Diego Mendonça, Uchôa; Vanessa, Yépez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP) são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfa [...] gia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME), cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1). O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination [...] and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME), kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1). The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for 3,3',5'-L-triiodothyronine (reverse T3): assessment of thyroid gland content and serum measurements in conditions of normal and altered thyroidal economy and following administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the development of a radioimmunoassay for 3,3',5'-L-triiodothyronine (reverse T3) which is performed on unextracted serum. Utilizing this radioimmunoassay, 21 normal subjects had a mean (+-SD) serum reverse T3 level of 60 +- 12 ng/100 ml, 17 of 19 hyperthyroid patients had elevated serum reverse T3 levels, and 10 of 11 hypothyroid subjects had decreased serum reverse T3 concentrations. Thyroidal secretion of reverse T3 was assessed by measurements in samples obtained from the internal carotid artery and jugular vein of sheep following the administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) or bovine thyrotropin (TSH). Reverse T3 levels were increased 45-60 min after TRH administration, but TSH administration produced inconsistent alterations in reverse T3, although 18 of 27 samples obtained after TSH injection were higher than their average respective baseline concentration and the mean peak reverse T3 level was 14 percent higher than baseline. Following TRH administration to 10 normal human subjects, mean serum reverse T3 levels significantly increased from 53.6 ng/100 ml to 56.3 ng/100 ml (P less than .05). The thyroid gland content of reverse T3 in human autopsy material was 6.5 +- 1.5 ?g/g tissue. Both pregnancy and estrogen administration were associated with increases in serum reverse T3 concentrations presumably because of their ability to augment thyroxine binding globulin synthesis

  20. An incidental finding of the accessory inferior thyroid artery

    OpenAIRE

    Sedy J

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of an incidental finding of the right accessory inferior thyroid artery, emerging from the thyrocervical trunk together with a typical inferior thyroid artery, present in a normal position. On the left side, only single inferior thyroid artery was present. Only one inferior thyroid vein was found on each side. The accessory inferior thyroid artery entered the thyroid gland approximately 1 cm above the normal inferior thyroid, above the superior parathyroid gland. Although acc...

  1. Radionuclide Imaging of Dual Ectopic Thyroid in a Preadolescent Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Y?ld?r?m, ?ule; At?lgan, Hasan ?kbal; KORKMAZ, Meliha; Demirel, Koray; Gökhan KOCA

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a congenital defect in which the thyroid gland is located away from the usual pretracheal location. Dual ectopic thyroid, which consists of two foci of thyroid tissue, is very rare. In this case dual ectopic thyroid with subclinical hypothyroidism in a 10-year-old-girl was reported. The absence of the thyroid gland in the pretracheal location was revealed by ultrasonography (USG). Two foci of ectopic thyroid tissue located at the base of the tongue and infrahyoid region wer...

  2. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seek Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy.

  3. In vivo thyroid studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphic imaging plays an important role in determining function of thyroid nodules, detecting occult thyroid lesions, localizing ectopic thyroid tissue, and evaluating metastases from papilary-follicular thyroid carcinoma. The clinical usefulness of thyroid uptake and scintigraphic imaging can be maximized by proper selection of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation and by knowledge of the clinical status of the patient. These considerations, together with the clinical applications, are discussed

  4. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of thyroid gland: Report of two cases with follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Azizun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE is a rare malignant thyroid tumor showing thymic or related branchial pouch differentiation. The tumors are composed predominantly of spindle cells along with focal epithelial component and ductular formations. SETTLE occurs in young patients, with indolent growth and a tendency to develop delayed blood-borne metastases. We herein report two cases of SETTLE with a follow-up period of 64 months and 30 months, respectively.

  5. Effect of conjugated equine estrogens and tamoxifen administration on thyroid gland histomorphology of the rat Os efeitos dos estrogênios conjugados equinos e do tamoxifeno na histomorfologia da glândula tireóide de ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Felipe Bittencourt de Araujo; José Maria Soares Jr.; Ricardo Santos Simões; Pedro Luiz Calió; Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho; Manuel Jesus Simões; Mauro Abi Haidar; EDMUND C BARACAT

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of the conjugated equine estrogens and tamoxifen on the morphology of thyroid gland in ovariectomized (OVx) rats. METHODS: Conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), clinically used as estrogen therapy, is a complex formulation containing multiple estrogens that decrease menopausal symptoms. Thirty ovariectomized rats were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups: GI, vehicle (propylene glycol); GII, CEE 200 µg/kg per day; and GIII, ta...

  6. Evaluation of expression and function of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, platelet derived growth factor receptors-alpha and -beta, KIT, and RET in canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma and thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Urie Bridget K; Russell Duncan S; Kisseberth William C; London Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Toceranib phosphate (Palladia) has a reported objective response rate of 25% in both canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) and thyroid carcinoma (TC), with stable disease occurring in an additional 50-60% of dogs. The basis for the observed responses to toceranib is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate AGASACA and TC samples for the expression and activation of VEGFR2, PDGFR?, PDGFR?, KIT and RET to assess whether dysregulation of these re...

  7. The analysis of morbidity by a cancer of a thyroid gland of children on the moment of an exposure I131 owing to Chernobyl accident, registered in the Uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of cohort of the observation generated by indicated criteria: number 65575 person, including in the Gomel area 25215, in Bryansk - 40360, number of the registered cases of disease 226, including 132 in the Gomel area and 94 in Bryansk area, number of person-years of observation 1021229, including in the Gomel area 391363 of observation, in Bryansk - 629866, average exposure dose of a thyroid gland by radioisotopes of 131I in cohort 0,71 Gy, in the Gomel area 1,5 Gy, in Bryansk area - 0,2 Gy. Estimated a role of radiation and various not radiation risk factors, such as a sex, age on the moment of an exposure. The analysis of not radiation risk factors is spent separately for the Gomel area, Bryansk area and joined cohort. Among the persons irradiated in children's age in the Gomel area, the risk of disease by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the boys and girls was identical (RR=1,02, 95 % CI 0,72-1,44), in too time in Bryansk area the risk of disease of the girls in 3,4 times was higher (95 % CI 2,0-5,6), than among the boys. In joined cohort the girl in 1,5 times more often were sick of a cancer of a thyroid gland (95 % CI 1,16-2,0) in comparison with the boys. The analysis dose of dependence of a case rate by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the persons irradiated in children's age, has shown presence of a linear relation dose - effect, and in joined cohort this dependence most statistically is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, R2=0,99). The value of exuberant relative risk on a dose 1 Gy has made 4,54 (95 % CI 2,43-9,78). (author)

  8. Anatomic relation between the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the thyroid gland Relação anatômica entre o ramo externo do nervo laríngeo superior e a glândula tireoide

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    Fabiana Estrela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This prospective study investigated the anatomic relations between the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN, the superior thyroid artery (STA and the thyroid gland in human cadavers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two human cadavers aged over 18 years old, less than 24 hours after death. RESULTS: The mean distance between the EBSLN and the superior pole of the thyroid gland was 7.68 ±3.07 mm. A tangent to the inferior edge of the thyroid cartilage between the EBSLN and the STA measured 4.24 ±2.67 mm. A line from the intersection of the EBSLN - related to the STA - to the superior pole of the thyroid gland measured 9.53 ±4.65 mm. A line from the EBSLN to the midline of the most caudal point of the thyroid cartilage measured 19.70 ±2.82 mm. A line from the RENLS to the midline on the most cranial point of the cricoid cartilage was 18.35 ±3.66 mm. CONCLUSION: There is a variable proximity relation between the EBSLN and the superior pole of the thyroid gland; this distance ranges from 3.25 to 15.75 mm. There was no evidence of significant variation between the measures in the ethnic groups comprising the sample.OBJETIVO: Descrever, prospectivamente, a relação anatômica entre o ramo externo do nervo laríngeo superior (RENLS, a artéria tireoidea superior (ATS e a glândula tireoide em cadáveres humanos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram dissecados 22 cadáveres humanos com idade superior a 18 anos, com menos de 24 horas de pós-morte. RESULTADOS: A medida entre o RENLS e o polo superior da glândula tireoide foi 7,68 +/- 3,07mm; entre o RENLS e a ATS foi de 4,24 +/- 2,67mm numa linha tangente ao bordo inferior da cartilagem tireoide; entre o cruzamento da ATS com o RENLS e o polo superior tireoidiano foi 9,53 +/- 4,65mm; entre o RENLS e a linha mediana do pescoço no ponto mais caudal da cartilagem tireoide foi 19,70 +/- 2,82mm; e entre o RENLS e a linha mediana do pescoço no ponto mais cranial da cartilagem cricoide foi 18,35 +/- 3,66mm. CONCLUSÕES: Há uma relação de proximidade variável entre o RENLS e o polo superior da glândula tireoide, variando de 3,25 a 15,75mm. Não constatou-se variações significativas entre as medidas para as diferentes etnias que compõem a amostra.

  9. Coexistence of Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Carcinoma and Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma

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    Ba?ak Karbek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant lesion of a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC is an extremely rare entity. Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. Diagnosis is commonly made after pathological examination of the surgical specimen. A 41-year-old male patient with a midline neck mass was initially diagnosed with a thyroglossal duct cyst and underwent a Sistrunks procedure. Histopathologic examination revealed a papillary thyroid car¬cinoma within the thyroglossal duct cyst. Ultrasound elastography of the thyroid gland was performed. We have detected a hypoechoic hypervascular thyroid nodule measuring 3 mm in diameter that appeared completely blue in B-mode ultrasonography, and hard tissue was visualized by elastosonography (ES. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The final pathological finding showed papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland without cervical lymph node metastasis. When a thyroglossal duct cyst is excised using Sistrunk’s procedure and when the definitive hystological analysis depicts malignancy, the thyroid gland must be studied carefully with radiological examinations. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 127-8

  10. Accuracy of intraoperative consultation in lesions of the salivary glands: analysis of 748 cases / Acurácia da consulta intraoperatória em lesões das glândulas salivares: análise de 748 casos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Theresinha C., Fonseca; Ana Lúcia A., Eisenberg.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As lesões das glândulas salivares são incomuns, representando de 2% a 6,5% de todas as neoplasias da região da cabeça e do pescoço. Devido à diferença de tratamento entre elas, é fundamental um diagnóstico preciso. O estudo citológico por meio de punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF) [...] é um método com alta acurácia utilizado para o diagnóstico das lesões das glândulas salivares; já a consulta intraoperatória (CIO) é um exame que oferece o diagnóstico no decorrer da cirurgia, tendo como objetivo diferenciar as lesões malignas das benignas e possibilitar a conduta cirúrgica mais adequada. Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia da CIO nas lesões das glândulas salivares realizadas em uma instituição. Material e métodos: Realizou-se uma pesquisa sobre as CIOs realizadas para diagnóstico nas lesões das glândulas salivares no Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Inca) no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2012, sendo encontrados 748 casos. Os diagnósticos de CIO foram comparados com o diagnóstico histopatológico (DHP), considerado padrão-ouro, e classificados em: 1) concordantes, 2) discordantes e 3) indeterminados. A partir desses dados, foram calculadas sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia. Resultados: Das 748 CIOs realizadas, os resultados foram concordantes em 656 casos (88%), discordantes em 56 (7%) e indeterminados em 36 (5%). A sensibilidade foi de 78%; a especificidade, de 99%; e a acurácia, de 92%. Conclusão: Nossos resultados indicam que a CIO em lesões das glândulas salivares tem alta acurácia, podendo contribuir para a conduta cirúrgica. Abstract in english Introduction: Lesions of the salivary glands are uncommon, representing 2% to 6.5% of all neoplasms of head and neck, and because of the difference in treatment between them, an accurate diagnosis is essential. The cytological study by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is a highly accurate method [...] used to diagnose lesions of the salivary glands. Intraoperative consultation (IOC), in its turn, is a test that provides diagnosis during surgery, aiming to differentiate malignant from benign lesions and to enable the most appropriate surgical approach. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of IOC in salivary gland lesions. Material and methods: A survey was conducted in the database of Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Inca) into IOC for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions from January 2001 to December 2012, and found 748 cases. Diagnosis made at IOC (IOCD) was compared with the gold standard histopathological diagnosis and classified into: 1) consenting; 2) discordant; and 3) indeterminate. From these data, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. Results: Among the 748 IOCs, results were concordant in 656 cases (88%), discordant in 56 (7%), and indeterminate in 36 (5%). Sensitivity was 78%, specificity 99% and accuracy 92%. Conclusion: Our results indicate that IOC in salivary gland lesions is highly accurate and can contribute to the surgical approach.

  11. Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Kroeger, S.; Buchert, R.; Bleckmann, C.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Brenner, W.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-11-01

    Background and purpose: Parenchymal impairment of salivary glands following high-dose radioiodine treatment is a well-known side effect in general caused by free radicals. Therefore, the radioprotective effect of the radical scavenger amifostine was evaluated prospectively in patients receiving high-dose radioiodine treatment. Patients and methods: Parenchymal function was assessed by quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy performed in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment with either 3 GBq {sup 131}I (n=21) or 6 BGq {sup 131}I (n=29) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-five patients treated with 500 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine intravenously prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment were compared to 25 control patients receiving physiological saline solution. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO-criteria. Results: In 25 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced parenchymal function of parotid and submandibular glands by 40.2{+-}14.1% and 39.9{+-}15.3%, respectively. Nine out of these 25 patients developed Grade I and 2 Grade II xerostomia. In contrast, in 25 amifostine-treated patients there was no significant (p=0.691) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage of salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund und Ziel: Eine Schaedigung der Speicheldruesen mit konsekutiver Xerostomie ist eine bekannte, durch freie Radikale verursachte Nebenwirkung der ablativen Radioiodtherapie bei Patienten mit differenziertem Schilddruesenkarzinom. Daher wurde der Effekt des Radikalfaengers Amifostin bei ablativer Radioiodtherapie geprueft. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden insgesamt 50 Patienten mit differenziertem Schilddruesenkarzinom in diese prospektiv angelegte, plazebokontrollierte Doppelblindstudie eingeschlossen. Die Speicheldruesenfunktion wurde vor und drei Monate nach Gabe von 3 GBq {sup 131}I (n=21) oder 6 GBq {sup 131}I (n=29) mit einer Sialoszintigraphie quantifiziert. Je die Haelfte der Patienten erhielt vor Radioiodtherapie 500 mg/m{sup 2} Amifostin oder physiologische Kochsalzloesung als Plazebo intravenoes infundiert. Eine Speicheldruesenschaedigung wurde nach WHO-Kriterien klassifiziert. Ergebnisse: Die Patienten der Kontrollgruppe wiesen in den Glandulae parotides bzw. in den Glandulae submandibulares eine signifikante (p<0,001) Verminderung der Parenchymfunktion um 40,2{+-}14,1% bzw. 39,9{+-}15,3% auf. Bei neun dieser 25 Patienten fand sich eine Xerostomie Grad I, bei zwei Patienten eine Xerostomie Grad II. Im Gegensatz dazu war bei den mit Amifostin behandelten Patienten keine signifikante Verminderung der Parenchymfunktion messbar (p=0,691). Dementsprechend wies keiner dieser Patienten eine Xerostomie auf. Schlussfolgerung: Bei Patienten mit differenziertem Schilddruesenkarzinom kann die durch hochdosierte Radioiodtherapien regelhaft verursachte Parenchymschaedigung der Speicheldruesen durch Amifostin weitgehend vermieden werden. Dies koennte die Lebensqualitaet dieser Patienten wesentlich verbessern. (orig.)

  12. Fijación de radioyodo en huesos maxilares simulando metástasis en pacientes con Carcinoma Diferenciado de Tiroides (CDT): False- Positive images in patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma. (DTC) / Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O. J., Degrossi; S., Gutiérrez; A., Fadel; E. B., Degrossi; M. C., Valdivieso; R. L., Balbuena; M. del C., Alak; M., de Cabrejas.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En estudios centellográficos con 131I (CCT) para seguimiento, postablación o tratamiento de pacientes portadores de carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides (CDT) se observan frecuentemente en tiempos precoces áreas de captación del radiotrazador en macizo facial. Estas áreas corresponden, generalmente, a [...] glándulas salivares y extremo anterior de mucosa nasal y se mantienen durante las primeras 48 horas y no son observadas generalmente a las 72 horas. Pero con menor frecuencia se presentan otras que persisten durante varias semanas; estas áreas fueron consideradas como posibles retención en glándulas salivares, en tejido tiroideo ectópico en piso de boca, o proteínas yodas entre otras causas. En 1996 Valdivieso y col. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, Mar del Plata) y Gutiérrez y col. (SLAT, Chile) consideraron además de las mencionadas posibilidades, que la fijación se podría realizar en hueso maxilar en relación con procesos dentales y esta idea se vio favorecida por dos presentaciones sobre pocos casos que coincidían con la idea sobre el lugar de fijación del radioelemento con producción de imágenes falsas-positivas de enfermedad metastática. Con el propósito de determinar la frecuencia de observación de estas imágenes se procedió a la revisión de 636 CCT efectuados entre el 1 de enero de 2002 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007 en 502 pacientes. En el 31,5 % de los pacientes se observaron áreas activas en maxilares que persistían por varias semanas; la intensidad de concentración fue del 0,3 al 1,2 % de la actividad administrada. En 10 pacientes se efectuaron áreas de interés sobre las zonas activas que se controlaron durante 3 semanas, determinándose el T ½ efectivo registrándose valores promedio de 6,87 ± 0,94 días muy próximos al T ½ físico del 131I, indicando fuerte unión del compuesto radiactivo formado. La intensidad de concentración del radioyodo es variable dependiendo de la intensidad de la lesión dental, (caries, prótesis, pulpitis, granulomas periapicales) y en especial se incrementa en pacientes provenientes del interior que habitaban en zonas con aguas con contenido de flúor o arsénico. Seis pacientes tratados con actividades altas de radioyodo de entre 5,55 y 11,1 MBQ (150 a 300 mCi) mostraron lesiones actínicas en mucosa bucal y lingual. En 5 pacientes se efectuaron inmediatamente después del CCT con radioyodo, estudios panorámicos de Rx maxilar y de centellograma óseo coincidiendo las imágenes maxilares positivas de ambos estudios con las áreas positivas con radioyodo, confirmándose la localización de las mismas. En 13 pacientes que se sometieron a intensos tratamientos odontológicos, en estudios de CCT posteriores se apreció la disminución de intensidad de las imágenes o su desaparición. Ninguno de los pacientes presentó metástasis de CDA en las áreas activas maxilares. Estos hallazgos confirman la concentración del radioyodo en hueso maxilar en relación con alteraciones, dentales debiendo efectuarse investigaciones más profundas sobre la naturaleza de la molécula formada y los mecanismo de fijación de la misma. Deberá tenerse en cuenta el estado de salud dentario del pacientes antes de someterlo a tratamiento de metástasis o ablaciones, en especial cuando las actividades de radioyodo a utilizar sean mayores de 3,7 GBq (100 mCi) y aún indicar tratamiento de las lesiones dentales en forma previa. Abstract in english In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but othe [...] rs are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutiérrez et al (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered

  13. Fijación de radioyodo en huesos maxilares simulando metástasis en pacientes con Carcinoma Diferenciado de Tiroides (CDT: False- Positive images in patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma. (DTC Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Degrossi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En estudios centellográficos con 131I (CCT para seguimiento, postablación o tratamiento de pacientes portadores de carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides (CDT se observan frecuentemente en tiempos precoces áreas de captación del radiotrazador en macizo facial. Estas áreas corresponden, generalmente, a glándulas salivares y extremo anterior de mucosa nasal y se mantienen durante las primeras 48 horas y no son observadas generalmente a las 72 horas. Pero con menor frecuencia se presentan otras que persisten durante varias semanas; estas áreas fueron consideradas como posibles retención en glándulas salivares, en tejido tiroideo ectópico en piso de boca, o proteínas yodas entre otras causas. En 1996 Valdivieso y col. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, Mar del Plata y Gutiérrez y col. (SLAT, Chile consideraron además de las mencionadas posibilidades, que la fijación se podría realizar en hueso maxilar en relación con procesos dentales y esta idea se vio favorecida por dos presentaciones sobre pocos casos que coincidían con la idea sobre el lugar de fijación del radioelemento con producción de imágenes falsas-positivas de enfermedad metastática. Con el propósito de determinar la frecuencia de observación de estas imágenes se procedió a la revisión de 636 CCT efectuados entre el 1 de enero de 2002 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007 en 502 pacientes. En el 31,5 % de los pacientes se observaron áreas activas en maxilares que persistían por varias semanas; la intensidad de concentración fue del 0,3 al 1,2 % de la actividad administrada. En 10 pacientes se efectuaron áreas de interés sobre las zonas activas que se controlaron durante 3 semanas, determinándose el T ½ efectivo registrándose valores promedio de 6,87 ± 0,94 días muy próximos al T ½ físico del 131I, indicando fuerte unión del compuesto radiactivo formado. La intensidad de concentración del radioyodo es variable dependiendo de la intensidad de la lesión dental, (caries, prótesis, pulpitis, granulomas periapicales y en especial se incrementa en pacientes provenientes del interior que habitaban en zonas con aguas con contenido de flúor o arsénico. Seis pacientes tratados con actividades altas de radioyodo de entre 5,55 y 11,1 MBQ (150 a 300 mCi mostraron lesiones actínicas en mucosa bucal y lingual. En 5 pacientes se efectuaron inmediatamente después del CCT con radioyodo, estudios panorámicos de Rx maxilar y de centellograma óseo coincidiendo las imágenes maxilares positivas de ambos estudios con las áreas positivas con radioyodo, confirmándose la localización de las mismas. En 13 pacientes que se sometieron a intensos tratamientos odontológicos, en estudios de CCT posteriores se apreció la disminución de intensidad de las imágenes o su desaparición. Ninguno de los pacientes presentó metástasis de CDA en las áreas activas maxilares. Estos hallazgos confirman la concentración del radioyodo en hueso maxilar en relación con alteraciones, dentales debiendo efectuarse investigaciones más profundas sobre la naturaleza de la molécula formada y los mecanismo de fijación de la misma. Deberá tenerse en cuenta el estado de salud dentario del pacientes antes de someterlo a tratamiento de metástasis o ablaciones, en especial cuando las actividades de radioyodo a utilizar sean mayores de 3,7 GBq (100 mCi y aún indicar tratamiento de las lesiones dentales en forma previa.In the whole body scans (WBS with 131I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996 and Gutiérrez et al (SLAT,Chile, 1997 considered that the fixation took place also in maxilla

  14. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR); Diagnostico de lesoes da tireoide pela espectroscopia de absorcao no infravermelho por transformada de Fourier - FTIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albero, Felipe Guimaraes

    2009-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by {mu}-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm{sup -1}), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm{sup -1} and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm{sup -1}, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm{sup -1}) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm{sup -1}. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm{sup -1} were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  15. Dual Ectopic Thyroid with Normally Located Thyroid: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Santanu Barua; Sarojini Dutta Choudhury; Mihir Saikia; Dipti Sarma; Uma Kaimal Saikia; Bipul Kumar Choudhury; Swapna Dewri

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary h...

  16. [Lectin binding by structures of the submandibular gland of the rat during postnatal ontogenesis in the presence of thyroid pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsik, A D; Iashchenko, A M; Detiuk, E S

    1987-02-01

    Redistribution of lectin receptor sites in rat submandibular gland under hypo- and hyperthyroidism has been investigated using lectin-peroxidase technique. Lectin preparation include con A, peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and fucose-specific lectin from Laburnum anagyroides bark (LAB). Submandibular gland is excised on the 1st, 10th, 20th and 40th days of postnatal life and in adult rats. Hyperthyroidism, as well as hypothyroidism cause a considerable decrease of con A, WGA and LAB binding with simultaneous enhancement of PNA binding in all investigated groups of the animals. The only exception from this regularity is noted for con A: hypothyroidism in adult rats and on the 40th day of postnatal development causes enhancement of this lectin binding to granular duct epitheliocytes. Selective staining of mast cells with PNA and of separate neurocytes with con A is also demonstrated; these cells staining is affected neither by hyperthyroidism, nor by hypothyroidism. Possible interpretation of the observed phenomena is discussed. PMID:3579619

  17. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  18. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study. PMID:24306355

  19. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I PET(/CT) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentzen, Walter; Schmitz, Jochen; Freudenberg, Lutz; Eising, Ernst; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Balschuweit, Dorothee; Hilbel, Thomas [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, Fachbereich Physikalische Technik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after {sup 131}I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) {sup 124}I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and {>=}96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq {sup 124}I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered {sup 131}I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The {sup 124}I PET(/CT) salivary gland dosimetry indicated that lemon juice stimulation shortly after {sup 131}I administration in radioiodine therapy increases the absorbed doses to the salivary glands. (orig.)

  20. Utilidad de la citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glándula tiroides en la E.S.E Hospital Universitario del Caribe: un estudio retrospectivo / Utility of the fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland at Hospital Universitario del Caribe, Cartagena, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco, Herrera; Katherine, Redondo; Carlos, Osorio; Juan, Grice; Alberto, Fernández.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En este estudio se evaluó en forma retrospectiva la utilidad de la citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina, en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glándula tiroides. Metodología. Se llevó a cabo una revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de los pa [...] cientes con impresión diagnóstica de nódulo tiroideo, durante un periodo de 7 años, de 2007 a 2013, durante los cuales se practicó citología mediante aspiración con aguja fina antes del abordaje quirúrgico. El diagnóstico citológico se comparó con el estudio anatomopatológico, con el objetivo de determinar los parámetros de rendimiento. Resultados. La población de estudio fue de 149 pacientes. Para la citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina, se calcularon los siguientes parámetros de rendimiento en el diagnóstico de neoplasias foliculares: sensibilidad, 54,5 %; especificidad, 92,9 %; valor diagnóstico positivo, 57,1 %; valor diagnóstico negativo, 92,2 %; precisión diagnóstica, 87,2 %; falsos negativos, 6,9 % y falsos positivos, 6,1 %. Conclusión. La citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina posee una sensibilidad baja en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glándula tiroides, comportamiento atribuible a la similitud citológica de este grupo de lesiones con los bocios con cambios adenomatosos. Abstract in english Introduction: This study evaluates retrospectively the performance of cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland. Methods: A review of medical records of patients with diagnostic impression of thyroid nodule over a period of seven years [...] from 2007 to 2013 was completed, in those patients in which a fine needle aspiration cytology prior to a surgical approach was performed. The cytological diagnosis was compared with pathologic study to determine the performance parameters. Results:The study population included 149 patients. The following performance parameters of the fine needle aspiration cytology were determined in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms: sensitivity, 54.5%; specificity, 92.9%; positive predictive value, 57.1%; negative predictive value, 92.2%; accurately diagnosed, 87.2%; false negatives and false positives 6.9%, 6.1% Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology has a low sensitivity in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland due to the cytologically similarity presented by this group of lesions with goiters with adenomatous changes.

  1. Dual ectopic thyroid with normally located thyroid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Choudhury, Bipul; Kaimal Saikia, Uma; Sarma, Dipti; Saikia, Mihir; Dutta Choudhury, Sarojini; Barua, Santanu; Dewri, Swapna

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary hypothyroidism. Ultrasonography of the neck showed hypoplastic thyroid in its normal location. A thyroid scan with Technetium-99?m pertechnate showed two intensely hyperfunctioning foci of ectopic thyroid tissue at a higher level in the midline consistent with dual ectopic thyroid, one at the base of tongue and the other in submental region. No uptake was seen in the normal bed. PMID:21765986

  2. Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty; Strahlenexposition der strahlensensiblen Risikoorgane - Augenlinse, Speicheldruese und Schilddruese - bei Traenenwegsdarstellungen und -interventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, K.; Kraemer, S.; Textor, J.; Schueller, H.; Schild, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Ewen, K. [Landesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-03-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of radiation dose to the radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues - ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands - during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty (DCP). Method: Radiation dose was determined in an Alderson Rando phantom and in 13 patients. Radiation dose was measured directly using Ca-F{sub 2}-thermoluminescent dosimetry crystals (TLD) which were placed on each eyelid, parotid gland and thyroid gland. Results: The mean radiation dose to the lens placed next to the path of radiation was 6.58 mGy in the Alderson-Rando phantom and 5.43 mGy in patients during DCP. The mean radiation dose to the contralateral lens was 1.37 mGy and 1.7 mGy to the parotid gland placed next to the X-ray tube. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland was max. 0.4 mGy during DCP. Conclusion: Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid gland and throid gland during fluoroscopy-guided DCP was 25 times higher than during diagnostic dacryocystography. The radiation dose to radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues during fluoroscopy-guided DCP is much below the threshold dose for ocular lens cataract. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Untersuchung der Strahlenexposition von Augenlinse, Speicheldruese und Schilddruese bei DSA-Dakryozystographien und unter Durchleuchtungskontrolle durchgefuehrten Traenenwegsinterventionen. Methodik: Zur Dosismessung wurden Ca-F{sub 2}-Thermolumineszenzdosimeter (TLD) eingesetzt. Je drei TLD wurden auf Auge, Parotis und Schilddruese plaziert. Die Messung erfolgte in einer ersten Versuchsanordnung zunaechst an einem Alderson-Rando-Phantom sowie bei 13 Patientenuntersuchungen. Ergebnisse: Die bei Traenenwegsinterventionen erhobenen Patientendaten zeigten im Mittel eine Strahlenexposition von 5,43 mGy fuer das im Strahlengang befindliche Auge, 1,37 mGy fuer das kontralaterale Auge und 1,7 mGy fuer die dem Roentgenstrahler zugewandte Parotis. Die Strahlenexposition der Schilddruese betrug maximal 0,4 mGy. Schlussfolgerung: Die bei Traenenwegsinterventionen gemessenen Strahlenexpositionen betragen etwa das 25fache diagnostischer Traenenwegsdarstellungen. Eine unmittelbare Gefahr fuer die Entstehung einer strahleninduzierten Schaedigung wie z.B. einer Kataraktbildung besteht bei Traenenwegsinterventionen nicht. (orig.)

  3. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  4. {sup 18}F-FDG PET versus {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for Adrenal Gland Lesion Characterization: a Comparison of Diagnostic Efficacy in Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Byung Tae; Choi, Joon Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Shim, Young Mog; Yi, Chin A.; Kim, Tae Sung [Seoul National Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of integrated PET/CT using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the differentiation of benign and metastatic adrenal gland lesions in patients with lung cancer and to compare the diagnostic efficacy with the use of PET alone. Sixty-one adrenal lesions (size range, 5 104 mm; mean size, 16 mm) were evaluated retrospectively in 42 lung cancer patients. Both PET images alone and integrated PET/CT images were assessed, respectively, at two-month intervals. PET findings were interpreted as positive if the FDG uptake of adrenal lesions was greater than or equal to that of the liver, and the PET/CT findings were interpreted as positive if an adrenal lesion show attenuation > 10 HU and showed increased FDG uptake. Final diagnoses of adrenal gland lesions were made at clinical follow-up (n 52) or by a biopsy (n = 9) when available. The diagnostic accuracies of PET and PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal lesions were compared using the McNemar test. Thirty-five (57%) of the 61 adrenal lesions were metastatic and the remaining 26 lesions were benign. For the depiction of adrenal gland metastasis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET were 74%, 73%, and 74%, respectively, whereas those of integrated PET/CT were 80%, 89%, and 84%, respectively (p values; 0.5, 0.125, and 0.031, respectively). The use of integrated PET/CT is more accurate than the use of PET alone for differentiating benign and metastatic adrenal gland lesions in lung cancer patients.

  5. Thyroid Eye Disease: Protruding, Irritated Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staring expression and infrequent blinking. What are the causes? Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which there is overproduction of thyroid hormones. Abnormal antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cause it to become overactive. Abnormal antibodies may also ...

  6. Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Bastan Hagh

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute suppurative Thyroiditis is rarely seen during childhood. Fever, a tender swollen mass over the thyroid gland and neck pain are the main clinical features of the illness. The diagnosis of acute suppurative Thyroiditis in this 2-year old boy was not difficult because of the presence of fever and toxicity. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was soon begun after hospitalization and the pus drained. The recovery was complete after one week.

  7. Sweet's syndrome and subacute thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmus, Y.; Kovatz, S.; Shilo, L.; Ganem, G; Shenkman, L.

    2000-01-01

    A 63 year old woman developed biopsy documented lesions of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet's syndrome) one week after the onset of subacute thyroiditis. This is only the second reported case of such an association. The role of cytokines in the development of both subacute thyroiditis and Sweet's syndrome may be the link between these two conditions.???Keywords: Sweet's syndrome; thyroiditis; cytokines; thyroid

  8. Cirugía mínimamente invasiva de la glándula tiroides: Estudio experimental en el perro / Minimally invasive surgery of the thyroid gland: Experimental study in the dog

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge R, Lucena; Paúl, Coronel; César, Useche.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar  si la lobectomía tiroidea video-asistida, realizada en el modelo canino, reduce el tiempo operatorio, el sangramiento, lesiones de las estructuras nerviosas, y mejora los resultados cosméticos de la cicatriz cervical, en comparación con la lobectomía conve [...] ncional. Se intervinieron 36 perros adultos mestizos sanos, desparasitados, de ambos sexos, procedentes del bioterio del Instituto de Cirugía Experimental de la Universidad Central de Venezuela. Los animales fueron  asignados al azar simple, a dos grupos de estudio: lobectomía tiroidea convencional (LTC) y lobectomía video - asistida (LTVA), sin insuflación de gas. Los resultados estéticos fueron evaluados por los cirujanos de acuerdo a una escala (excelentes, buenos, regulares y malos), observándose los mejores resultados (P Abstract in english A study was conducted to determine if the video-assisted lobectomy performed on a canine model, reduces surgical time, bleeding volume, nerve structures injuries; and improves the cosmetic results of the cervical scar, when compared to conventional lobectomy. Thirty-six adult crossbred dogs of eithe [...] r sex from the animal facility of the Institute of Experimental Surgery, Universidad Central de Venezuela were used. The animals were randomly allocated into two experimental groups: Group A: Eighteen dogs who underwent conventional thyroid lobectomy (CTL); Group B: Eighteen dogs who underwent video-assisted thyroid lobectomy (VATL) without gas insulation. Cosmetic results were assessed by surgeons according to a scale, as follows: excellent, good, average, and bad. The results of the experiment show that dogs operated with the VATL technique exhibited significantly (P

  9. Etiology of thyroid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellabarba, D. (Sherbrooke Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1983-12-01

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors.

  10. Avaliação do perfil clínico e laboratorial de gatos hipertireoideos com ou sem lobo tireoidiano aumentado a palpação cervical / Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of hyperthyroid domestic cats with or without palpable thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa P. de, Faria; Katia B., Corgozinho; Lio, Moreira; Ana M.R., Ferreira; Heloisa J.M. de, Souza.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O hipertireoidismo é a endocrinopatia mais comum em gatos idosos. Devido à natureza progressiva da doença, a identificação de um estágio subclínico se torna essencial para melhor controle da doença. O presente estudo compreendeu um levantamento da frequência de gatos hipertireoideos durante o períod [...] o de março de 2007 a abril de 2008, no estado do Rio de Janeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos em uma população de gatos domésticos com hipertireoidismo naturalmente adquirido, com ou sem lobo tireoidiano palpável. A seleção dos animais foi realizada através da detecção do valor de tiroxina (T4) total acima dos valores de referência com a técnica de radioimunoensaio. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos com base na identificação do aumento da tireoide à palpação: Grupo I (tireoide não palpável) e Grupo II (tireoide palpável). Avaliações clínica e laboratoriais completas foram realizadas em todos os gatos do estudo. A avaliação clínica incluiu avaliação comportamental, peso, escore de condição corporal, pele e pelagem, auscultação cardiopulmonar, palpação tireoidiana e aferição da pressão arterial sistólica. Além do T4 total, os seguintes exames laboratoriais foram realizados: hemograma, ureia, creatinina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (FA) e glicose. Trinta e um animais foram submetidos à avaliação cardíaca, através de ecocardiograma. Dos 178 animais avaliados, 51 foram incluídos nesse estudo por apresentarem aumento sérico da T4. Vinte e seis animais foram inclusos no Grupo I e vinte e cinco no Grupo II. Os parâmetros clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos foram muito semelhantes entre os dois grupos. No entanto, os níveis séricos de T4 total foram significativamente menores nos gatos com tireoide não palpável. Todo gato acima de sete anos deve ser avaliado para presença de hipertireoidismo através da palpação tireoidiana e avaliação sérica de tiroxina total, pois muitos gatos sem sinais clínicos apresentam hipertireoidismo e o diagnóstico precoce permite diminuir os efeitos sistêmicos da doença em órgãos como fígado, rins e coração. Abstract in english Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder of older cats. Due to the progressive nature of the disease, the identification of a subclinical stage is essential in order to have a better control of the disease. The present study was a survey of the frequency of feline hyperthyroidism in Rio [...] de Janeiro, from March, 2007 to April, 2008. The purpose of this study was to perform an evaluation of the clinical, laboratorial and echocardiographic aspects in a feline population of naturally acquired hyperthyroidism, with or without palpable thyroid gland. The selection of the cats was done by the documentation of an elevation of total thyroxine (TT4) levels by radioimmunoassay. The animals were divided in two groups according to the thyroid palpation: group I (non-palpable thyroid lobe) and group II (palpable thyroid lobe). Laboratorial and complete clinical evaluations were performed in all cats. The clinical evaluation included behavioral evaluation, body weight, body condition, dermatologic, cardiopulmonary auscultation, thyroid palpation and systolic blood pressure reading. Besides the TT4, the following exams were performed: urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. Thirty one cats had an echocardiogram performed. On the basis of TT4 concentrations, 51 of the 178 cats were classified as hyperthyroid. One or more enlarged thyroid glands were palpated in 25 of the 51 hyperthyroid cats and were included at Group II. Twenty six cats didn't palpable thyroid gland and were included at Group I. Clinical, laboratorial and echocardiographic parameters were similar between the two groups. However, the TT4 levels were significantly lower in the non-palpable thyroid group. All geriatric cats must be thyroid gland palpable on clini

  11. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 is a natural chemopreventive agent against carcinogen induced precancerous lesions in mouse mammary gland organ culture

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xinjian; Hawthorne, Michael; Vaishnav, Avani; St-Arnaud, René; Mehta, Rajendra G

    2008-01-01

    Despite the role of vitamin D3 endocrine system in prevention of mammary gland transformation in animal models, use of 1,25(OH)2D3 in clinical settings is precluded due to its toxicity in vivo. Therefore much effort has been placed in developing relatively non-toxic vitamin D analogs. Recently, with the discovery of the expression of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in multiple extrarenal organs, the functional role of prohormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], has been redefi...

  12. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    George Jyothis T; Thow Jonathan C; Matthews Bruce; Pye Maurice P; Jayagopal Vijay

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insuffici...

  13. Clinical Concepts on Thyroid Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    AlfredoPontecorvi; GiampaoloPapi; SalvatoreMariaCorsello

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including ther...

  14. Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi Mudanças na glândula tireóide durante o ciclo reprodutivo masculino em um morcego vespertilionídeo Scotophilus heathi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KRISHNA

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4 concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during breeding and post-breeding and low concentration during quiescence. However, the T4 concentration increased from breeding to post-breeding phase, when the testes weight was declining. It is suggested that in S. heathi the positive correlation between thyroid and testicular cycles occurs only during the phases of the reproductive cycle when the body weight and testicular activity are also closely correlated.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as mudanças na glândula tireóide com o ciclo reprodutivo de S. heathi. A tireóide mostrou variação sazonal marcada em peso, quantidade de colóide e altura do epitélio folicular, sugerindo que esta glândula está inativa durante a quiescência e o torpor de inverno e ativa durante o tempo de recrudescência e acasalamento, similarmente ao ciclo testicular. A concentração de tiroxina (T4 do plasma mostrou significantes mudanças sazonais com alta concentração durante o acasalamento e pós-acasalamento e baixa concentração durante a quiescência. Entretanto, a concentração plasmática de T4 aumentou da fase reprodutiva à pós-reprodutiva, quando o peso dos testículos estava se reduzindo. Sugere-se que, em S. heathi, a estreita correlação entre os ciclos testicular e tireóideo durante algumas fases do ciclo reprodutivo esteja relacionada à sensibilidade aumentada no período reprodutivo e à atividade metabólica.

  15. Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi / Mudanças na glândula tireóide durante o ciclo reprodutivo masculino em um morcego vespertilionídeo Scotophilus heathi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., KRISHNA; K., SINGH.

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as mudanças na glândula tireóide com o ciclo reprodutivo de S. heathi. A tireóide mostrou variação sazonal marcada em peso, quantidade de colóide e altura do epitélio folicular, sugerindo que esta glândula está inativa durante a quiescência e o torpor de in [...] verno e ativa durante o tempo de recrudescência e acasalamento, similarmente ao ciclo testicular. A concentração de tiroxina (T4) do plasma mostrou significantes mudanças sazonais com alta concentração durante o acasalamento e pós-acasalamento e baixa concentração durante a quiescência. Entretanto, a concentração plasmática de T4 aumentou da fase reprodutiva à pós-reprodutiva, quando o peso dos testículos estava se reduzindo. Sugere-se que, em S. heathi, a estreita correlação entre os ciclos testicular e tireóideo durante algumas fases do ciclo reprodutivo esteja relacionada à sensibilidade aumentada no período reprodutivo e à atividade metabólica. Abstract in english The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy a [...] nd active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4) concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during breeding and post-breeding and low concentration during quiescence. However, the T4 concentration increased from breeding to post-breeding phase, when the testes weight was declining. It is suggested that in S. heathi the positive correlation between thyroid and testicular cycles occurs only during the phases of the reproductive cycle when the body weight and testicular activity are also closely correlated.

  16. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kuan-Yin [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Lin, Cheng-Li [China Medical University Hospital, Management Office for Health Data, Taichung (China); China Medical University, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Huang, Wen-Sheng [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Yen, Ruoh-Fang [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2011. A total of 1,834 thyroid cancer patients treated with {sup 131}I therapy and 1,834 controls (thyroid cancer without {sup 131}I therapy) selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score were enrolled. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the effect of radiation from the {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of salivary and lacrimal gland impairment as well as second primary malignancies in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients treated with {sup 131}I therapy and in controls, the incidence rates of salivary gland dysfunction were 6.76 and 1.01 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 6.81, 95 % CI 0.74 - 55.3), the incidence rates of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) were 13.6 and 16.3 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.41 - 1.73), and the incidence rates of second primary malignancy were 76.7 and 62.4 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.88 - 1.72). The risk of salivary secretion impairment significantly increased with increasing administered doses (HR 14.3, 95 % CI 1.73 - 119.0). However, there was no increase in the incidence of KCS or secondary cancer in patients treated with higher doses. {sup 131}I therapy insignificantly increased the risk of salivary gland dysfunction and second primary malignancy. In patients with higher cumulative doses, an increase in the incidence of salivary gland dysfunction was observed. By contrast, we did not find an association between {sup 131}I treatment and KCS development. (orig.)

  17. Shear-Wave Elastography for the Preoperative Risk Stratification of Follicular-patterned Lesions of the Thyroid: Diagnostic Accuracy and Optimal Measurement Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Anthony E; Dhyani, Manish; Anvari, Arash; Prescott, Jason; Halpern, Elkan F; Faquin, William C; Stephen, Antonia

    2015-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for the diagnosis of malignancy in follicular lesions and to identify the optimal SWE measurement plane. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant, single-institution, prospective pilot study. Subjects scheduled for surgery after a previous fine-needle aspiration report of "atypia of undetermined significance" or "follicular lesion of undetermined significance," "suspicion for follicular neoplasm," or "suspicion for Hurthle cell neoplasm," were enrolled after obtaining informed consent. Subjects underwent conventional ultrasonography (US), Doppler evaluation, and SWE preoperatively, and their predictive value for thyroid malignancy was evaluated relative to the reference standard of surgical pathologic findings. Results Thirty-five patients (12 men, 23 women) with a mean age of 55 years (range, 23-85 years) and a fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (n = 16), suspicion for follicular neoplasm (n = 14), and suspicion for Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 5) were enrolled in the study. Male sex was a statistically significant (P = .02) predictor of malignancy, but age was not. No sonographic morphologic parameter, including nodule size, microcalcification, macrocalcification, halo sign, taller than wide dimension, or hypoechogenicity, was associated with malignancy. Similarly, no Doppler feature, including intranodular vascularity, pulsatility index, resistive index, or peak-systolic velocity, was associated with malignancy. Higher median SWE tissue Young modulus estimates from the transverse insonation plane were associated with malignancy, yielding an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.62, 1.00) for differentiation of malignant from benign nodules. At a cutoff value of 22.3 kPa, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 82%, 88%, 75%, and 91%, respectively, were observed. Conclusion This prospective pilot study indicates that SWE may be a valuable tool in preoperative malignancy risk assessment of follicular-patterned thyroid nodules. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:25955578

  18. Cirugía mínimamente invasiva de la glándula tiroides: Estudio experimental en el perro Minimally invasive surgery of the thyroid gland: Experimental study in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R Lucena

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar  si la lobectomía tiroidea video-asistida, realizada en el modelo canino, reduce el tiempo operatorio, el sangramiento, lesiones de las estructuras nerviosas, y mejora los resultados cosméticos de la cicatriz cervical, en comparación con la lobectomía convencional. Se intervinieron 36 perros adultos mestizos sanos, desparasitados, de ambos sexos, procedentes del bioterio del Instituto de Cirugía Experimental de la Universidad Central de Venezuela. Los animales fueron  asignados al azar simple, a dos grupos de estudio: lobectomía tiroidea convencional (LTC y lobectomía video - asistida (LTVA, sin insuflación de gas. Los resultados estéticos fueron evaluados por los cirujanos de acuerdo a una escala (excelentes, buenos, regulares y malos, observándose los mejores resultados (PA study was conducted to determine if the video-assisted lobectomy performed on a canine model, reduces surgical time, bleeding volume, nerve structures injuries; and improves the cosmetic results of the cervical scar, when compared to conventional lobectomy. Thirty-six adult crossbred dogs of either sex from the animal facility of the Institute of Experimental Surgery, Universidad Central de Venezuela were used. The animals were randomly allocated into two experimental groups: Group A: Eighteen dogs who underwent conventional thyroid lobectomy (CTL; Group B: Eighteen dogs who underwent video-assisted thyroid lobectomy (VATL without gas insulation. Cosmetic results were assessed by surgeons according to a scale, as follows: excellent, good, average, and bad. The results of the experiment show that dogs operated with the VATL technique exhibited significantly (P<0.05 the highest improvements (9.2±0.5, when compared to the CTL technique (5.8±0.7.  Surgical time lasted longer (P<0.001 in dogs under VATL (81±3 min than in dogs subjected to CTL (62±4 min. Bleeding volume was significantly higher in CTL (34±5 mL than in VATL (23±5 mL. No statistically significant differences were found regarding paralysis of vocal cords or surgical wound infections. The VATL is a valid alternative in conventional surgery, becoming a feasible and safe experimental model. Comparative and multicentric studies should be carried out in human subjects to determine both safety and efficacy of these techniques.

  19. Mielolipoma, una lesión quirúrgica poco frecuente de la glándula adrenal / Myelolipoma, a rare surgical lesion of the adrenal gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga, León González; Pablo, Pol Herrera; Pedro, López Rodríguez; Jorge, Satorre Rocha; Hiram, Rodríguez Blanco; Nicolás, Cruz García; Idania Teresa, Mora López.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El mielolipoma adrenal es un tumor benigno poco frecuente, compuesto de tejido adiposo maduro y elementos hematopoyéticos diversos. Estos tumores pueden localizarse en las glándulas adrenales aunque también pueden encontrarse en sitios extradrenales. Las manifestaciones clínicas son variadas tales c [...] omo sangramientos digestivos, dolor abdominal en los flancos, masa abdominal palpable, hematuria, hemorragia retroperitoneal y pérdida de peso. Entre los métodos diagnósticos figuran el ultrasonido, la tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética. La resección quirúrgica es el tratamiento de elección, sobre todo cuando haya sintomatología o en tumores mayores de 4 cm, por el riesgo de ruptura espontánea con hemorragia retroperitoneal. Presentamos la historia clínica de una paciente de 42 años de edad con antecedentes de dolores en hipocondrio derecho de aproximadamente un año de evolución, la cual sufrió un cólico nefrítico que cedió con tratamiento médico. Posteriormente en la consulta externa, en el examen físico, se constata una masa tumoral en hipocondrio derecho, la cual fue diagnosticada por ultrasonido y tomografía axial computarizada como un tumor adrenal. Se intervino la paciente y se confirma el diagnóstico. La evolución posoperatoria fue buena y la paciente continúa asintomática. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un nuevo caso de esta enfermedad, poco frecuente, la cual fue diagnosticada en una paciente de 42 años de edad y realizar una breve revisión de la literatura. Abstract in english Mielolipoma is a rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, which is formed by mature adipose tissue and several hematopoietic elements. They are generally located in the adrenal glands, although they can occur in other sites. The clinical manifestations are varied such as gastrointestinal bleeding, ab [...] dominal pain in the flanks, abdominal mass, retroperitoneal hemorrhage, hematuria and loss of weight. Among the diagnosing methods are ultrasound, computerized axial tomography and magnetic imaging resonance. The surgical excision is the treatment of choice, mainly when symptoms are present or in case of over 4 cm tumors, because of the spontaneous rupture risk with retroperitoneal hemorrhage. The objective of this paper was to present a new case of this rare disease together with a brief literature review. A 42 years-old female with a history of abdominal pain located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, who suffered nephritic colic that was successfully treated. The physical exam at the outpatient service revealed a tumorous mass diagnosed as adrenal tumor by means of ultrasound and axial computerized tomography. She was operated on and the diagnosis was confirmed. Her postoperative recovery was good and the patient is still asymptomatic.

  20. Mielolipoma, una lesión quirúrgica poco frecuente de la glándula adrenal / Myelolipoma, an infrequent surgical lesion of the adrenal gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto, Álvarez-Pertuz; Laura, Arroyo-Martínez; Jorge, Acuña-Calvo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El mielolipoma es un tumor benigno poco frecuente, compuesto de tejido adiposo maduro y elementos hematopoyéticos diversos, histológicamente similares a la médula ósea normal. Estos tumores se pueden localizar comúnmente en las glándulas adrenales, pero también en sitios extra adrenales. Puede encon [...] trarse como tumor único o múltiple, y es hormonalmente inactivo.¹ El origen del mielolipoma es desconocido y se han propuesto varias teorías. Los mielolipomas muestran una gran variedad de manifestaciones clínicas, tales como: sangrado digestivo, hematuria, dolor abdominal en los flancos, masa abdominal y pérdida de peso, entre otras. La incidencia de estos tumores en autopsias es del 0,08 al 0,2 %, gracias al US, la TAC y la RM, su hallazgo es mas frecuente hoy.² El diagnóstico es generalmente por exclusión, habiéndose descartado otras entidades suprarrenales. Entre los métodos diagnósticos figuran: la TAC, el US y la RM. La resección quirúrgica es el tratamiento de elección, cuando haya sintomatología; de lo contrario, un manejo conservador con controles periódicos del paciente será más que suficiente.³ Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 55 años, hipertensa, obesa y con un trastorno depresivo-ansioso, quien consultó por dolor abdominal, náuseas y vómitos. Abstract in english Myelolipoma is a non functioning benign tumor of the adrenal gland which is formed by hematopoietic and adipose tissue. The tumor was first described by Gierke in 1905, and named by Oberling in 1929. Most series consist of myelolipomas discovered incidentally at autopsy. They are generally located i [...] n the adrenal gland, although they can occur in other organs. Endocrine and/or metabolic disorders associated with AML include obesity, Type II Diabetes, congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21 or 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, Cushing’s disease, Conn’s syndrome, pheochromocytoma and polycystic ovarian disease. Myelolipomas are asymptomatic, but they may cause pain secondary to bleeding, hematuria or mass; when symptomatic, the most consistent complaint is abdominal pain caused by hemonhage within the tumor. Ultrasound combined with computed tomography is useful in diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis and treatment are accomplished by simple excision and histological repon; radical surgery is unneceSSary. We present here the case of a 55 years oId female who came in with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. After an abdominal ultrasound, an abdominal CI scan and eventually, surgical removal, an adrenal myelolipoma was found. She did well after surgery and remains asymptornatic.

  1. Dual ectopic thyroid: A case report with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ectopic thyroid gland is a rare entity which is mostly found along the line of descent of the thyroid gland. Most of the patients present with midline swelling and usually seek medical attention. Dual ectopic thyroid gland is even rarer. The clinical examination and different imaging modalities establish its diagnosis. Radionuclide studies are highly sensitive and specific in demonstrating the functional tissues in patients with ectopic thyroid, thereby guiding further management. The authors reported a case of ectopic thyroid gland in a girl with midline neck swelling initially, subsequently lost to follow-up. She again presented with enlarged swelling after a period of three years with dual ectopic thyroid in the neck region on thyroid scan. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated that progression in the size of ectopic glands was due to neglect in treatment.

  2. Profile of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Sri Lankans: Is There an Increased Risk of Ancillary Pathologies in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakanthi Vajira Illangakoon Ratnatunga; Eranga Himalee Siriweera

    2010-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been reported to be associated with many neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid pathologies. This retrospective study aims to determine the demographic profile of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Sri Lankans, document ancillary pathologies in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and determine whether there is an increased risk of occurrence of malignancies, benign neoplasms, and nonneoplastic benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis by comparing with thyroids showing multinodular goi...

  3. Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight gain Dry skin Often feeling cold and low body temperature Coarse, dry hair or hair loss Enlarged thyroid gland in the neck High cholesterol Dizziness Depression Muscle cramps Constipation Decreased concentration or difficulty remembering things Slowed heartbeat Yellowish skin ...

  4. Biophysical parameters of the oral fluid and cells of the buccal epithelium in children with diseases of the thyroid gland in the course of orthodontic treatment of maxillodental anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnik K.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid status disturbance may be reflected on the biological processes which underlie orthodontic tooth movement. Aim of research – to study state of the oral fluid and buccal epithelium cells (BEC in the course of a complex orthodontic treatment of children with thyroid gland diseases. In 79 children with a diffuse nontoxic goiter (DNG of the I-III degrees, stability of oral fluid pH (?pH, rate of mobile nuclei of BEC, ratio of electrophoretic displacement range of nuclei and plasmolemms was estimated. Estimation of corresponding parameters in the initial state, in 1, 3, 6 and 8 months after fixation of the fixed orthodontic apparatus was carried out. Children of the basic group according to pathology degree in addition received a prophylactic complex including preparations: “Vitrum Perfomens", "Teraflex", "Kalcicor", «Potassium iodide», «Echinacea compositum C», "Lizodent", "Osteobios". Ap¬plication of the prophylactic complex in orthodontic treatment of children with DNG prevented growth of ??? after fixation of brackets. Throughout all time of supervision it promoted reduction of this rate which slightly exceeded average rate for the given age of children in 8 months. Application of this prophylactic complex already in 1 month after fixation of brackets has raised quantity of mobile BEC nuclei by 44% and by 1,64 times has increased the relation of ranges of plasmolemms and nuclei displacement. In 8 months of supervision percent of mobile nuclei BEC and the relation of Apl/Aya in the basic group was by 2 times more, than in a comparison group, approaching to average rate. ?hildren with thyroid gland diseases need active treatment-and-prophylactic measures at stages of active apparatus treatment. The developed therapeutic complexes of orthodontic treatment of maxillo-dental anomalies in children with DNG allows to effectively support and improve functional reactions in the organism and in the oral cavity, compensating stressful action of fixed orthodontic apparatuses.

  5. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY OF HEAD AND NECK LESION IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmin H Jasani; Hetal V. Vaishnani; Parul N Vekaria; Dipmala Patel; Shah, Yash D.; Deval Patel; Nisarg Savjiani; Dhairya Lakhani

    2013-01-01

             FNAC is simple, quick, inexpensive and minimally invasive technique used to diagnose different types of swellings located in the head and neck most commonly originate from cervical lymph node, thyroid, parotid and salivary glands. Aims: To assess the frequency of incidences of different sites, age groups, sex and distribution among inflammation and neoplastic lesion. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted  between  Jun  2012 to Jun  2012. Fine needle aspiration dia...

  6. Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple nodules of the thyroid gland have developed in a Marshallese population 10 to 14 years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout The exposure occurred in 1954 when an unpredicted shift in winds caused deposition of fallout on several Marshall Islands east of Bikini Sixty four people received 175 rads of gamma radiation which proved to be sub lethal but resulted in early nausea and vomiting and significant depression of blood elements Exposure of the skin resulted m beta bums and epilation and there was significant internal absorption of fission isotopes from contaminated food and water The most serious internal exposure was from radioiodines (131I 132I 133I 135I) It was estimated that in addition to the gamma radiation the adult thyroid gland received 160 rads from radioiodines and the young children because of their considerably smaller glands an estimated 700 1400 rads Recovery of blood elements to nearly normal and healing of skin lesions with regrowth of hair was complete by one year These findings have been fully documented The most important late radiation effect has been the development of thyroid abnormalities Since 1963 a total of 20 cases have thus far been detected 17 in children exposed at less than 10 years of age (90% of that group) and 3 in adults Thyroid surgery on 11 children and 3 adults revealed that all had benign adenomatous nodules except for a mixed papillary and follicular carcinoma in a 40 year-old woman The benign nodules were similar to those associated with iodine deficiency but such deficiency was not apparent m the Marshallese who live largely on seafood However most pathologists could not distinguish definite radiation effects in the nodules Growth and development retardation in some of the exposed children is now clearly related to thyroid deficiency Two boys with the greatest growth retardation developed pronounced hypothyroidism with atrophy of their thyroid glands Treatment of the exposed group with thyroid hormone appears to be enhancing growth in the children and reduced nodule formation in a few cases Hopefully such treatment will also reduce the risk for development of thyroid cancer since this group undoubtedly has a higher risk for such malignancy Results of a medical survey of these people carried out in March 1969 are also presented. (author)

  7. Expression of tenascin in lymphocytic autoimmune thyroiditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Back, W.; Heubner, C; Winter, J; Bleyl, U

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To study the distribution of tenascin by immunocytochemistry in autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. METHODS: Thyroids from patients with inflammatory lesions of the thyroid (lymphocytic thyroiditis Hashimoto, Grave's disease, thyroiditis DeQuervain) were studied by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against tenascin, collagen III, and collagen IV. RESULTS: In autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis Hashimoto there was a characteristic corona-like staining pattern of tenascin around all act...

  8. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy Call?oglu, Elif; Bozdemir, Kaz?m; Ulusoy, Bulent; Oguzhan, Tolga; Korkmaz, M. Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first des...

  9. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Thyroid; Dose de tolerance des tissus sains: la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berges, O.; Giraud, P. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, universite Paris Descartes, 75 - Paris (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, CHU Henri-Mondor, universite Paris 12, 94 - Creteil (France)

    2010-07-15

    The thyroid is the most developed endocrine gland of the body. Due to its anatomical location, it may be exposed to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy involving head and neck. This review aims to describe the thyroid radiation disorders, probably under-reported in the literature, their risk factors and follow-up procedures. The functional changes after external beam radiation consists mainly of late effects occurring beyond 6 months, and are represented by the clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism. Its incidence is approximately 20 to 30% and it can occur after more than 25 years after radiation exposure. Hyperthyroidism and auto-immune manifestations have been described in a lesser proportion. The morphological changes consist of benign lesions, primarily adenomas, and malignant lesions, the most feared and which incidence is 0.35%. The onset of hypothyroidism depends of the total dose delivered to the gland, and the irradiated. Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity could improve the preservation of the thyroid, at the expense of the increase in low doses and the theoretical risk of secondary cancers. (authors)

  10. Chapter 3. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied

  11. Radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during digital subtraction angiography of arteries supplying the brain; Strahlenexposition der Augenlinse und der Schilddruese bei der digitalen Subtraktionsangiographie der hirnversorgenden Arterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, J.P.; Schleicher, C.; Soeldner, J.; Neumann, R.; Kaiser, W.A. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    1997-11-01

    Purpose: To find out the individual level of radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during DSA of arteries supplying the brain, considering the indication. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 72 patients during aortic arch and cerebral artery angiographies using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Results: During 20 aortic arch angiographies the measured values were within non-critical limits, whereas during carotid, vertebral or cerebral fourvessel angiography of the left ocular lens exposure values of more than 500 mGy (max. 782 mGy) were stated in two of 52 cases. The highest measured exposure relating to the right ocular lens was 126 mGy, to the thyroid gland 88 mGy. However, in 51 of 52 cases thyroid gland doses of below 51 mGy were measured. In 71 of 72 cases there was a lateral difference between right and left lens exposure up to twice the measured dose for the right ocular lens during aortic arch angiographies and up to sixteenfold in respect of the left lens during cerebral angiographies. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Ziel: Erfassung der individuellen Strahlenbelastung der Augenlinsen und der Schilddruese bei der DSA der hirnversorgenden Gefaesse unter Beruecksichtigung der Indikation. Material und Methode: An 72 Patienten mit Aortenbogen- und zerebralen Angiographien wurde die Strahlenbelastung der Augenlinsen und Schilddruese mittels Thermolumineszenzdosimetrie ermittelt. Ergebnisse: Lagen die Messwerte bei den 20 Aortenbogenangiographien in unkritischen Bereichen, zeigten sich bei der Karotis-, Vertebralis- bzw. zerebralen 4-Gefaess-Angiographie in zwei von 52 Faellen an der linken Augenlinse Expositionswerte ueber 500 mGy (Maximalwert 782 mGy). An der rechten Augenlinse betrug die hoechste Exposition 126 mGy und an der Schilddruese in einem Fall 88 mGy, wobei in 51 von 52 Faellen Schilddruesenwerte unter 51 mGy gemessen wurden. In 71 von 72 Faellen bestand eine Seitendifferenz der gemessenen Energiedosis bis zum 2fachen des Wertes an der rechten Augenlinse bei Aortenbogenangiographien und bis zum 16fachen des Wertes an der linken Augenlinse bei den zerebralen Angiographien. (orig./AJ)

  12. Correlation of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Findings with Thyroid Function Test in Cases of Lymphocytic Thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Sood; Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is the second most common thyroid lesion diagnosed on FNAC after goiter. FNAC is reliable tool in the diagnosis of thyroid lesion. Objective. To correlate FNAC cytologic findings with TFT in the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Methods. 175 patients with thyroid swellings were referred for FNAC as well as TFT during 2011–2013. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed using non-aspiration or aspiration techniques and TFT performed on Beckman culter acce...

  13. Pre-therapeutic {sup 124}I PET(/CT) dosimetry confirms low average absorbed doses per administered {sup 131}I activity to the salivary glands in radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentzen, Walter; Stahl, Alexander; Knust, Jochen; Bockisch, Andreas [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Hobbs, Robert F.; Sgouros, George [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Salivary gland impairment following high activity radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a severe side effect. Dosimetric calculations using planar gamma camera scintigraphy (GCS) with {sup 131}I and ultrasonography (US) provided evidence that the average organ dose per administered {sup 131}I activity (ODpA) is too low to account for observed radiation damages to the salivary glands. The objective of this work was to re-estimate the ODpA using {sup 124}I PET(/CT) as a more reliable approach than {sup 131}I GCS/US. Ten DTC patients underwent a series of six (or seven) PET scans and one PET/CT scan after administration of {proportional_to}23 MBq {sup 124}I-iodide. Volumes of interest (VOIs) drawn on the CT and serial PET images were used to determine the glandular volumes and the imaged {sup 124}I activities. To enable identical VOIs to be drawn on serial PET images, each PET was co-registered with the CT image. To correct for partial volume effect and for the artificial bias in the activity concentration due to cascading gamma coincidences occurring in {sup 124}I decay, the imaged activity was effectively corrected using isovolume recovery coefficients (RCs) based on recovery phantom measurements. A head-neck phantom, which contained {sup 124}I-filled spheres, was manufactured to validate the isovolume recovery correction method with a realistic patient-based phantom geometry and for a range of activity concentration regimes. The mean{+-}standard deviation (range) ODpA projected for {sup 131}I was calculated using the absorbed dose fraction method. The ODpAs (in Gy/GBq) for the submandibular and parotid glands were 0.32 {+-} 0.13 (0.18-0.55) and 0.31 {+-} 0.10 (0.13-0.46), respectively. No significant differences (p> 0.2) in the mean ODpA between {sup 124}I PET(/CT) and {sup 131}I GCS/US dosimetry was found. The validation experiment showed that the percentage deviations between RC-corrected and true activity concentrations were <10%. {sup 124}I PET(/CT) dosimetry also corroborates the low ODpAs to the salivary glands. A voxel-based calculation taking into account the nonuniform activity distributions in the glands is necessary to possibly explain the radiation-induced salivary gland damage. (orig.)

  14. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  15. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  16. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    OpenAIRE

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and con...

  17. Thyroid storm induced by trauma due to spear fishing?gun trident impaction in the neck

    OpenAIRE

    Delikoukos, Stylianos; Mantzos, Fotis

    2007-01-01

    A rare case of thyroid storm induced by thyroid gland injury because of penetrating neck trauma is reported. The injury was because of a spear fishing?gun trident impaction in the neck. The diagnosis of thyroid gland injury was suspected by preoperative clinical examination and established during neck exploration in the theatre. The gland injury led to thyroid storm owing to the rupture of acini and liberation of T4 into the bloodstream. Withdrawal of the impacted trident along with subtotal ...

  18. Isotopic imaging of thyroid ectopia in patients with congenital hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our studies was to determine the usefulness of various imaging techniques for localization of thyroid ectopia in patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). 50 patients with CH were observed. In each case the following studies were performed: serum thyroglobulin level, thyroid radioiodine uptake, scintigraphy using 99mTc and 131I and ultrasonography. Among 50 patients with CH were found: 18 cases (36%) of thyroid agenesis, 7 cases (14%) of thyroid hypoplasia and 25 patients (50%) with lingual thyroid ectopia. Thyroid radioiodine uptake in patients with thyroid ectopia ranged from 2% to 18%, serum thyroglobulin level was from 0.7 ng/ml to 12.8 ng/ml (mean value 6.6 ng/ml). Ultrasonography showed an absence of thyroid gland at its normal site, but its presence in the tongue. Lingual thyroid ectopia was oval or round, and its volume ranged from 0.17 to 1.38 cm3. The use of scintigraphy with 99mTc loads to its accumulation in the submaxillary salivary glands what can make difficult to detect thyroid ectopia. Scintigraphy of the neck and retrosternal area has not shown any thyroid tissue, but there were the accumulation of 131I in thyroid gland in the sublingual area. Conclusions: 1. Thyroid ectopia is a frequent cause of congenital hypothyroidism (in about 50% of all thyroid gland development abnormalities); 2. to detect lingual thyroid ectopia the best method is scintigraphy with 131I and ultrasonography. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  19. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: From Genes to the Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zaletel, Katja; Gaberš?ek, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is the most prevalent autoimmune thyroid disorder. Intrathyroidal lymphocytic infiltration is followed by a gradual destruction of the thyroid gland which may lead to subclinical or overt hypothyroidism. Biochemical markers of the disease are thyroid peroxidase and/or thyroglobulin autoantibodies in the serum which are present with a higher prevalence in females than in males and increase with age. Although exact mechanisms of aetiology and pathogenesis of the dis...

  20. Aspects of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The research into thyroid function has a long history. The recognition of goiter as pathology of the thyroid gland dates back to the ancient world of Rome and Greece and possibly even to the early history of chinese medicine. In an excellent review of the historical aspects of the discovery of thyroid hormones and their biological action (1) Pitt-Rivers describes the growing awareness of the significance of iodine for thyroid function early in the 19th century. The actual pr...

  1. Pictorial essay of developmental thyroid anomalies identified by Technetium thyroid scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Padma; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Developmental anomalies and anatomic variations of the thyroid gland in the general population with no known thyroid dysfunction usually goes unnoticed. Only those patients with neck swellings, incidentally detected hypo or hyperthyroidism, and those with a maternal history of hypothyroidism undergo screening for the thyroid gland. Neck ultrasound and scintigraphic techniques are the imaging tools routinely used to identify these anomalies. We present interesting technetium (Pertechnetate and sestaMIBI) scintigraphic images of adults and children who presented to our department with thyroid dysfunction showing developmental anomalies of the thyroid. PMID:26430316

  2. Pictorial essay of developmental thyroid anomalies identified by Technetium thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental anomalies and anatomic variations of the thyroid gland in the general population with no known thyroid dysfunction usually goes unnoticed. Only those patients with neck swellings, incidentally detected hypo or hyperthyroidism, and those with a maternal history of hypothyroidism undergo screening for the thyroid gland. Neck ultrasound and scintigraphic techniques are the imaging tools routinely used to identify these anomalies. We present interesting technetium (Pertechnetate and sestaMIBI) scintigraphic images of adults and children who presented to our department with thyroid dysfunction showing developmental anomalies of the thyroid

  3. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  4. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004

  5. Simultaneous occurrence of Graves’ disease in eutopic and ectopic thyroid tissues: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shoukat. H.; Rather, Tanveer A; Syed, Tajamul

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue an uncommon condition results from abnormal migration of the primitive thyroid bud. This may be the only functional thyroid. Ectopic thyroid tissue may sometimes coexist with the eutopic thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism in association with ectopic thyroid tissue is very uncommon. We report a rare case of simultaneous involvement of ectopic and eutopic thyroid tissue in a married women of 35 years who was referred to our department for a technetium 99m thyroid scan. Coexis...

  6. Irradiation-related thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Cancer Control and Rehabilitation of NCI has posted information for physicians with regard to irradiation-related thyroid cancer. A summary about late effects of radiation of head and neck in infancy and childhood points out that irradiation of the thyroid gland during various therapeutic regimens is now recognized as a possible cause of development of both benign and malignant thyroid tumors many years later. The often benign and slow growing tumors may develop up to 35 years after treatment. They can be removed surgically. The greatest problem is identifying persons who received radiation in childhood. Careful inspection and palpation of the gland are recommended. Radioisotope scans may be helpful since cold nodules are more likely to be carcinomas. If a nodule is suspected on palpation, administrating thyroid hormone may shrink the gland and make the nodule more prominent. Some feel that hormone given to asymptomatic patients with irradiation history may help prevent tumor development. At-risk individuals and those who have been treated surgically for thyroid malignancy should be examined every 1--2 years. Surgical exploration should be considered for thyroid nodules. The nuclear medical section of the Wilmington Medical Center has established a tumor registry for thyroid tumors and has recorded 96 patients who are being followed by a special thyroid registry. Recommendations concerning identification of patients at-risk, detection, and scintiscanning are given

  7. Usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in Locoregional Recurrence of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison PET/CT to PET and Neck Ultrasonography for Biopsy-proven Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Ho; Seo, Young Duk; Kim, Seong Min [Chungnam National University Hospital and College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shong, Min Ho [College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with neck ultrasonography (neck US) in patients with recurrent, papillary thyroid cancer. This retrospective study (December 2006 to April 2008) enrolled sixty-one patients (ninety-one lesions) who underwent high-dose {sup 131}I-ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy, and evaluated recurred papillary thyroid cancer. All lesions were confirmed by histopathology and compared histopathologic findings to PET, PET/CT, and neck US findings. In sixty-one patients (57 women, 4 men; age range, 24-81 years, mean 49 years; 61 papillary carcinomas), the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was 87.2%, 64.0%, 78.1% on a patient basis and 92.3%, 66.7%, 80.9% on a lesion basis, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET was 71.8% (p=0.03), 59.0% (p=1.00), 67.2% (p=0.03) on a patient basis and 78.8% (p<0.01), 64.1% (p=1.00), 72.5% (p=0.02) on a lesion basis, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of neck US was 71.1% (p=0.07), 52.2% (p=0.75), 63.9% (p=0.05) on a patient basis and 71.2% (p<0.01), 61.5% (p=1.00), 67.0% (p=0.06) on a lesion basis, respectively. Combined {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with neck US improved the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy to 94.7% (p=0.50), 82.6% (p=0.13), 90.2% (p=0.03) on a patient basis and 96.2% (p=0.50), 89.7% (p<0.01), 93.4% (p<0.01) on a lesion basis, respectively. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated significantly higher sensitivity than neck US for the detection of recurred papillary thyroid cancer lesions. Furthermore, combined {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with neck US showed more improved sensitivity, specificity, accuracy for diagnosis of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer.

  8. Incidencia del cáncer de tiroides en la consulta central de tiroides, últimos nueve años en Pinar del Río Incidence of cancer in the thyroid gland. Its behaviour at central medical consultation during 1998-2007 Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Iglesias Díaz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional clínico de caso paciente, retrospectivo, descriptivo y de corte transversal, en un universo de 679 enfermos intervenidos quirúrgicamente por afecciones de la glándula tiroides en " Hospital León Cuervo Rubio" , para evaluar la frecuencia con que se presenta el cáncer de tiroides en la consulta central de tiroides de Pinar del Río. Durante los últimos nueve años, se seleccionó una muestra de 104 portadores de cáncer de tiroides diagnosticados por la biopsia por parafina en el departamento de Anatomía patológica del mismo Hospital, entre los años 1999 al 2007. Se procesaron variables cualitativas y cuantitativas como número de casos por año, variedad histológica y otras, y se representaron en tablas y gráficos, se determinó que el 15% del universo sufre de cáncer de tiroides. El carcinoma bien diferenciado fue la variedad histológica que predominó (96 %, en ocasiones se asociaban con otras enfermedades, predominando la tiroiditis de Hashimoto, el indiferenciado toma valores por encima de lo normal con el 3,8 %, se refiere un caso de carcinoma folicular el resto se representa por la variedad papilar.A clinical, retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional case report study was carried out at "Leon Cuervo Rubio" General Hospital, taking a total of 679 patients who underwent a surgery of thyroid gland during the last 9 years. A sample of 104 patients who suffered from cancer of the thyroid was selected - being this corroborated by means of paraffin wax biopsies. These biopsies were performed at the Department of Anatomy in the institution during 1999-2007. Qualitative and quantitative variables and the figures of cases per year were processed, histological variety and other items were represented in tables and charts. 15% of the total of patients suffered from cancer of thyroid, histologically the differentiated carcinoma prevailed (96%, and sometimes it was associated with other diseases, mainly Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. The values of the undifferentiated carcinoma were over the normal (3, 8%, referring to a follicular one, the rest was represented for the papillary variety.

  9. Incidencia del cáncer de tiroides en la consulta central de tiroides, últimos nueve años en Pinar del Río / Incidence of cancer in the thyroid gland. Its behaviour at central medical consultation during 1998-2007 Pinar del Rio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys, Iglesias Díaz; Alfredo E, Lau López; Iván, García García.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional clínico de caso paciente, retrospectivo, descriptivo y de corte transversal, en un universo de 679 enfermos intervenidos quirúrgicamente por afecciones de la glándula tiroides en " Hospital León Cuervo Rubio" , para evaluar la frecuencia con que se presenta el cán [...] cer de tiroides en la consulta central de tiroides de Pinar del Río. Durante los últimos nueve años, se seleccionó una muestra de 104 portadores de cáncer de tiroides diagnosticados por la biopsia por parafina en el departamento de Anatomía patológica del mismo Hospital, entre los años 1999 al 2007. Se procesaron variables cualitativas y cuantitativas como número de casos por año, variedad histológica y otras, y se representaron en tablas y gráficos, se determinó que el 15% del universo sufre de cáncer de tiroides. El carcinoma bien diferenciado fue la variedad histológica que predominó (96 %), en ocasiones se asociaban con otras enfermedades, predominando la tiroiditis de Hashimoto, el indiferenciado toma valores por encima de lo normal con el 3,8 %, se refiere un caso de carcinoma folicular el resto se representa por la variedad papilar. Abstract in english A clinical, retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional case report study was carried out at "Leon Cuervo Rubio" General Hospital, taking a total of 679 patients who underwent a surgery of thyroid gland during the last 9 years. A sample of 104 patients who suffered from cancer of the thyroid was sel [...] ected - being this corroborated by means of paraffin wax biopsies. These biopsies were performed at the Department of Anatomy in the institution during 1999-2007. Qualitative and quantitative variables and the figures of cases per year were processed, histological variety and other items were represented in tables and charts. 15% of the total of patients suffered from cancer of thyroid, histologically the differentiated carcinoma prevailed (96%), and sometimes it was associated with other diseases, mainly Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. The values of the undifferentiated carcinoma were over the normal (3, 8%), referring to a follicular one, the rest was represented for the papillary variety.

  10. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Malignancies of the Thyroid and in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma : A Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Rohde, Max

    2015-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in a spectrum of malignant and benign conditions, because of a high sensitivity to detect even very small lesions with increased metabolism. This review focuses on the use of FDG-PET/CT in malignancies of the thyroid gland and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Congenital thyroid hemiagenesis with multinodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare form of thyroid dysgenesis characterized by an absence of half of the thyroid gland. Developmental hemi-thyroid anomalies can result from either an abnormal descent or an agenesis of one lobe of the thyroid gland. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman with history of a longstanding gradually progressive thyroid swelling without any complication. An ultrasonographic examination diagnosed the absence of the left thyroid lobe and enlargement of the right lobe, which was confirmed on a computed tomography (CT) angiogram and a radionuclide scan of the neck. A cytological examination showed nodular goiter with cystic degeneration. Right subtotal thyroidectomy was performed and histopathological examination confirmed adenomatous goiter with degenerative changes. We report the rarity of the condition and emphasize the role of a comprehensive radiological, cytological, and radionuclide algorithm for an accurate preoperative diagnosis and subsequent management

  12. The chronic autoimmune thyroiditis quality of life selenium trial (CATALYST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Watt, Torquil; Bjørner, Jakob Bue; Cramon, Per; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Gluud, Christian; Gram, Jeppe; Grønvold, Mogens; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Knudsen, Nils; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis have impaired health-related quality of life. The thyroid gland has a high selenium concentration, and specific selenoprotein enzyme families are crucial to immune function, and catalyze thyroid hormone metabolism and redox processes in thyroid cells. Previous randomized controlled trials have found that selenium supplementation decreases thyroid-disease-specific antibody levels. We hypothesize that selenium might be beneficial in the treatment of chr...

  13. The chronic autoimmune thyroiditis quality of life selenium trial (CATALYST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Watt, Torquil; Bjørner, Jakob Bue; Cramon, Per; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Gluud, Christian; Gram, Jeppe; Groenvold, Mogens; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Knudsen, Nils; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis have impaired health-related quality of life. The thyroid gland has a high selenium concentration, and specific selenoprotein enzyme families are crucial to immune function, and catalyze thyroid hormone metabolism and redox processes in thyroid cells. Previous randomized controlled trials have found that selenium supplementation decreases thyroid-disease-specific antibody levels. We hypothesize that selenium might be beneficial in the trea...

  14. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules.

  15. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Ji Sang; Lee, Heon [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules.

  16. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a case report and literature review = MALT linfoma della tiroide: caso clinico e revisione della letteratura

    OpenAIRE

    Pulighe, Fabio; PALIOGIANNIS, PANAGIOTIS; Pisano, Ilia Patrizio; Attene, Federico; Scognamillo, Fabrizio; Trignano, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are low-grade, non-Hodgkin’s B cell lymphomas, mainly occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, but also in other tissues. We describe the management of a patient with hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal compressive symptoms and chest tightness affected by a thyroid MALT lymphoma. The patient underwent debulking thyroidectomy and temporary tracheostomy in order to reduce dysphonia and dysphagia, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently...

  17. Cancer and non-cancer diseases of the thyroid gland and their dose dependence in children and adolescents affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 30,000 children and adolescents from four rayons of Brayansk oblast and from three rayons of Kaluga oblast have been examined. The cohort is being followed up dynamically. An age dependence of the radiation doses to the thyroid was clearly detected. The largest doses were found to be in children under 3 years old. Three per cent of children received doses above 200 cGy. 5 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99mTc-pertechnetate scans or 123I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.)

  19. The effect of dried thyroid gland pretreatment upon survival, formation of endogenous spleen colonies and differentiation of haemopoietic cell populations in X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on non-inbred H-strain male mice confirmed that their radioresistance could be increased by a stimulatory action of thyroid hormones applied for three weeks preceding radiation It was found that the 30-day survival after 750 R increased between the 1st and the 5th days after the end of pre-treatment. The highest degree of radioresistance was observed when the radiation exposure fell into a phase of the gradual recession of an increased metabolic rate. The relevant experimental groups showed a higher frequency of endogenous spleen colonies and an increased granulocytic differentiation of haemopoietic stem cells. A higher colony-forming activity was also found in animals irradiated immediately after the termination of pre-treatment with the thyroid, but without an increase in survival. The lack of radioprotective effect under those circumstances could be explained by a persisting hypermetabolic effect of the thyroid, and by the fact that an increased proportion of haemopoietic stem cells underwent differentiation into the erythroid line. (author)

  20. Thyroid carcinoma presenting as a dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mehdi Tazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion. Case Report: We report a case of a 41-year old man presented with a solid mass located in the left temporo-occipital region. The 3D computed tomography showed a large solid mass with high vascularity, skull erosion and supra-infratentorial epidural mass effect. After magnetic resonance imaging (MRI a suspect diagnosis of meningioma was made. The patient underwent surgery where a soft mass with transverse sinus invasion was encountered; the tumour was successfully resected employing microsurgical techniques. Histological examination revealed a thyroid follicular neoplasm with positive staining for follicular carcinoma in immunohistochemical analysis. Postoperatively levels of thyroid hormones were normal. Treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, patient receiving 6 courses of chemotherapy including paclitaxel. Conclusions: The present case emphasizes that although they are uncommon, dural metastasis can be mistaken for meningiomas. The definitive diagnosis of a meningioma should be established only after the histopathological analysis. Thyroid follicular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of extrinsic tumoral lesions.

  1. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients with invasive tumors or extensive lymph node involvement, in patients requiring a second thyroid surgery, and ... the lower front of the neck. The thyroid’s job is to make thyroid hormones, which are secreted ...

  2. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jyothis T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered when evaluating the cause of hyperthyroidism. Early diagnosis and treatment of such adenomas is critical in reducing neurological and endocrine complications.

  3. Nuclear accidents and thyroid - a stitch in time saves nine!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid is a hormone secreting gland located superficially in the neck anterior to the trachea and below the thyroid cartilage. The normal adult gland weighs 15-20 g. Thyroid needs iodine to produce hormones that regulate body's energy and metabolism. It absorbs available iodine from the bloodstream. It cannot distinguish between stable iodine and radioactive iodine. In the event of nuclear accident huge amount of radioactive iodine (Iodine-131) will be released in the atmosphere. This will contaminate soil, plants, vegetables, water bodies etc. People residing in the vicinity will get radioactive iodine by inhalation and consuming contaminated food, water and milk. This radioactive iodine will saturate the thyroid gland. In neonates, infants and young children the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive parts of the body. When thyroid cells absorb too much radioactive iodine, it can cause thyroid cancer over several years after the exposure. Neonates, infants and young children are at highest risk of developing thyroid cancer at a later stage in life. Incidence of thyroid cancer goes up in the native population after the nuclear reactor accident. Most of the thyroid cancers are papillary carcinomas and usually amenable to treatment with 10 year survival rate. It is believed that post nuclear accident carcinomas are more aggressive as compared to the usual papillary ca. Thyroid gland is at greatest risk from radioactive iodine and potassium iodide can protect the gland, if given as per the recommended dose schedule. The Chernobyl reactor accident and events around that time have proven beyond doubt that potassium iodide protects the gland. Thus, its proper use in rescue workers and survivors could effectively protect thyroid gland and prevent thyroid cancer. (author)

  4. Evaluación ultrasonográfica de la tiroides en crías de vacas lecheras tratadas con yodo en el preparto / Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland in offspring of dairy cows supplemented with iodine during the prepartum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Noro; P, Araneda; LM, Mieres; H, Rudorf; R, Chihuailaf; F, Wittwer.

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar ultrasonográficamente el tamaño de la glándula tiroides y la ganancia de peso de terneros crías de vacas suplementadas con yodo (I) en el preparto. Se utilizaron 14 terneros Holstein-Friesian, crías de 7 vacas suplementadas con I a los 7 meses de gestación (I-S [...] , 1,6 g/vaca, Lipiodol®) y de 7 vacas no suplementadas (I-C), pastoreando praderas con bajo contenido de I. A todos los terneros se les realizó un examen ultrasonográfico de la glándula tiroides a los 36 y 128 (± 7,5) días de edad y se determinó el peso y la ganancia diaria de peso (GPD) desde el nacimiento hasta los 26 y 110 (± 7,5) días de edad. El grosor del istmo de la tiroides a los 36 días de edad fue similar entre grupos (P > 0,05), disminuyendo a los 128 días de edad de forma más marcada en el grupo I-C (P 0,05). Los pesos y las GPD de ambos grupos fueron similares. Se concluye que una suplementación con I durante el preparto a vacas mantenidas a pastoreo sobre praderas con bajo contenido de I condicionó en sus crías un menor tamaño del lóbulo izquierdo de la glándula tiroides, sin alterar su peso o la GPD. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to determine the size of the thyroid gland and the weight gain of calves born from dairy cows supplemented with iodine (I) during prepartum. Fourteen Holstein-Friesian calves were used. They were born from 7 cows supplemented with a single dose of I (I-S, 1.6 g/cow, Lipiodol [...] ®) at seven month of pregnancy and 7 non supplemented cows (I-C). Cows grazed a low I content pasture (0.19ppm) until calving. The thyroid gland of the calves was examined by ultrasonography at days 36 and 128 (± 7.5) of age. Calves were weighted at 26 and 110 (± 7.5) days of age and the daily weight gain (DWG) was determined. The thickness of the isthmus of the thyroid at 36 days of age were similar between groups (P > 0.05). A reduction in thickness was observed in both groups at 128 days, more pronounced in I-C group (P 0.05) in both periods. Calves of both groups had a similar weight and DWG at 36 and 128 days of age. It was concluded that a single supplementation with I for pregnant dairy cows grazing a low iodine content pasture induced a reduction in the growth of the left lobule of the thyroid in their offspring without affecting the growth of the calves.

  5. Imaging and Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Young; Hong, HyunSook; Lee, Eun Hye; Yi, Beom Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Hwa [Dept. of Labortory Medicine and Genetics, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Eun Suk [Dept. of Pathology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate clinical and imaging features of pediatric thyroid cancer, including BRAF'V{sup 600E} mutation status in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We evaluated clinical findings including BRAF''6{sup 00E} status, ultrasound (US), and CT features of 13 pediatric patients with thyroid cancer. US findings were retrospectively analyzed for location, presence of a nodule, echotexture, echogenicity, calcifications, margin, shape, intranodular vascularity and abnormal lymph nodes. CT characteristics of the lesions, including attenuation, calcification, and measured degree of enhancement, were assessed. The patients included three boys and ten girls with a mean age of 15.5 years (range 6-18 years). No patient was exposed to radiation. Palpable neck mass was the most common presentation. Eleven of 13 patients (84.6%) were diagnosed with PTC, and two (15.4%) had follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). Nine of 13 (69.2%) had high T-staging. BRAF{sup V600E} mutations were detected in 30.0% of PTC patients. A diffusely enlarged thyroid with calcifications (n = 2) or nodules (n = 7) was detected on US. All PTC nodules showed malignant US findings and one FTC displayed on indeterminate nodule. Nodules generally showed low attenuation on enhanced CT (n = 11/12). US demonstrated enlarged glands with calcifications or nodules. Diffusely enlarged thyroids with microcalcifications should be evaluated using fine-needle aspiration. A low attenuation nodule was a common finding on enhanced CT.

  6. A Screening Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases among Individuals Exposed in Utero to Iodine-131 from Chernobyl Fallout

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, M; Brenner, A; BOGDANOVA, T; Derevyanko, A.; Kuptsova, N.; Likhtarev, I; Bouville, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Kovgan, L.; Shpak, V; Ostroumova, E.; Greenebaum, E; Zablotska, L; Ron, E.(); Tronko, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Like stable iodine, radioiodines concentrate in the thyroid gland, increasing thyroid cancer risk in exposed children. Data on exposure to the embryonic/fetal thyroid are rare, raising questions about use of iodine 131 (I-131) in pregnant women. We present here estimated risks of thyroid disease from exposure in utero to I-131 fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

  7. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-01-01

    A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and ...

  8. Effect of conjugated equine estrogens and tamoxifen administration on thyroid gland histomorphology of the rat / Os efeitos dos estrogênios conjugados equinos e do tamoxifeno na histomorfologia da glândula tireóide de ratas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Felipe Bittencourt de, Araujo; José Maria, Soares Jr; Ricardo Santos, Simões; Pedro Luiz, Calió; Ricardo Martins, Oliveira-Filho; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Mauro Abi, Haidar; Edmund C., Baracat.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação dos estrogênios conjugados eqüinos e do tamoxifeno na histomorfologia da tireóide de ratas. MÉTODO: Estrogênios conjugados eqüinos são ministrados clinicamente como terapia estrogênica e contêm formulação complexa com muitos tipos de estrogênios que diminuem os sintomas da p [...] ós-menopausa. Trinta ratas adultas ooforectomizadas foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos: GI - veículo (propilenoglicol); GII - ECE 200 µg/Kg por dia; e GIII - TAM 1 mg/Kg por dia. Acrescentou-se ainda um grupo de 10 animais com os ovários intactos e tratados com veículo (GIV). Todos os animais foram tratados por gavagem durante 50 dias consecutivos, ao final foram coletadas amostras do sangue e a tireóide removida e processada para análise morfológica e imunohistoquímico para avaliar o PCNA. RESULTADOS: A maior altura das células foliculares foi observada nos animais tratados com ECE (14,90 ± 0,20 µm), TAM (14,90 ± 0,10 µm) e no grupo com ovários intactos (15,10 ± 0,50 µm), comparando-se aos controles ovariectomizados (GI) (9,90 ± 0,20 µm) (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of the conjugated equine estrogens and tamoxifen on the morphology of thyroid gland in ovariectomized (OVx) rats. METHODS: Conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), clinically used as estrogen therapy, is a complex formulation containing multiple [...] estrogens that decrease menopausal symptoms. Thirty ovariectomized rats were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups: GI, vehicle (propylene glycol); GII, CEE 200 µg/kg per day; and GIII, tamoxifen 1 mg/kg per day. Another group of 10 rats with intact ovaries (GIV) was included, treated with the vehicle, and sacrificed during estrous. All animals were treated by gavage for 50 days, after which they were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected, and the thyroid was removed for morphological analysis and PCNA evaluation through immunohistochemical study. RESULTS: The thyroid follicular cell height was increased in animals treated with CEE (14.90 ± 0.20 µm), with TAM (14.90 ± 0.10 µm), and in rats with intact ovaries (15.10 ± 0.50 µm) in comparison to that of the vehicle group (9.90 ± 0.20 µm) (P

  9. Thyroid nodules, polymorphic variants in DNA repair and RET-related genes, and interaction with ionizing radiation exposure from nuclear tests in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Land, Charles E; Bhatti, Parveen; Pineda, Marbin; Brenner, Alina; Carr, Zhanat; Gusev, Boris I.; Zhumadilov, Zhaxibay; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Rutter, Joni L; Ron, Elaine; Struewing, Jeffery P.

    2009-01-01

    Risk factors for thyroid cancer remain largely unknown except for ionizing radiation exposure during childhood and a history of benign thyroid nodules. Because thyroid nodules are more common than thyroid cancers and are associated with