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Sample records for thyroid gland lesions

  1. Chronic dietary exposure to environmental organochlorine contaminants induces thyroid gland lesions in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Leifsson, Pall S; Iburg, Tine; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even H

    2009-08-01

    The impact of dietary organochlorine (OC) exposure on thyroid gland pathology was studied in farmed male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus). The exposed group (n=16) was fed a diet based on wild minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber as a main fat source in order to mimic the exposure to OC cocktails in the Artic environment. This resulted in an exposure of approximately 17 microg Sigma OC/kg day and a Sigma OC residue adipose tissue and liver concentration of 1700 and 4470 ng/gl.w., respectively, after 16 months of exposure. Control foxes (n=13) were fed a diet with pork (Sus scrofa) fat as a main fat source containing significantly lower OC concentrations. The food composition fed to the control and exposed group was standardized for nutrient contents. Four OC-related histopathological changes were found: (1) flat-epithelial-cell true thyroid cysts (TC) characterized by neutral content; (2) remnants of simple squamous epithelial-cell embryonic ducts containing neutral debris (EDN); (3) remnants of stratified squamous epithelial-cell embryonic ducts containing acid mucins often accompanied with debris of leukocyte inflammatory nature (EDM) and (4) disseminated thyroid C-cell hyperplasia (HPC). Of these, the prevalence of TC, EDN and HPC was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi(2) test: all p<0.04). The study shows that the OC mixture in minke whale blubber may cause development of thyroid gland cysts, C-cell hyperplasia and increase the prevalence of cystic remnants of embryonic ducts. The mechanism causing these effects could include endocrine disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, a disturbance of the calcium homeostasis/metabolism or energy metabolism or immune suppression. Because concentrations of OCs are higher in wild Arctic foxes, it is likely that these animals could suffer from similar OC-induced thyroid gland pathological and functional changes. PMID:19464679

  2. MORPHOGENESIS OF THE THYROID GLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Fagman, Henrik; Nilsson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Congenital hypothyroidism is mainly due to structural defects of the thyroid gland, collectively known as thyroid dysgenesis. The two most prevalent forms of this condition are abnormal localization of differentiated thyroid tissue (thyroid ectopia) and total absence of the gland (athyreosis). The clinical picture of thyroid dysgenesis suggests that impaired specification, proliferation and survival of thyroid precursor cells and loss of concerted movement of these cells i...

  3. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  4. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

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    ... the Thyroid Gland Do? Share: What Does the Thyroid Gland Do? November 2012 Download PDFs English Editors ... body, where they do their work. Why are thyroid hormones important? Thyroid hormones help all your organs ...

  5. Carcinosarcoma of the Thyroid Gland

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    Ekici, Mehmet Fatih; Kocak, Cengiz; Bayhan, Zülfü; Zeren, Sezgin; Yaylak, Faik; Metineren, Mehmet Hüseyin; Kocak, Fatma Emel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Surgeon has significant role in the management of such rare and controversial clinical entities related to thyroid gland. In this case report we have presented an elderly patient with rapid enlargement in thyroid that was related to carcinosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 60-year-old lady was presented with rapid enlargement of the thyroid gland. A fine needle aspiration of the nodule in right lobe was performed several weeks before presentation to our clinic. End diagnosis was a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with spindle cell component. Thus the nodule was recognized to be a carcinosarcoma. Conclusion. Thyroid surgery merits a multidisciplinary approach. Indeed the surgeon should make a conclusive decision in some controversial and rare clinical entities such as carcinosarcoma. PMID:25705539

  6. Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.

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    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography. PMID:24504764

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will offer ... than an enlarged thyroid, but your question has any connection to the thyroid gland, Dr. T will ...

  8. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Mat Zain, Anani Aila; Mohamad, Irfan; Balasubramanian, Anusha; Che Jalil, Nur Asyilla

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland either primary or metastatic is extremely rare. However, MEC is the most common malignant tumour of the salivary glands with the majority originating from the parotid gland. We report the case of a 54-year-old Malay lady who presented with recurrent MEC affecting the thyroid gland two years after being treated for primary parotid MEC.

  9. Thyroid gland removal

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    ... have tests that show exactly where the abnormal thyroid growth is located. This will help the surgeon find the growth during surgery. You may have a CT scan , ultrasound , or other imaging tests. Your doctor may ...

  10. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  11. Ectopia of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of ectopic thyroid is presented. The differential diagnosis of this pathology with the tumors in the base of the tongue, including euthyroid patients is related. The most outstanding feature is that the diagnosis is easily made by cintilography with iodine or technetium. The hormonal studies (T3, T4) usually are inefficient to establish the diagnosis. (Author)

  12. Scintigraphic Diagnosis of Ectopic Thyroid Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a relatively rare condition and developmental anomaly characterized by an aggregates of thyroid tissue in the midline anywhere from the base of the tongue to the mediastinum. The role of ectopic thyroid in the pathogenesis of nongoitrous sporadic cretinism and primary hypothyroidism has been emphasized. Since previous case report of sublingual thyroid, we have recently experienced additional two cases of sublingual thyroid and one case of prelaryngeal thyroid gland, which were diagnosed by scintigraphic method. We wish to report these four cases of primary hypothyroidism with ectopic thyroid with emphasis on role of scintigraphy in detection of these unusual condition.

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage and ... This shows some of the structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, the nerves to ...

  14. Thyroid Gland Hematoma After Blunt Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Saylam, Baris; Comcali, Bulent; Ozer, Mehmet Vasfi; Coskun, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Hemorrhage of a previously normal thyroid gland as a result of blunt trauma is a very rare condition. We report a case of blunt trauma that caused acute hemorrhage into the thyroid gland and presented with hoarseness. The diagnosis of thyroid gland hematoma was made with a combination of fiberoptic laryngoscopy, cervical computed tomography, and carotid angiography. The patient was treated conservatively, had a favorable course without further complications, and was discharged four days after...

  15. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds. PMID:21120907

  16. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoki? Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  17. Thyroid gland pigmentation and minocycline therapy.

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    Gordon, G; Sparano, B M; Kramer, A W; Kelly, R G; Iatropoulos, M J

    1984-10-01

    Thyroid pigments in black thyroid glands from minocycline-treated patients were compared by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis with minocycline-induced pigment in thyroid glands of laboratory animals, and with naturally occurring lipofuscins in untreated laboratory animals and humans. All thyroid samples examined contained nonbirefringent, Schmorl-positive pigment. However, the pigments in black thyroids from minocycline-treated patients resembled lipofuscins of untreated humans since both fluoresced and were Ziehl-Neelsen- and Sudan IV-positive. Minocycline induced pigment in rats was nonfluorescent and Ziehl-Neelsen- and Sudan IV-negative. Ultrastructurally, pigments in black thyroid glands of minocycline-treated humans resembled lipofuscins in untreated humans, and initial elemental analyses yielded similar spectra. Repeated analyses of the most electron-dense pigment deposits yielded spectra that resembled those of minocycline-induced pigment in laboratory animals-ie, both contained calcium. Black thyroid glands associated with minocycline administration contained predominantly lipofuscins with a small amount of another, possibly minocycline-related pigment. The absence of functional changes in patients and animals given minocycline suggests that discoloration of the thyroid gland associated with minocycline administration is innocuous. This is further supported by the lack of documented changes in thyroid physiology in patients that have received tetracyclines for a variety of indications in the last 30-odd years since their introduction to therapy. PMID:6435454

  18. Thyroid Gland Hematoma After Blunt Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saylam, Baris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage of a previously normal thyroid gland as a result of blunt trauma is a very rare condition. We report a case of blunt trauma that caused acute hemorrhage into the thyroid gland and presented with hoarseness. The diagnosis of thyroid gland hematoma was made with a combination of fiberoptic laryngoscopy, cervical computed tomography, and carotid angiography. The patient was treated conservatively, had a favorable course without further complications, and was discharged four days after admission.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:247-249.

  19. [Primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibnou Soufyane, N; Chadli, A; El Ghomari, H; Essodegui, F; Marouan, F; El Farouqi, A; Ababou, M R; Kafih, M

    2002-06-01

    Malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease generally occurring women in the 6(th) or 7(th) decade of life. The principal clinical sign is giant goiter rapidly leading to sings of compression, raising the question of differential diagnosis with anaplastic cancer. The radiological findings in our patient were suggestive of malignancy due to the locoregional invasion. Immunohistochemistry study of the surgical specimen was required to reach the definitive diagnosis of thyroid gland primary lymphoma. Diagnosis of malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland made at the stage of extensive locoregional extension compromises prognosis. Our patient died after one session of chemotherapy. PMID:12193880

  20. Pyrazole-induced thyroid necrosis: a distinct organ lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, S; Horbath, E; Kovacs, K; Larsen, P R

    1978-03-17

    One oral dose of pyrazole caused necrosis of rat thyroid follicular epithelial cells but spared the parafollicular (C) cells and the parathyroid glands. Serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were significantly decreased on day 3 after pyrazole administration and were immeasurable on day 5. At day 5 the thyroid was enlarged and the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum was increased, indicating an appropriate pituitary response to a primary lesion in the thyroid. Doses of pyrazole which produced no morphologic change in the thyroids also significantly depressed the concentrations of T4 and T3 in the serum. PMID:628835

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage and the muscles surrounding ... particular, the nerves to the vocal cords, the trachea, the carotid artery, and the jugular veins. Some ...

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ... what does that do? In certain types of cancers if there is concern that there may be ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... be malignant, and so we’re trying to prevent her from having a nodule that is cance ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea ... to show you is the difference between a normal endotracheal tube, which is something like this. It’s ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... will see every moment of this procedure as it takes place over the course of the next ... picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage ...

  6. Solitary Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Ridal, M.; Ouattassi, N.; Harmouch, T.; Amarti, A.; Alami, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon condition. Up to date, its clinical pathological features are not fully understood. We present a case of an extramedullary nonmucosal plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland which is the first case with regional metastatic lymph nodes. This condition requires a scrupulous survey to rule out a metastatic multiple myeloma. Although localized forms management is still controversial, authors require combined approach for regio...

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Babouk, Nasrat L.

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT A solitary fibrous tumor is a mesenchymal neoplasm originally described in the pleura. Subsequently, it was found to exist in many extra-pleural sites including the thyroid gland. Herein, we report a case of solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland associated with symptoms of hoarseness of voice in a 45-year-old man. In this report we discuss and illustrate various aspects of this rare tumor including, the gross macroscopic appearance, the histological findings, the immunohisto...

  8. Hemiagenesis of the thyroid gland and T3 hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Luiza K.; Dib, Sergio A.; Russo, Ewaldo M. K.; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Chacra, Antonio R.

    1982-01-01

    A patient with hemiagenesis of the thyroid gland who presented with T3 toxicosis is described. The diagnosis of thyroidal hemiagenesis was established through the administration of thyroid stimulating hormone and a thyroid scintiscan.

  9. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

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    ... of Ultrasound of the Thyroid? What is an Ultrasound of the Thyroid? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ... of page What are the limitations of an Ultrasound of the Thyroid? If one or more nodules ...

  10. Lesions of the Bartholin gland: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S; Bean, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Most lesions of the Bartholin gland are cysts or abscesses. Clinicians are taught that lesions of the Bartholin gland occurring in older women should raise the differential diagnosis of malignancy, although these are uncommon. A variety of more unusual and rare lesions of the Bartholin gland have been reported. This review focuses on these less common entities, which must be considered as well when encountering pathology of the Bartholin gland. PMID:24914884

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... how the thyroid functions in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its ... is this the same procedure that would take place had she been given a diagnosis of a cancerous ... would have involved more extensive work; is that not correct? She would have had ...

  12. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?aparevi? Zorica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland can be defined as a lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland. Lymphomas of the thyroid gland represent less than 5% of primary thyroid neoplasms and are two to three times more common in women than in men, whereas the median age is usually close to 60 years. Majority of thyroid lymphomas are diffuse, large-cell lymphomas. The incidence of thyroid lymphomas in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis has markedly increased and this phenomenon is probably related to their pathogenesis. Clinical presentation Unlike most other thyroid neoplasms, lymphomas are usually rapidly enlarging masses and local symptoms are common: pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea or stridor. Diagnosis To evaluate the extent of disease, a chest x-ray and CT scans of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are necessary. An excisional or large-needle biopsy may also be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. Occasionally, these tumors can be confused with anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which can lead to serious mistakes in management. A gallium scan or a positron emission tomography (PET scan can help later to establish whether any residual abnormality, observed on x-ray studies after treatment, contains active lymphoma or scar tissue. After diagnosis, patients are clinically staged (without surgery using appropriate computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy Assessment of the extent of thyroid lymphomas is crucial for prognosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy may improve the prognosis in patients with intrathyroidal disease only. It is very important to identify patients with favorable prognostic factors and to treat them with standard chemotherapy (CHOP and radiotherapy protocols. Patients with diffuse large-cell primary thyroid lymphomas should not be treated with radiation therapy alone. Conclusion The best treatment results for malignant lymphomas of the thyroid gland are achieved using a combined-modality therapy.

  13. [Quantitative static scintigraphy of the thyroid gland].

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    Borota, R; Babi?, L; Curi?, N

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a static scintigram computer processed by the Siemens-Euromeni method which gives rather accurate parameters concerning the overall functional thyroid tissue mass, as well as functions of a certain thyroid gland node. It facilitates the calculation of the dimensions of the right-angled field which borders the thyroid gland (cm), radioactivity uptake (% of a given dose) in the whole gland, left and right lobe, the ratio between the left and right lobe uptake, the surface (cm2) of the whole gland and of the left and right lobe, the ratio between the left and right lobe surfaces, the number of impulses (imp) registered in the whole gland and in the left and right lobe, the volume (cm3) of the whole gland and of the left and right lobe, the ratio between the left and right lobe volume, as well as the surface and radioactivity uptake (% of a given dose and % of the total uptake) in the marked nodes. An additional calculation could offer an uptake ratio per surface unit between the node and paranodal tissue which, by the use of suppression tests offers a very accurate assessment of the function and compensation of each node. The method represents a significant contribution to an accurate assessment of the functional mass as well as to the assessment of nodal changes of the thyroid gland. PMID:1821446

  14. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

  15. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-99m MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO-4) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO-4) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO-4 subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: -4 subtraction methods are commonly applied. The thyroid gland was not visualized on Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy of suppressed thyroid tissue in a study by Turkolmez et al.. It should be taken into account that sometimes we may not be able to visualize a normal thyroid gland, and in these cases we might encounter suboptimal visualization in T1-201 subtraction method as well. Erdil et al. foun that Tl-201 is superior to Tc-99m MIBI in the visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue with a toxic thyroid nodule. Kiratli et al. mentioned decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the thyroid gland in hemodialysis patients. However, no patient presented an absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in the thyroid gland with secondary hyperthyroidism. In this case, the thyroid was not suppressed and the TcPO-4 scan thyroid gland was normal, but the thyroid gland was not visualized with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, and Tl-201 accumulation in the thyroid gland was not sufficient. To the best of our knowledge, from a search of the published literature, there has been no case like this previously reported

  16. Leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamid; Gaye, Macoumba; Errihani, Hassan; Kettani, Fouad; Gueddari, Brahim El

    2008-03-01

    The existence of primary thyroid sarcomas represents a contentious issue. Some authors believe that thyroid sarcomas are, in fact, anaplastic carcinomas with sarcomatous (spindle cell) features. From the standpoint of treatment and prognosis, the histogenesis of thyroid 'sarcomas' is academic, because these tumors, irrespective of the therapeutic intervention, are lethal 1. Primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare. Only nine isolated cases have been reported in the literature and such tumors carry a very poor prognosis [1-7] . PMID:18274920

  17. High Resolution Real Time Sonography of the Thyroid Gland

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    A. Honarbakhsh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: High-resolution sonography equipment permits for visualization of normal and abnormal thyroid gland with or without gel pad or water bath. This study prospectively presents surgically and pathologically proved patients with thyroid disease by direct ultrasound with or without Doppler (pulse, color, power Doppler."nPatients and Methods: This study was performed by 7.5-10 MHz frequency linear probe transducer with axial resolution of 0.7mm and lateral resolution of 1-2 mm (Aloka 650 and super SG 140 Toshiba unit assembly with color, power Doppler. Patient's neck was extended as a supine position."nResults: Pathologic proof was obtained in 45 patients with benign and five patients with malignant thyroid disease. Benign lesions were follicular adenoma in 30 patients, goiter in 10 patients, as hashimoto thyroiditis in two patients, hemorrhagic cyst in two patients and simple cyst in one patient. Malignant lesions were follicular, papillary, and medulary carcinoma which seen in two, two, and one patients respectively. Echopatterns were as follow: Most of them showed decreades echo when we compare to normal thyroid tissue, some malignant lesions showed increased echo and some isoecho, in the last group we need other work up for example Doppler (pulse, color, power for evaluation vascularity. We did not have metastasis to thyroid gland."nConclusion: With advace in technology in crystal and design overall probe as a result creat broadband width probe and also full digital sonography unit inclding (beam forming - CPU in images resolution is with high grade than semi digital unit that before used for thytoid gland. When With any reason resolution is increased we sould be able to diagnosed very small and smallest lesion (for example mest to thyroid or reccurency after total Lobectomy: there is three primay uses of sonography, 1 detection of mutionodular gland when only one nodule is suspected clinically and by isotop scan.2 High resolution sonogtaphy can detect occult malignancy with or without cervical adenopathy 3 small lesion for recurrency malignant"nlesion.

  18. Hydatid disease of the thyroid gland--(a case report).

    OpenAIRE

    Arunabha; Sharma A; Sarda A

    1989-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the thyroid gland, presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, is being reported below. Pre-operative investigations, including thyroid isotope scanning and aspiration of the nodule, did not help in establishing the diagnosis which was later confirmed by histological examination. Post-operative investigations revealed it to be an isolated involvement of the thyroid gland.

  19. Deposition in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131I concentration in cattle milk was 437pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gammacilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

  20. Clinical application of gamma camera scintigraphy with 201Tl chloride in patients with nodular formations of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 201Tl chloride scanning extends considerably the diagnostic possibilities in cases with nodular formations of the thyroid gland. The positive Thallium scan should draw attention to the malignant character of the lesion. If it is not taken up by cold nodules would suggest benignant formations of the thyroid gland. Thallium chloride shows a high degree of selectivity for the primary carcinoma of the thyroid (82%). It is taken up both by differentiated and undifferentiated metastases of the cancer of the thyroid

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Surgical Removal of Thyroid Gland Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL February 1, 2012 Hello, I’m Diane Magnum, and welcome to OR-Live. Today we are ... of-the-art Homestead Hospital, part of the Baptist Health South Group, where in just a few ...

  2. Semi-automatic elastic registration on thyroid gland ultrasonic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Zhong, Yue; Luo, Yan; Li, Deyu; Lin, Jiangli; Wang, Tianfu

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. However, the shape of thyroid gland is irregular and difficult to calculate. For precise estimation of thyroid volume by ultrasound imaging, this paper presents a novel semiautomatic minutiae matching method in thyroid gland ultrasonic image by means of thin-plate spline model. Registration consists of four basic steps: feature detection, feature matching, mapping function design, and image transformation and resampling. Due to the connectivity of thyroid gland boundary, we choose active contour model as feature detector, and radials from centric points for feature matching. The proposed approach has been used in thyroid gland ultrasound images registration. Registration results of 18 healthy adults' thyroid gland ultrasound images show this method consumes less time and energy with good objectivity than algorithms selecting landmarks manually.

  3. Elastography of the Thyroid Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Although the current resolution of ultrasound (US) has markedly improved the ability to detect nodules and it can be used to differentiate malignant thyroid nodules from benign thyroid nodules, gray scale US alone is not perfectly capable of making this differentiation. US elastography is a relatively novel dynamic technique that evaluates the degree of distortion of a tissue under the application of an external force and it is based on the principle that the softer parts of tissues deform more easily than do the harder parts under compression, thus allowing an objective determination of tissue consistency. This review provides the basic concepts of US elastography and the potential clinical applications and limitations for diagnosing thyroid nodules

  4. Elastography of the Thyroid Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the current resolution of ultrasound (US) has markedly improved the ability to detect nodules and it can be used to differentiate malignant thyroid nodules from benign thyroid nodules, gray scale US alone is not perfectly capable of making this differentiation. US elastography is a relatively novel dynamic technique that evaluates the degree of distortion of a tissue under the application of an external force and it is based on the principle that the softer parts of tissues deform more easily than do the harder parts under compression, thus allowing an objective determination of tissue consistency. This review provides the basic concepts of US elastography and the potential clinical applications and limitations for diagnosing thyroid nodules

  5. Tumors of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Dillard, Morris

    1985-01-01

    The epithelial tumours of the thyroid are divided into benign, malignant, and C-cell categories. The malignant tumours are described under the following names: follicular carcinoma, solid and solid—follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. The malignant mesenchymal tumours are described as fibrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. There are also coexistent tumours and carcinosarcomas.

  6. SCHWANNOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND – A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, V.; Tv, Adarsha; Khandige, S.

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an infrequent site for the occurrence of a Schwannoma. These tumours most often mimic a thyroid nodule. A case of Schwannoma of the thyroid gland which was diagnosed on histopathological examination after a hemithyroidectomy is reported here.

  7. The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thyroid Hormones Concentration and Histopathological Changes of Thyroid Gland in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nouri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the thyroid histological and hormonal changes in response to ambient temperature variations, thyroid glands and blood samples were randomly collected from 410 indigenous sheep of either sex and different age groups from municipal Ahvaz slaughter house. The extent of fluctuations in triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, T3 uptake and Free Thyroxin Index (FTI and thyroid histopathological lesions were scrutinized in 2 months in year 2003, viz February (the coldest month and August (the hottest month. A marked decline was discernable in T3, T4 and FTI in August compared to February, but mean value for T3 uptake increased. Out of 410 pairs of thyroid glands, 169 (41.2% had lesions in which histopathological changes were categorized as follicular atrophy (43.6%, ultimobranchial cyst (30.2%, paranchymal cyst (6.4%, lymphocytic thyroiditis (6.2%, hyperemia/hemorrhage (5.5%, follicular cell hyperplasia (4%, C cell hyperplasia (1.4%, colloid goiter (1.1% and adenoma (1.1. Mean of thyroidal parameters for T4 and FTI was higher in lesioned group (p<0.05. The frequency of lesioned thyroid was higher in summer than winter (p<0.05. The result of this study showed that high ambient temperature has profound effect on thyroid function, secretion and pathological changes in sheep.

  8. [Ultrasound study in the diagnosis of thyroid gland pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V P; Popandopulo, S I; Mal'kovich, V K; Kitaev, V M

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasound study of the thyroid was performed in 55 patients who were admitted to be treated surgically for the goiter. The Sonoline-3000 unit working in the real time mode was used. The results were compared with the morphological findings of the resected gland. Features which were most characteristic of different types of the pathology were revealed. This method made it possible to differentiate with assurance between a cyst and a hard node, to reveal the diffuse-nodular forms of lesion. Some difficulties arose in the diagnosis of the nodes that had no limiting rim and differed little in the structure from the unchanged gland as well as in the differential diagnosis of a benign hard node and cancer, this being associated with the absence of the pathognomonic features of malignant lesion. PMID:3903738

  9. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

  10. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue... § 310.15 Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue...

  11. Collision Tumor of the Thyroid Gland: Primary Squamous Cell and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Meir Warman; Noga Lipschitz; Sergey Ikher; Doron Halperin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Collision tumor of the thyroid gland is defined when independent and histologically distinct tumors coexist within the gland. The presence of both papillary and squamous cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland is unusual. Suggested etiologies include embryonic remanents of squamous epithelium, chronic inflammation, or thyroid malignancies promoting squamous metaplasia. Case Presentation. An elderly patient presented with a rapid enlargement of a long-standing right thyroid nodule. T...

  12. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

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    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or laboratory examinations. Parathyroid scan is a noninvasive method used in determining parathyroid adenoma, and Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4} subtraction methods are commonly applied. The thyroid gland was not visualized on Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy of suppressed thyroid tissue in a study by Turkolmez et al.. It should be taken into account that sometimes we may not be able to visualize a normal thyroid gland, and in these cases we might encounter suboptimal visualization in T1-201 subtraction method as well. Erdil et al. foun that Tl-201 is superior to Tc-99m MIBI in the visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue with a toxic thyroid nodule. Kiratli et al. mentioned decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the thyroid gland in hemodialysis patients. However, no patient presented an absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in the thyroid gland with secondary hyperthyroidism. In this case, the thyroid was not suppressed and the TcPO{sup -4} scan thyroid gland was normal, but the thyroid gland was not visualized with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, and Tl-201 accumulation in the thyroid gland was not sufficient. To the best of our knowledge, from a search of the published literature, there has been no case like this previously reported.

  13. Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a pows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

  14. Ultrasonographic examinations of the thyroid gland in women at confirmed risk of familial neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of new gene mutations, which increase the risk of neoplasm (e.g. breast and thyroid gland) improves the examinations that can help in early diagnosis and quick treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of asymptomatic focal lesions in ultrasonographic examinations of women at confirmed risk of family neoplasm aggregation. A total of 445 women aged 25-60 years were examined in 2004-2005. 278 patients descended from families with higher frequency of confirmed risk of familial neoplasm (I group), 167 belonged to the control group. Ultrasonographic examinations of the breast and thyroid gland were performed in all women. Patients were divided into selected groups depending on the kind of changes. In the analyzed material asymptomatic focal changes in the thyroid gland were found in 46, 5% of the first group and 61,6% of the control group. The solid-cystic lesions in this material were ascertained in 36% of the first group and 51% of the second group. A large frequency (almost 50%) of the asymptomatic focal changes in thyroid glands were found. Detections of lesions were similar in both groups: the confirmed risk of familial neoplasm group and the control group. On the basis of these findings we can conclude, that it is reasonable to perform screening examinations of thyroid glands in connection with breast's diagnostics. (author)

  15. Histological investigations on the thyroid glands of marine mammals (Phoca vitulina, Phocoena phocoena) and the possible implications of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, U; Zahler, S; Horny, H P; Heidemann, G; Skirnisson, K; Welsch, U

    1993-01-01

    In 1988 and 1989, thousands of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) died in the North Sea from phocine distemper infection. The morphology of thyroid glands from 40 harbor seals found dead on the North Sea coastlines of Schleswig-Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany, during an epizootic of phocine distemper, was compared with the morphology of thyroid glands from five healthy harbor seals collected in Iceland. Thyroid glands from seven harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) found dead in 1990 on the North Sea coastlines also were evaluated. Colloid depletion and fibrosis were found in the thyroid glands of harbor seals which died during the epizootic, but not in animals from Iceland. Thyroid glands of the porpoises showed similar lesions, but to a lesser degree, than those observed in the North Sea seals. PMID:8445768

  16. A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-geun; Yang, Youngro; Kim, Kwang Sik; Hyun, Chang Lim; Lee, Ji Shin; Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Daeho

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis to the thyroid gland from distant cancer is rare, and, in some cases, is a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. A 77-year-old man presented with a neck mass detected about 1 month previously. He had undergone a right nephrectomy owing to renal cell carcinoma 14 years previously. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a few atypical follicular cells with nuclear atypia. Under a tentative diagnosis of papillary thyroid ...

  17. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's try carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  18. Ranking of sonography in the diagnosis of the decompensated autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 30 patients with decompensated autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland, the possibility was investigated whether sonography of the thyroid gland could replace the thyroid stimulation scintigram or a diagnostically insufficient, saturated scintigram. It was found that the thyroid sonogram - which has a lower specificity - has a markedly higher sensitivity than the saturated scintigram of the thyroid gland. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence of thyroid nodular lesions in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hiroki; Suzuki, Shinichi; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Furuya, Fumihiko; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Otsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Takamura, Noboru; Abe, Masafumi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-02-26

    Contents1. Introduction2. Thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima3. Thyroid ultrasound findings in children in three Japanese prefectures4. Prevalence of thyroid nodular lesions in children and adolescents 4.1 Thyroid cyst 4.2 Thyroid nodule 4.3 Thyroid cancer5. SummaryConflict of interestReference. PMID:25747610

  20. Multimodality imaging of pediatric parotid gland lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although diseases of the parotid gland are relatively uncommon in children, a variety of benign and malignant lesions may occur and the use of imaging is essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Ultrasonography (US) is the initial imaging modality utilized for suspected parotid lesions, and its use may suggest a correct diagnosis in an adequate clinical setting. The use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful for the assessment of large and atypical lesions. These modalities also allow the ability to image the deep parotid lobe and to better define the nature of a lesion. CT is the preferred imaging modality for inflammatory processes, including suspected sialolithiasis, abscesses and salivary duct obstructions, whereas MRI is usually used to evaluate tumors due to excellent anatomic resolution and a lack of ionizing radiation exposure, especially in children. This report describes the imaging findings of various parotid gland lesions in children. Familiarity with these findings will aid in lesion characterization and should facilitate optimal clinical management

  1. Agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland in adult human cadavers: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Daksha; Shilpa, Mb; Harsh, Mp; Ravishankar, Mv

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid gland, a highly vascular endocrine gland, is composed of two lateral lobes connected by a narrow median isthmus thus giving an 'H' shaped appearance to the gland. A wide range of morphological variations and developmental anomalies of the thyroid gland have been reported in the literature. In our study, on the morphometric features of the thyroid gland it was found that, 6 out of 41 thyroid glands that were dissected, showed an absence of the isthmus. The respective lateral lobes ...

  2. Surgical aspects of carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Hargreaves, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of histological types, presenting symptoms, and treatment in a series of 29 cases of carcinoma of the thyroid gland are described. The treatment policy adopted in such cases is outlined.

  3. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases: harmful, beneficial or innocent for the thyroid gland?

    OpenAIRE

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the targe...

  4. Neuroendocrine tumors presenting with thyroid gland metastasis: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Sivrikoz Emre; Ozbey Nese; Kaya Bulent; Erbil Yesim; Kaya Serkan; Yilmazbayhan Dilek; Firat Pinar; Kapran Yersu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Autopsy series have shown that metastasis to the thyroid gland has occurred in up to 24% of patients who have died of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors may metastasize to thyroid gland. Case presentations Case 1 was a 17-year-old Turkish woman who was referred from our Endocrinology Department for a thyroidectomy for treatment of neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination results were consistent with a...

  5. Morphogenetic aspects of biomineralization in thyroid gland tumor diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Reznik, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of differential diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid proliferative diseases is extremely important and difficult issue. One unexplored morphological phenomena is biomineralization of tissue. This process accompanies most proliferative processes in the thyroid gland. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/33573

  6. Burkitt Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland in an Adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, K.; Gangadharan, A.; Arora, R. S.; Shukla, R.; Pizer, B.

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt Lymphoma is a highly aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that in nonendemic areas has abdominal primary sites. We report a very rare case of Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid swelling in a 14-year-old white Caucasian British male with no preexisting thyroid or medical problems. The diagnosis was confirmed by an open wedge biopsy following a fine needle aspiration. The patient was treated according to the Children's Cancer and Leukaemia...

  7. Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Gutaj, Pawe?; Sowi?ski, Jerzy; Wender-O?egowska, Ewa; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Br?zert, Jacek; Rucha?a, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that cigarette smoking exerts multiple effects on the thyroid gland. Smoking seems to induce changes in thyroid function tests, like decrease in TSH and increase in thyroid hormones. However, these alterations are usually mild. In addition, tobacco smoking may also play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Many studies have confirmed a significant influence of smoking on Graves' hyperthyroidism and particularly on Graves' orbitopathy. Here, smoking may increase the risk of disease development, may reduce the effectiveness of treatment, and eventually induce relapse. The role of smoking in Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not as well established as in Graves' disease. Nonetheless, lower prevalence of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroperoxidase antibodies and hypothyroidism were found in smokers. These findings contrast with a study that reported increased risk of hypothyroidism in smokers with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases the incidence of multinodular goitre, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Some studies have examined cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer. Interestingly, many of them have shown that smoking may reduce the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Furthermore, both active and passive smoking during pregnancy might modify maternal and foetal thyroid function. This review evaluates the current data concerning the influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland, including hormonal changes, autoimmunity and selected diseases. These findings, however, in our opinion, should be carefully evaluated and some of them are not totally evidence-based. Further studies are required to explain the effects of smoking upon thyroid pathophysiology. PMID:24549603

  8. Some findings on the fine structure of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the site of iodination of thyroglobulin, electron microscopic autoradiography of 125I was made using in vitro mouse thyroid gland. The effect of TSH and dbcAMP on fine structure was also examined in cultured mouse thyroid gland and compared with those on in vivo mouse thyroid. When cultured in the medium containing TSH, the thyroid gland showed numerous pseudopods on the cell surfaces of the follicular epithelial cells and increase of colloid droplets in the follicular epithelial cells. Similar changes were also noted in the mouse thyroid gland stimulated by TSH in vivo. dbcAMP also caused pseudopod formation and increase in intracellular colloid droplets in cultured mouse thyroid gland but did not cause these changes in mouse thyroid gland in vivo. In the thyroid gland incubated in the medium containing 125I, silver grains appeared over the periphery of the follicular lumen at 30 seconds. With lapse of time, grains over the follicular lumen increased very rapidly until the lumen was filled with numerous grains at 60 minutes of incubation. Grains over the follicular epithelial cells were always scanty and showed no constant localization on the specific intracellular organelle. Since it has been known that the synthesis and release into the follicular lumen of the thyroglobulin is a process requiring at least 15 to 40 minutes, the appearance of silver grains over the follicular lumen at 30 seconds seemed to indicate the follicular lumonds seemed to indicate the follicular lumen as the principal site of thyroglobulin iodination. When TSH was added to the culture medium containing 125I for 60 minutes, grains were found over the follicular lumen and intracellular colloid droplets. (author)

  9. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  10. Sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to establish the sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in the first week of life in 107 term neonates. The serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was normal in all neonates. Their gestational age at birth was range from 37 to 41 weeks and birth weight was 3305 ± 457.74 g. Sonography was performed with 7.5 MHz linear array transducer (SA-8800 MT, Medison, Korea) within the first week of postnatal age. Maximal transverse (T), anteroposterior (AP), and longitudinal (L) dimensions of thyroid gland were measured. The volume of each lobe was estimate by using standard geometric formula; volume of a prolate ellipsoid = T X AP X L X ?/6. The total volume of the thyroid gland was calculated as the sum of the each lobe. The correlations with total thyroid volume and weight, height, the body surface area, gestational age of the neonate were estimated by Pearson's coefficient and p volume on Bivariate correlation analysis. Total thyroid volume was 0.68 ± 0.23 cm3, left and right lobe volumes of thyroid gland were 0.32 ± 0.12 cm3 and 0.36 ± 0.14 cm3, respectively. T, AP, and L dimension of right lobe were 0.69 ± 0.14 cm, 0.71 ± 0.13 cm, 1.37 ± 0.22 cm respectively. And those of left lobe were 0.70 ± 0.11 cm, 0.65 ± 0.13 cm, 1.31 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. The Pearson's coefficients for total thyroid volume with the weotal thyroid volume with the weight, and body surface area of neonate were 0.385, 0.395 (p3 and was significantly correlated with the weight and body surface area.

  11. Preoperative physical assessment of thyroid glands in previously irradiated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Evanston Hospital maintains an Irradiated Thyroid Evaluation Clinic that has evaluated 695 patients since 1975. One hundred fourteen patients were retrospectively analyzed, and an attempt was made to correlate the preoperative physical examination with the pathologic specimen after thyroidectomy. There was no statistically significant difference between the incidence of carcinoma in glands containing a single nodule (23 per cent) and in multinodular glands. Postirradiation thyroiditis complicated the physical description of glands preoperatively. The overall incidence of carcinoma in the 114 available cases was 34 per cent, with nodal metastases in 18 per cent of the patients with carcinoma

  12. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  13. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimashkieh Haytham

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (<50, 51–500 or >500 cells, cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation, cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin, and background (colloid-like material and macrophages. Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51–500 cells with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma. Immunocytochemical analysis for PHT was performed for 14 cases (6 destained smears and 8 cell blocks which showed distinct cytoplasmic positivity. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland. Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin. Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology. Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

  14. Ectopic thyroid glands : clinical and radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the various clinical and radiological features of ectopic thyroid. This study involved nine ectopic thyroid cases (M:F=2:7; age range, 2-57 years) confirmed by RI thyroid scan between 1993 and 1997. We analyzed one neck ultrasonogram, five CT scans, three MR images, nine Tc-99m thyroid scans, and classified the ectopic thyroid by the basis of these findings. Hormonal abnormalities and symptoms were evaluated on the basis of medical records. Understanding the various clinical and radiologic features of ectopic thyroid can help accurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery or other procedure. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  15. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... had she been given a diagnosis of a cancerous thyroid? Correct. Although, the procedure would have involved ... it often that an enlarged thyroid presents with cancerous cells? It may, yes. Okay. And, again, I ...

  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as papillary, is extraordinarily marvelous. Surgery cures the majority of those patients, and some who ...

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... for someone who has thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such ... your knowledge before you have to undergo a similar procedure. And we keep all of these surgeries, ...

  18. Surgery of thyroid gland in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The surgery department of Central Hospital no.1 operated on 1690 thyroid disease patients in last 7 years (2000-2007). Patients' ages were 9-80 years. Female : Male ratio 10 : 1. In the last years morbidity is changed, Diffuse toxic Goiter has decreased, Thyroid nodule and cancer has increased. During last 7 years we have operated 164 patients for thyroid mass. 69 cases (51.54%) of them were thyroid carcinoma. In this 69 cases include Anaplastic carcinoma 3, Papillary carcinoma 36, follicular carcinoma 30 cases. 80 percent patients from thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in pre-operative period, 20 percent were diagnosed in inter and post-operation period. For thyroid cancer cases we made the following operations: - Total thyroidectomy 20 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 30 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 29 cases. After operation 49 patients were sent for radioactive I-131 treatment and 3 cases which recurred, were operated a second time. In the treatment of DTG, there has been a decrease in the number of surgeries, while great increase in the use of I-131. From 1990 to 1999 have been done 1307 operations, because of thyroid disease: - 580 (44.37%) for DTG, 636 (48.66%) for thyroid nodule, 37 ( 2.83%) for thyroid cancer. From 2000 to 2007 we have conducted 1608 operations, because of thyroid disease: 473 (29.41%) for DTG, 919 (57.15%) for thyroid nodule and 134 (8.33%) for thyroid cancer. All operations were done by O.V.Nicolaev's method. (intracapsular resection). Conc's method. (intracapsular resection). Conclusion: 1. the numbers of thyroid cases which have been treated by operation is changing. There are an increasing number of cases of Thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. 2. There is need to improve preoperative diagnostics. 3. Combination of surgery treatment and radioactive I131 treatment gave good results for thyroid cancer. (author)

  19. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, N. N.; Grynyeva, E. N.; Blagosklonnaya, Y. V.

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

  20. Iodine and iodothyronine content in human neonate thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savin-Žegarac Svetlana B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years after the iodine content of salt in Serbia was increased from 7 to 15 mg/kg NaCI, iodine, thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations were measured in thyroid tissue obtained at autopsy from 21 human neonates who died within 30 days after birth. The thyroidal iodine as well as T4 and T3 content per gland in­creased progressively with gestational age of human neonates (r = 0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 respectively, p < 0.001. In seven newborns (gestational age 36 to 41 weeks the mean values for total iodine, T4 and T3 per gland were 109.1 ?g, 52.2 ?g and 4.4 ?g respectively. The results of iodine and iodothyroninc content found in neonatal thyroid gland, particularly at the end of gestation and a few days of postnatal life, indicates that the iodine supply was satisfactory.

  1. Histopathological Study on Thyroid Gland of Goat in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafour Mousavi; Daryoush Mohajeri; Mehrdad Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland in most animal species has two lobes, one on each lateral surface of the trachea. In pigs, the main lobe of the thyroid gland is on the midline in the ventral cervical region with dorsolateral projections from each side. The thyroid structural changes in gouts were investigated. About 386 pairs of thyroid glands collected from gout at the local municipal abattoir in Tabriz city of East Azerbaijan province. A total of 386 thyroid specimens examined, 8 cases were follicular at...

  2. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chenfang

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that p...

  3. High Resolution Real Time Sonography of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Honarbakhsh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: High-resolution sonography equipment permits for visualization of normal and abnormal thyroid gland with or without gel pad or water bath. This study prospectively presents surgically and pathologically proved patients with thyroid disease by direct ultrasound with or without Doppler (pulse, color, power Doppler)."nPatients and Methods: This study was performed by 7.5-10 MHz frequency linear probe transducer with axial resolution of 0.7mm and lateral resolution of 1...

  4. The thyroid gland of Callithrix jacchus in organ culture

    OpenAIRE

    Maile, S.; Merker, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    Thyroid glands from 7 marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) of different age groups (newbom, 2 weeks, 2,7, 8 and 11 months, and 8 years) were grown as organ culture according to Trowell at the mediumlair interphase for 3 to 30 days. The morphology of thyroid tissue was well preserved until the end of the culture period. Necroses were only occasionally seen in connective tissue. In contrast to the in vivo situation, the number of lysosome-like inclusions changed co...

  5. Tuberculous Infection of Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Prince Cheriyan Modayil; Antony Jacob; Anna Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and almost one-third of the world is infected with this disease. Tuberculosis has been reported in many parts of the human body. But thyroid gland involvement is extremely rare and its true incidence is unknown. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a thyroid cyst which turned out to be a primary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Conclusion. The correct diagnosis o...

  6. Metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Mohamed T.; Hegazy, Mohamed A.; Abd Elwahab, Khaled; Arafa, Mohammad; Abdou, Islam; Refky, Basel

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland is a known but an unusual site for metastatic tumors from various primary sites. Despite the fact that it is one of the largest vascular organs in the body, clinical and surgical cases have given an incidence of 3?% of secondary malignances of the organ. Nevertheless, thyroid metastases are not an exceptional finding at autopsy, they are encountered in 2?% to 24?% of the patients with malignant neoplasm.

  7. The Radioimmunoassay in the diagnostic of thyroid gland disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this research was to study the value of Radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the thyroid gland disorders in practical health persons. Quantitative criteria have been worked for estimation of thyroid gland function for the population of Belarus Republic in according with region ecological situation, on basis concentrations of Thyrotropin, Thyroxine, Triiodothyronine, Thyroglobulin, Thyroxine binding globulin have been determined by RIA in blood samples. The analysis of the data obtained has given to reveal latent forms of hyperthyroidism and latent forms of hypothyroidism, what authors regard as remote medical consequences of the Chernobyl Reactor accident

  8. Inhibition of Thyroid Hormone Release from Cultured Amphibian Thyroid Glands by Methimazole, 6-Propylthiouracil, and Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis. . . This information can then be used to select chemicals for further evaluation in v...

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... go to their doctor and ask for the blood test that would check the thyroid? Well, clearly, the doctor would need to decide if the symptoms are consistent with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What we’ve done here is ...

  10. Treatment of carcinoma of the thyroid gland with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an optimal effectiveness of radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma a straightforward strategy must be observed: Surgical ablation of the gland and of regional lymph nodes; histological verification of differentiated thyroid carcinoma including immunohistochemistry; ablative radioiodine therapy; methodologically optimized follow-up including radioiodine retention measurements and thyroglobulin to determine whether there are recurrences and/or metastases; determination of further therapeutic measures, i.e. further radioiodine therapy, surgical removal of primary and secondary tumour manifestations, conventional radiotherapy, chemotherapy or a combination of such measures; suppressive thyroid hormone therapy between the follow-up (therapy) studies; life-long control of patients. Thus the following 5 year probabilities of survival (life table method) have been obtained between 1973 and 1982: 134 patients with differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma showed a survival probability of 0.96+-0.02, and 133 patients with differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma 0.92+-0.03. (author)

  11. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

  12. Cytokeratin19 expression discriminates papillary thyroid carcinoma from other thyroid lesions and predicts its aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isic Dencic, Tijana; Cvejic, Dubravka; Paunovic, Ivan; Tatic, Svetislav; Havelka, Marija; Savin, Svetlana

    2013-03-01

    Cytokeratin19 (CK19) has been reported as a useful marker of thyroid tumors. We evaluated its value for differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplastic lesions and assessed its usefulness for predicting aggressive behavior of papillary thyroid carcinomas by correlating immunohistochemical results with clinicopathological features of the patients. A total of 351 thyroid tissue samples included 27 follicular adenomas (FTA), 18 follicular carcinomas (FTC), 147 papillary carcinomas (71 of follicular type-PTCfv and 76 of classical type-PTCcl) and 33 cases of anaplastic carcinoma with 126 adjacent thyroid tissues. Diagnostic usefulness of CK19 was determined by ROC analysis, while its value as a predictive marker of PTC was tested by univariate and multivariate analysis. According to ROC analysis, CK19 can discriminate both types of PTC from other neoplasias of the thyroid gland (p < 0.05). Although greatest accuracy was gained for the identification of PTCcl (91.07 %), this marker was also helpful for distinguishing PTCfv from FTA and FTC (accuracy 71.43 and 65.17 %, respectively). Regarding the univariate set of tests, high expression of CK19 correlated significantly with age, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, pT status and pTNM stage of PTC (p < 0.05 for all). Multivariate analyses confirmed the significant association of high CK19 expression with extrathyroidal extension of PTC as well as with pTNM stage (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). CK19 is a useful marker for the identification of both types of PTC. High expression of this protein predicts the aggressive behavior of PTC and can help in the identification of a particular subgroup of PTC patients with a potentially worse prognosis. PMID:23269585

  13. Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia / Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caridad, Verdecia Cañizares; Andrés, Portugués Díaz; Marta, Longchong Ramos.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptiv [...] o de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000). RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %), seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente). Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 %) y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %). La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of st [...] ructural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000). RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5%) followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively). There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%), and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%). Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

  14. Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Verdecia Cañizares

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000. RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %, seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente. Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 % y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea.INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of structural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000. RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5% followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively. There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%, and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%. Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

  15. Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovi? Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT scan showed left lobe thyroid tumor with tracheal deviation on the right site. Extended total thyroidectomy was done. Intraoperative consultation with the pathologist confirmed thyroid cancer. The pathologist diagnosed thyroid paraganglioma on the base of immuohistochemical investigation. This thyroid paraganglioma was positive for neuron-specific enolase, chomogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein highlighted the sustentacular cells. Tumor cells were nega-tive for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic. After the surgery the patient was treated with chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of thyroid hormone and serum neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A level, every 6 months. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest and abdomen CT scan as well as further tests (chest x-ray, ultrasound of the neck, and whole body octreotide scintigraphy were done. No primary neuroendocrine tumor in digestive sistem or in the chest was found. After more than 3 years the patient has no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of thyroid paraganglioma, followed by chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with thyroid gland paraganglioma.

  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for thyroid removal. Well I think the first consideration is the length of time and how many ... little bit more clearly. Once again, that white material is what, doctor? This is the trachea. That ...

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... involved in this procedure and how the thyroid functions in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a ... you today and tell us what each person’s function is in the o perating room. OR Live ...

  18. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... caused sometimes by diet, and other times by environment. And what are the symptoms, besides difficulty swallowing, that would let people know they might be having a problem with their thyroid? Well outside of a goiter ...

  19. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... And, doc tor, I know there was very specific setup to prep this patient. Can you explain ... in that setup and how it is so specific to thyroid surgery? Absolutely. We use a modified ...

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead Hospital, part of the Baptist Health South ... diagram and explain a little bit about the anatomy involved in this procedure and how the thyroid ...

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get started and move over to your surgical team. And if you’d be so kind as ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the ... plastic closure. The patients recover very nicely. The robotic surgeries are requiring up to three surgeons. Oh, ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacing the normal hormone that the thyroid was manufacturing. I see. And if only part of the ... destroy the other living cells that are too small to remove surgically that are not seen. So ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead ... you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... removal of an enlarged thyroid from this female patient. As you can see, we are already in ... us. Well before we hear more about the patient, I wonder if you could take just a ...

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... where in just a few moments from now General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec will be performing a ... that we put in a routine patient undergoing general endotracheal anesthesia. Now specific for this surgery, thyroid ...

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will offer to answer as many of those ... is up. Let’s begin now by introducing our doctor. Dr. T, can we ask you to come ...

  8. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... and ask for the blood test that would check the thyroid? Well, clearly, the doctor would need ... to their endocrinologist in about 30 days to check the level of hormone to be certain that ...

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... some spread, it will destroy the other living cells that are too small to remove surgically that ... often that an enlarged thyroid presents with cancerous cells? It may, yes. Okay. And, again, I believe ...

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... today. Thank you very much, and thank you all for joining us. Well before we hear more ... have some greater explanations once we get in. All right. The patien t’s thyroid is much larger ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... it’s failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ... body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is there some reason that ...

  12. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... diagram and explain a little bit about the anatomy involved in this procedure and how the thyroid ... easily to all of these parts of the anatomy. Correct. This is the trachea here, and this ...

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... anatomic structures. And people at home may be hearing a monitor going off. Can you explain what ... Now, is there some reason that we are hearing about so many thyroid problems, particularly in women ...

  14. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... that patients will become symptomatic. They can have fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel ... thyroids can actually have problems with mentation, with fatigue, with normal function. They gain weight and really ...

  15. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... some greater explanations once we get in. All right. The patien t’s thyroid is much larger than ... for the surgery today. That is correct. All right. Let me just go to our second diagram ...

  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... problem or a diabetic problem? How do you identify that it is in fact the thyroid that ... nodules there are, a day or two to study it. If there’s any question about a (INAUDIBLE) ...

  17. Alterations within the rat thyroid gland during vitamin A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands from female rats kept vitamin A deficient for one, two, and three months were examined by electron microscopy. After one month on the diet, no consistent alterations were noted. After two months, the colloid in some follicles displayed a peripheral zone of decreased density. In addition, ultimobranchial follicles within the gland had become keratinized. After two to three months on the diet, cells were seen entering the colloid. Many of these cells were identified as follicular cells. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies indicated that thyroids of vitamin A deficient rats took up less radioiodide than thyroids of control rats. It's possible that the presence of follicular cells in the colloid reflects an accelerated turnover of these cells and could indicate an early pathological sign

  18. False positive uptake of I-131 during a I-131 whole body follow up scan in a patient with differentiated thyroid cancer and chronic inflammation of parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unusual high uptake of I-131 was detected in a parotid gland during a routine I-131 whole body scan in a patient of papillary carcinoma thyroid, raising the suspicion of functioning metastasis from the primary lesion in the thyroid. A review of the clinical history and additional scintigraphic evaluation revealed this to be of inflammatory origin. (author)

  19. Dysphonia associated with lingual thyroid gland and hypothyroidism: improvement after lingual thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbelo, Diana; Ekbom, Dale C; Thompson, Dana M

    2011-12-01

    We present a unique and medically complex case of improved voice after lingual thyroidectomy. A 10-year-old boy with multifactorial dysphonia presented with bilateral vocal fold lesions and sulci in the context of hypothyroidism as a result of a congenital lingual thyroid gland. Despite hormone replacement, medical treatment for asthma, allergy, cough, and possible reflux, as well as voice therapy, the dysphonia persisted. Significant improvement in both subjective and objective voice measures was achieved after surgical removal of the lingual thyroid gland, which allowed for maintenance of a consistent euthyroid state. Lingual thyroidectomy is typically reserved for cases of bleeding and dysphagia. This case supports dysphonia as a possible additional indication for lingual thyroidectomy. PMID:22279948

  20. Expression of thyroid-specific transcription factors in thyroid carcinoma, contralateral thyroid lobe and healthy thyroid gland in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Araújo, M; Carriquiry, M; Meikle, A

    2012-08-01

    Thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroid specific transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), paired box 8 transcription factor (PAX-8), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) transcripts were determined by real-time PCR in follicular carcinoma and contralateral (CL) lobes, and healthy thyroid canine glands. Concentrations of TSH-R, PAX-8, and ER? mRNA were not different among groups; the carcinoma group had lower Tg and TPO mRNA than healthy and CL groups, while no differences were found between the two latter groups, suggesting that the carcinoma tissue presents an altered capacity to synthesize thyroid hormones. The transcription factor that promotes thyrocytes proliferation, TTF-1 as well as IGF-1, presented a greater mRNA expression in the CL group, suggesting that the CL lobe may function in a compensatory state. PMID:21737109

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... home, let me remind you, if you just tuned in, you are watching a live surgery as ... what does the parathyroid gland do in the body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. ...

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will actually reattach itself with the muscle and work perfectly. No kidding. Wow. And what does the parathyroid gland do in the body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iodine, ablating the gland. Those patients that are refractory to the treatment or who may be allergic ... to do an emergency thyroidectomy if they were refractory to the medications. OR Live Bah 3926 16 ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Gland Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL February 1, 2012 Hello, I’m Diane Magnum, and welcome ... goiter. Recently there has been substantial growth in one of the nodules, going from 2.8 to ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead Hospital, part of ... the parathyroid glands, we’ve got actually a beautiful shot of it here. I’m putting the ...

  6. Development of Thyroid Gland Specific Markers of Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid Axis Disruption in the Amphibian Model Species Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis....

  7. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Ersoy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metastasis has been noted in the postoperative course of five years. She is the youngest patient with SMECE in literature. In this report, we briefly present the clinical and biologic course of this patient’s neoplasm and also review the associated literature. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 39-41

  8. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Takenori; Adachi, Tosihide; Enomoto, Kenichi; Ishii, Hidenori [Asahikawa Medical School, Hokkaido (Japan); Yoshida, Chikako; Hokunan, Kazuhiko; Bando, Nobuyuki; Shigyo, Hiroshi

    1997-09-01

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin`s tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, the nerves to the vocal cords, the trachea, ... laryngeal nerve. And that’s why we use this particular tube for this type of surgery, and it’s ...

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endotracheal tube that we put in a routine patient undergoing general endotracheal anesthesia. Now specific for this surgery, thyroid ... been from 1980 to 1985. And the first general surgeon who I joined in practice, Dr. Norman Kenyon, had a tremendous love for ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wasn’t working. Okay. We also have a question from someone who wanted to kno w if once the thyroid is removed if the patient would then gain weight? No, as long as the replacement hormone is adequate, then their metabolism will be exactly what it was beforehand or ...

  12. 131I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V., Torlak; T., Zemunik; D., Modun; V., Capkun; V., Pesutic-Pisac; A., Markotic; M., Pavela-Vrancic; A., Stanicic.

    1087-10-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic doses of 131I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of 131I (64-277 µCi). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (u [...] ntreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before 131I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following 131I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 ± 8.16 to 55.0 ± 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 ± 6.9 to 25.4 ± 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after 131I administration to rats, which was not 131I dose dependent.

  13. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Riaz; Tunio, Mutahir A.; Mushabbab AlAsiri; Asim Ali Elbagir Mohammad; Muhammad Mohsin Fareed

    2013-01-01

    Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case P...

  14. The size of thyroid gland measured by scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal size of thyroid gland in Korean male and female were aimed to study through color scanning using radioactive materials. The measurement of the size of thyroid gland is necessary not only for standardization of Korean subjects but also to the dose determination of radioactive iodine treatment and evaluation of thyroid disease. There had been no available data in regarding Korean euthyroid size in literature. In 119 subjects from the age of 19 years to 60 tears, who have normal thyroid function and no history of any thyroid disorder, the length, the width and the area of thyroid gland were measured in scan images. The weight of thyroid gland was calculated by Allen-Goodwin's formula. The thyroid scan was obtained by Picker Color Magna-Scanner, in 24 hours after ingestion of 50?Ci sodium iodide 1-131. Results; In males, 16 subjects among 119 cases, the mean values were as following: length-5.1 cm, width-2.5 cm, area-9.1 cm2, weight-14.7 gr in right lobe, length-4.7 cm, width-2.3 cm, area-7.6 cm2, weight-11.1 gr in left lobe, total area-16.7 cm2, and total weight-25.8 gr. In females, 103 subjects among 119 cases, the mean values were as following: length-5.1 cm, width-2.4 cm, area-9.4 cm2, weight-15.2 gr in the right lobe, length-4.6 cm, width-2.2 cm, area-7.9 cm2, weight-11.6 gr in left lobe, total area-17.3 cm2, total weight-26.8 gr. The right lobe was larger in the above mean values of size than er in the above mean values of size than the left: 11% longer in length, 8% wider in width, 18% broader in area and 30% heavier in weight in mean values. The difference of sizes between two lobes was statistically significant. There was no significant difference comparison with English written literature

  15. Iodine and iodothyronine content in human neonate thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Savin-Žegarac Svetlana B.; Cveji? Dubravka S.; Nedi? Olgica R.; Radosavljevi? R.; Petrovi? Ivana M.

    2002-01-01

    A few years after the iodine content of salt in Serbia was increased from 7 to 15 mg/kg NaCI, iodine, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were measured in thyroid tissue obtained at autopsy from 21 human neonates who died within 30 days after birth. The thyroidal iodine as well as T4 and T3 content per gland in­creased progressively with gestational age of human neonates (r = 0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 respectively, p < 0.001). In seven newborns (gestational age 36 to 41 week...

  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Here, what we’ve done is we’ve identified the midline of the strap muscles here and ... let me just point out something. We’ve identified, one of the parathyroid glands, we’ve got ...

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or not. I see. And what are you doing right now, doctor? We’re just trying to get ... some hoarseness in their voice. Correct. Okay. All right. That we’re doing here pushin g the gland away from the ...

  18. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, B.; Mahabob, M. Nazargi

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by block...

  19. Ectopic mediastinal thyroid tissue with a normally located thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aal, Mohamed; Scheer, Fabian; Andresen, Reimer

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare entity and a challenging differential diagnosis. This is a report of a case of a mediastinal mass that was found to be an ectopic mediastinal thyroid tissue, in a 77-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital for breast cancer management. The mediastinal mass was identified in the postsurgical computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest and was suspected as mediastinal lymph node metastasis. A CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic punch biopsy (CT-TPB) proved to be an adequate diagnostic tool to exclude malignancy and provide a definite diagnosis of the mediastinal mass. We find that CT-guided punch biopsy as a useful diagnostic alternative enabling histopathological specimens to be obtained from mediastinal masses and lymph nodes suspected of malignancy. PMID:25785182

  20. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Rani, Kamlesh Khatri

    2013-01-01

    Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experime...

  1. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschowitz Sharon; Sayre James W; Jw, Ju; Ragavendra Nagesh; Chopra Inder; Yeh Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In ...

  2. Quantitative pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy and the ultrasonographic appearance of the thyroid gland in clinically normal horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah; Barber, Don; Crisman, Mark; Tan, Rachel; Larson, Martha; Daniel, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We characterized the scintigraphic and sonographic appearance of the thyroid gland in clinically normal horses to establish the value of these modalities for assessment of the thyroid gland in this species. Horses were divided into two age groups. One group consisted of eight horses between 3 and 10 years of age and the other of seven horses between 11 and 20 years of age. Total T4 concentrations were within the laboratory reference interval in all horses. Thyroid to salivary (T/S) ratio, percent dose uptake of pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) and thyroid lobe volume were calculated. The echogenicity of thyroid lobes and presence of nodules was documented. The two groups were compared using appropriate parametric and nonparametric statistics. Mean total T4 concentration was lower in older horses. Sixty minute mean +/- standard deviation (SD) T/S ratios for old vs. young horses were 5.8 +/- 3.0 and 5.3 +/- 2.2, respectively. Sixty-minute median and interquartile ranges for percent dose uptake of pertechnetate for old vs. young horses were 3.64% (1.5-3.98%) and 2.55% (2.33-2.90%), respectively. Mean +/- SD thyroid lobe volume for old vs. young horses were 18.93 +/- 5.16 cm 3 and 13.55 +/- 3.56 cm3, respectively. Differences between groups were not significant. Most thyroid lobes were hyper or isoechoic to the sternocephalicus muscle. Prevalence of thyroid nodules did not differ between groups. Further study is needed to determine if thyroidal percent dose uptake is significantly different in horses with thyroid dysfunction and if it is clinically useful. PMID:21158246

  3. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

    2012-08-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  4. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Rani1, Kamlesh Khatri2, Renu Chauhan1

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate (MSG is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experimental group was given 4mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate intra-peritoneally for seven days. Controls were maintained. After thirty days of the last dose, all the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were dissected out, processed and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and examined for histomorphometry under Zeiss light microscope and Image Pro-Express Analyzer. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in the body weight of the MSG treated animals, although these animals consumed less food than the controls. A significant increase in the size of the follicles ac-companied by an increase in the mean height and area of the folli-cular cells and decreased colloid in some of the follicles was ob-served, pointing towards an increase in thyroid gland activity.

  5. The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

  6. TIME AND DOSE-DEPENDENT THYROID HORMONE RELEASE FROM XENOPUS THYROID GLAND CULTURES IN RESPONSE TO THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND INHIBITION BY METHIMAZOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis....

  7. Developmental Defects of the Thyroid Gland: Relationship with Advanced Maternal Age

    OpenAIRE

    K?rm?z?bekmez, Heves; Gu?ven, Ayla; Y?ld?z, Metin; Cebeci, Ays?e Nurcan; Dursun, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Developmental defects of the thyroid gland are the most frequent causes of permanent congenital hypothyroidism. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of patients with thyroid dysgenesis (TD).

  8. Bilateral diffuse fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid gland diagnosed by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Zaw; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2014-05-01

    Our patient is a female who was first diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 23. A follow-up fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) at age 44 revealed diffuse high FDG uptake in an enlarged thyroid gland. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid mass revealed estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to report breast cancer metastasis to the thyroid in a diffuse pattern on FDG-PET/CT. Bilateral diffuse uptake of FDG in thyroid is the most commonly associated with benign conditions. However, FNA biopsies need to be done to rule out metastatic disease in thyroid lesions with diffuse high FDG uptake, especially for patients with history of cancer. PMID:25191131

  9. Lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence rate, distribution, patient characteristics and indications for surgical intervention of lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007. Material and methods: All biopsied/surgically removed lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark during the period 1974-2007 were identified by searching two population-based registries. Specimens were collected and re-evaluated. The following data were collected: age, gender, indications for surgical intervention and local recurrence. Results: A total of 232 lesions from 210 patients with a histologically verified lesion of the lacrimal gland were included. The incidence rate of lacrimal gland lesions was 1.3/1 000 000/year. The overall annual age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate more than doubled during the study period, owing to an increase in non-malignant lesions. Approximately half of the lesions were neoplasms (119) and 55% (66) of these were malignant. Dacryops constituted 10% (24), inflammatory lesions 27% (62), normal tissue12% (27), benign tumours 23% (53) and malignant tumours 29% (66). Patients with malignant neoplasms were significantly older than patients with benign neoplasms (63 versus 48 years, p

  10. Case of an Ectopic Thyroid Gland at the Lateral Neck Masquerading as a Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jae-young; Kim, Jeong-hoon

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid glands generally occur in the midline as a result of abnormal median migration, and their presence lateral to the midline is rare. We present one case of an ectopic thyroid gland masquerading as a lateral neck metastasis of a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In this case of a 54-yr-old woman with left PTC, we suspected left lateral neck metastasis on preoperative neck computed tomography. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and lef...

  11. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  12. Colour-coded Doppler sonography in thyroid gland diagnosis: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid gland was investigated in 43 persons (12 healthy volunteers, 31 patients with diseases of the thyroid gland) with a new colour Doppler system (angiodynography). In euthyreotic persons (normal thyroid gland, diffuse or multinodular goitre) only a few vessels were detected. In cases with Graves' disease however, hypervascularisation was evident. Autonomus adenomas had a hypervascular periphery, whereas our two carcinomas showed a high vascularisation in the nodule. Angiodynography might become an important diagnostic tool for the evaluation of thyroid glands. The number of radionuclide studies and punctures might be limited. (orig.)

  13. Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gary L., Ellis.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

  14. Radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assist its Member States in the calibration and standardization of thyroid radioiodine uptake measurements, the International Atomic Energy Agency has started a project under which a member of the Agency's scientific staff, who has specialized in this work, is about to begin a series of visits to different Member States at their request. Using as calibration equipment a dummy figure containing known amounts of mock radioactive iodine (i. e. a radioactive substance with radiation characteristics nearly identical to that of 1-131 but with a much longer half-life), this expert will calibrate existing local apparatus for the measurements, calculate correction factors where appropriate and suggest - if necessary - a standardized method of measurement so as to ensure that the results obtained are comparable with those reached at medical institutions in other countries

  15. Semiquantitative immunohistochemical marker staining and localization in canine thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Sartore, I; Borrego, J; Meikle, A

    2014-08-01

    Immunoreactive proteins in follicular cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were assessed in canine thyroid carcinomas and healthy thyroid glands. No differences were detected in thyrotropin receptor and thyroglobulin staining between cancer and normal tissues, but expression was higher in follicular cells than in fibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor-2 staining was more intense in healthy follicular cells than in those of carcinomas. Follicular cells in carcinomas presented two- to three-fold greater staining intensity of thyroid transcription factor-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, than healthy cells, and a similar trend was found for the latter antigen in fibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor staining was more intense in the endothelial cells of tumours than in those of normal tissues. In conclusion, greater expression of factors related to proliferation and angiogenesis was demonstrated in several cell types within thyroid carcinomas compared to healthy tissues, which may represent mechanisms of tumour progression in this disease. PMID:25082554

  16. Agenesis of Isthmus of the Thyroid Gland in a Patient with Graves-Basedow Disease and a Solitary Nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Faruk Ozkan; Mehmet As?k; Huseyin Toman; Faruk Ozkul; Kman, Oztekin C. Amp X.; Muammer Karaayvaz

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid is a vascular endocrine gland with two lateral lobes connected by a narrow, median isthmus. Although a wide range of congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland has been reported in the literature, agenesis of the thyroid isthmus is a very rare congenital anomaly. Thyroid isthmus agenesis does not manifest clinical symptoms, and it can be confused with other thyroid pathologies. We describe a patient with no isthmus of the thyroid, associated with Graves-Basedow disease. Thyroid ist...

  17. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  18. Thyroid Nodule Demonstrating Itself as Calcified Lung Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Ediz Yorganc?lar; Müzeyyen Y?ld?r?m; Ramazan Gün; Faruk Meriç; ?smail Topçu

    2010-01-01

    Multinodular goiter (MNG) is the most prevalent thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland enlarge as a result of MNG, the initial extension is typically outward. After this cervical  enlargement, expansion may extend in to the mediastinum. As substernal goiters enlarge within the mediastinum, vascular and visceral structures may slowly became compressed. The most common symptoms of substernal goiter result from compression of the trachea and/ or esophagus and include dyspnea, choking sensatio...

  19. Objective differential classification of thyroid lesions by nuclear quantitative assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Artacho-perula, E.; Roldan-villalobos, R.; Blanco-garci?a, F.; Blanco Rodriguez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative nuclear parameters estimated by morphometric and stereological methods in combination with discriminant analysis were used in order to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of thyroid lesions. This study includes 55 patients with thyroid pathology. Samples of follicular adenomas, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinomas were exarnined by image analysis to obtain size and form nuclear parameters. Stepwise discriminant analyses were performed. The...

  20. Cytodiagnosis of thyroid lesions-usefulness and pitfalls: A study of 288 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhamallick M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been widely and successfully utilized for diagnosis. Aim: Our aim was to demonstrate the effectiveness of this cheap and simple procedure for the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions, particularly, differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions. In addition, we sought to highlight probable causes of error and possible remedies in the cases showing lack of correlation between cytological and histological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 cases of thyroid swellings were aspirated in our two-year study period. Cases were divided into four groups, namely, aspiration inadequate where diagnosis was not offered; a nonneoplastic group which included different goiters and thyroiditis; an indeterminate group which included cases showing features of follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasms, and a malignant group that included nonfollicular malignant tumors of the thyroid. Cases showing cytohistologic disparity were reevaluated. Results: Almost 14% of the cases could not be reported because of inadequate aspiration, however, an overall cytohistological correlation was achieved in 82.66% of all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy were 92.7 and 98.2%, respectively. There were four false negative malignant cases with one false positive case and 13 cases failed to show any cytohistological correlation. Conclusions: FNAC is the single most important test for preoperative assessment of thyroid pathology if attention is paid to the clinical features and collection of samples from proper sites.

  1. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Skouroliakou; Maria, Lyra; Aristides, Antoniou; Lambros, Vlahos

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

  2. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate thaty far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue

  3. Role of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor signaling in development and differentiation of the thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Postiglione, M. P.; Parlato, R.; Rodriguez-mallon, A.; Rosica, A.; Mithbaokar, P.; Maresca, M.; Marians, R. C.; Davies, T. F.; Zannini, M. S.; Felice, M.; Di Lauro, R.

    2002-01-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone/thyrotropin (TSH) is the most relevant hormone in the control of thyroid gland physiology in adulthood. TSH effects on the thyroid gland are mediated by the interaction with a specific TSH receptor (TSHR). We studied the role of TSH/TSHR signaling on gland morphogenesis and differentiation in the mouse embryo using mouse lines deprived either of TSH (pitdw/pitdw) or of a functional TSHR (tshrhyt/tshrhyt and TSHR-knockout lines). The results reported here show t...

  4. The determination of the volume of the thyroid gland by a new ultrasonic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed high-resolution ultrasonic scanner for determining the volume of the thyroid gland was employed in 1983's health screening for A-bomb survivors in Nishiyama district (Nagasaki), and effects of radiation on the thyroid gland were examined. Thirty-one inhabitants who have been living in Nishiyama district since the A-bombing were selected as subjects (Nishiyama group) and their sex- and age-matched persons were selected as controls (control group). Regarding the incidence of chronic thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid adenoma, and hypothyroidism, there was no significant difference between the groups. The volume of the thyroid gland was 14.6+-6.2 ml in the Nishiyama group and 13.1+-4.0 ml in the control group; the average volume of the thyroid gland was a little higher in the Nishiyama group than in the control group, but this was not statistically significant. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Comparative studies on the activity of the thyroid gland in black Bengal and Barbari goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the thyroid activity in two Indian breeds of goats viz. the Black Bengal and Barbari.was compared. This investigation included two different in vivo isotopic approaches; the uptake of the sup(131)I by the thyroid gland and measurement of the PB-sup(131)I conversion ratio. Both the approaches reflected that the thyroid gland in the Barbari goats was more active than in the Black Bengal goats. Significance of these findings is discussed. (auth.)

  6. FDG PET/CT of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Chun; OuYang, Xiang-Liu; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid gland is very rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Hereby we describe a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid that showed intense FDG activity on PET/CT in a 61-year-old woman who had partial thyroidectomy 5 years ago for a suspicious thyroid nodule that was diagnosed as neurofibroma pathologically. PMID:25546196

  7. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschowitz Sharon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In a prospective study, 609 solid thyroid gland tumors were percutaneously probed using standard 25 gauge fine needles, their tissue toughness ranked on the basis of the nature and strength of the haptic force feedback cues, and subjected to standard fine needle biopsy. The tumors' toughness rankings and final cytological diagnoses were combined and analyzed. The interpreting cytopathologist was blinded to the tumors' toughness rankings. Results Our data showed that cancerous and noncancerous tumors displayed remarkable haptically distinguishable differences in their material toughness. Conclusion The qualitative method described here, though subject to some operator bias, identifies a previously unreported in vivo approach to classify fracture toughness of a solid tumor that can be correlated with malignancy, and paves the way for the development of a mechanical device that can accurately quantify the tissue toughness of a human tumor.

  8. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Khalid; Tunio, Mutahir A.; AlAsiri, Mushabbab; Elbagir Mohammad, Asim Ali; Fareed, Muhammad Mohsin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30?Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients. PMID:23662243

  9. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  10. Computed tomography imaging of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland is a normal anatomical variant found frequently in the general population. This structure consists of normal thyroid tissue located in the upper part of the thyroid isthmus, extending upward in the form of a fibrous chord that connects it to the foramen caecum at the bottom of the tongue. This paper reviews thyroid anatomy and embryology, and highlights the main features of the pyramidal lobe, including the anatomy, epidemiology and computed tomography imaging.

  11. Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Adrenal Gland: A Report of Two Cases with Pathogenetic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-rojas, Alfredo; Bella-cueto, Mari?a Rosa; Meza-cabrera, Ivonne A.; Cabezuelo-herna?ndez, Angeles; Garci?a-rojo, Dari?o; Vargas-uricoechea, Hernando; Cameselle-teijeiro, Jose?

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ectopic thyroid tissue is usually found anywhere along the embryonic descent pathway of the medial thyroid anlage from the tongue to the trachea (Wölfler area). However, ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland (ETTAG) is not easy to understand on the basis of thyroid embryology; because it is so rare, the possibility of metastasis should first be considered. Here, we describe two cases of ETTAG with pathogenetic implications and review the associated literature.

  12. The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?

    OpenAIRE

    Gesing Adam; Lewi?ski Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewi?ska Ma?gorzata

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are of...

  13. AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  14. Effect of vertical angulation to dose of thyroid glands in periapical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much attention has been given to reducing the dose of radiation in dental radiography in terms of the highest risk for the head and neck. Organ doses in intraoral radiography vary greatly with subtle differences in vertical angulation. Quantitative determination of doses delivered to the thyroid gland is thus necessary in determining adequate doses and risk for dental radiography. A personal computer program, prepared for estimating organ doses under various radiographic conditions, was used to evaluate the effect of vertical angulation on the dose delivered to the thyroid gland in radiography of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Review of the literature revealed that the calculated dose delivered to the thyroid gland is approximately in accordance with the data of the actual determination under the same radiographic conditions. The dose-dependence of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland on vertical angulation of the maxilla was much more than that of the mandible. In the mandible, the dose delivered to the thyroid gland increased about three fold at a field size of 6 cm? and about 1.5 fold at 8 cm? when the vertical angulation changed from -40deg to 0deg. In the maxilla, the delivered dose increased about 480 times at a field size of 6 cm? when vertical angulation changed from 0deg to 50deg and rapidly increased about 280 times at 8 cm? when the angulation changed from 0deg to 40deg. The dose of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland was evaluated as ao the thyroid gland was evaluated as a function of product of the irradiated volume within the primary beam directed at the thyroid gland and the inverse square of the distance between a subject's surface and the thyroid gland. (N.K.)

  15. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, R. Kausar And R. U.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius) were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years) and group B (6-10 years)) with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.2...

  16. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45?GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Misa Agustin?o, Mari?a Jose?; Leiro, Jose? Manuel; Jorge Mora, Mari?a Teresa; Rodri?guez-gonza?lez, Juan Antonio; Jorge Barreiro, Francisco Javier; Ares-pena, Francisco Jose?; Lo?pez-marti?n, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45?GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-...

  17. Clinical utility of KAP-1 expression in thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariana Bonjiorno; Marcello, Marjory Alana; Morari, Elaine Cristina; Cunha, Lucas Leite; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Vassallo, José; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2013-06-01

    Although there are evidences of the involvement of KAP-1 in other tumors, data on differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) are still lacking. We aimed to evaluate KAP-1 clinical utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of DTC. We used both visual immunohistochemistry and a semiquantitative analysis to evaluate KAP-1 expression in 230 thyroid carcinomas and 131 noncancerous thyroid nodules. There were 43 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 187 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), including 130 classic (CPTC), 4 tall cells (TCPTC), and 53 follicular variants (FVPTC). Patients were followed up for 53.8?±?41 months. They were classified as free-of-disease (142 cases) or poor outcome (25 cases--10 deaths), according to their serum Tg levels and image evidences. KAP-1 was identified in 78 % PTC, 75 % TCPTC, 74 % FC, 72 % FVPTC, 55 % FA, 44 % hyperplasia, and 11 % normal thyroid tissues. A ROC analysis identified malignant nodules with 69 % sensitivity and 75 % specificity, using a cutoff of 73.19. In addition to distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid tissues (p?FVPTC from hyperplasia (p?=?0.0039), and FC from hyperplasia (p?=?0.0025). Furthermore, KAP-1 was more expressed in larger tumors (>4 cm; p?=?0.0038) and in individuals who presented recurrences/metastases (p?=?0.0130). We suggest that KAP-1 may help diagnose thyroid nodules, characterize follicular-patterned thyroid lesions, and identify individuals with poor prognosis. PMID:23645532

  18. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-19

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  19. Technical aspects of magnetic resonance imaging in parathyroid gland lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were examined before parathyroid surgery with magnetic resonance imaging at 0.35 telsa in order to analyse optimal methods of visualization. Two large parathyroid glands in the neck had long transverse relaxation times which rendered them clearly visible in T2-weighted images as structures of a signal intensity higher than that of the surrounding. Large parathyroid lesions may thus be easily detected by magnetic resonance imaging provided proper examination parameters are employed. (orig.)

  20. Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(?g/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar d TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.)

  1. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Junkichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

  2. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Dimashkieh Haytham; Krishnamurthy Savitri

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US) guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with r...

  3. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutstad K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT. Methods and materials In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50 together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy. The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy and the absolute volumes (cm3 receiving respectively Results No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (? = 0.003, with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving Conclusions We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

  4. Effect of vertical angulation to dose of thyroid glands in periapical radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoi, Keitaro; Satoh, Keiji; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-10-01

    Much attention has been given to reducing the dose of radiation in dental radiography in terms of the highest risk for the head and neck. Organ doses in intraoral radiography vary greatly with subtle differences in vertical angulation. Quantitative determination of doses delivered to the thyroid gland is thus necessary in determining adequate doses and risk for dental radiography. A personal computer program, prepared for estimating organ doses under various radiographic conditions, was used to evaluate the effect of vertical angulation on the dose delivered to the thyroid gland in radiography of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Review of the literature revealed that the calculated dose delivered to the thyroid gland is approximately in accordance with the data of the actual determination under the same radiographic conditions. The dose-dependence of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland on vertical angulation of the maxilla was much more than that of the mandible. In the mandible, the dose delivered to the thyroid gland increased about three fold at a field size of 6 cm[phi] and about 1.5 fold at 8 cm[phi] when the vertical angulation changed from -40deg to 0deg. In the maxilla, the delivered dose increased about 480 times at a field size of 6 cm[phi] when vertical angulation changed from 0deg to 50deg and rapidly increased about 280 times at 8 cm[phi] when the angulation changed from 0deg to 40deg. The dose of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland was evaluated as a function of product of the irradiated volume within the primary beam directed at the thyroid gland and the inverse square of the distance between a subject's surface and the thyroid gland. (N.K.).

  5. Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair; Haamann Frank; Nienhaus Albert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in o...

  6. Initial description of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome involving the thyroid gland in an immunocompromised patient

    OpenAIRE

    Katusiime, Christine; Ocama, Ponsiano; Kambugu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Abscess formation in the thyroid gland is particularly a rare phenomenon and presents a medical and surgical dilemma especially in HIV seropositive patients. The authors report a case of a paradoxical tuberculous abscess immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome involving the thyroid gland in a 37-year-old woman who presented 12 weeks after initiation of antiretroviral therapy at the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. The patient is still undergoing treatment.

  7. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Knutstad K; Kv, Reinertsen; Johansen S; Dr, Olsen; Sd, Fossa?

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). Methods and materials In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field...

  8. Peculiarities of the thyroid gland structure (With special reference to the presence of ganglion zells)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarrat, R.; Torres, A.; Whyte, J.

    1994-01-01

    We have perforined a study on the coirrparati\\,e structure of the thyroid gland in several species OS mainmals (i-at, cat, dog, lamb, pig, cow, and rnan). We hnve described the structural differences among thein, paying special attention to the distribution of conncctive tissue. the intrafollicular and parafollicular cells. In the thyroid gland, we can confirm the existente of n e n e cclls. either isolated or forining vegetative cai-iglions in the iiitei-folli...

  9. Selective exposure of thyroid gland follicles to radionuclides decaying according to K-capture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors submit the results of studies of the effect of internal exposure of microstructures of thyroid gland follicles to electron radiation within the energy range from tenths of keV to 1 MeV, covering the electron radiation spectra of the commonly used radionuclides which decay according to the K-capture model. The case of selective exposure of thyroid gland follicles to selenium-75 delivered as a constituent of selenomethionine is described as an example

  10. Various somatostatin receptor expression in thyroid gland carcinomas and carcinoids showed with scintigraphy with various somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various neuroendocrine tumors and tumors of the thyroid gland exprime somatostatin receptors in high density. OctreoScan is used for the diagnosis of SSTR positive tumors. OctreoScan is an 111In marked Octreotid-derivative. In this study the applicability of the various tracers for the diagnosis of carcinoids and thyroid gland carcinomas was tested. With planar scintigraphy the results was evaluated. (boteke)

  11. Late Simultaneous Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Submandibular and Thyroid Glands Seven Years after Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Miah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC metastasis to the salivary glands is extremely rare. Most cases reported previously have involved the parotid gland and only six cases involving the submandibular gland exist in the current literature. Metastasis of RCC to thyroid gland is also rare but appears to be more common than to salivary glands. Methods and Results. We present the first case of simultaneous metastasis to the submandibular and thyroid glands from clear cell RCC in a 61-year-old woman who presented seven years after the primary treatment. The submandibular and thyroid glands were excised completely with preservation of the marginal mandibular and recurrent laryngeal nerves, respectively. Conclusion. Metastatic disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with painless salivary or thyroid gland swelling with a previous history of RCC. If metastatic disease is confined only to these glands, prompt surgical excision can be curative.

  12. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  13. Dabrafenib and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Adenocarcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  14. Tumor-in-tumor of the thyroid with basaloid differentiation: a lesion with a solid cell nest neoplastic component?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Catarina; Vinagre, João; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José; Paiva, Maria Emília; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    This study describes an encapsulated thyroid tumor having 3 different concentric appearances in a 70-year-old man. The most peripheral neoplasm showed features of a microfollicular adenoma; the intermediate lesion displayed typical features of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC); and the main, central neoplasm, showed a basaloid configuration. At variance with the other neoplasms, the latter component exhibited high mitotic activity. Necrosis, angio-invasion, or capsular invasions were not observed. The centrally located neoplasm was immunoreactive for several cytokeratins, p63, carcinoembryonic antigen, and galectin-3, and negative for thyroid transcription factor 1, thyroglobulin, calcitonin, CD5, and CK20, featuring a phenotype similar to that of thyroid solid cell nests. A N-RAS mutation was found both in the basaloid and in the FVPTC components. The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data ruled out the alternative possibilities of intrathyroidal metastasis and tumor from ectopic (thymic, parathyroid, or salivary gland) tissues. PMID:21216781

  15. Incidental thyroid lesions detected by FDG-PET/CT: prevalence and risk of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidentally found thyroid lesions are frequently detected in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of incidentally found thyroid lesions in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT and determine the risk for thyroid cancer. Methods FDG-PET/CT was performed on 3,379 patients for evaluation of suspected or known cancer or cancer screening without any history of thyroid cancer between November 2003 and December 2005. Medical records related to the FDG-PET/CT findings including maximum SUV(SUVmax and pattern of FDG uptake, US findings, FNA, histopathology received by operation were reviewed retrospectively. Results Two hundred eighty five patients (8.4% were identified to have FDG uptake on FDG-PET/CT. 99 patients with focal or diffuse FDG uptake underwent further evaluation. The cancer risk of incidentally found thyroid lesions on FDG-PET/CT was 23.2% (22/99 and the cancer risks associated with focal and diffuse FDG uptake were 30.9% and 6.4%. There was a significant difference in the SUVmax between the benign and malignant nodules (3.35 ± 1.69 vs. 6.64 ± 4.12; P max and the size of the cancer. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that incidentally found thyroid lesions by FDG-PET/CT, especially a focal FDG uptake and a high SUV, have a high risk of thyroid malignancy. Further diagnostic work-up is needed in these cases.

  16. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  17. Effects of 131I on thyroid glands of guinea pigs of different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the limited data on age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, and because of a need for this information, we injected fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs with single, graded dosages of iodine-131. Dosages were 0 to 100 ?Ci 131I and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rads. Subsequent testing of the animals' thyroid glands, in terms of function and size, yielded this order of radiosensitivity: wealing > fetus > neonate > adult. The differences, with regard to effects per rad, did not appear to exceed a factor of 6 between the most and least radiosensitive age-groups

  18. Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko O.O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

  19. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters and was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 ? 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 ? 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall. In summary, the radiofrequency ablation therapy for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules located in anterior aspect (within a 5 mm radius) of the thyroid gland in human suggests this is an effective treatment, though this was an animal study performed on dogs

  20. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama Junkichi; Ito Shin; Ohba Shinichi; Fujimaki Mitsuhisa; Sato Eriko; Komatsu Norio; Ikeda Katsuhisa; Hanaguri Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody ...

  1. Stereological study of the capillaries in the thyroid gland after IR laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Vargas, I.; Vidal, Lourdes; Parrado, C.; Carrillo, F.; Pelaez, A.; Rius, F.

    1994-02-01

    We have planned a stereological ultrastructural study of capillaries in the thyroid gland treated with IR laser radiation and quantified 1 day after the last treatment. Wistar rats, 50 days old, were irradiated with IR laser radiation. The rats were perfused with 2.5 percent glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (ph equals 7.4). The pieces obtained after sectioning the thyroid gland were placed immediately into the same fixative. A stereological study of the thyroid capillaries was carried out. This analysis revealed an increase of luminal area in irradiated capillaries.

  2. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence ons. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common finding in Nuclear Medicine in this patient population. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. Radionuclide method for functional and structural examination of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this study is development and routine daily practice of the radionuclide method for tracking of the thyroid gland functional status and structure. 168 patients with various thyroid diseases were examined. Nuclear medicine examination is held by gamma camera (Siemens and ADAK). 74 MBq 99m Tc-pertechnetate is injected intravenous. The activity of full and empty syringe is measured. Static scintigrams of full and empty syringes and injection place and duration 10 seconds are carried out. On 20 th minute a static scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with a duration of 300 seconds in front position is held. The individual dose calibration factor is calculated. The functional status of thyroid gland as well as its structural changes is determined. In addition, the relationships between the accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the salivary glands and thyroid are determined. 168 patients are studied, 97 of them are with euthyroidism, 71 with hyperthyroidism and 19 - with hypothyroidism. The nuclear medicine diagnostic method provides information about functional and structural condition of the thyroid gland. The study is determining for decision to conduct the metabolic brachytherapy of hyperthyroid conditions

  4. Study on ultrastructural changes in thyroid gland of rats exposed to pulsed electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is to observe effects of PEMW (pulse electromagnetic wave) exposure on function and morphology of thyroid gland of rats. At different time points (24, 48, 96 and 192 h) after exposure to PEMW (E=115 kV m-1, 12000 pulses), radioimmunoassay was performed to observe the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodo- thyronine (T3) in sera of the male Sparague-Dawley rats. Optic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe structural changes of the thyroid gland at the time points. The T3, T4 and TSH in sera increased significantly, reaching a peak at 24 h and decreasing gradually then. Although no obvious changes in the thyroid gland were observed under the optic microscope, some ultrastructural changes in the thyroid gland were found under the TEM. The ultrastructures were obviously changed at 12 h and aggravated until 48 h. In the experimented rats, dilatated endoplasmic reticulum gathered with lots of protein excretion, lipid droplet and heterochromatin gathered under the nucleus membranes were observed in follicular epithelial cells. These changes were palliated at 96 h but not recovered. PEMW can affect levels of hormones in sera and the hazard ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland. Endoplasmic reticulum is the main injured organelle. (authors)

  5. An Abattoir Study of Thyroid Histopathology in Ewes and their Fetus in Ahvaz City of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourjamshid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid structural changes in pregnant ewes and their fetuses were investigated. Out of 100 pairs of thyroid glands collected from ewes and their fetuses at the local municipal abattoir in Ahvaz city of Khuzestan province, multiple lesions were seen in 59% and 21% of the thyroid glands of ewes and fetuses, respectively. Histologically, ninety nine lesions in the ewes and twenty two lesions in the fetuses’ thyroid glands were noticed.

  6. An Abattoir Study of Thyroid Histopathology in Ewes and their Fetus in Ahvaz City of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Pourjamshid; Babak Mohammadian; Mohammad Nouri

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid structural changes in pregnant ewes and their fetuses were investigated. Out of 100 pairs of thyroid glands collected from ewes and their fetuses at the local municipal abattoir in Ahvaz city of Khuzestan province, multiple lesions were seen in 59% and 21% of the thyroid glands of ewes and fetuses, respectively. Histologically, ninety nine lesions in the ewes and twenty two lesions in the fetuses’ thyroid glands were noticed.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of 296 diagnosed cases of thyroid nodules referred to cytology unit, pathology department, NCI, who underwent FNAC for diagnosis. The results were categorized according to the recent Bethesda classification into: insufficient for diagnosis, benign, atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant sampling. The final histologic diagnosis and/or clinico-radiologic follow-up assessment for non-neoplastic lesions were considered the gold standard. Results: The study included 296 cases presented with thyroid nodules who underwent diagnostic thyroid FNAC. Female to male ratio was 5.2:1, and the median age was 44 years. Ninety-eight cases (33.1%) were diagnosed as benign, 40 cases (13.5%) as follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 49 cases (16.5%) as follicular neoplasm, 30 cases (10.1%) as suspicious for malignancy, 58 cases (19.5%) as malignant, and 21 cases (7.1%) as unsatisfactory. Nodular hyperplasia represented the majority of benign cases (89.8%), while papillary carcinoma was the most frequent malignant lesion (72.4%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with their corresponding final histologic ones. FNAC achieved a sensitivity of 92.8, a specificity of 94.2%, a positive predictive value of 94.9%, a negative predictive value of 91.8%, a false positive rate of 7.2%, a false negative rate of 5.8%, and a total accuracy of 93.6%.

  8. Influence of chronic exposure to cold environment on thyroid gland function in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, S; Elgazzar, A

    2014-07-01

    Chronic exposure to cold can affect the thyroid gland. However, the effect on thyroid gland perfusion images and the ratio between thyroid hormones secretion were not addressed in any previous study. The present study investigates the effects of chronic cold exposure on thyroid gland function using radionuclide tracer and thyroid hormones secretion concentration. New Zealand white rabbits weighing approximately 1.8-2?kg were kept in a cold room (4°C) for 7 weeks. Thyroid scintigraphy was performed for cold exposed rabbits and a control rabbit group. Each rabbit was injected with 115?MBq (3.1?mCi) technetium-99m pertechnetate (99mTc pertechnetate). Studies were performed using Gamma camera equipped with a low energy, high resolution, pinhole collimator interfaced with a computer. Static images were acquired 20?min after administration of the radiotracer. Rabbits chronically exposed to cold had less body weights than control. Thyroid gland uptake is higher in rabbits chronically exposed to cold than controls using radionuclide perfusion study. The increase was proportional to the time period, so the increase after 7 weeks was greater than 5 weeks. There is also an increase in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and a decrease in free thyroxine (FT4) values. Our results indicate that thyroid gland uptake is higher in rabbits chronically exposed to cold than control and the increase was proportional to the duration. The decrease in rabbit body weights may be related to the increase in metabolism due to the increase of thyroid hormones. Chronic cold exposure also increased the conversion of T4 to T3, which is more potent in thermogenic effect. PMID:24446160

  9. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T3-RU, T3, T4, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

  10. Studies on the development of endocrine glands in fishes. V. Development of the thyroid gland in two species of teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, D K

    1976-01-01

    In Channa punctatus the thyroid anlage is seen 40 h after hatching and is recognized as cells aggregating in the form of follicles with no colloid. During subsequent stages of development the thyroid follicles increase in number and in 5 days old larva an active division of cells and many follicles in the form of epithelial cords are seen. In 2 months old juvenile fish several thyroid follicles and lymphatic vessels are seen enclosed by connective tissue capsule. In Clarias batrachus the thyroid anlage is seen as a group of cells around tiny colloid droplets and is situated just below the bifuration of the 1st branchial artery. This stage is seen in 60 h old larva and is developed into thyroid follicles which is a long chain along the jugular vein and ventral aorta during latter stages of development. It is concluded that during early larval period of these fishes, the thyroid cells begin to trap iodine from the blood and synthesize it in the form of thyroid hormone which is stored as colloid and is also liberated in blood stream simultaneously. The compact nature of the thyroid gland in C. punctatus is because of development of connective sheath around follicles during early stages. PMID:1278657

  11. Arteries define the position of the thyroid gland during its developmental relocalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Burkhard; Elsalini, Osama A; Schrumpf, Pamela; Haufs, Nele; Lawson, Nathan D; Schwabe, Georg C; Mundlos, Stefan; Grüters, Annette; Krude, Heiko; Rohr, Klaus B

    2006-10-01

    During vertebrate development, the thyroid gland undergoes a unique relocalisation from its site of induction to a distant species-specific position in the cervical mesenchyme. We have analysed thyroid morphogenesis in wild-type and mutant zebrafish and mice, and find that localisation of growing thyroid tissue along the anteroposterior axis in zebrafish is linked to the development of the ventral aorta. In grafting experiments, ectopic vascular cells influence the localisation of thyroid tissue cell non-autonomously, showing that vessels provide guidance cues in zebrafish thyroid morphogenesis. In mouse thyroid development, the midline primordium bifurcates and two lobes relocalise cranially along the bilateral pair of carotid arteries. In hedgehog-deficient mice, thyroid tissue always develops along the ectopically and asymmetrically positioned carotid arteries, suggesting that, in mice (as in zebrafish), co-developing major arteries define the position of the thyroid. The similarity between zebrafish and mouse mutant phenotypes further indicates that thyroid relocalisation involves two morphogenetic phases, and that variation in the second phase accounts for species-specific differences in thyroid morphology. Moreover, the involvement of vessels in thyroid relocalisation sheds new light on the interpretation of congenital thyroid defects in humans. PMID:16968815

  12. Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores / Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA, MATAMALA S; MIGUEL, GONZÁLEZ P; GONZALO, ROSSEL D; CONSTANZA, NIEME S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósi [...] to de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología. Abstract in english Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical [...] service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

  13. Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA MATAMALA S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3% se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73% correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27% a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total, 4 (36,3% con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18% con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18% con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9% con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9% con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9% con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología.Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81% had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%. were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36% had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18% had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18% had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

  14. Histological evaluation of thyroid lesions using a scanning acoustic microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Miura K; Mineta H

    2014-01-01

    Katsutoshi Miura,1 Hiroyuki Mineta2 1Department of Health Science, Pathology, and Anatomy, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) uses an ultrasound to image an object by plotting the speed-of-sound (SOS) through tissues on screen. Because hard tissues result in great SOS, SAM can provide data on the tissue elasticity. This paper investigated the utility of SAM in evaluating thyroid lesions. ...

  15. Right thyroid hemiagenesis with adenoma and hyperplasia of parathyroid glands -case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oruci Merima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare anomaly, more commonly seen on the left side (ratio 4:1 and in females (ratio 3:1. The first to describe this anomaly was Handfield Jones in 1852. Case presentation We present a 66 year old female patient with right thyroid hemiagenesis, parathyroid adenoma on the side of hemiagenesis and parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side. The patient had neck pain and was diagnosed as Hashimto thyroiditis with hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid hormone, thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab were elevated. Neck ultrasound and technetium 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI scintigraphy confirmed the right thyroid hemiagenesis, but not adenoma of parathyroid glands. Intraoperatively, right thyroid hemiagenesis was confirmed and left loboistmectomy was performed with removal of left inferior hyperplastic parathyroid gland. Postoperative PTH (parathyroid hormone levels were within normal range. Five months after the operation PTH level was elevated again with calcium values at the upper limit. MIBI scintigraphy was performed again which showed increased accumulation of MIBI in the projection of the right parathyroid gland. Surgical reexploration of the neck and excision of the right upper parathyroid adenoma was performed which was located behind cricoid laryngeal cartilage. After surgery a normalization of calcium and PTH occured. Conclusion From available literature we have not found the case that described parathyroid adenoma on the side of thyroid hemiagenesis,with parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side.

  16. Age and its influence on effects of iodine-131 in guinea pig thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the differences in age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, we exposed fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs to single graded doses of 131I. Injected quantities ranged from 1 to 100 ?Ci 131I, depending on the age group, and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rad. At approximately 100 days of age (or 100 days after dosing for adults), a single microcurie of 131I was given and animals were killed 1 day later to provide data on thyroid weight and percentage 131I uptake. Analysis of these data and information on pathology suggested that the fetal and weanling guinea pig thyroid glands were more radiosensitive than the adult thyroid; the neonatal thyroid appeared less radiosensitive than that of the adult. The increase in radiosensitivity of the young thyroid glands over the adults, however, did not appear to be greater than twofold. Nevertheless, the demonstration of age-related radiosensitivity requires that it be considered by those who assess radiologic risks to human populations

  17. Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules. PMID:20847957

  18. ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sporea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men: 44 (32.3% without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3% with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD, 37 (27.2% with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests, 4 (2.9% with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2% cases with thyroid pathology induced by amiodarone. In all patients, 10 elastographic measurements were made in the right thyroid lobe and 10 in the left thyroid lobe, using a 1-4.5 MHZ convex probe and a 4-9 MHz linear probe, respectively. Median values were calculated for thyroid stiffness and expressed in meters/second (m/s. RESULTS: Thyroid stiffness (TS assessed by means of ARFI in healthy subjects (2 ± 0.40 m/s was significantly lower than in GD (2.67 ± 0.53 m/s (P < 0.0001 and CAT patients (2.43 ± 0.58 m/s (P = 0.0002, but the differences were not significant between GD vs CAT patients (P = 0.053. The optimal cut-off value for the prediction of diffuse thyroid pathology was 2.36 m/s. For this cut-off value, TS had 62.5% sensitivity, 79.5% specificity, 87.6% predictive positive value, 55.5% negative predictive value and 72.7% accuracy for the presence of diffuse thyroid gland pathology (AUROC = 0.804. There were no significant differences between the TS values obtained with linear vs convex probes and when 5 vs 10 measurements were taken in each lobe (median values. CONCLUSION: ARFI seems to be a useful method for the assessment of diffuse thyroid gland pathology.

  19. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  20. Diagnostic value of some radioisotope methods in the study of the thyroid gland of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on the diagnostic effectiveness of the 131I-captation test, the thyro-cap, thyro-con, res-o-mat method, and the scintigraphic method in the investigation of sheep with hypo- and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. It was established that the first of these methods displayed negligible diagnostic capacity, embracing the changes in the inorganic phase of the iodine metabolism at hypo- and hyperfunction of the thyroid. The data obtained for the T-3, T-4, and FT-4 values on the basis of the radioimmune tests used reflected precisely and differentially the changes in the level of the hormone synthesis taking place in the thyroid in various physiologic conditions. Scintigraphic studies with 131I and sup(99)Tc did not give account for the functional changes taking place in the parenchyma of the thyroid gland

  1. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  2. Interrelation specific autoimmune pathologies of a thyroid gland with inorganic autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Paramonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a pathology of a thyroid gland at rheumatic diseases, in particular at rheumatoid arthritis, remains actual and to this day. The work purpose was studying antitelogenesis to thyroid hormones at patients with mixt autoimmune pathology. In whey of blood of patients with RA and autothyroid pathology are found out antibodies (AB to ?3 and ?4, their concentration correlates with activity of pathological process. It is shown, that level AB to ?3 and ?4 authentically differs from the maintenance of the given antibodies in whey of blood of healthy faces. Level of antibodies to thyroid hormones can be considered as the criterion predicting development of pathology of a thyroid gland at patients with RA.

  3. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sadat Alavi Mehr; Azarpira Negar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that app...

  4. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a common thyroid gland disorder. It can occur at any age, but is most often ...

  5. Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ohbuchi Toyoaki; Tabata Takahisa; Nguyen Khac-Hung; Ohkubo Jun-ichi; Katoh Akiko; Suzuki Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and ex...

  6. The Effect of Methimazole on Thyroid Gland Uptake of Technetium in Hyperthyroid Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Farshid Gheisari; Gholamreza Pishdad; Mehrdad Emami; Kasra Behdad; Aida Karimpour; Maryam Sharifian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methimazole on Technetium-99m reabsorbing by thyroid gland , it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole. Patients and Methods: Among all the patients with hyperthyroidism who referred to nuclear medicine ward of Shiraz University of medical sciences, 50 patients were randomly selected. we asked the ...

  7. Postirradiation changes in the thyroid gland and skeletal muscle of rats injected with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional status of rat skeletal muscles was studied at dormancy and during the intensive muscular work under conditions of repeated administration of iodine 131 in doses causing reversible and irreversible damages to thyroid gland (the absorbed doses were from 0.27 to 266 Gy). The biochemical changes in muscles were transient; they correlated with the thyroid gland status and lifetime of animals and were displayed during the first 15 days and 2-12 months after the start of the isotope injection

  8. IR Spectroscopic signs of malignant neoplasms in the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    We use Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to study thyroid tumor tissues which were removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the tissues with pathological foci are compared with data from histologic examination. In the region of N-H, C-H, and C = O stretching vibrations, the IR spectra of the tissues for thyroid cancer are different from the IR spectra of tissues without malignant formations. We identify the spectral signs of thyroid cancer. We show that IR analysis is promising for identification of thyroid pathology at the molecular level.

  9. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Mazzucchelli; Sergio Suriano; Luca Giovanella; Fabrizio Fasolini

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Hi...

  10. Reticular erythematous mucinosis and acral papulokeratotic lesions associated with myxoedema due to Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, J A; Santos, J C; Villabona, V; Santana, J

    1992-01-01

    A case is described of a patient with generalized myxoedema due to Hashimoto thyroiditis involving lesions of reticular erythematous mucinosis and acral papulokeratotic lesions with 'church spire' histological pattern. Substitutive treatment with thyroid hormone led to a rapid regression of the cutaneous lesions. The infrequent association of reticular erythematous mucinosis lesions and other forms of cutaneous mucinoses with hypothyroidism is discussed, with special emphasis on the fact that the underlying thyroid disease in all cases was Hashimoto thyroiditis. The association of distal keratotic papules with hypothyroidism has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:1559001

  11. Modern concepts of preoperative preparation of patients with thyroid gland disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabljak Vera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative evaluation of patients with thyroid gland disease, in any kind of surgery, should include the possibility of difficult intubation caused by thyromegaly, the hormonal status (its disbalance, as well as the screening, and therapy of consequences of thyroid imbalance on specific organ systems, especially cardiovascular. It is necessary to select the adequate anesthetics and other pharmacological agents, according to current hormonal status. It is also necessary to select the adequate medications and other therapeutic measures for prevention and treatment of possible complications in perioperative period, some of which are life-threatening (thyroid storm and mixedema coma.

  12. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  13. Analysis of CT findings of submandibular gland benign and malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the characteristic CT features of benign and malignant submandibular gland lesions. Methods: CT scans of 75 cases of submandibular gland lesions verified pathologically after surgery were analyzed retrospectively, including 38 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 22 cases of malignant tumors, 11 cases of chronic submaxillaritis, 2 cases of myoepithelioma, 1 case of neurilemoma and 1 case of hemangioma. Results: (1) All 38 cases of submandibular gland pleomorphic adenoma only occupied a part of submandibular gland. Thirty five lesions were on the edge of submandibular gland. The edge of 33 lesions were smooth and the density of 30 lesions were even. Thirty three lesions were slightly or moderately enhanced and 10 lesions showed 'target sign' on enhanced CT. (2) There were 22 cases of submandibular gland malignant tumors. Three lesions of lymphoma located at the edge of submandibular gland with smooth edge and even density, and showed mild to moderate enhancement. The remaining 19 lesions showed rough edge and uneven density. Eighteen of the 19 lesions showed ill-defined boundary, 2 of the 18 lesions invaded most of submandibular gland and 16 of the 18 lesions invaded the whole submandibular gland. Seventeen lesions were unevenly enhanced, thickened, cirvilinear vessels were seen in 12 of the 17 lesions. Nine cases were accompanied with swollen lymph nodes (minor diameter greater than 1.0 cm) in neck. (3) There were 11 cases of chronic submaxillaritis, which showed enlargement of' the whole submandibular gland with relative smooth edge and relative clear boundary. Most of lesions were moderately and evenly enhanced. Six cases were companied with submandibular duct lithiasis and dilatation. All of 11 cases were accompanied with lymph node enlargement in neck. (4) Two cases of myoepithelioma demonstrated irregular ring enhancement on CT; one case of neurilemoma showed obvious cystic changes and slight enhancement on the edge; 1 case of hemangioma showed multiple phleboliths and prolonged contrast enhancement. Conclusions: Most of submandibular gland benign and malignant lesions show some degree of characteristic CT findings. It is relatively difficult to discriminate between lymphoma and submandibular gland pleomorphic adenoma. (authors)

  14. Difficulty during pulmonary arterial catheterization caused by retrosternal thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Senoglu N; Yasim A; Oksuz H; Gisi G; Okur N

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of large retrosternal thyroid mass causing difficulty in pulmonary arterial catheterization. It is emphasized that retrosternal thyroid can cause variation of major vascular structures and difficulty in central catheterization techniques. Imaging modalities like plain chest radiography and thoracic computerized tomography are important to display such cases.

  15. A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T4) and/or triiodothyronine (T3). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins ardance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism

  16. Two cases of lymphoma of the parotid gland following ablative radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two adult patients are described in whom 131I therapy for thyroid carcinoma was followed by the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in salivary glands. Histologically one was lymphocytic and the other histiocytic. The total doses of 131I given were 27 GBq (675 mCi) and 14 GBq (350 mCi), lymphoma presenting 10 and 3 years respectively after the initial therapeutic dose of 131I. It is suggested that the relationship is a causal one, because of the rarity of salivary gland lymphoma and the high dose of radiation to the salivary glands with this mode of therapy. (author)

  17. Assessment of the Effect of Interferon-Beta1a Therapy on Thyroid and Salivary Gland Functions in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Using Quantitative Salivary Gland Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Erhamamc?, Seval; Horasanl?, Bahriye; Aktas?, Ays?e

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Interferon-beta (IFN-?) is widely used in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. High incidence of thyroid dysfunction has been reported after administration of IFN-? in MS patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of IFN-?1a therapy on simultaneous thyroid and salivary gland function in patients with MS using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS).

  18. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  19. Comparative radioisotope study on the function of the thyroid gland of some farm animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope functional investigations of the thyroid gland were carried out with weaned lambs and pigs. The 131I captation capacity of the thyroid gland was studied to characterize the inogranic phase of iodine exchange. The evaluation of the hormone producing function of the thyroid gland required the determination of the level of the protein-bound 131 I (PB 131 I), T3-binding capacity of the thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) and the ratio of the T3-binding capacity of TBG and the free thyroxine (T4) calculated as the FT4 index.Established was the species peculiarity of the 131 I captation capacity of the thyroid gland in weaned lambs and pigs in the early phases of investigation. At the second hour the percent captation was calculated as 7.2+-0.8 and 1.11+-0.21%, respectively. The values of PB 131 I, T3-binding capacity of TBG and FT4 of pigs varied within the limits of 1.20+-0.05%, 0.605+-0.012, and 0.976+-0.015 and of weaned lambs they were 0.954+-0.009%, 0.912+-0.017 and 0.890+-0.03. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  1. The thyroid gland function assessment in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy during breast cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: For many years much attention has been focused on an interaction between the breast disease and the thyroid gland function in the literature. In those studies the question whether disease changes in the thyroid gland can induces the breast disease was addressed. On the other hand there are a few works concerning the inverted question whether the breast cancer therapy, in particular after mastectomy and chemotherapy, can disturb the thyroid gland function. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the mastectomy and chemotherapy on the thyroid gland function in women after breast cancer therapy. Material and methods: 173 patients aged 30 - 80 (average 56) were included in this study. The studied group comprised 97 women after breast cancer therapy (average age 60). The control group consisted of 76 patients (average age 55). 75 patients after mastectomy of the studied group were additionally treated with chemotherapy, but in 22 women chemotherapy was not applied. The following methods were used to carry out the research: the USG method was applied to evaluate thyroid morphological condition in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy; the color Doppler technique was used for dynamic presentation and fine- needle aspiration biopsy: examination of the thyroid functional state by measuring the TSH, fT3, fT4 hormone concentration and the level of antithyroid antibodies. Results: An average concentration of antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and antf antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and anti-Tg was found significantly higher in the studied group of women after chemotherapy, comparing with the control group. The level of fT3 hormone concentration was comparable in all investigated groups. Nevertheless, the average concentration of TSH was found higher in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy and as a consequence leading to hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the high level of the concentration of antithyroid antibodies: (anti-TPO and anti- Tg), which lead to destruction of the thyroid gland tissue, the thyroid gland function of the women after mastectomy and chemotherapy should be monitored morphologically as well as functionally. (author)

  2. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso / Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Soares Corrêa, Silva; Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro, Chagas; Maurício Buzelin, Nunes; Rodrigo Assis de, Paula.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idad [...] e, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial. Abstract in english Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its cl [...] inical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

  3. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound. Thyroid screening participants were invited, with informed consent, from 6 exposed and 2 non-exposed villages of the Semipalatinsk region. Of those screened, 1320 were presumably exposed and 1678 presumably were not. This collaborative research project was supported by the CRDF, USA, International award no.KN2-434. Reconstructed average gamma dose was used as a preliminary index of total thyroid dose from internal and external sources of radiation exposure. Nodular thyroid gland was identified in 920 participants, of whom 500 were recommended for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). Nodule prevalence was 18% among men and 39% among women with a 3.5% per year positive gradient in prevalence overall by age at screening, and was significantly associated with estimated gamma radiation dose. Excess prevalence rate was approximately the same among men and women, with a 3-fold higher dose-specific relative risk among men compared to women. Prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased non-significantly with dose, but prevalence of follicular neoplasm was not associated with dose. Cytopathology review identified 30 papillary carcinomas in 27 cases and 10 follicular neoplasms in 10 cases. Some patients with thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer were referred to surgical department. They have been treated successfully by surgery or by percutaneus injection of erythrocyte pharmacocytes in accordance with our own procedure. Intraoperative thyroid tissue sampling was done to do some molecular and genetic investigation. Several aspects related to hormone status of thyroid patients, the thyroid gland function among various group of patients, morphological findings, surgical tactics and rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities living around the SNTS, will be presented. (author)

  4. Thyroid lesions in children and adolescents after the Chernobyl disaster: Implications for the study of radiation tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the most obvious effect is manifested by an increase in the prevalence of thyroid gland diseases in the exposed children and adolescents. In this study, we describe a comparative analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and morphological features of 92 malignant and 59 benign thyroid lesions from patients 5-18 yr of age exposed to radiation in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. All of them were operated at the same institution during the period from September 1991 through December 1992. The highest number of patients that subsequently developed thyroid carcinomas was in the group that was less that 1 yr of age at the time of Chernobyl, and this number decreased progressively through age 12 yr. Conversely, none of the patients with benign lesions only was less than 2 yr old at the time of the accident, and an exposure age of 5-6 yr was a threshold separating significant prevalence of malignant tumors in younger children from the more frequently benign lesions in older patients (P ? 0.001). Fifty-two percent of the children with carcinomas and only 24% with benign lesions (P ? 0.005) were residents of the Gomel region, which is the most contaminated in Belarus. The morphology of thyroid tissue adjacent to carcinomas showed a high prevalence of multinodular and diffuse changes, but not of adenomas or solitary adenomatoid nodules. There was a high prevalence of focal micropapillary hyperplasia with graded degopapillary hyperplasia with graded degrees of severity, which we hypothesize may correspond to precursors for papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl radiation-associated tumors. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Scintigraphic study of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of scintigraphic salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine. Patients were divided in two groups: null or mild dysfunction (grade I-II), moderate-severe dysfunction (grade III-IV) and statistical Mann-Whitney U test was applied. The radioiodine dose ranged between 80 and 200 mCi. Nineteen patients were found to be less affected (group 1), corresponding to grades I and II, and 11 patients were more affected (group 2), with grade III involvement. The severity of involvement of the salivary glands was not related with the dose of radioiodine used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and the sex of the patients had no clear influence either. Other factors are possibly related to the severity of salivary gland involvement

  6. The Effect of Methimazole on Thyroid Gland Uptake of Technetium in Hyperthyroid Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Gheisari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methimazole on Technetium-99m reabsorbing by thyroid gland , it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole. Patients and Methods: Among all the patients with hyperthyroidism who referred to nuclear medicine ward of Shiraz University of medical sciences, 50 patients were randomly selected. we asked the patients who were on Methimazole, to discontinue the usage of all drugs (not Methimazole and foods which are effective on thyroid gland for 1 week, after that thyroid scan was performed for these patients. In The other episode, we asked them to discontinue the usage of all drugs (also Methimazole and foods which are effective on thyroid gland for 1 week and then thyroid scan was performed again .Revealed data was analyzed under supervision of statistical specialist with descriptive methods on SPSS. Results: 34 patients were males (68% and other was females. Mean age of the patients was 53.5 years. (Min: 39 years and max: 75 years Although The ROI (Region of Interest of thyroid was increased in the patients who used methimazole before scan 398.72(SD: 191.73 than the patients who discontinued for one week 380.15 (SD: 112.49, but the difference wasn’t statistically significant. The ROI of peripheral tissue of the thyroid was decreased in the patients who used methimazole before scan 26.44(SD: 5.42 than the patients who discontinued for one week 27.0414 (SD: 5.57, but the difference wasn’t statistically significant. Discussion: In conclusion, we demonstrated that methimazole pretreatment does not interfere with either the efficacy of ROI and reabsorbing of Technetium-99m in thyroid gland and peripheral tissues. A possible limitation of this study is the number of patients in the sample.So it seems that it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole.

  7. Clinical Significance of Diffuse 18F FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent 18F FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse 18F FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2±1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0±664.6 vs. 57.3±46.4, P18F FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The 18F FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  8. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-directed induction of the CREM gene in the thyroid gland participates in the long-term desensitization of the TSH receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Lalli, E.; Sassone-corsi, P.

    1995-01-01

    Thyroid gland function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis via the secretion of TSH, according to environmental, developmental, and circadian stimuli. TSH modulates both the secretion of thyroid hormone and gland trophism through interaction with a specific guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor (TSH receptor; TSH-R), which elicits the activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. After TSH stimulation, the levels of TSH-R RNA are known to decrease dramatically ...

  9. High incidence of thyroid gland abnormalities in children and high school students in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increased incidence of thyroid pathology noticed in Lithuania in 1989 is still increasing. The findings of about 1300 children and young persons thyroid glands examination are presented. The results are oppressive. The incidence of thyroid pathology is alarmingly high (up to 75-80-90%). TTH level increased at 9.3 % of secondary school pupils in Dievenishkes (near Byelorussia). The cause of the situation is unknown. It may be Chernobyl tragedy or Ignalina NPP influence (in Zarasai). It is necessary to investigate the problem without delay, to find the cause of the situation and to take measures for prevention of the disease. To define the underlying pathology is the foremost task in the management of thyroid patients. The therapy is to be started as soon as the diagnosis is determined. (author). 1 tab

  10. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  11. [Indications and surgical therapy of thyroid gland diseases--analysis of 725 operated patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, M; Friedrich, T; Keitel, R; Sattler, B; Schönfelder, M

    1998-01-01

    Diseases of the thyroid gland are an important part of elective surgical procedures. The adequate surgical therapy is at present standardized and requires a permanent qualitative control to reduce avoidable complications. The relation between men and women in our patients (n = 725) was 1 to 5. The mean age was 51.2 years. 10% (n = 79) of the patients were hyperthyroid. 646 patients had benign disease; and 79 patients were found to have malignancy of the thyroid gland. The most common indication for an operation was bilateral multinodular goitre (n = 325) in combination with a cold nodule (n = 123), in 79 patients latent hyperthyroidism or Morbus Basedow (n = 22). Struma nodosa with retrosternal extension (n = 49), recurrence of goitre (n = 34), thyroiditis (n = 12) and dystopic goitre (n = 2) were rare in these patients. Patients with malignancy of the thyroid gland were always treated by thyroidectomy or completed thyroidectomy with lymphnode dissection. In the cases of benign disease the surgical methods were variable, although the bilateral subtotal resection (n = 413) predominated. While doing so the radical resection of parenchyma with a persistent functioning remnant of goitre of 5 cm3 was favoured. The resulting postoperative complications are discussed. An endocrinological appropriate follow-up of the patients is necessary. PMID:9542026

  12. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles and parafollicular C-cells. A high degree of co-existence between PACAP and VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) was observed in the intrathyroid nerve fibres and cell bodies of the thyroid ganglion indicating a common origin for the two peptides. A minor population of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres with relation to blood vessels co-stored NPY (neuropeptide Y), whereas only a few fibres co-stored CGRP. PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptor mRNA's occurred in follicular cells and blood vessels, whereas the expression of the VPAC(2) receptor was low. The findings suggest that PACAP plays a role in the regulation of parathyroid and thyroid blood flow and hormone secretion.

  13. Use of 131-I metaiodinebenzylgunidine (131-I MIBG) in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most common problems of modern oncology practice and nuclear medicine is the treatment of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), which is considered to be the tumor of the APUD system. The neoplasm originates from C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland. The tumor is hormone-active and can produce calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland constitutes 3-13% of all malignant thyroid tumors. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes, mediastinum, lungs, liver, bones are frequent. The purpose of our work was to review the efficacy of MCT treatment done in our centre. Since 1999 131I-MIBG (Amersham-Nycomed) has been used in the treatment of MCT at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology. During 1999-2002, 131I-MIBG was administered in various doses (100 to 300 mCi) to 12 patients with different stages of MCT. Four non-radically operated patients with local dissemination of the tumor were cured following 131I-MIBG therapy (total activity 200-300 mCi, follow up period - 2 years). In four patients reduction in the tumor volume and/or disappearance of metastases in the cervical nodes (follow-up period 1.5 years, total activity of 131I-MIBG 100 - 200 mCi) was noticed. Three patients are still on follow up since 1.5 years (total activity of 131I-MIBG 100-200 mCi). One patient died due to the progression of disease. Myelosuppression was not observed in any of the treated patients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promiients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promising radiopharmaceutical for treatment medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  14. Improved abnormal parathyroid gland detection using Tc-99m Sestamibi with simultaneous I-123 thyroid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tc-99m Sestamibi imaging has become the most sensitive test for localizing abnormal parathyroid glands (PTG) prior to surgery in patients being evaluated for primary hyperparathyroidism. Larger volume PTG and those lying distant from the thyroid in the upper neck or thorax can be imaged with Sestamibi alone. Comparison with a functional thyroid scan would improve the sensitivity of the imaging in patients with smaller volume PTG, those lying within or near the thyroid and in patients with thyroid nodules or prior thyroid surgery. Methods: We have performed simultaneous I-123 (NaI) and Tc-99m Sestamibi imaging for PTG scanning with dual-window gamma camera acquisition in 450 patients with hypercalcaemia and elevated serum PTH. Patients were given 18.5 - 37 MBq I-123 orally and 740 MBq Sestamibi IV. Planar imaging of the anterior neck obtained with asymmetric windows of -5% to +9% around 159 keV (I-123) was subtracted from a -10% to +4% window around 140 keV (Tc-99m Sestamibi). Planar and SPECT imaging allows for detection of very small abnormal PTG (as small as 50-60 mg) and localization of PTG lying adjacent or within the thyroid. Conclusion: Simultaneous imaging of I-123 and Tc-99m Sestamibi is possible using asymmetric acquisition windows avoiding the patient motion with sequential Tc-99m pertechnetate and Tc-99m Sestamibi imaging. This technique allows detection of very small PTG in or near the thyroid

  15. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  16. Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

  17. Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Gool, S. van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Pediactrics, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Ophthalmology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-12-15

    We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

  18. Thyroid Tissue Connected to Normally Located Thyroid Gland: Ectopic or Exophytic?

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Keles; Sule Ozkara; Turgut Karlidag; Brahim Hanifi Ozercan, Amp X.

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue is seen rarely. It is often seen in cervical midline, and rarely in other areas such as submandibular area. Diagnosis is made histopathologically by fine needle biopsy after the elimination of malignancy. In the treatment of ectopic thyroid tissue, surgical excision is mostly applied. According to our knowledge, there is no exophytic thyroid tissue reported in the literature. In this paper, a 32-year-old woman who presented with a swelling under the right jaw and found ...

  19. Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    de Matos Leandro; Del Giglio Adriana; Matsubayashi Carolina; de Lima Farah Michelle; Del Giglio Auro; da Silva Pinhal Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19), galectin-3 (Gal-3) and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1). However, current results remain cont...

  20. Identification of parathyroid glands: anatomical study and surgical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina; Pinheiro, Susana; Carvalho, Lina; Bernardes, António

    2015-03-01

    While performing thyroid surgery, the unintentional lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves results in a profound alteration in patient's quality of life. To minimize thyroid surgery morbidity, the surgeon must have an in-depth knowledge of the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck. This work intended to simulate total thyroidectomies using cadaver parts and isolate fragments that may correspond to parathyroid glands. The thyroid glands and "eventual" parathyroid glands were then submitted to histological study. Ninety-two cadaver parts were used for macroscopic dissection. A total of 242 fragments were isolated, 154 of which were confirmed through histological study to be parathyroid glands. In 36 cases, all "eventual" parathyroid glands isolated during dissection were confirmed through histological verification. In 40 cases, some glands were confirmed. In 16 cases, none of the "eventual" parathyroid glands was confirmed. The 92 thyroid glands isolated during dissection were also submitted to histological study. In 21 thyroid glands, 16 parathyroid glands were identified in the histological cuts: 8 sub-capsular, 8 extra-capsular, 6 intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical difference between the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid gland identification and preservation are sometimes a challenge during thyroid surgery, difficulty that has been demonstrated during dissection of cadaver parts. PMID:24969171

  1. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  2. Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Mohan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification. Mature bone formation is a rare phenomenon, but extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH has also been rarely reported in thyroid gland. The combination of mature bone formation and EMH is rarer and has been reported, in a single case report, in a multinodular goitre. We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle-?aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature.

  3. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34?E-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34?E-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  4. The effect of low-level radiation on the cAMP system of chick embryo thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content were studied in the thyroid gland of intact and irradiated (0.029 Gy given before incubation) embryos and chickens. The enzyme activity was stimulated and the nucleotide content increased on the 18th day of the embryo development. It is suggested that the observed stimulation of the cAMP system is associated with the increased secretion of the thyreotropic hormone which controls the functional activity of the thyroid gland

  5. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Ruchika; Arora Raman; Sharma Alok; Dinda Amit

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A f...

  6. The condition of thyroid gland in patients with chronic renal failure on a long-term hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Dogadin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To lean the condition of thyroid gland and thyroid function in patients with chronic renal failure on a hemodialysis. A total of 234 patients (105 males and 129 females with chronic renal failure who are being treated by a long-term hemodialysis from 1 to 167 months, living in different city of Eastern Siberia were examined. All patients included in the study have ultrasonografic scan of thyroid. Free thyroid hormones, thyrotropin and thyroid peroxidase antibodies blood levels were determined. Among the examined cases in 60 (25.4% was diagnosed thyroid disease (autoimmune thyroiditis without dysfunction, subclinical hypothyroidism, nontoxic diffuse or nodular goiter for the first time. In 102 (43.6% of cases the thyroid disease has not revealed, in 39 (16.7% euthyroid sick syndrome type 1 or 2 was determined.

  7. Representation of medical concepts of the thyroid gland by physicians in anatomy and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, L; Bastien, C; Roux, M

    1994-10-01

    An experimental study in cognitive psychology is described, concerning the categorization of medical concepts into specific classes, expressed by physicians specialized in anatomic pathology consultations of the thyroid gland. This study belongs to a medical computer science project, called ARISTOTLE, concerning Natural Language Processing of specialized medical reports in anatomic pathology of the thyroid gland. This research has been done for two reasons; first, to specify the characteristics of human expert categorization in an area of medical knowledge and, secondly, to validate the hierarchical organization of a prototype declarative knowledge base. In this experiment, physicians were asked to categorize 121 concepts into 10 proposed classes. These classes and concepts belong to expert knowledge represented in a conceptual graph that was constructed before the experiment. Results show variable semantic distances between concepts of a same class, and dynamic variations of these distances due to contextual representation. PMID:7799814

  8. Decrease of 131I uptake in thyroid gland and rat fetuses by combined treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable potassium iodide and potassium iodate were compared from the point of view of their protective qualities concerning radiation burden of thyroid gland. In case of single use no difference was observed. After repeated treatment, KI had more significant protective effect than KIO3. The higher the embryonic age is, the higher is the activity of radioiodine in the fetuses and their placenta in accordance with numerous laboratory observations. KI, administered 2 hours after the 131I incorporation of pregnant rats, is able to decrease the radioactivity of fetuses with one order of magnitude. The protective effect of KI can be increased by combining it with potassium perchlorate. Combined treatment guaranteed better protection for the thyroid gland of dams, too. (author)

  9. Iodine-131 in milk 1961-62 and in thyroid glands of cattle and sheep 1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cases of late effects from radioactive iodine uptake in children have renewed interest in this contaminant. I-131 data collected in Norway during periods following the nuclear weapons test series in 1961 and 1962 have been re-examined and collated with more recent data on natural iodine in the milk and thyroid glands from domestic animals. Some of the measured values may be interpreted as indications of an inverse relationship between the level of natural iodine and the uptake of I-131, but the material is too small and inconsistent to draw any conclusions. Obviously the uptake and concentration of I-131 in animal milk and thyroid glands are influenced by many factors besides the fallout amounts; at present it is not possible to determine their relative importance and set up a satisfactory model for the I-131 uptake. (Auth.)

  10. Prenatal thyroid gland in sheep with regard to the presence of isthmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájovská, K

    2002-10-01

    We studied the embryonal thyroid gland in 18 foetuses of sheep of Slovac merino breed by light microscopy in the period from 32nd to 36th day of evolution. We found that in the majority of sheep foetuses, the thyroid gland consists of two separate lobes and their structure was the same during the afore-mentioned period. Parenchyma, composed of solid cell networks or cell groups in the form of nests, was irregularly divided by septa, containing embryonal blood vessels. Almost all cases of this experiment showed slight asymmetry of lobes. In one case the asymmetry reached a considerable proportion - nearly the length of one lobe. Glandular isthmus was presented in only eight cases from 18 foetuses. We did not find fibrous isthmus in any case. PMID:12484424

  11. Radiation dose to the lens of eye and thyroid gland in paranasal sinus multislice CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit-Maempel, I; Chadwick, C L; Willis, S P

    2003-06-01

    CT has become an established examination in the evaluation of the paranasal sinuses. Until recently this was achieved by the direct coronal technique on conventional and single slice helical scanners. With the advent of multislice technology, thin slice axial CT with excellent coronal and sagittal reconstructions is now the norm. We describe a study designed to evaluate the radiation dose to the lens of the eye and thyroid gland in the axial and coronal planes on a Siemens Volume Zoom quad slice scanner at 140 kV and effective mAs of 100 using 1 mm collimation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed on the eyelid and thyroid gland of 29 patients scanned axially in the supine position and a further 28 patients scanned coronally in the prone position with gantry tilt. The results show mean doses of 35.1 mGy (lens) and 2.9 mGy (thyroid gland) in the coronal plane compared with 24.5 mGy (lens) and 1.4 mGy (thyroid gland) in the axial plane. Results obtained from a head phantom and from using the ImPACT CT dose calculator were comparable. The kV and mAs were then reduced to 120 and 40, respectively, and the axial study repeated using the head phantom and predicted doses using the ImPACT CT dose calculator. The low dose scanning technique revealed a lens dose of 9.2 mGy and thyroid dose of 0.4 mGy. The eye dose on a multislice scanner is still substantially less than the threshold dose of 0.5-2 Gy for detectable lens opacities. These results indicate that, in addition to the established perceived advantages of multislice axial sinus CT, i.e. patient comfort, no artefact from dental amalgam and reproducible true coronal images, should be included a decreased radiation dose to both the eye lens and thyroid gland compared with direct coronal scanning. PMID:12814929

  12. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alzaraa Ahmed; Stone Jason; Williams Glyn; Ahmed Irfan; Quraishi Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the p...

  13. Toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nac?o, M.; C?eliku, E.; Llukac?aj, A.; Shehaj, J.; Kameniku, R.

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with toxic adenoma scheduled for surgery right lobectomy and isthmectomy of thyroid gland. During the examination before surgery, patient was diagnosed for the first time as having with Wolff – Parkinson – White (WPW) syndrome. In the operating room, after the induction of anesthesia, the electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex tachycardia with a rate of 180 beats/min, which was diagnosed as paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The patient w...

  14. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  15. Effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the thyroid gland structure and function of ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elgendy Mohamed S; Abdel-Dayem Menna M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Estrogen therapy is widely used nowadays in women to treat many postmenopausal symptoms but it may have some undesirable effects due to multiple organs affection. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in ovarictomized rats as a model simulating menopause. Findings Thirty adult female Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in this study; the first group was sham-opera...

  16. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3{+-}11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1{+-}10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2{+-}12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2{+-}1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  17. The effect of MR contrast medium dose on pituitary gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and pituitary gland-to-lesion contrast conspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and gland-lesion contrast ratio in patient groups in which half-dose (HD), standard-dose (SD) and double-dose (DD) contrast medium was used in pituitary MR imaging. Pituitary gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement were measured and gland-lesion contrast ratios were calculated in 18 patients receiving HD (0.05 mmol/kg), 9 receiving SD (0.1 mmol/kg) and 13 receiving DD (0.2 mmol/kg) contrast medium. Gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement over baseline were determined employing DICOM region of interest measurements and compared after normalization to temporal lobe white matter. Contrast ratios and differences were also calculated and compared. Gland enhancement and lesion enhancement were greater with larger contrast medium doses (gland: HD 50%, SD 99%, DD 132%; microlesion: HD 19%, SD 54%, DD 86%). The gland-lesion contrast ratios were similar with the three doses (25.6%), reflecting expected similar fractional contrast medium distributions in spite of different doses. The signal difference between gland and microlesion, therefore, was a fixed percentage of gland enhancement (?S approximately 26%) with greater signal differences with larger contrast medium doses. Greater gland-to-lesion signal differences with larger contrast medium doses would likely improve pituitary microlesion visualization and margin characterization aiding in microlesion detection rization aiding in microlesion detection as well as preoperative planning. (orig.)

  18. Studies on 129I in bovine thyroid glands and investigations on revolatilization of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study fall out effect, deposition and revolatilization of iodine in the field and 129I activity in bovine thyroid glands were studied. Deposition velocity of I2 was 0.15 to 7 cm/sec, which was 100 times higher than that of CH3I. Biological half-life of iodine was 7.5 +- 0.5 d. In the contaminated plants, indifferent to the environmental conditions. However, the decrease of iodine concentration was not observed when the plants were cut off immediately after deposition of iodine. A sample of soil with or without plants was contaminated with iodine and re-emitted iodine was trapped by a charcoal filter. Iodine concentration was determined by I-specific electrodes after 1, 2, 4, and 8 hrs. In any case, I2 was re-emitted immediately after the contamination. Bovine thyroid glands were dried by deep freezing and ground after the addition of KOH. Organic compounds were decomposed by stepwise heating up to 6000C. Then iodine was extracted by concentrated H2SO4 and heated at 1100C. Evaporating iodine was adsorbed by a pure charcoal filter. By neutron activation analysis of the filter the activity of 129I was 1.2 pCi/g iodine, which would be about 5 times higher than that measured in animals living far from nuclear installations. The distribution of stable iodine in thyroid gland was inhomogeneous. (Nakanishi, T.)

  19. Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto T. Bertelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento.Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

  20. Anatomical and Histochemical Studies of the thyroid gland of two Egyptian reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshra A. El-Salkh; Zaki T. Zaki; Ibrahem G. Ibrahem and Samia Saad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of lizards are used in the present work Eumeces schneiderii as a hibernating reptile and Laudakia stellio brachydactyla as a non-hibernating one. Macroscopically, the thyroid of Eumeces schneiderii is formed of separate paired structures lying on both sides of the bifurcation of left and right carotid arteries. The thyroid of Laudakia, is formed of two well defined lobes each lying on either side of the trachea with a narrow connecting isthmus. Microscopically, the thyroid gland in both animals is composed of a big number of follicles which are held together by a loose connective tissue. The Interfollicular spaces are filled with blood sinusoids. Each follicle is composed of one layer of epithelial cells, which vary in their heights from winter to summer. In Laudakia, the gland never become completely inactive during winter. In Eumeces schneiderii , it is completely inactive during hibernation. Intracellular colloid droplets are rarely found in the thyroid of Laudakia, while they are very frequent In Eumeces schneiderii. This colloid shows regular seasonal changes in both animals depending on the degree of activity of acini.

  1. Presence and distribution of urocortin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptors in the bovine thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Alì, S; Ciarcia, R; Germano, G; Vittoria, A; Mirabella, N

    2014-12-01

    Urocortin (UCN), a 40 amino acid peptide, is a corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-related peptide. The biological actions of CRH family peptides are mediated via two types of G-protein-coupled receptors, CRH type 1 (CRHR1) and CRH type 2 (CRHR2). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 by immunoprecipitation, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR in the bovine thyroid gland. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis showed that tissue extracts reacted with the anti-UCN, anti-CRHR1 and anti-CRHR2 antibodies. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that mRNAs of UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 were expressed. UCN immunoreactivity (IR) and CRHR2-IR were found in the thyroid follicular and parafollicular cells and CRHR1-IR in the smooth muscle of the blood vessels. These results suggest that a regulatory system exists in the bovine thyroid gland based on UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 and that UCN plays a role in the regulation of thyroid physiological functions through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism. PMID:24219151

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of vessel distribution in benign and malignant lesions of thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Papotti, Mauro Giulio

    2004-01-01

    In order to better understand the spatial distribution of thyroid vessels, a series of benign and malignant thyroid lesions were studied with three-dimensional (3D) histological stereomicroscopic reconstruction. Cases consisted of normal autoptic thyroids (n=6), colloid goitres (n=6), Basedow's disease (n=2), follicular adenoma (FA) (n=4) one of which with Hurthle cells (HC), minimally invasive, well-differentiated follicular carcinoma (FTC) (n=1), well-differentiated FTC with HC (n=1), poorl...

  3. Metastatic undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma of the thyroid gland evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Paone, Gaetano; Ceriani, Luca; Giovanella, Luca

    2015-03-01

    We describe a rare case of metastatic undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma (USCS) of the thyroid gland evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. A 63-year-old male patient with histological diagnosis of USCS of the thyroid gland underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for staging. PET/CT revealed increased radiopharmaceutical uptake corresponding to a thyroid mass and mild 18F-FDG uptake in a 7-mm lung nodule, which was diagnosed as USCS metastasis. Based on these findings, the patient was referred to surgery and chemotherapy, but he died 6 months later for disease progression. PMID:25140545

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ? 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

  5. [Radiometabolic therapy in differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casara, D

    1994-01-01

    The use of I131, for metabolic therapy is a procedure that has been used for many years in the treatment of thyroid carcinomas. Nevertheless, there is no agreement in the use of metabolic therapy. In fact there are therapeutic regimens that foresee the use of I131 following total or subtotal thyroidectomy even in the ablation of postsurgical thyroid residuals in patients with favourable pathological stage and there are metabolic therapeutic schemes only for advanced pathological stages. In fact, result of metabolic therapy are very significant in patients with advanced disease, whereas there is little difference between treated and non-treated patients with disease in the favourable stage, even if metabolic therapy allows a more accurate clinical follow-up. Both univariate and multivariate statistical analysis has demonstrated that neoplastic cell iodine uptake, a fundamental mechanism in metabolic therapy, is the most important prognostic factor in patients with advanced disease. The comparison with other types of treatment with respect to logistic organization or simply cost is also in favour of metabolic therapy as this requires a few days of hospitalization, at low cost and with few acute or late side-effects. On the contrary, the need for an adequately protected ward and difficulty in the dosimetry calculation in each metastasis does not favour metabolic therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7882444

  6. The state of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system of rats to long-term internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are submitted on the state of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system of male rats after a single intravenous injection of 75Se-selenomethionine in a concentration constituting for 3 months the absorbed dose of up to 1 Gy in the thyroid gland and hypophysis, and 0.5-0.55 Gy in the whole body. It was demonstrated that activation of the hypophysisthyroid gland system during the first 3 months after the administration of the preparation is followed by a profound inhibition after 6-18 months

  7. [Long-term course in differentiated thyroid gland carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, H; Birrer, A; Lüscher, D; Kinser, J

    1992-11-28

    545 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were followed up for periods ranging up to 25 years after first treatment (mean 8.1 years, 65% for over 5 years). 72% of patients with papillary carcinoma (n = 270), but only 52% with follicular carcinoma (n = 275) remained tumor-free during the further course. Residual malignancies persisted for more than the first year in 6% and 17% of patients respectively; there were tumor recurrences after an apparently tumor-free interval in 22% and 31% respectively, the latest after 12 and 27 years respectively. 6% and 19% of patients respectively died as a direct result of the tumor (and a group of equal size from other causes), half due to residual and half due to recurrent carcinoma. With regard to residual tumors, few significant risk factors were found preoperatively, comprising distant metastases (factor = 34 and 20 for papillary and follicular tumors respectively), age over 50 years (F = 6.4 and 5), infiltrating growth of primary tumor (F = 4 and 4.3), and regional lymph node involvement (F = 1.2 and 2). However, these factors were of little use in predicting the risk of the more frequently observed tumor recurrence, with maximum factors of 2 (for T4 and N+ stage) for papillary thyroid cancers and 1.5 for follicular cancers. At risk for recurrence were patients in whom total thyroidectomy was not performed (F = 2.3 and 2) and those who did not receive postoperative radioiodine treatment (F = 3), irrespective of age and tumor stage. Therefore, any individualizing regimen beginning with the first treatment has a bearing not only on residual tumor's 50% contribution to mortality. The equally large contribution of recurrences to tumor death can be influenced only by thyroidectomy or, more realistically, by strumectomy combined with early ablation of thyroid remnants with radioiodine. Postoperative radiotherapy of the neck region did not prevent tumor recurrence, and although hormonal suppression was never given the results compared well with the best of published long-term follow-up studies. There were no acute or late complications that could be ascribed to radioiodine treatment. However, a strict strategy of the reducing the administered doses was adopted: the ablation dose was half that used previously (1.5 GBq, i.e. 45 mCi on average), tumor treatment was halted even where residual uptake was observed scintigraphically (in 44% of patients treated) and radioiodine was no longer used for follow-up investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1462145

  8. Estereología de la Glándula Tiroides Humana / Stereology of the Human Thyroid Gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Salgado A; Bélgica, Vásquez; Mariano, del Sol.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La glándula tiroides es una glándula endocrina voluminosa, impar, mediana y simétrica, que ocupa la parte anterior del cuello, en la unión del tercio inferior con los dos tercios superiores. La unidad funcional y estructural de la glándula tiroides es el folículo tiroideo. Los folículos están separa [...] dos unos de otros por escaso tejido conectivo interfolicular. Se ha observado en modelos experimentales animales, diversos valores estereológicos de células foliculares, parafoliculares y coloide. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si existe un patrón estereológico en la glándula tiroides humana en un grupo etáreo y sexo definidos. Para ello, se ocupó una muestra de 6 glándulas tiroides humanas extraidas de cadáveres no fijados, de individuos adultos de sexo masculino, sin antecedentes de patología o alteración tiroídea.Se procesaron histológicamente con H-E para su estudio estereológico. Los resultados mostraron valores promedio para la densidad de volumen del tejido glandular (33,8%) y del coloide (63,17%), densidad de superficie del folículo tiroídeo (21,09 mm2/mm3), densidad de número de células foliculares (10,81 x 105 células/mm3) y parafoliculares (1,81 x 105 células/mm3). Conocido el volumen promedio de la glándula (21,3 mm3), se determinó el número total de células foliculares (230,22 x 105) y parafoliculares (38,33 x 105). Además, se determinó el número de folículos por mm2 (46,18 folículos/mm2). El conocimiento previo de los valores numéricos y proporciones normales estereólogicos permite establecer parámetros que determinen la alteración hiper o hipotrófica de origen endémico o exógeno que lleven a estratificar ciertas alteraciones, hecho observado en modelos experimentales donde las diferencias son significativas. Abstract in english The thyroid gland is a an extensive, medium and symmetrical endocrine gland situated on the anterior side of the neck at the lower third and the upper third junction. The thyroid follicle is the functional and structural unit of the thyroid gland. Follicles are separated from each other by narrow in [...] terfollicular connective tissue. Stereological values of follicular, parafollicular and colloid containing follicles have been observed in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of a stereological pattern in the human thyroid gland defined by age and sex. A sample of six human thyroid glands of adult males with no history of thyroid disease or disorder obtained from non fixed human cadavers; of these cadavers the gland was removed and processed for thyroid follicle density (21.09 mm 2/mm 3), follicular cell number density (10.81 x10 5 cells/mm3) and parafollicular (1.81 x 10 cells/mm 3). With the average gland volume (21.3 mm 3) we determined the total number of follicular cells (230.22 x 10 5) and parafollicular (38.33 x 105). The number of follicles per mm 2 (46.18 follicles/mm2) was also determined. Prior information and knowledge of numerical values and normal stereological proportions provides excellent parameters for determining hyper or hypotrophic endemic or exogenous alterations leading to stratification of certain disorders which was already observed in experimental models where differences amongst models were significant.

  9. Patología quirúrgica de la glándula tiroides / Surgical pathology of the thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Oré; José, Saavedra.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Debido a la gran diversidad de patología quirúrgica de la glándula tiroides y su alta frecuencia en nuestro medio, creemos conveniente presentar nuestra experiencia en esta patología. Objetivos: Conocer la incidencia de la patología quirúrgica de la glándula tiroides, según diagnóstico [...] anatomopatológico, en pacientes operados. Diseño: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional y descriptivo. Lugar: Servicio de cirugía de cabeza y cuello, Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima, Perú, hospital de enseñanza médica. Participantes: Pacientes operados de la glándula tiroides. Intervenciones: Se revisó las historias clínicas de pacientes operados de la glándula tiroides, desde enero de 1997 hasta diciembre de 2006. Principales medidas de resultados: Resultados anatomopatológicos en los especímenes de glándula tiroides. Resultados: Hubo 274 casos operados, de los cuales 81,4% del total correspondió al sexo femenino; 56,9% de los casos provenía de fuera de Lima y Callao, con edades que fluctuaban desde los 30 y 59 años. El tumor fue el signo predominante en 97,8% de los casos. La operación realizada más frecuente fue la tiroidectomía total (39,8%). La patología benigna representó 58% de los casos, con el adenoma folicular como principal patología benigna (23%); dentro de las neoplasias malignas (42% del total), 23,7% era carcinoma papilar. Conclusiones: La patología tumoral tiroidea presentó un marcado predominio en el sexo femenino, principalmente en los grupos etáreos de la 4a, 5a y 6a décadas. La patología glandular tiroidea fue en su mayoría benigna, y de la maligna, el carcinoma papilar. Con alto valor de especificidad (97,7%) y valor predictivo positivo (95,4%), la biopsia de aspiración por aguja fina de tiroides continúa siendo el examen auxiliar más importante en el estudio del paciente con patología tumoral tiroidea. Abstract in english Introduction: Due to the great diversity and variety of thyroid surgical pathology in our country, we review our experience with this pathology. Objectives: To determine the incidence of thyroid gland surgical pathology in patients undergoing surgery. Design: Descriptive and retrospective study. Set [...] ting: Head and neck service, Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima, Peru, a teaching hospital. Participants: Patients undergoing surgery of the thyroid gland. Interventions: Clinical histories and surgical reports involving the thyroid gland in the period January 1997 through December 2006 were reviewed. Main outcome measures: Pathology results of thyroid gland surgical specimens. Results: Two hundred and seventy four cases had thyroid surgery, 81,4% females; 56,9% of the cases corresponded to Lima, capital of Peru. Incidence was higher between 30 and 59 years of age. Growing tumor was the most frequent sign with 97,8%. Total thyroidectomy was the most frequent surgery (39,8%). Benign pathologies represented 58% of the cases, with follicular adenoma as the main pathology (23%); and for malignant tumors (42% from the total) papillary carcinoma was the main neoplasia (23,7%). Conclusions: Surgical pathology of the thyroid gland had higher incidence in women, mainly in the 4th, 5th and 6th age decades. Thyroid tumors were by far benign and the main malignant tumor was papillary carcinoma. Fine needle aspiration biopsy continues to be the most important auxiliary study in the patient with a thyroid tumor, with high specificity value (97,7) and positive predictive value (95,4).

  10. Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

  11. Fucus vesiculosus Ameliorates Histological and Biochemical Changes in Thyroid Gland and Ovary of Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of Fucus vesiculosus, a brownish-green seaweed, against gamma- radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland and ovary tissues of female albino rats. Fucus vesiculosus (100 mg/kg body weight/ day) was given to rats, via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4 Gy) and the last dose of Fucus vesiculosis was administered 60 minutes before irradiation. Thyroid gland and ovary were taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15th day post irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm, and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Observations of ovary sections showed dissolution of the majority of primary follicles, immature follicles and increased fibroblasts and inflammatory cells surrounded the dissolved follicles. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed a significant decrease in serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. Moreover, blood glutathione (GSH) content was decreased. Treatment with Fucus vesiculosus (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation-induced toxicity in the tissues, which was evident by improved status of most investigated parameters. These results suggest that Fucus vesiculosus could increase the antioxidant defense systems and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation

  12. Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Chang Woo; Kim, Chang Woo; Sin, Se Kwon; Jang, Kyeung Jae [Dae Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yi Tae [Dong A Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63{approx}0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67{approx}1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03{approx}2.11), 2.71 (0.97{approx}4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5{approx}0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59{approx}1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

  13. Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

  14. Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocyticsions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive control. BRAF T1799A mutation was detected in 7 of 26 PTCs included in the study but not in follicular or medullary carcinoma, benign tumors and thyroid tumor-like lesions. No mutations were found in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in all cases including those tested positive for BRAF T1799A. Histological analysis showed that among 26 PTCs studied, 18 had conventional papillary architecture and 8 cases were follicular variant of PTC. Mutations were detected in conventional type PTCs only (38.9%, 7/18), but not in follicular variant tumors. The occurrence of BRAF T1799A mutation did not correlate with tumor metastatic potential although such observation may be due in part to a relatively small number of appropriate cases available for the study. As a whole, our data demonstrate that BRAF T1799A mutation is a prevalent mutational event in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its presence strongly correlates with conventional PTC hypostat but not with follicular variant that is in line with results of other laboratories. The findings suggest that detection of BRAF mutation may be used for molecular diagnostic purposes both preoperatively (on fine needle aspiration biopsy material) and after surgical treatment for differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma to distinguish it from other histological types of thyroid cancer

  15. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADRIANA P.S., OTERO; RICARDO V., RODRIGUES; LUÍS A., SAMPAIO; LUIS A., ROMANO; MARCELO B., TESSER.

    1507-15-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ontogenia dos folículos da tireóide em Rachycentron canadum. Larvas foram coletadas diariamente (n= 15 – 20) desde a eclosão até 15 dae (dias após eclosão). Posteriormente foram coletadas a cada dois dias até o 28 dae; uma nova amostragem ocorreu aos 53 dae. A [...] s larvas foram desidratadas e emblocadas em Paraplast e secções de 3 µm foram desparafinadas, reidratas e coradas com HE e PAS. Um folículo estava presente ao 1 dae e três foram encontrados aos 8 dae. O número de folículos aumentou até 19 aos 53 dae. O diâmetro dos folículos e a altura das células foliculares foram menores ao 1dae (68,3 ± 1,00 e 4,6 ± 0,01 µm), mas aumentou a partir do 8 dae (24,03 ± 0,46 µm e 6,43 ± 0,46 µm). A partir do 8 dae a presença de vesículas de reabsorção foi observada no colóide e a partir de 19 dae alguns folículos não apresentaram colóide. O surgimento precoce do folículo da tireóide no bijupirá assim como a grande quantidade de folículos sem colóide e/ou com a presença de vesículas mesmo após a metamorfose podem ser a explicação do rápido crescimento da espécie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were d [...] ehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  17. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  18. Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Adrenal Gland: A Report of Two Cases with Pathogenetic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo; Bella-Cueto, María Rosa; Meza-Cabrera, Ivonne A.; Cabezuelo-Hernández, Angeles; García-Rojo, Darío; Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ectopic thyroid tissue is usually found anywhere along the embryonic descent pathway of the medial thyroid anlage from the tongue to the trachea (Wölfler area). However, ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland (ETTAG) is not easy to understand on the basis of thyroid embryology; because it is so rare, the possibility of metastasis should first be considered. Here, we describe two cases of ETTAG with pathogenetic implications and review the associated literature. Patient findings: Two cases of ETTAG presented as incidental cystic adrenal masses in adult females, one having a congenital hernia of Morgagni. The ETTAG was histologically indistinguishable from normal orthotopic thyroid tissue, and its follicular nature was confirmed by immunohistochemical positivity for thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1/Titf-1/Nkx2.1), cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7, pendrin, human sodium iodide symporter, paired box gene 8, and forkhead box E1 (TTF-2), as well as positivity for the messenger RNA of the thyroglobulin gene by in situ hybridization analysis. No C cells (negativity for calcitonin, chromogranin, and synaptophysin) were present. Neither BRAF nor KRAS mutations were detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Further work-up did not show evidence of thyroid malignancy. Summary: ETTAG is a rare finding, with only seven cases reported; women are much more frequently affected than men (8:1), and it usually presents in the fifth decade (mean age 54, range 38–67) as a cystic adrenal mass incidentally discovered on abdominal ultrasonography and/or in computed tomography images. ETTAG is composed of normal follicular cells without C cells. The expression of some transcription factors (TTF-1, paired box gene 8, and FOXE1) involved in development and/or migration of the medial thyroid anlage is preserved. Coexistence of a congenital hernia of Morgagni in one patient suggests an overdescent of medial thyroid anlage–derived cells in its pathogenesis. Conclusion: Although ETTAG pathogenesis remains unknown, the lack of C cells together with the coexistence of a congenital defect of the anterior diaphragm (hernia of Morgagni) in one of our patients could suggest an overdescent of medial thyroid anlage–derived cells in the origin of this heterotopia. PMID:23510370

  19. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  20. Pathologic Significance of a Recurrent Nodular Goiter after the Operations on the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Menkov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to determine the pathologic significance of a recurrent nodular goiter on the basis of the follow-up results analysis after the operations on the thyroid gland.Materials and methods. 64 patients (58 females and 6 males aged 32—63 years (46.4±8.3 years with a recurrent nodular goiter after the operations on the thyroid gland have been included into the study. The follow-up period was 5 years.Results. The absolute reoperation indications were revealed only in 9 patients (14.1%. They underwent thyroidectomy. A transitory unilateral laryngoparesis developed in 2 patients in a postoperative period. During the follow-up period euthyroidism persisted in patients with a recurrent nodular goiter required no operative intervention. Only 4 of 13 patients needed to take levothyroxine sodium required a substitution therapy correction. No significant increase of the node size was observed according to the ultrasonoscopy data. The average indicator of life quality corresponded to a good result (10.1±0.4 points.Conclusion. A recurrent nodular goiter after thyroid tissue preserving operations has no clinical manifestations in the majority of patients.

  1. A Calcitonin-Negative Neuroendocrine Tumor Derived from Follicular Lesions of the Thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Young; Park, Chul Yun; Cho, Chang Ho; Park, June Sik; Jung, Eui Dal; Jeon, Eon Ju

    2014-12-01

    Neuroendocrine lesions of the thyroid are rare. The most common types are medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) and C-cell hyperplasia. MTCs originate from thyroid parafollicular cells that secrete calcitonin which serves as a serum marker of MTCs. Here, the rare case of a calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor (NET) derived from follicular lesions of the thyroid is described. A 34-year-old man presented at our hospital for the surgical management of an incidental thyroid nodule that was observed on an ultrasound sonography (USG) of the neck. Initially, USG-guided aspiration cytology was performed, and a MTC was suspected. The expressions of thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1, which are thyroid follicular cell markers, and synaptophysin and chromogranin A, which are neuroendocrine markers, was confirmed following surgical pathology. However, the staining of calcitonin, a marker of MTCs, was not observed. A nonmedullary NET of the thyroid is uncommon, and the distinction between calcitonin-negative NETs and MTCs of the thyroid may be important due to differences in their clinical courses and management. PMID:25491784

  2. A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Km; Smyth, Pc; Cahill, Sf; Finn, Sp; Conlon, E.; Li, J.; Flavin, Rj; Aherne, St; Guenther, Sm; Ferlinz, A.; O Leary, Jj; Sheils, Om

    2007-01-01

    Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a lesion that frequently causes difficulties from a diagnostic perspective in the laboratory. The purpose of this study was to interrogate a cohort of archival thyroid lesions using gene expression analysis of a panel of markers proposed to have utility as adjunctive markers in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in particular. Laser Capture Microdissection was used to procure pure cell p...

  3. Hormonal regulation of skin gland development in the toad (Bufo boreas): the role of the thyroid hormones and corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, T B; Gill, T N

    1995-08-01

    At metamorphic climax, anurans develop skin glands that migrate from the epidermis into the dermis. Thyroxine (T4) stimulates skin gland differentiation and migration, and a previous study showed that corticosterone (Cort) treatment of larvae is inhibitory. The current study used histological analyses to address the mechanism of Cort's prevention of skin gland development. Two types of glands were observed in controls at metamorphic climax: The first type resembled granular glands found in adults and the second resembled mucous glands. Differential staining revealed that the two gland morphologies represented functionally distinct granular and mucous glands. Treatment of larvae from Gosner Stages 35-42 with Cort or the goitrogen, thiourea (Thio), caused a reduction in the number of mucous (P < 0.05) but not granular glands. The similarity in the effects of Cort and Thio suggested that Cort inhibited skin gland development indirectly by down-regulating the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis. T4 treatment of larvae reversed the effects of Thio (T4+ Thio-treated animals); however, animals treated with T4+ Cort had no skin glands of either type. Triiodothyronine (T3) treatment of larvae resulted in the complete absence of skin glands with a limited number of gland nests (epidermal precursors of dermal skin glands), but stimulated epidermal growth. T3+ Thio- or T3+ Cort-treated animals also completely lacked skin glands. These data suggest that T3 favors epidermal growth at the cost of skin gland differentiation. Furthermore, we suggest that Cort inhibits skin gland development indirectly through its enhancement of T4 to T3 conversions, and that inhibition of skin glands is caused by an increase in T3 resulting from Cort treatment. PMID:8536925

  4. Structure-inherent targeting of near-infrared fluorophores for parathyroid and thyroid gland imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Hoon; Park, Min Ho; Owens, Eric A; Wada, Hideyuki; Henary, Maged; Handgraaf, Henricus J M; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Frangioni, John V; Choi, Hak Soo

    2015-02-01

    The typical method for creating targeted contrast agents requires covalent conjugation of separate targeting and fluorophore domains. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to create near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores with different tissue specificities driven by their inherent chemical structures. Thus, a single compact molecule performs both targeting and imaging. We use this strategy to solve a major problem in head and neck surgery: the identification and preservation of parathyroid and thyroid glands. We synthesized 700-nm and 800-nm halogenated fluorophores that show high uptake into these glands after a single intravenous (IV) injection of 0.06 mg kg(-1) in a pig. By using a dual-channel NIR imaging system, we observed-in real time and with high sensitivity-the unambiguous distinction of parathyroid and thyroid glands simultaneously in the context of blood and surrounding soft tissue. This novel technology lays a foundation for performing head and neck surgery with increased precision and efficiency along with potentially lower morbidity, and it provides a general strategy for developing targeted NIR fluorophores. PMID:25559343

  5. Body, heart, thyroid gland and skeletal muscle weight changes in rats with altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zacha?ová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Jirmanová, Isa

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 6 (2001), s. 619-626. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA304/00/1653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid state * skeletal muscles * body and organ weight Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  6. 99mTcO4? scintigraphic detection of follicular thyroid cancer and multiple metastatic lesions: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chang-yin; Xiao, Bang-ru; Shen, Mei-juan; Shen, Ying; Cui, Kun-wei

    2013-01-01

    99mTcO4? thyroid imaging is often used to detect thyroid diseases that are confined to the neck. However, this examination is not frequently used to detect metastatic lesions of thyroid cancer in the whole body, while 131I imaging is often used to detect the metastases of differentiated thyroid cancers. The present study performed 99mTcO4? thyroid imaging for a 69-year-old patient with a thyroid nodule and incidentally identified a lesion with abnormally increased 99mTcO4? uptake in the...

  7. Comparison of three methods used for measurement of radioiodine fixation in thyroid gland of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremi? Marija Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare the results of estimation of radioiodine uptake using three methods in a study on mice, and to test reliability of the radioiodine uptake estimation by gamma camera. The study is conducted on 21 white, Swiss-type mice of both sex at age of 10 weeks, weighing between 25 g and 34 g. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.37 ± ± 0.03 MBq of radioiodine 131I. After 72 hours the mice were anesthetized, and radioactivity of thyroid region was measured by gamma camera (the 1st method, in situ. After the measurement, the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were carefully excised together with adjacent trachea and placed at the bottom of a test tube. The radioactivity of the excised tissue was then measured by both gamma camera (the 2nd method and gamma counter (the 3rd method. This method is treated as a standard and the most accurate. In the study we used Siemens e_cam gamma camera and Wallac Wizard 1470 Automatic Gamma counter. The radioiodine fixation determined using those three methods was 25.25 ± 7.32%, 26.08 ± ± 8.55% and 25.74 ± 7.18%, without statisticaly significant difference s between methods (p > 0.05. The high correlation between the three methods of measuring radioiodine fixation in thyroid gland was observed: (1 the correlation coefficient between the fixation rate obtained by gamma camera in situ and the fixation rate obtained by measuring the radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma camera was 0.869 (p < 0.01; (2 the correlation coefficient between fixation rate obtained by gamma camera in situ and the fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma counter was 0.890 (p < 0.01; (3 the correlation coefficient between fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma camera and the fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma counter was 0.835 (p < 0.01.

  8. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) inhibits in vivo iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in rat thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreased serum concentrations of T3 and T4 occur in patients treated with the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ), but with rare exception, these patients remain euthyroid. The mechanism that accounts for diminished hormone levels is unknown, and our objective was to study the direct effect of CBZ on iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in thyroid glands of CBZ-treated and pair-fed control rats. Chronic ingestion (per os) of CBZ in male rats reduced the four hour thyroid 131I-iodide uptake by approximately 60%. This inhibition occurred after the animals had received sufficient CBZ to attain plasma CBZ concentrations of 0.8 microgram/ml. Continued treatment with CBZ ranging from 560 to 800 mg/kg/day for 14 days did not result in further inhibition of iodide uptake even though the plasma CBZ concentrations had increased 6-20 fold. No inhibition of iodide uptake was apparent when the animals initially received CBZ ranging from 40 to 152 mg/kg body weight for 22 days when there were no detectable levels of plasma CBZ. Overall growth rates of CBZ-treated rats were slightly (6-10%) less than the pair-fed control animals. Plasma T4 concentrations were reduced by 18% (p less than 0.05) in the CBZ-fed animals, while T3 concentrations were diminished by 53% (p less than 0.01). CBZ appeared to alter thyroidal iodide transport because the thyroid:plasma iodide ratios were decreased by 26% in the drug-treated rats. The distribution of radioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids wradioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids was essentially the same in both groups of rats but the absolute quantities of radioiodine were more than 2.5 times greater in the control rats. CBZ failed to inhibit peroxidase-catalyzed iodide and guaiacol oxidation in vitro

  9. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja yoon Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

  10. Effect of sharply lowered muscular activity on the thyroid gland of the white rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekishev, K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypokinesia on the thyroid gland of 200 white rats was studied. The rats were kept in 16x6x6 cm cages for 90 days. The functional activity of the thyroids increased after 24 hrs of partial immobilization and peaked after 15 days. After 30 days of immobilization, the functional activity returned to normal in one third of the test animals and after 60 days in all animals. After 15 days of immobilization, the test animals began to lose weight (in comparison to the controls) and remained underweight for the rest of the test period (up to 90 days). When returned to normal conditions, they caught up with and even overtook in weight the control animals after about 1 month. All changes produced by hypokinesia were reversible after 1 month.

  11. Effect of reserpine on salivary gland radioiodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients with thyroid cancer were treated with reserpine in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure to the salivary glands from 100-150 mCi doses of I-131 therapy to thyroid remnants or metastases. Three control patients were not treated with reserpine but did receive 100-150 mCi of I-131. Parotid/background ratios of activity after radioablative doses of I-131 in patients not treated with reserpine were significantly higher than the patients treated with reserpine, and this was also true seven days after the radioablative dose. Combined therapy with reserpine, chewing gum, lemon candies, and hydration is suggested for the prevention of sialadenitis and xerostomia due to large doses of radioiodine

  12. Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

  13. Relationship between 129I and 127I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. E.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Wallner, A.; Arazi, A.; Steier, P.

    2013-01-01

    129I/127I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the 129I/127I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that 129I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the 129I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total 129I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  14. / Synthesis of Analogues of 2-iodohexadecanal, a Regulator of Iodine Metabolism in the Thyroid Gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugues, Van denBergen; Désiré, Daloze; Jean-Claude, Braekman.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo futuro de fazer um estudo da relação estrutura-atividade, foram sintetisados vários derivados do 2-iodo-hexadecanal [1], um regulador do metabolismo de iodo na glândula tireóide, que diferem no comprimento da cadeia, natureza do substituinte e grupo funcional terminal. [...] Abstract in english With the object of performing a structure-activity relationship study, we have synthesized several analogues of 2-iodohexadecanal [1], a regulator of iodine metabolism in the thyroid gland, differing by the chain length, the nature of the substituent, and/or the terminal functional group. [...

  15. Effect of thyroid gland function following /sup 60/Co-. gamma. ray irradiation on rabbit pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Shigenori

    1987-10-01

    Cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation using a single exposure at 10 Gy or 20 Gy was applied to the hypophysis in rabbits in order to study the relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (T/sub 4/) after irradiation, and the histopathologic features were observed together with determination of the blood T/sub 4/ levels. The histopathologic features were observed with special reference to changes in the ..beta.. cells of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis involved in TSH secretion using mainly hematoxylin and eosin staining. Blood T/sub 4/ level was determined by radioimmunoassay, and the histopathologic features and hormone levels were compared between the 10 Gy- and 20 Gy-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: 1) The T/sub 4/ level rapidly decreased the day following irradiation in both groups, continuing for 3 days and 7 days, respectively. subsequently, the level rapidly returned to the pre-irradiation level about 14 days after irradiation in the 10 Gy group, while the level in the 20 Gy group continued to decrease at a rate significantly different from that in the 10 Gy group even after 14 days following irradiation. However, the level was restored to the pre-irradiation level in both groups 28 days after irradiation. 2) Histopathologic examination of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis revealed a decrease in the number of ..beta.. cells until about 14 days after irradiation in both groups, and thereafter there were only a few changes. However, pyknosis and vacuolar degeneration of other cells and dilatation of sinusoidal capillaries were present for a relatively long period, which were not relieved even 28 days after irradiation, particularly in the 20 Gy group. 3) There was a relatively close relationship between changes in the ..beta.. cells of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis and changes in blood T/sub 4/ level, but histopathologic changes in the hypophysis seemed to remain for a relatively long period.

  16. The effect of HeNe laser radiation on the thyroid gland of the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Lerma, E.; Hevia, A.; Rodrigo, P.; Gonzalez-campora, R.; Armas, J. R.; Galera, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although laser irradiation is becoming common practice in medicine, there is not always a clear understanding of the possible side-effects. The present report is a light and electron microscopic study of the effects of fixed low intensity doses of soft HeNe laser on the thyroid of Wistar rats. The immediate effects are mild multifocal degenerative changes; these lesions recover in less than 3 months. Long-term lesions are identified only by electron microscopy; they consist of an increased nu...

  17. Measuring the daily rate of radioactive iodine (131I) uptake in the thyroid glands and excretion through the urine of Korean adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, in order to assess a proper absorbed dose of a radionuclide tailored to the physiological characteristics of Korean adult males, we measured the daily rate of radioactive iodine (131I) uptake by the thyroid glands and its eventual excretion through the urinary tract of a group of Korean male adults. We orally administered 131I to 28 adult males, measured the resultant radioactivity affecting the thyroid glands and urine over a series of time intervals (2, 4, 6, and 24 h), and calculated the daily uptake by the thyroid glands and excretion through the urine. Our findings suggest an average uptake of 19.7% by the thyroid glands and a urinary excretion of 71.1% 24 h after administering the radioactive iodine. The uptake of the radioactive iodine through the thyroid glands found in this study differed from the previous result reported in ICRP-67/78, but the urinary excretion was somewhat similar. (author)

  18. Synchronous Occurrence of Papillary Carcinoma in the Thyroid Gland and Thyroglossal Duct in an Adolescent with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    S??klar, Zeynep; Berberog?lu, Merih; Yag?murlu, Ayd?n; Hac?hamdiog?lu, Bu?lent; Savas? Erdeve, S?enay; Fito?z, Suat; K?r, Metin; O?c?al, Go?nu?l

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma (TC) combined with congenital hypothyroidism is rare. The synchronous occurrence of these two conditions is even rarer. We describe a patient with congenital hypothyroidism in whom hyperthyroglobulinemia and nodules developed despite adequate replacement therapy. Papillary TC was detected at age 19 years. Postoperative diagnostic scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the thyroglossal duct region. Repetitive imaging of the thyroid gland can be useful in the early detection ...

  19. Comparison between computed tomography and (99m)TC- pertechnetate scintigraphy characteristics of the thyroid gland in cats with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlaeger, Ines E; Hartmann, Antje; Sicken, Julia; Mohrs, Sabrina; Scholz, Volkher B; Neiger, Reto; Kramer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Scintigraphy is currently the reference standard for diagnosing feline hyperthyroidism; however, computed tomography (CT) is more widely available in veterinary practice. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe the CT appearance of thyroid glands in cats with hyperthyroidism and compare CT findings with findings from (99m) Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. Twenty-five adult hyperthyroid cats were included. Plain CT images were acquired for each cat and the following characteristics recorded for each thyroid lobe: visibility, delineation, position, attenuation, shape, and subjective size. Scintigraphic images were also acquired and the following characteristics recorded: radiopharmaceutical uptake, delineation, ectopic foci, shape, and subjective size. In CT images, thyroid lobes were most commonly found between the second and fourth cervical vertebrae, dorsolateral to the trachea. Affected thyroid lobes (based on scintigraphy reference standard) were most commonly oval and moderately enlarged in CT images. A heterogeneous attenuation pattern (isoattenuating to adjacent soft tissues with hypo- and hyperattenuating foci) was most commonly found in affected thyroid lobes. A positive correlation (P thyroid lobe size relationship and subjective size of the larger thyroid lobe. The CT estimated mass was significantly higher (median = 148.8; range = [0;357.6]) for the more active thyroid lobe compared to the less active thyroid lobe (median = 84.6; range = [0;312.3]); (W = 154; P thyroid lobe. PMID:24033856

  20. A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient's pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author)

  1. Stereology of the Thyroid Gland in Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Comparison with Human (Homo sapiens): Quantitative and Functional Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kot, Brian Chin Wing; Lau, Thomas Yue Huen; Cheng, Sammy Chi Him

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels....

  2. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2) in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Chanif Mahdi; Sasangka Prasetyawan

    2014-01-01

    Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU). The treated to give KIO3 and K...

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Basu S; Nair N; Borges A

    2005-01-01

    Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule), who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopa...

  4. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of atrophic orthotopic thyroid gland in a patient with acquired hypothyroidism: Evaluation with hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately one per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in one in 4,000 to 8,000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. Multiple ectopia in the presence of orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a 13-year-old boy with stunted growth and developmental delay caused due to a...

  5. Vitiliginous lesions during contact immunotherapy for alopecia in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Kato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE is frequently used for the treatment of alopecia, but sometimes unwanted side effects occur. Herein we report a case which developed vitiliginous lesions induced by topical SADBE application in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis. A 60-year-old female visited our department, complaining of diffuse alopecia of the scalp. She was suffering from chronic autoimmune thyroiditis over several years, and taking thyradin (90mg per day.

  6. Vitiliginous lesions during contact immunotherapy for alopecia in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Yasunobu Kato; Toshiyuki Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is frequently used for the treatment of alopecia, but sometimes unwanted side effects occur. Herein we report a case which developed vitiliginous lesions induced by topical SADBE application in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis. A 60-year-old female visited our department, complaining of diffuse alopecia of the scalp. She was suffering from chronic autoimmune thyroiditis over several years, and taking thyradin (90mg per day).

  7. Automatic removal of manually induced artefacts in ultrasound images of thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Nikhil S; Marziliano, Pina; Hobbs, Christopher G L

    2013-01-01

    Manually induced artefacts, like caliper marks and anatomical labels, render an ultrasound (US) image incapable of being subjected to further processes of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD). In this paper, we propose a technique to remove these artefacts and restore the image as accurately as possible. The technique finds application as a pre-processing step when developing unsupervised segmentation algorithms for US images that deal with automatic estimation of the number of segments and clustering. The novelty of the algorithm lies in the image processing pipeline chosen to automatically identify the artefacts and is developed based on the histogram properties of the artefacts. The algorithm was able to successfully restore the images to a high quality when it was executed on a dataset of 18 US images of the thyroid gland on which the artefacts were induced manually by a doctor. Further experiments on an additional dataset of 10 unmarked US images of the thyroid gland on which the artefacts were simulated using Matlab showed that the restored images were again of high quality with a PSNR > 38 dB and free of any manually induced artefacts. PMID:24110458

  8. 3-Cloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a rat thyroid gland carcinogen, does not affect serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen; Tuominen; Kosma; Huuskonen

    2000-06-01

    3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a chlorine disinfection by-product in drinking water, causes follicular adenomas and carcinomas in thyroid glands of Wistar rats with an unknown mechanism. We evaluated effects of MX on blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) levels in male and female Wistar rats to assess their role in the tumorigenesis. The levels of TSH, PRL and GH in serum of male rats were not significantly affected by a single dose of 1, 10 or 60 mg/kg of MX administered by gavage 2 h before sampling. In repeated dose experiments MX was administered at dose levels of 1, 10 or 60 mg/kg of MX (40 mg/kg for females) in water by gavage daily for 1 or 3 weeks. Thyroid glands, adrenal glands and the liver were evaluated for morphological changes and cell proliferation activity after staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The dose of 60 mg/kg MX was toxic upon repeated administration. Nevertheless, MX did not affect blood TSH and T(4) levels at any time point in either sex. T(3) concentration increased transiently in males (by 37% after week 1) at the highest MX dose but not in females. MX did not change the weights of thyroid glands, their morphology and cell proliferation activity by the end of the week 3. MX did not affect blood PRL levels but decreased GH levels in males at all doses after the first week of MX treatment. The results indicate that MX does not alter blood TSH and thyroid hormone levels in rats, and imply that MX may not cause thyroid follicular cell tumors by TSH-mediated hormonal promotion. PMID:10996547

  9. Early and remote responses of thyroid and genital glands of rats of different age groups to influence of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative evaluation of early and delayed responses of thyroid-gonadal link of pubertal and preadolescent rats depending on ionizing radiation dose and duration. Animals were exposed to the total X-irradiation (single X-radiation at 0.1, 1.0 and 10 Gy and fractionated X-radiation at 0.1 and 1 Gy in a day within 10 days). It is shown that rats irradiation is accompanied by monodirected phase transformations in thyroid-gonadal link the characteristic feature of which consists in delayed inhibition of thyroid and sexual glands

  10. Functional activity of rats' thyroid gland in 6 month after fractional gamma-irradiation in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats (Wistar) were exposed to external fractional irradiation in doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy during 20 days with dose rate 0.64 Gy/min. Cumulative doses were respectively equal 2, 5, 10 Gy. In 6 month after irradiation animals were decapitated and investigated for content of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in blood serum and activity of nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate in liver cytosol. The result showed decreasing rats' thyroid status after fractional irradiation in doses 0.25 and 0.5. It explains functional depression of thyroid gland and metabolism disturbance of thyroid hormone in organs and tissues

  11. The uptake of 125I by the thyroid gland and its morphological maturity in newly hatched duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histological observations revealed that in two-day-old ducklings the thyroids were very differentiated. In some birds they were very poorly developed, i.e. the tissue was not organized into follicles, whereas in others there was a structure almost typical of this gland. The thyroids of ducklings nine days old presented an almost normal histological picture and only small islands of the tissue not organized into follicles were visible. The less developed were the thyroids the higher was their 125I uptake. (author)

  12. Vertebral hemangioma mimicking a metastatic bone lesion in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, R; Silva, F; Vazquez-Sellés, J; Orduña, E; Flores, C

    2000-08-01

    The authors report a case of abnormal accumulation of I-131 in a thoracic vertebra in a patient with a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The presumptive diagnosis was metastatic bone disease. Further diagnostic work-up confirmed a benign bone lesion. Bone metastasis, when shown on I-131 whole-body scintigraphy, usually supports a change in the staging and therapeutic approach to a patient with thyroid carcinoma. The authors believe that, although an infrequent lesion, the differential diagnosis of abnormal accumulation of I-131 in the body of a vertebra in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma should raise the possibility of a benign hemangioma. Complete work-up of the suggested bone metastatic lesion should be performed before tumor restaging and I-131 therapy is recommended. PMID:10944016

  13. [Nuclear accidents and iodine prophylaxis. Part 1: Risks due to irradiation of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeesters, P; Frühling, J; Van Bladel, L; Wambersie, A

    1998-12-01

    In the frame of the emergency procedures in the case of an accident in a nuclear plant, this paper presents a survey of the information available on the risks related to the irradiation of the thyroid gland. Attention is focused on thyroid cancer resulting from an exposure to radioactive isotopes of iodine and especially and iodine-131. The consequences of the medical exposures as well as of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiations are recalled first. Then the recently available informations on the effects on the populations exposed after the Tchernobyl accident are analysed more in details. Ten years after the accident, the most striking and the least questionable effects is a significant increase of the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer in children, in the areas most exposed to the initial radioactive clouds. Young children are particularly vulnerable to this type of cancer which is of aggressive nature and shows a short latency period. These observations justify an iodine prophylaxis for the populations living in the vicinity of nuclear plants. Special attention should be paid to the protection of young children. PMID:9916494

  14. Thermal effect of microwave antenna radiation on a generic model of thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe; Gavriloaia, Mariuca-Roxana; Ghemigean, Adina-Mariana

    2010-11-01

    The rapid diffusion of wireless communication systems has caused an increased concern for the potential detrimental effects on human health deriving from exposure to electromagnetic field. It penetrates the body and acts on all the organs, altering the cell membrane potential and the distribution of ions and dipoles. The thyroid gland is one of the most exposed vital organs and may be a target for electromagnetic radiation. This paper presents the computed temperature and specific absorption rate inside to a generic model of a human thyroid using signals radiated by an antenna operating in the 2450 MHz band and the power density levels up to 100 W/cm2. Calculations were carried out using the Finite Difference Time Domain method for the solving of two coupled differential equations, Maxwell and Pennes. The results show that the temperature can rise up to very dangerous levels, i.e., 46 °C, in a very short time. The estimated temperature distribution in the human thyroid due to exposure from microwave signals can be used to design the dangerous aria for personal working around high power emitted antenna and for medical applications.

  15. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Parotid Gland Associated with Concurrent Lymphoepithelial Cysts and Lymphoepithelial Lesion: Case Report and Proposed Histogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jane H; Christopher Holsinger, F

    2014-10-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst and lymphoepithelial lesion have similar histologic features and an affinity for the parotid gland. Though considered as different entities, both conditions arise from heterotopic salivary epithelial rests or inclusions in intra- or peri-parotid lymph nodes. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of parotid gland associated with concurrent lymphoepithelial cyst and lymphoepithelial lesion in a patient who was not infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We propose that lymphoepithelial cyst and lymphoepithelial lesion have a similar histogenesis. PMID:25284597

  16. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other organs working as they should. excisional biopsy – removing a small part of the thyroid gland (rarely in use today); lobectomy – removing half of the thyroid gland; removing nearly all of ...

  17. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  18. Computer-assisted image analysis of small cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland. Comparison of nuclear parameters of small lymphocytes in lymphomas and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar, S; Sabo, E; Cohen, A; Misselevich, I; Cohen, O; Kelner, J; Mor, C; Shvero, J; Feinmesser, R; Shibi, J; Shabtai, M; Bejar, J; Boss, J H

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear parameters of the small lymphocytes in nine cases of small cell lymphomas of the thyroid gland and 17 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. The nuclear area, maximal, minimal and averaged Ferret diameters, perimeter, regularity factor and elongation factor were gauged. Statistically, the nuclear area was ascertained to be the optimum descriptor discriminating between small neoplastic and reactive lymphocytes. Application of a novel variable, combining a nuclear area cut-off value of 14 microm2 with a nuclear averaged Ferret diameter cut-off value of 4.5 micron, allows for the distinction - with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity - between small neoplastic lymphocytes in thyroidal lymphomas and the reactive lymphocytes in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:10098895

  19. Peculiarities of integral brain activity under compromised thyroid gland function of children and adolescent from radionuclide contaminated territories of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    80 children with thyroid gland hypertrophy (50 girls + 30 boys, 10 - 17 years old) from Luninets town, the Brest region, were investigated for integral brain activity. Quantitative determination of thyrotropic hormone level in blood serum was made by using enzyme immunodetection. Mentation, attention and memory were tested by questionnaire design. Results of experiments are given

  20. Results of a survey on the use of 123 iodine for scintigraphic exploration of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of thyroid gland scintigraphy with 123 iodine was carried out on 1131 patients, and data concerning the time of examination as well as indications, scintigrams and uptake measurements are presented. Minimal dosage provides a sufficient counting rate and good quality images and delivers a radioactive dose 15 times lower than with conventional 131 Iodine scintigraphy

  1. Effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the thyroid gland structure and function of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgendy Mohamed S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen therapy is widely used nowadays in women to treat many postmenopausal symptoms but it may have some undesirable effects due to multiple organs affection. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in ovarictomized rats as a model simulating menopause. Findings Thirty adult female Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in this study; the first group was sham-operated, while the second and third groups were ovariectomized. The first and second groups were injected with olive oil while the third group was injected with estradiol dipropionate daily for three months, after that; hormonal assay for T3, T4, TSH and specimens of the thyroid were taken and processed to be examined by light and electron microscopy. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of T3 and T4 decreased in ovariectomized animals and significantly increased after estradiol treatment, while TSH increased in ovariectomized animals and decreased with estradiol treatment. Histological and morphometric study in ovariectomized group revealed marked accumulation of colloid in follicular lumens with decreased epithelial height in addition to increased connective tissue amount. After estradiol treatment the follicles became smaller in size, having small amount of colloid with increased epithelial height in addition to decreased connective tissue content. Ultrastructural study supported these results in addition to the presence of large amount of intracytoplasmic colloid vesicles after estradiol treatment. Conclusion Low estrogen level may lead to mild thyroidal hypofunction while estradiol treatment may lead to hyperactivity so it should be used very cautiously in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms to avoid its undesirable stimulatory effect on the thyroid.

  2. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens

  3. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens.

  4. Semi-quantitative assessment of salivary gland function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after radioiodine-131 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Armaghan Fard; Fallahi, Babak; Olamaie, Reza; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Beiki, Davood; Saghari, Mohssen

    2004-01-01

    Sialadenitis and xerostomia are well-known side effects of high-dose radioactive iodine ((131)Iota) treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). This study was undertaken to determine salivary gland function semi-quantitatively in patients with DTC given (131)I for the treatment of the thyroid remnant and/or metastases. Thirty-six patients, 11 males and 25 females, mean age 53.5 years, range 22-73 years, were studied. Scintigraphy of the salivary glands was performed with (99m)Tc-pertechnetate and the salivary excretion fraction (SEF) of the parotid and the submandibular glands was calculated as a measure of their function. Measurements were performed before (131)I treatment as a baseline study, and three weeks and three months later. The patients were clinically evaluated by a standardized subjective questionnaire. Results were as follows: Mean SEF at three weeks and three months after (131)I treatment was reduced as compared to baseline measurements. The total mean baseline measurements, those of three weeks and those of three months later were: 54.9%, 47.2% and 46% respectively; P<0.05 for both measurements (Table 1). The SEF decrease of the parotid glands was greater than that of the submandibular glands (P<0.05 as compared for both salivary glands before and three weeks and three months after (131)I treatment). This confirmed the higher radiosensitivity of the parotid glands as compared to the submandibular glands. In 12 patients (33%) there was no significant decrease of SEF in the salivary glands after (131)I treatment. The relation between the decrease of SEF after three weeks and after three months and the dose of (131)I administered, was for the right and left submandibular glands significant (P=0.016 and P=0.002), while for the parotid glands it was insignificant (P=0.22 and P=0.27 respectively) (Table 4). Reduction of SEF in the parotid glands three months after (131)I treatment was greater than after three weeks. This difference, as regards the submandibular glands, was not significant. Our results show that high dose (131)I treatment in DTC patients induces a significant effect on salivary gland function, which is dose-related in the submandibular glands, and more prominent in the parotid glands. PMID:15841302

  5. The role of technetium-99m sestamibi whole-body scans in diagnosing metastatic Huerthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland after total thyroidectomy: a comparison with iodine-131 and thallium-201 whole-body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-seven patients with Huerthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland underwent total thyroidectomy and then technetium-99m sestamibi (2-methoxy-isobutylisonitrile), iodine-131 and thallium-201 wholebody scans. Twenty-two of them had elevated human serum thyroglobulin (HTg) levels. Among these 22 patients, abnormal uptake of 131I was seen in four (18.1%), abnormal uptake of 201Tl chloride in 15 (68.1%), and abnormal 99mTc-sestamibi accumulation in 18 (81.8%). No patients with normal levels had a positive whole-body scan. In comparison with the 131I and 201Tl chloride images, the 99mTc-sestamibi images were of superior quality and detected significantly more (P < 0.05) metastatic lesions of Huerthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland in patients with elevated HTg after total thyroidectomy. A mechanism is proposed that may explain these findings. (orig.)

  6. Histological study of the thyroid gland following 904-nm laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Vargas, I.; Parrado, C.; Gonzalez, V.; Vidal, Lourdes; Rius, F.

    1993-06-01

    The present histological and stereological studies are on thyroid glands of Wistar rats irradiated with an IR laser. The animals were exposed to total doses of 46,80 J/cm2, and sacrificed at 1, 40, and 180 days after the last treatment. A morphological and stereological study was made on follicular epithelium, follicle, stroma, and capillary. The laser beam produced an increase of follicular epithelial volume and hyperplasia of follicular cells in the animals sacrificed at 1, 40, and 180 days after the last treatment. Capillary dilation underwent a progressive decrease as time passed. It was higher in the animals sacrificed after 24 hours, then it decreased after 40 days and finally disappeared after 180 days.

  7. Relationship between {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, A.E., E-mail: negri@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wallner, A. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that {sup 129}I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the {sup 129}I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total {sup 129}I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  8. Specifics of preoperative management, intraoperative monitoring and postoperative evaluation of patients with thyroid gland carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živi? Rastko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to show the standards of preoperative management, intraoperative monitoring and postoperative evaluation of patients with thyroid gland carcinoma. It was point out the importance of the preoperative diagnosis of the tumor, and the concurrent diseases. The special attention was paid to difficult airway recognition and resolving this situation. Both, anesthetist’s and surgeon’s point of view of perioperative and postoperative complications were discussed with special interest on early surgical complications and the need for urgent anesthetic treatment. Criteria for minimal and desirable monitoring of vital functions were suggested in order to prevent, recognize and cure complications. Our conclusions were based on recent references from the world literature and on our own experience in Center for endocrine surgery KCS, Belgrade.

  9. Diagnostic imaging of the thyroid gland. Comparison of US, CT, and RI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuaki, K.; Matsukawa, A.; Togawa, T. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1981-08-01

    Ability of US, CT, and RI for differentiating malignant tumors from benign ones was compared on 36 patients with thyroid gland diseases which were confirmed histologically by surgical operation. In 6 cases of diffuse goiter, there was very slight difference in the accuracy among the three methods; in 30 cases of nodular goiter, the accuracy of US, CT, and RI was 70%, 63% and 83% respectively. US is superior to CT in handiness, time of examination, exposure, and cost. Nevertheless CT is of value in observing changes in tumors which have already grown to a certain size (intrathoracic infiltration, etc.), whether of it involves the tracheas, blood vessels, or muscles, and the state of regional lymph nodes. On the other hand, RI scintigraphy which utilizes various nuclides is very useful for functional diagnosis and morphological diagnosis.

  10. Clinical diagnostic study by means of magnetic resonance imaging for lesions of the major salivary gland region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lesions situated in the major salivary glands was clinically discussed in this study. A total of 46 patients with salivary gland disorders treated in our department over the past five years were assessed by mean of MRI, and in 11 patients the findings were compared with the histopathological features of lesions sectioned at the same level postoperatively. In addition, preliminary investigations to introduce a new qualitative diagnostic procedure for estimation of salivary gland function in geriatric patients were attempted. In this investigation, T1 and T2 values, and signal intensity ratios of the submandibular gland were measured in elderly patients complaining of dry mouth and in healthy controls. Likewise, salivary gland function was examined by taste stimulation induced by applying citric acid to the tongue surface just before starting MRI. MRI clearly demonstrated lesions in the salivary glands. The histopathological diagnosis could not be accurately predicted by signal intensity. However, benign tumors showed higher intensity signals than did malignant tumors on T2-weighted images. Cystic lesions could be differentiated from tumors by signal intensity. Histopathological features of salivary gland tumors corresponded to the MRI signal intensity. Relaxation times of T1 and T2 values and signal intensity in each major salivary gland were diminished iach major salivary gland were diminished in elderly patients in a resting condition. Only T1 values in healthy subjects remarkably responded to taste stimulation. These results suggest that MRI is useful and beneficial not only in the qualitative diagnosis of tumors arising from salivary glands but also in the estimation of salivary gland function. MRI should therefore be included in routine diagnostic examinations for salivary gland disorders. (author)

  11. Congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters obtained from mothers subjected to immunization and the action of I13+H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I131 injected to rabbits immunized with homologous thyroid gland on the 19th - 20th day of pregnancy led to congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters in the first and second generations. The functional activity and the activity of proteolytic enzymes of the thyroid gland descreased by the 30th day of the postnatal development. A distinct correlation was revealed between the contents in the thyroid gland of the experimental litters of DIT+MIT and of organic forms -T3+T4. During the first days after birth the DIT+MIT content showed a sharp fall and increased by the 30th day; on the contrary, iodine binding into organic forms decreased with the age. Histological examination of the thyroid glands in the experimental litters demonstrated lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration, along with connective tissue proliferation, which led to a marked sclerosis and fibrosis of tissues, hypofunction. Beginning with the age of one month there was observed an extensive nodular proliferation, which possibly served as the beginning of the parenchymatous goiter formation. The appearance of lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland of the second generation could be considered as the result of a congenital predisposition to the autoimmune thyroiditis inlaid in the memory cells and intensified during birth

  12. A comparison of radioiodide and pertechnetate trapping and loss in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unidirectional clearance of sup(99m)TcO4- and 132I- by the thyroid has been determined by kinetic analysis of counting rates recorded over the thyroid and thigh. The analysis was based on a two-compartment model which is appropriate when no organic binding of trapped iodine or pertechnetate takes place. Under conditions allowing organic binding of iodide, the model constitutes an approximation that seems to be a minimum estimate of unidirectional clearance. A PDP8/L computer was used for the calculations (FOCAL language). The influence of extrathyroidal neck activity on the apparent unidirectional clearance of iodide was investigated in 15 patients. The patients were given 132I- intravenously and the activity in the neck and thigh was measured continuously before and after blocking the iodide uptake. In this way correction of the early uptake and clearance values could be made. The mean relative increase of the unidirectional clearance after correction was 1.68. If, however, reliable measurements were obtained beyond 2 min after injection, no significant increase resulted from the correction and it could be omitted. Another eight patients were investigated by means of a simultaneous injection of 132I- and sup(99m)TcO4-. In all cases the unidirectional clearance of radioiodide was higher than that of pertechnetate, on the average by a factor of 2. The relaton the average by a factor of 2. The relation between the unidirectional clearance of the two ions was fairly constant in different functional states of the thyroid gland. The rate of loss of pertechnetate was higher than that of iodide. The results indicate a quantitative, but possibly not a qualitative, difference in the trapping mechanisms of iodide and pertechnetate. (author)

  13. Culture of dendritic cells from a nonlymphoid organ, the thyroid gland: evidence for TNFalpha-dependent phenotypic changes of thyroid-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croizet, K; Rabilloud, R; Kostrouch, Z; Nicolas, J F; Rousset, B

    2000-08-01

    Because they are sparsely distributed in tissues, dendritic cells (DC) present in nonlymphoid organs are difficult to isolate. Only DC from skin and lung have been successfully studied in culture. The objective of the present work was to investigate the possibility of isolating and culturing DC from an endocrine organ, the thyroid gland, which is particularly susceptible to the development of autoimmune processes. The study was conducted on pig thyroid glands to have sufficient amounts of starting material. This choice required the characterization of immunological reagents capable of recognizing DC markers in the pig species. Using a discontinuous trypsinization procedure, a DC population representing 2% to 3% of the thyroid cell suspension was reproducibly obtained. Isolated DC quantitatively attached to tissue culture-treated dishes and segregated from thyrocytes. DC identified as cells expressing major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, the mannose receptor, and the S100 protein were found to have a high capacity to internalize labeled ligands, dextran, and mannosylated albumin. These cells had a phenotype of immature DC. Secondarily, a fraction of DC detached from culture dishes, and floating DC had low or no endocytic activity, a characteristic of mature DC. Treatment of DC/thyrocytes cocultures with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) activated the transformation of immature DC into mature DC. These data show that DC isolated from the thyroid gland can be maintained immature or activated to undergo maturation in primary culture. The procedure of cell isolation and culture should be adaptable to human thyroid tissue for in vitro analyses of DC-mediated immune responses. PMID:10950112

  14. Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Matos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19, galectin-3 (Gal-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1. However, current results remain controversial. The aim of the present article was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CK-19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 markers, as well as their associations, in the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Methods A systematic review of published articles on MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library was performed. After establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 articles were selected. The technique of meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was employed and global values of sensitivity, specificity, area under the summary ROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (dOR were calculated. Results For the immunohistochemistry technique, the positivity of CK-19 for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions demonstrated global sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 73%; for Gal-3, sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 81%; and for HBME-1, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 83%. The association of the three markers determined sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 97%, and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.1. Similar results were also found for the immunocytochemistry assay. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that the three immunomarkers studied are accurate in pre- and postoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Nevertheless, the search for other molecular markers must continue in order to enhance this diagnostic accuracy since the results found still show a persistency of false-negative and false-positive tests. Virtual slides Http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3436263067345159

  15. The presence of monoiodinated derivates of daidzein and genistein in human urine and its effect on thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosvorová, Lucie; Mikšátková, Petra; Bi?íková, Marie; Ka?ová, Nataša; Lap?ík, Old?ich

    2012-08-01

    Dietary supplements used by women during menopause are usually based on plant extracts containing isoflavonoids, daidzein and genistein. Genistein is a known inhibitor of many enzymes, including thyroid peroxidase (TPO). In the thyroid follicle, genistein acts as its alternate substrate for the formation of genistein iodinated derivatives. The aim of this study was to search for daidzein- and genistein-iodinated derivatives in urine of isoflavonoid-supplemented women. Additionally, selected phytoestrogens, steroid and thyroid hormones before and after three months of phytoestrogen supplementation were estimated. Urinary levels of free phytoestrogen increased significantly after therapy. They ranged between 0.3-1600, 0.6-670 and 0-206 nmol/L for daidzein, genistein and S-equol, respectively. Monoiodinated derivatives of genistein were observed (0-504 pmol/L) in 60% of the investigated samples. Steroid and thyroid hormone levels were within the normal range and were not significantly altered. The presence of monoiodinated derivates in human urine confirmed that genistein and daidzein may enter human thyroid follicles and influence TPO. Since the levels of the free thyroid hormones were not affected, we propose that the use of phytoestrogen dietary supplements is not associated with the development of thyroid-gland disorders in subjects with adequate iodine intake. PMID:22659465

  16. Evaluation of the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Badrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The use of sophisticated radiographic techniques is absolutely necessary in dentistry. The use of these techniques exposes the sensitive organs of head and neck to x-rays. The aim of the present study was to investigate the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 TLD GR-200 circular dosimeters (Thermoluminans Detector were used in male RANDO-like phantom (head and neck segment, i.e. the first 10 segments in order to determine the radiation dose absorbed by the thyroid gland. Then spiral computed tomographies were provided from the anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible along with a lateral Scout view as a guide. Conventional spiral tomographies were prepared from the maxilla, mandible and both jaws with a panoramic radiograph as a guide. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS 11.5 (a = 0.05. Results: The highest and lowest thyroid gland absorbed doses were observed with computed tomography of both jaws and conventional spiral tomography of the anterior maxilla, respectively (5.92 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ± 0.01 mSiv. The mean amount of the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland was lower in the conventional spiral tomography compared to computed tomography. The two techniques revealed significant differences in the absorbed doses except for conventional spiral tomography in the posterior and anterior regions of the mandible (p value = 0.276.Conclusion: According to results of the present study, the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in the conventional spiral tomography in different regions of the jaws was less than CT scan techniques. As a result, it appears the use of conventional spiral tomography is preferred over CT scans in limited regions where three-dimensional and cross-sectional views are required.Key words: Thyroid gland, Film dosimetry, Spiral Computed Tomography.

  17. Bilateral Diffuse Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Thyroid Gland Diagnosed by Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Aung Zaw; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2014-01-01

    Our patient is a female who was first diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 23. A follow-up fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) at age 44 revealed diffuse high FDG uptake in an enlarged thyroid gland. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid mass revealed estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to report breast cancer meta...

  18. Lack of Preemptive Analgesia by Intravenous Flurbiprofen in Thyroid Gland Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaodi Zhang, Haifang Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on postoperative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consumption and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery.Methods Ninety patients undergoing elective thyroid gland surgery were ra...

  19. Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphc Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate with the intensity of the administered activity of radioiodine, the previous condition of dental integrity and in patients living in the interior of our country in zones of 'bad' water containing tracers of arsenic and fluorine. In 13 patients submitted to intense treatment of dental problems posterior WBS showed a decrease of the positive maxilla areas or they were not found. The presence of metastasis in the active maxilla area was in all cases negative. Our observations confirm that radioiodine is deposited in maxillary bone in relation of dental lesions and that this 131-I move in a very slow place. This mechanism of fixation has to be determined. We fully recommended taking into account the existence of dental illness or incomplete dental treatments when the administration of higher activities than 3.7 GBq (150 mCi). (author)

  20. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt Towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and The Histology of Thyroid Gland of Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risman Heli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic substances can inhibit of iodine taking by the thyroid gland. Thus iodine concentration in thyroid gland will be low, and this phenomena is indicated by inflammation in the thyroid gland. Moreover, it can cause releaseing of an excessive amount of free radicals. This radicals, in the body, causes oxidative stress and also increase the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. This is also as an indicator for lipid peroxidation and the decreasing of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treatment with KIO3 and KI salt was intended to study the level of supplementation of iodine (I2 toward level of MDA in serum and histological description of rat’s thyroid gland. The MDA levels was determined through TBA test (Thio Barbituric Acid, meanwhile the histological pattern of rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results indicated both of KIO3 and KI salt significantly (p<0.01 reduced MDA level in the serum. Treatment with KIO3 salt gave 33.62% while KI salt slightly higher (37,02%. In addition, both of treaments displayed an recovering effect in thyroid gland.

  1. Radioimmunoimaging of metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland using an indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody to CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or calcitonin after surgical therapy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) indicate the presence of residual or metastatic disease. CEA elevations appear to be prognostically more reliable in patients with metastatic disease and suggest a more virulent tumor. Attempts to stage the disease with use of conventional imaging techniques are usually inadequate, as is the therapy for disseminated or recurrent MCT. An indium-111-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (ZCE-025) was used to image metastases in a patient with MCT. Potential applications of monoclonal antibody technology in the management of MCT would include (1) preoperative differentiation of unicentric from multicentric thyroid gland involvement, (2) detection of regional or distant metastases or both, (3) measurement of response to systemic therapy, and (4) the facilitation of radionuclide immunoconjugate therapy

  2. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas ...

  3. Endothelial Lipase Is Localized to Follicular Epithelial Cells in the Thyroid Gland and Is Moderately Expressed in Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, Margery A.; D’andrea, Michael R.; Qi, Jenson; Dzordzorme, Keli C.; Damiano, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL), a member of the triglyceride lipase gene family, has been shown to be a key player in HDL metabolism. Northern blots revealed that EL was highly expressed in endothelium, thyroid, lung, placenta, liver, and testis. In liver and adrenal gland, EL protein was localized with vascular endothelial cells but not parenchymal cells. EL was shown to be upregulated in tissues such as atherosclerotic plaque where it was located in macrophages, endothelial cells, a...

  4. Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands from turtles (Chrysemys dorbigni) pretreated with potassium iodide were incubated with 125I-insulin in the presence or absence of unlabeled insulin, in order to study its specific uptake. At 24 degrees, the specific uptake reached a plateau at 180 min of incubation. The dose of bovine insulin that inhibited 50% of the 125I-insulin uptake was 2 micrograms/ml of incubation medium. Most of the radioactive material (71%) extracted from the gland, after 30 min incubation with 125I-insulin, eluted in the same position as labeled insulin on Sephadex G-50. Only 24% eluted in the salt position. After 240 min incubation, increased amount of radioactivity appeared in the Na125I position. When bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone, a substantial reduction of radioactivity was observed in the insulin and Na125I elution positions. Dissociation studies were performed at 6 degrees in glands preincubated with 125I-insulin either at 24 or 6 degrees. The percentage of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble radioactive material in the dissociation medium increased with incubation time at both temperatures. However, the degradation activity was lower at 6 than at 24 degrees. The addition of bovine insulin to the incubation buffer containing 125I-insulin reduced the radioactive degradation products in the dissociated medium. Chloroquine or bacitracin inhibited the degradation activiacitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125I-hGH or 125I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

  5. Endothelial Lipase Is Localized to Follicular Epithelial Cells in the Thyroid Gland and Is Moderately Expressed in Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Margery A.; D’Andrea, Michael R.; Qi, Jenson; Dzordzorme, Keli C.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL), a member of the triglyceride lipase gene family, has been shown to be a key player in HDL metabolism. Northern blots revealed that EL was highly expressed in endothelium, thyroid, lung, placenta, liver, and testis. In liver and adrenal gland, EL protein was localized with vascular endothelial cells but not parenchymal cells. EL was shown to be upregulated in tissues such as atherosclerotic plaque where it was located in macrophages, endothelial cells, and medial smooth muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular localization of EL in thyroid and other tissues where EL is known to be expressed. Besides its presence in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, EL protein was detected in the epithelial cells that line the follicles within the thyroid gland. EL-specific immunostaining was also found near the cell surface as well as in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Using immunoblots, EL expression was confirmed in cultured human omental and subcutaneous adipocytes. EL expression, however, was not found in preadipocytes. These findings suggest that EL plays a role in thyroid and adipocyte biology in addition to its well-known role in endothelial function and HDL metabolism. PMID:22740344

  6. Quantitative comparison of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, A.; Meduri, G.; Calcagni, M.L. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy); Marozzi, P.; Ficola, U.; Vaccaro, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cervello Hospital, Palermo (Italy); Rubini, G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University, Bari (Italy); Attard, M.; Li Puma, M. [Department of Endocrinology, Cervello Hospital, Palermo (Italy); Ricci, R. [Department of Pathology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Corsello, S. [Department of Endocrinology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare the scintigraphic images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands obtained with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Forty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent {sup 201}Tl (74 MBq), {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate (74 MBq) and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (555-740 MBq) scintigraphy in a single session. Image analysis included the computation of the thyroid/background ratio in the whole study population and the parathyroid/background ratio, parathyroid/thyroid ratio and diagnostic sensitivity in 17 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. The pertechnetate subtraction technique was used. {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin showed a similar thyroid/background ratio (1.79{+-}0.41 and 1.81{+-}0.47, respectively, P=NS); however, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin showed a higher parathyroid/background ratio than {sup 201}Tl (2.06{+-}0.54 vs 1.79{+-} 0.50, P=0.007). Despite the superior quality of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin images, both tracers showed identical sensitivity in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (89%) and in those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (50%). (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs.

  7. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions—A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue® perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  8. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions-A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Andreas, E-mail: a.knopf@lrz.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Stock, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Nephrologie der II. Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue{sup Registered-Sign} perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  9. FUNCIONAMIENTO NORMAL Y AUMENTADO DE LA GLÁNDULA TIROIDES EN EQUINOS / NORMAL AND INCREASED FUNCTIONING OF THYROID GLAND IN EQUINES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JÓSE HENRY, OSORIO; FELIPE, RAMÍREZ ECHEVERRY.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Describir y analizar el funcionamiento normal de la glándula tiroides en equinos y los factores que aumentan en ellos los niveles de hormonas tiroideas. Materiales y métodos: Mediante la revisión de la literatura disponible de los últimos 50 años en las bases de datos BBCS-LILACS, fuente a [...] cadémica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus y Scirus, al igual que artículos históricos, textos y referencias citadas en trabajos publicados. Resultados: la información obtenida relacionada con los objetivos propuestos en la presente revisión, permite clasificar en 4 secciones a saber: síntesis y secreción de hormonas tiroideas; transporte y metabolismo; funciones; hipertiroidismo en los equinos. Conclusión: La glándula tiroides juega un papel importante, como productora de hormonas tiroideas, las cuales son necesarias para la diferenciación celular y crecimiento del organismo. El buen funcionamiento de las vías metabólicas depende de estas hormonas, las que tienen efectos específicos sobre diferentes órganos, manteniendo la homeostasis en todos los tejidos. Abstract in english Objective: to describe and analyze the normal functioning of the thyroid gland in equines and the factors which increase the thyroid hormone levels. Materials and methods: information from the last 50 years included in the BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Sc [...] irus, data bases as well as historical articles, texts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results: important information related to the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into two sections as follow: synthesis, liberation and metabolism of thyroid hormones; factors that modify the thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: the thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends on these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all the tissues.

  10. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovi? Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 ?g/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 ?g/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  11. Relation of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve to the superior pole of the thyroid gland : an anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Dhamari; Boon, J. M.; Mieny, Carel J.; Becker, Piet J.; Schoor, Albert-neels

    2007-01-01

    The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ELN) is intimately associated with the superior thyroid artery (STA) in relation to the superior pole of the thyroid gland, rendering it vulnerable to injury during the ligation of this vessel during thyroidectomy. Although most texts acknowledge the fact that the nerve is in close relation to the STA, there has not been an anatomical study to relate the position of the ELN to the superior pole of the thyroid gland. The aim of this study wa...

  12. Clinical Significance of Diffuse {sup 18F} FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sung; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jandee; Soh, Euy Young; An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou Univ. School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2{+-}1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0{+-}664.6 vs. 57.3{+-}46.4, P<0.0001). Mean attenuation values in the diffuse uptake group were significantly lower (72.2{+-}15. vs. 97.0{+-}16.0, P<0.0001). An inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and mean attenuation values of residual thyroid in all patients (r=-0.57, P<0.0001) and subgroup with diffuse uptake (r=-0.31, P<0.05). In this study, diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The {sup 18F} FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  13. Thyroid tumors following 131I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 ?Ci of Na 131I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for 131I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor

  14. Diagnosis of Follicular Lesions of Undetermined Significance in Fine-Needle Aspirations of Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratour, J.; Polivka, M.; Dahan, H.; Hamzi, L.; Kania, R.; Dumuis, M. L.; Cohen, R.; Laloi-Michelin, M.; Cochand-Priollet, B.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology for follicular lesions of undetermined significance (FLUS), the risk of cancer and diagnostic improvement with use of immunocytochemistry. Methods. For each FLUS diagnosis, we analyzed the cytological criteria (9 Bethesda criteria), secondary fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results, surgical procedures, contribution of immunocytochemistry with the antibodies cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and monoclonal anti-human mesothelial cell (HBME1). Results. Among patients with 2,210 thyroid FNAs, 244 lesions (337 nodules) were classified as FLUS (11% of all thyroid FNAs). The 3 criteria most often applied were cytological atypia suggesting papillary carcinoma (36%), microfollicular architecture but sparse cellularity (23.1%), cytological atypia (21.5%). With secondary FNA, 48.8% of nodules were reclassified as benign. For about half of all cases (41.4% for the first FNA, 57.6% for the second FNA), immunocytochemistry helped establishing a diagnosis favoring malignant or benign. No benign immunocytochemistry results were associated with a malignant lesion. In all, 22.5% of the 39 removed nodules were malignant. Conclusion. The FLUS category is supported by well-described criteria. The risk of malignancy in our series was 22.5%. Because we had no false-negative immunocytochemistry results, immunocytochemistry could be helpful in FLUS management. PMID:23634318

  15. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Mahdi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treated to give KIO3 and KI salt was intended to determine the level of supplementation of iodine (I2, the level of MDA in serum and histological rat thyroid gland. MDA levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the KIO3 and KI salt was significantly (p<0.05 reduce levels of MDA in the serum of treatment with KIO3 salt (33.62% and KI salt (37,02% and improving histological of the thyroid gland rats.

  16. Synchronous malignancies of breast and thyroid gland: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Dwarka; Soni Tej; Sharma Om; Sharma Shantanu

    2007-01-01

    The relationship and coincidence of breast cancer with thyroid disorders is a subject of extensive debate and controversy. Many studies have shown that thyroid diseases are common among women with breast cancer. We present a case of concomitant malignancy of breast and thyroid with review of literature on the association of breast with thyroid neoplasm. The potential association and plausible mechanisms of breast carcinoma development after or before the thyroid carcinoma should be evaluated ...

  17. Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning syt). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman) surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes). Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation

  18. Radioiodine Treatment Effects on Lacrimal Glands Function in Patients with Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fard Esfahani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi of I-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient. Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light one patient (2 eyes revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation.

  19. Thyroid metastasis from breast carcinoma accompanied by papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-I; Park, Kwang-Kuk; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy. PMID:25232322

  20. Monitoring intervals for measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129I in thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the monitoring interval, which can be implemented in the Laboratorio de Contaminacion Interna del Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, for direct measurement in the thyroid gland of radionuclides 125I and 129I . Were used two measuring systems, one employing a scintillating detector and the other detector Phoswich. Both detectors were placed inside a depth camera, 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5m of dimension covered with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm lead, 1.8 mm tin and 1.5 mm of copper. Was calculated for each system, the minimum detectable activity, and based on this, the monitoring interval is determined. Was obtained, for 125, all tested intervals, 120, 90,60,30 , 14, and 7 days may be implemented with both systems. In the case of the radionuclide 129 I, with the installation of scintillating detector can only be implemented the intervals 120, 90, and 60 days , and for installation with Phoswich, all evaluated

  1. Measurement of uptake rates of internal organs including thyroid gland and daily urinary excretion rates for adult Korean males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, uptake rates of internal organs and daily urinary excretion rates were measured to get more reliable estimation results for Korean. Radioactive iodine(131I) of 100?Ci was administered by ingestion to 28 adult males for the experiment and then the radioactivity in thyroid gland, liver, stomach, small intestine, kidneys, and urine was measured after time intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours. Uptake rates of each organ and daily urinary excretion rates were calculated on the basis of these experimental results. As a result, uptake rates of 19.70% for thyroid and daily urinary excretion rates of 71.12%, on the average, were indicated. The maximum of uptake rates and daily urinary excretion rates were recorded after 2 hours of administration of 131I, but those rates were decreased gradually later. It was also found that uptake rates were the highest in stomach, followed by the left kidney, liver, small intestine and right kidney except for thyroid gland. In this experiment, the calculated uptake change rate in thyroid gland after 24 hours of administration of 131I was different from that of ICRP-54/67(30%) and ICRP-78(25%). Thus, it is necessary to apply more reliable approach, reflecting the characteristic of Korean physiology and to obtain the basic data of results using this approach for calculation of the internal adsorbed dose. In the future, this approach can be helpful for the internal dose assessment of radiation workerernal dose assessment of radiation workers in a nuclear power plant or in a hospital

  2. Measurement of uptake rates of internal organs including thyroid gland and daily urinary excretion rates for adult Korean males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Geun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, uptake rates of internal organs and daily urinary excretion rates were measured to get more reliable estimation results for Korean. Radioactive iodine({sup 131}I) of 100{mu}Ci was administered by ingestion to 28 adult males for the experiment and then the radioactivity in thyroid gland, liver, stomach, small intestine, kidneys, and urine was measured after time intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours. Uptake rates of each organ and daily urinary excretion rates were calculated on the basis of these experimental results. As a result, uptake rates of 19.70% for thyroid and daily urinary excretion rates of 71.12%, on the average, were indicated. The maximum of uptake rates and daily urinary excretion rates were recorded after 2 hours of administration of {sup 131}I, but those rates were decreased gradually later. It was also found that uptake rates were the highest in stomach, followed by the left kidney, liver, small intestine and right kidney except for thyroid gland. In this experiment, the calculated uptake change rate in thyroid gland after 24 hours of administration of {sup 131}I was different from that of ICRP-54/67(30%) and ICRP-78(25%). Thus, it is necessary to apply more reliable approach, reflecting the characteristic of Korean physiology and to obtain the basic data of results using this approach for calculation of the internal adsorbed dose. In the future, this approach can be helpful for the internal dose assessment of radiation workers in a nuclear power plant or in a hospital.

  3. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Hegedus, L.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound. Longitudinal growth data from birth were available. RESULTS: TV increased significantly with age (r = 0.487; P < 0.001). Mean TV +/- sd for different age groups were as follows: 4 yr, 2.2 +/- 1.4 ml; 5 yr, 2.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 6 yr, 2.8 +/- 1.3 ml; 7 yr, 3.2 +/- 1.3 ml; 8 yr, 3.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 9 yr, 3.7 +/- 1.3 ml. We found a significant positive association between IGF-I and TV (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in multiple regression analyses, TSH (P < 0.013), free T(4) (P < 0.001), lean body mass (P < 0.001), and body surface area (P < 0.001) as well as other anthropometrical measurements were identified as factors significantly associated with TV. Family history of thyroid disease and presence of incidental abnormal ultrasound findings were also positively associated with TV (P = 0.025 and 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of prepubertal Danish children, the GH/IGF-I-axis was positively correlated with thyroid size, suggesting a role in the regulation of thyroid growth. Moreover, anthropometric measurements, in particular body surface area, were the best predictors of TV Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10

  4. MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 ± 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 ± 25 ml, with 2.1 ± 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high. (orig.)

  5. MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Ivanova, T.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 {+-} 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 {+-} 25 ml, with 2.1 {+-} 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high. (orig.)

  6. Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Gjorceva, Daniela Pop

    2015-01-01

    Background Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. Case report A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No signs of metastatic disease are present up to date. Conclusions The differences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland.

  7. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of ... muscles, and other organs working as they should. Thyroid, BMR & Weight What is the relationship between thyroid ...

  8. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Seong; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on nitial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

  9. Hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease: evidence for only unilateral involvement of the thyroid gland in a 31-year-old female patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimai, H P; Ramschak-Schwarzer, S; Lax, S; Lipp, R W; Leb, G

    1999-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease (Morbus Basedow) is known to involve the thyroid gland in toto, unlike Graves' ophthalmopathy which clinically may either be unilateral or bilateral. We report a 31-year-old Caucasian female patient who presented with unilateral goiter and clinical and laboratory evidence for hyperthyroidism. High-resolution ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed a morphology indicative of an autoimmune thyroid disease strictly limited only to the right lobe. 123I-scintiscanning showed a homogenous but several fold increased uptake of the radionuclide in the right lobe of the thyroid gland, whereas the uptake in the left lobe did not differ from the uptake in normal controls. Cytology of the fine needle aspirate of the right lobe revealed a remarkable inflammatory background mainly by presence of lymphocytes, a finding which was not seen in the cytology of the left lobe. Furthermore, both serum antibodies to TSH-receptors and thyroid peroxidase were significantly increased. Consequently, hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease with the involvement of only one lobe of the thyroid gland was diagnosed. PMID:10219891

  10. Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

  11. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Hyun Yoon; Eun-Kyung Kim; Jin Young Kwak; Hee Jung Moon; Ga Ram Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases.

    Methods:

    Twenty-three thyroid lesi...

  12. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye Seong; Han, Boo-kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong

    2010-01-01

    A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on initial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgic...

  13. Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries. PMID:25130905

  14. Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis: Lung Carcinoma Metastasizing to Thyroid Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Shiuan-Li; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is extremely rare in the thyroid glands, and only seven cases of lung carcinoma metastasizing to thyroid tumors have been reported in the literature. We report another two cases of lung carcinoma metastasizing to thyroid neoplasms and review of the literature. The first case was a 64-year-old man presenting with neck mass, hoarseness, and easy choking for 2 months. Image studies showed several nodular lesions within bilateral thyroid glands. A histological examination after radical thyroidectomy revealed lung small cell carcinoma metastasizing to a thyroid follicular adenoma. The second case was a 71-year-old woman with a history of lung adenosquamous carcinoma. The PET/CT scan showed left lower lung cancer and a hypermetabolic area in the right thyroid lobe, highly suspicious for malignancy. Radical thyroidectomy and left lung lobectomy were performed, and the thyroid gland revealed lung adenosquamous carcinoma metastasizing to a papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:25685581

  15. ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Sporea; Roxana Sirli; Simona Bota; Mihaela Vlad; Alina Popescu; Ioana Zosin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men): 44 (32.3%) without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3%) with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD), 37 (27.2%) with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests), 4 (2.9%) with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2%) cases with thyroid pathology induced by am...

  16. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  17. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with fluid. A third test is a thyroid scan. Your doctor will inject harmless radioactive iodine into a vein in your arm. The iodine is absorbed by your thyroid gland and makes it “glow” as your doctor ...

  18. Radioiodine therapy effects on salivary gland function in patients with differentiated Thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fard Esfahani A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland involvement is one of the radioiodine therapy complications. Salivary gland scintigraphy in quantitative mode can accurately evaluate salivary gland function. Methods: Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed with Tc-99m Pertechnetate, at the time of iodine therapy as a basic study and then 3 weeks and 3 months afterwards. Ejection Fraction (EF of parotid and submandibular glands was obtained at each stage of the study. Results: 36 patients (10 male, 16 female were studied. Mean of EF 3 weeks and 3 months following radioiodine therapy was reduced. There was no significant involvement in 12 patients (33.3%. With increase in radioiodine dose, more salivary gland involvement was noted in 3 weeks (P=0.07, but not after 3 months (P=0.5. No difference was noted between two sexes (P=0.6. Parotid gland involvement was more than submandibular gland (P<0.05, confirming more radiosensitivity of parotid gland. No meaningful relation was noted between salivary gland involvements with age (P=0.1. Parotid gland dysfunction was not related to radioiodine dose, but in submandibular gland, with dosage increase, more involvement was noted (P=0.02. Clinical symptoms were not reliable in evaluating salivary gland dysfunction.

  19. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  20. Radiation exposure to the pediatric patient during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Emphasis on the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure the radiation exposure to the skin, thyroid and gonads in 50 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and angiocariography using cine photofluorography. Average exposures were 17.1 R to the skin, 2.3 R to the thyroid and 0.1 R to the gonads. Fluoroscopy accounted for approximately 80% of the skin and thyroid exposure and cine photofluorography for 20 to 25%. Occasional primary-beam irradiation was the major contributor to gonad exposure. Internal scatter of the incident x-ray beam was primarily responsible for thyroid exposure, so that infants received relatively high exposures; one receiving 7.3 R. The thyroid was not frequently in the primary beam. The significance of high radiation exposure to the thyroid, and in particular its relationship to thyroid carcinoma, are discussed. The results are compared with other series in the literature and relative exposures of cine photofluorography and serial filming are contrasted

  1. CT-diagnosis for mass lesions in the parotid gland and cervical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, F.; Taniguchi, S.; Horii, M.; Suzuki, S.; Shiba, Y. (Kobe Central Municipal Hospital (Japan))

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients suffering from mass lesion in the parotid gland or cervical region were examined by computed tomography (CT). The photographed images were compared with the findings and pathological diagnoses obtained by surgical procedures. The conclusions were as follows: 1) Plain CT demonstrated the location of the parotid tumor. Contrast enhancement seemed to delineate the margin of the tumor more clearly. 2) By contrast enhancement, the branchiogenic cyst was differentiated from the parotid tumor, as a low density mass with an enhanced cyst wall. 3) Parotid tumors enhanced by contrast material did not always appear as solid tumors. 4) In some cases, CT numbers indicated the contents of the tumor. 5) The extension of the tumor to the parapharyngeal space was clearly depicted on CT. 6) It seemed to be difficult to evaluate the relationship of the parotid tumor to the facial nerve on plain CT.

  2. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions / Imaginologia das lesões das glândulas adrenais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Keith, Herr; Valdair F., Muglia; Walter José, Koff; Antonio Carlos, Westphalen.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O crescente uso da tomografia computadorizada e da ressonância magnética levou a um aumento na identificação de nódulos adrenais incidentais, também chamados de incidentalomas, gerando um impasse diagnóstico para o radiologista, bem como um número significativo de pesquisas a fim de caracterizar ess [...] as lesões como benignas ou malignas. Apesar de a maioria dos incidentalomas representar um processo benigno, geralmente um adenoma, a possibilidade de a lesão ser maligna requer suficiente acurácia dos métodos de imagem para que esses possam auxiliar no manejo dos pacientes. Neste artigo nós apresentamos uma revisão da literatura dedicada à investigação radiológica das lesões adrenais, com ênfase na tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética e tomografia por emissão de prótons, e discutimos como os achados de imagem relacionam-se com a prática clínica. Tecnologias recentes, como a ultrassonografia com uso de contraste, a tomografia computadorizada com dupla fonte de energia e a espectroscopia de prótons por ressonância magnética são brevemente discutidas. Abstract in english With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indet [...] erminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  3. Metastatic melanoma to the thyroid gland expressing somatostatin receptors-imaging with 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rayamajhi Sampanna; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Bal, Amanjit; Dey, Pranab; Shukla, Jaya; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2015-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis that can have widespread metastases at presentation. Melanoma is known to undergo neuroendocrine differentiation. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with malignant melanoma showing a metastatic lesion in the thyroid expressing somatostatin receptors as evident by Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT and metabolically active widespread subcutaneous metastases on F-FDG PET/CT imaging. PMID:25546189

  4. Coexisting iodine avid and iodine nonconcentrating lesions with multiple distant soft tissue metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Tushar; Arora, Abhishek; Bethune, Naidu N.

    2012-01-01

    Distant soft tissue metastasis and the simultaneous presence of iodine concentrating and nonconcentrating lesions in papillary thyroid cancer are extremely rare. The concerned patient, a histopathologically proven case of papillary thyroid cancer with nodal metastases treated with total thyroidectomy, bilateral cervical nodal dissection, and radioablation, subsequently developed lung, muscle, and liver metastasis. Triggered by increased thyroglobulin, the iodine-131 whole body scan and 200 mc...

  5. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Diego Mendonça Uchôa; Vanessa Yépez

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellul...

  6. Ex-vivo Imaging of Thyroid Gland Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography at Wavelength from 800 to 1700 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shutaro; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2012-03-01

    Wavelength dependence of ex-vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) imaging of thyroid gland using supercontinuum at wavelength from 800 to 1700 nm was demonstrated. The wavelength dependence of the thickness of follicular epithelium and fine structures such as round or oval follicles were observed from the UHR-OCT cross sectional images. The reconstructed en-face OCT images at all wavelength regions were obtained and the images of follicles with several different signal intensities were observed in 1060 and 1700 nm UHR-OCT images. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of wavelength dependence of OCT images of thyroid gland structure.

  7. A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Karen M; Smyth, Paul C; Cahill, Susanne F; Finn, Stephen P; Conlon, Eilish; Li, JingHuan; Flavin, Richard J; Aherne, Sinead T; Guenther, Simone M; Ferlinz, Astrid; O'Leary, John J; Sheils, Orla M

    2007-10-01

    Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a lesion that frequently causes difficulties from a diagnostic perspective in the laboratory. The purpose of this study was to interrogate a cohort of archival thyroid lesions using gene expression analysis of a panel of markers proposed to have utility as adjunctive markers in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in particular. Laser Capture Microdissection was used to procure pure cell populations for extraction. In addition a novel, multiplex preamplification technique was used to facilitate analysis of multiple targets. The panel comprised: HLA-DMA, HLA-DBQ1, CD74, CSNK1G2, IRF3, KRAS2, LYN, MT1K, MT1X, RAB23, TGFB1 and TOP2A, with CDKN1B as an endogenous control. Expression profiles for each target were generated using TaqMan Real-Time PCR. HLA-DMA, HLA-DQB1, MT1X, CSNK1G2 and RAB23 were found to be differentially expressed (PMT1X and RAB23 (PMT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05). Finally, KRAS2 was found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing the papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups. This panel of molecular targets discriminates between follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma by their expression repertoires. It may have utility for broader use in the setting of fine-needle aspiration cytology and could improve the definitive diagnosis of certain categories of thyroid malignancy. PMID:17660800

  8. Automated benign & malignant thyroid lesion characterization and classification in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vinitha Sree; Molinari, Filippo; Garberoglio, Roberto; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) based technique for automatic classification of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images. The images were obtained from 20 patients. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and histology confirmed malignancy. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and texture based features were extracted from the thyroid images. The resulting feature vectors were used to train and test three different classifiers: K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), and Decision Tree (DeTr) using ten-fold cross validation technique. Our results show that combination of DWT and texture features in the K-NN classifier resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.9%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 99.8%. Thus, the preliminary results of the proposed technique show that it could be adapted as an adjunct tool that can give valuable second opinions to the doctors regarding the nature of the thyroid nodule. The technique is cost-effective, non-invasive, fast, completely automated and gives more objective and reproducible results compared to manual analysis of the ultrasound images. We however intend to establish the clinical applicability of this technique by evaluating it with more data in the future. PMID:23365926

  9. Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.; Zhao, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta dose contribution. Photon-absorbed dose fractions of total absorbed dose were 4.9% {+-} 1.3% (range, 1.1%-8.7%) and 3.7% {+-} 2.5% (range, 0.8%-7.9%) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Conclusions: The iodine uptake of salivary glands is continuously reduced during the courses of therapy. The phenomenon of hyper-radiosensitivity may to some extent account for the occurrence of salivary gland hypofunction at very low radiation doses with low dose rates in {sup 131}I therapy. On the other hand, failure to incorporate a nonuniform and preferential uptake by salivary gland ductal cells may result in underestimating the actual dose for the critical tissue. Other methods, including {sup 124}I voxel-based dosimetry, are warranted to further investigate the {sup 131}I-induced salivary gland toxicity.

  10. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer; Rekonstruktion der Schilddruesendosis fuer Kinder mit Schilddruesenkrebs in Weissrussland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robl, R.; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1997-10-01

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope {sup 131}I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of {sup 1}31 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I. The inferred {sup 131}I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs-deposition density and a few {sup 131}I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of {sup 131}I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the {sup 129}I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the {sup 129}I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  11. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis of Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-il; Lee, Jong Jin; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    A 69-year-old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed, and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  12. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis pf Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Il; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Jin [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Jin Ho [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    A 69 year old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed,and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  13. [Disorders of the thyroid gland in neonates and youth: latent hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, E; Borkenstein, M H

    2003-01-01

    Etiology and clinical manifestation of subclinical hypothyroidism is different in neonates and in young. In the neonatal period babies present with jaundice and/or constipation due to thyroid hypoplasia, thyroid ectopia or transient hypothyroidism. The main reason for subclinical hypothyroidism in the youth is Hashimoto thyroiditis. Indication for thyroxin therapy in subclinical hypothyroidism is discussed controversial in the literature. For best growing and maturation in childhood thyroxin therapy should be given. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is rare in childhood. The main reasons are Graves' disease or Hashimoto thyroiditis (initial period). The therapy of subclinical hyperthyroidism is the same as in overt hyperthyroidism. PMID:14710482

  14. Malignant glomus tumor of the thyroid gland where is heretofore an unreported organ: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Na Rae; Kim, Taeeun; Ahn, Jungsuk; Lee, Sangho; Lee, Young Don; Cho, Hyun Yee

    2015-03-01

    Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon clinically benign tumors. Malignant glomus tumors are rare, and only a small number develop metastatic foci. The usual location is deep dermis or subcutis, but it has been reported in various locations. A 55-year-old man presented with an incidentally found thyroid mass. Neck ultrasound showed a mass with a heterogeneous hypoechoic calcific mass in the right lobe. Right lobectomy specimen showed the 3.6-cm-sized calcified mass composed of sheets of uniform round to polygonal cells and intervening staghorn-shaped vessels. Occasional cellular atypism and necrosis with increased mitotic activity (up to 7 per 10 high-power fields) were found. Infiltration to the residual thyroid parenchyma, vessel, thyroidal capsule, and strap muscle was found. These tumor cells were strongly positive for smooth muscle actin, collagen type IV, and vimentin with pericellular reticulin-cuffing. Ultrastructurally, closely packed oval-shaped tumor cells having cytoplasmic mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulums with pinocytotic vesicles along the plasmalemmal surface and thin filaments of 6 nm in diameter were surrounded by thick basal lamina. That mass was diagnosed as a malignant glomus tumor. Incidentally, a 0.5-cm-sized papillary carcinoma was found through entire embedding. Complete thyroidectomy with chemotherapy was done. Thirty months later, multiple metastases developed in the brain and lung, and he expired. To our knowledge, neither benign nor malignant thyroid glomus tumor has been previously described. Here, we describe the first case of a malignant glomus tumor in the thyroid gland. PMID:25544269

  15. Ectopic thyroid in an adrenal mass: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno Munehisa; Tsukamoto Takuji; Kuroda Isao; Hagiuda Jun; Yokota Chizuko; Hirose Takanori; Deguchi Nobuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background It is difficult to explain ectopic thyroid beneath the diaphragm because during the development the thyroid descends from the tongue to the anterior of the trachea. A few cases of ectopic lesions have been reported in the literature for abdominal organs including the adrenal glands, but the mechanism by which the thyroid components migrate into the abdomen has been poorly understood. Case presentation A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having an adrenal mass. Laparoscopi...

  16. Brain metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer in patients treated with radioiodine for bone and lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) often is detected during treatment of other remote lesions. We examined the prevalence, risk factors and treatment outcome of this disease encountered during nuclear medicine practice. Of the 167 patients with metastasis to lung or bone treated 1-14 times with radioactive iodine (RAI), 9 (5.4%) also had lesions in the brain. Five were males and 4 females, aged 49-84, out of the original population of 49 males and 118 females aged 10-84 (mean 54.7) years. Three of them underwent removal of their brain tumors, 5 received conventional external beam irradiation, and 2 had stereotactic radiosurgery with supervoltage X-ray. None of the brain lesions showed significant uptake of RAI despite demonstrable accumulation in most extracerebral lesions. Seven patients died 4-23 (mean 9.4) months after the discovery of cerebral metastasis, brain damage being the primary or at least a contributing cause. The 8th and 9th patients remained relatively well for more than 42 and 3 months, respectively, without any evidence of intracranial recurrence. Our results confirmed that the brain is a major site of secondary metastasis from DTC. No statistically significant demographic risk factor was detected. Any suspicious neurological symptoms in the course of RAI treatment warrant cerebral computed tomography. As for therapy, from out initial experience, radiosurgery seemed promising as an effective and less invasive alternative to surgicve and less invasive alternative to surgical removal. (author)

  17. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.C., Lisbôa; F.H., Curty; R.M., Moreira; C.C., Pazos-Moura.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID), an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized [...] (OVX) rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days) were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I) and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary) activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P

  18. Effect of Exogenous Thyroxine on Mophology and Development of Thyroid Gland in Marble Goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus Bleeker Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Awang Soh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine effect of the exogenous thyroxine (T on ontogeny of thyroid 4 gland in marble goby larvae and to found out whether the exogenous T can alter the follicle structure and the 4 level of T in marble goby. The larvae were exposed for 1 h in T solution at 0.1 ppm. Untreated larvae (control 4 4 were not immersed in T hormone. It was found that T levels in treated larvae were higher than control, but the 44 development patterns in both treated larvae and control were similar in which occurred a decreasing of T levels 4 from 3-7 days after hatching (dAH, and then increased again from 10 dAH onwards. The histological evidences that the follicles structure in treated larvae were difference than control, in which suggested abundance of thyroid hormone. These findings suggested that thyroid hormones (THs may play an important role during early larvals life and metamorphosis period. High total T levels in the treated larvae suggested that exogenous 4T has a predictable role to increase T level, especially in early larval stage of marble goby.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

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    Basu S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  20. Quantitative radiation biology of the thyroid gland: cell survival, neoplasia and hormonal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology has been developed for the quantitative transplantation of monodispersed rat thyroid cells. Thyroid follicular units (FU) develop following the transplantation of sufficient numbers of viable, monodispersed cells into control or hormonally manipulated, isologous recipients. With the use of an assay based on the development of FU from inoculated cells, radiation dose-cell survival curves have been generated for cells irradiated in vivo and removed immediately for assay, and for cells irradiated and left in situ for 24 hours prior to removal for assay. The survival parameters for cells irradiated in vivo and transplanted immediately after irradiation were not significantly different from those previously reported for thyroid cells irradiated in vitro and assayed by transplantation. Preliminary results from long-term thyroid carcinogenesis experiments indicate that both total tumor and carcinoma induction are significantly higher in transplant sites grafted with irradiated thyroid cells relative to grafts of non-irradiated cells. We believe that the thyroid transplantation technique described is an excellent model system for the study of thyroid development and response in vivo. This model provides a further advantage of a quantitative approach for the investigation of epithelial cell growth and differentiation, of responses to environmental fluctuations and of the relationship between acute effects of ionizing radiation and the subsequent development of neation and the subsequent development of neoplasms

  1. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  2. Multiple IgG4-related sclerosing lesions in the maxillary sinus, parotid gland and nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hotta, Machiko; Kushima, Ryoji; Shibayama, Masayuki; Shimizu, Takeshi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2009-09-01

    IgG4-related sclerosing disease is recognized as a distinct clinicopathological entity. It is well known that this disease can occur in the salivary, lacrimal and pituitary glands, in the head and neck region. The nasal cavity is an extremely rare site of involvement of IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Herein is reported a case of multiple IgG4-related sclerosing lesions in the maxillary sinus, parotid gland and nasal septum. A 73-year-old Japanese man presented with nasal obstruction and tumors of the right maxillary sinus and parotid gland were detected, after which resections of these tumors were performed. One year after the last surgery, he noted swelling of the nasal septum, and the tumor was resected. These three tumors had similar histopathology, such as conspicuous fibrosclerotic changes with dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and occasional obliterative phlebitis. Immunohistochemistry indicated abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration and high ratios of IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cells (>70%) in all three lesions. The diagnosis of multiple IgG4-related sclerosing lesions was made. The present case suggests that IgG4-related sclerosing lesion can occur in the maxillary sinus and nasal septum, and represents an extension of the spectrum of IgG4-related sclerosing disease. PMID:19712137

  3. Thyroid gland formation from inocula of monodispersed cells: early results on quantitation, function, neoplasia, radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures are described by which (a) suspensions of monodispersed rat thyroid cells may be prepared and irradiated or otherwise manipulated in vitro, (b) known numbers of morphologically viable cells can be inoculated into untreated or hormonally manipulated histocompatible recipients, and (c) the morphological, functional, and neoplastic potential of the inoculated thyroid cells can be quantitatively assessed. The development of glandular structures at the site of thyroid cell inoculation is quantitatively related to the number of cells injected. These glandular structures concentrate radioiodide, support body growth of thyroidectomized hosts, and are susceptible to neoplastic change

  4. LINGUAL THYROID OUR EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Karthikeyan Arjunan; Seethalakshmi Narashiman

    2011-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an uncommon congenital disorder of thyroid gland development, resulting in alack of descend of the gland from foramen caecum to its normal prelaryngeal location. In this paper we discuss a series of cases of ectopic thyroid gland its incidence, clinical presentation, sex ratio,age group, endocrine status, radiological features and appropriate surgical approaches.

  5. Interobserver variability amongst cytopathologists and histopathologists in the diagnosis of neoplastic follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Rajan; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Gupta, Nalini; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The difficulty in correctly identifying follicular lesions/neoplasms (FN) of thyroid is a well recognized fact. The present study was undertaken to study the degree of interobserver variability among cytopathologists and histopathologists in the diagnosis of these lesions. A total of 74 cases were chosen with a cytological diagnosis varying from FN (43 cases), hürthle cell neoplasm (18 cases), neoplasm suspicious of papillary carcinoma (7 cases) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPTC) (4 cases) and neoplasm, NOS (2 cases). All these cases were reviewed by a cytopathologist along with surgical follow-up. In cases of cytohistological discordance, histopathological diagnoses were also reviewed by a histopathologist. The accuracy of initial and reviewed cytology in predicting neoplastic histological outcome was 100%; however 15 cases were over-diagnosed on initial cytology as FN and on reviewed cytology, 8/15 cases were under-diagnosed as non-neoplastic; however still seven cases were over-diagnosed on reviewed cytology, thereby specificity for neoplastic histological outcome ranging from 50 to 68%. The histopathology diagnosis was reviewed and changed in six cases; therefore interobserver agreement among histopathologist is 92% which reduces further in diagnosis of FVPTC, as in two cases diagnosis of follicular adenoma was changed to FVPTC. Neoplastic follicular patterned lesions (FN) pose diagnostic difficulties among pathologists. So, all cases with a cytological diagnosis of FN should be reviewed along with histopathology to minimize interobserver variability and reviewed histopathology should be considered as "gold standard". PMID:21416635

  6. Modification of the activity of lymphocytes by xenotransplantation of thyroid gland tissue and by the transfer factor of immune reactivity in the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of a thyroid tissue is one of the possible methods for the curing of functional disorders of thyroid gland that appear due to the influence of insufficient environmental conditions on organism. By the micro method of lymphocyte blast transformation reaction, the functional activity of Wistar rat's splenocytes is studied. In the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis before and after xenotransplantation of the organic cell culture of thyroid gland of newborn pigs, the opportunities for correction of immunological disorders with the help of transfer factor preparations are investigated. The transfer factor is a low-molecular weight leukocyte extract (? 10kD) with immuno modulating activities. The reducing of self and PHA-stimulated proliferation of rat's splenocytes with [J131]-induced hypothyrosis is found. Bovine and human transfer factor preparations activate the proliferation of splenocytes from animals with hypothyrosis and animals with xenotransplantation

  7. Primary Malignant Teratoma with a Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Component in Thyroid Gland : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunyoung; Bae, Tae Seok; Kwon, Youngmee; Kim, Tae Hyun; Chung, Ki-wook; Kim, Sun Wook; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Eun Sook

    2007-01-01

    Teratomas comprise the most common extragonadal germ cell tumors in childhood. Most teratomas involving the thyroid are benign and occur in children. However, the adult cases reported are mostly malignant and commonly arise in the thyroid. We report a case of a 31-yr-old female with a huge neck mass. Pathologic examination revealed it to be malignant teratoma composed of primitive neuroepithelial tissue with primitive neural tubes and loose myxoid to fibrous immature mesenchymal stroma. The p...

  8. Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, hair loss, ... It usually is taken once a day before breakfast. Take thyroid at around the same time every ...

  9. Variation of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) estimates of radiation-induced hypothyroidism in relation to changes in delineation of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RØnjom, Marianne Feen; Brink, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background. To examine the variations of risk-estimates of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (HT) from our previously developed normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in relation to variability of delineation of the thyroid gland. Patients and methods. In a previous study for development of an NTCP model for HT, the thyroid gland was delineated in 246 treatment plans of patients with HNSCC. Fifty of these plans were randomly chosen for re-delineation for a study of the intra- and inter-observer variability of thyroid volume, Dmean and estimated risk of HT. Bland-Altman plots were used for assessment of the systematic (mean) and random [standard deviation (SD)] variability of the three parameters, and a method for displaying the spatial variation in delineation differences was developed. Results. Intra-observer variability resulted in a mean difference in thyroid volume and Dmean of 0.4 cm(3) (SD ± 1.6) and -0.5 Gy (SD ± 1.0), respectively, and 0.3 cm(3) (SD ± 1.8) and 0.0 Gy (SD ± 1.3) for inter-observer variability. The corresponding mean differences of NTCP values for radiation-induced HT due to intra- and inter-observer variations were insignificantly small, -0.4% (SD ± 6.0) and -0.7% (SD ± 4.8), respectively, but as the SDs show, for some patients the difference in estimated NTCP was large. Conclusion. For the entire study population, the variation in predicted risk of radiation-induced HT in head and neck cancer was small and our NTCP model was robust against observer variations in delineation of the thyroid gland. However, for the individual patient, there may be large differences in estimated risk which calls for precise delineation of the thyroid gland to obtain correct dose and NTCP estimates for optimized treatment planning in the individual patient.

  10. Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on the Morphology of Thyroid Gland in Male Wistar Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Onu*, B. O. Oke1, P. C. Ozegbe1 and J. O. Oyewale2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted to document the effect of alcohol on the morphology of thyroid gland of male rat offspring whose dams consumed alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. Seventy-five female rats divided into three groups, 1, 2, and 3, of 25 each and their offspring were used. Group 1 served as control (C, group 2 was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and lactation (APL while group 3 was exposed to alcohol during lactation only (AL. At day 35 and 49 postpartum 5 male rat offspring were randomly selected from the three groups and sacrificed. After the sacrifice, the thyroids were dissected out and their absolute and relative weights determined. Thereafter, the thyroid tissues were prepared for routine histological examination. The results of the investigation showed significant reduction (P<0.05 in the weights of the thyroid and thyroid follicles. There was also disorganization and desquamation of follicular cells. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake during pregnancy and/or lactation could be injurious to the thyroid glands of the offspring.

  11. Hematologic long-term modifications after radio-iodine therapy in carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    59 posttherapeutic examinations of the bone marrow have been performed in 35 patients out of a group of 296 patients treated from 1969 through 1976 by postoperative iodine-131 irradiations for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Seven patients had normal findings, twelve patients showed panmyelopathy as principal finding, and fourteen patients presented modifications of the three marrow systems in differents degrees and combinations. Acute myeloid leukemia was demonstrated in two patients by examination of the bone marrow, in another case the same disease was diagnosed by an analysis of the peripheral blood count. Taking into account the dosimetric considerations of the authors and the three cases of leukemia observed within the total group of patients, a risk factor for leukemia of 7.0x10-5xrd-1 is calculated which is slightly higher than he leukemia induction rate communicated in literature (22/2646 patients; 1-2/100 000/rd/year). (orig.)

  12. Value of posttherapeutic scintigraphy for the demonstration of distant metastases of differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of posttherapeutic scintigraphy performed at discharge with the remaining radioactivity after an ablative radio-iodine therapy was studied in 190 patients with differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland (54% papillary and 46% follicular carcinomas). 163 patients (86%) had no signs of disease. 33 patients had distant metastases. In six out of them, the examination method allowed a first demonstration of metastases. In seven further cases, additional, hitherto unknown foci were found. There was a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 82% (no false positive findings, six false negative findings). Further to the usual image-producing examination methods (native X-ray diagnosis, sonography and CT), posttherapeutic scintigraphy furnishes early information about the formation of distant metastases. Therefore it is helpful to indicate a regional percutaneous X-ray therapy and to assess the prognosis. (orig.)

  13. COLLOID GOITRE OF ECTOPIC THYROID IN AN ADOLESCENT FEMALE- A THERAPEUTIC DILEMMA

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    Vadisha Srinivas Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid tissue refers to presence of thyroid tissue at locations away from the normal site in the pretracheal region in the lower neck. Few of such cases are associated with a functioning thyroid gland in its normal anatomical location. However in many cases, the ectopic thyroid gland is the only functioning thyroid. Radionuclide scan is mandatory when dealing with an ectopic thyroid lesion. A colloid goiter in such a case may be large enough to cause cosmetic disfigurement, but still may be functioning. Patient will be deprived of a functioning thyroid tissue, if such a case is treated surgically, necessitating thyroid hormone supplementation for the rest of patient’s life.

  14. Radioprotective effect of Vitamin E against radiation-induced injuries to the salivary glands in radioiodine-treated patients with thyroid cancer

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    Mohsen Saghari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salivary gland impairment is a known complication after high-dose radioiodine treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC. The goal of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin-E against radiation-induced injuries of the salivary glands subsequent to I-131 therapy. Methods: After enrolling 36 patients to the study, the cases were randomly allocated in Vitamin E (19 patients and placebo (17 patients groups. All patients were candidates of I-131 therapy with a dose of about 100 - 150 mCi for ablation of thyroid remnant. Patients of vitamin E group received 800 Iu/day vitamin E for 5 weeks (from one week before to 4 weeks after of radioiodine therapy. The quantitative parameters of salivary gland function [first uptake ratio (FUR, maximum uptake ratio (MUR, maximum secretion percentage (MSP and excretion fraction (EF] were measured using a dose of about 10 mCi 99mTcO4- for sialoscintigraphy in two occasions, one before and the second, 6 months after ablation. The changes in the corresponding parameters were compared between two groups. Results: Comparing with baseline values, the averages of EF and MSP of the right submandibular as well as EF of the left parotid gland were significantly decreased following radioiodine treatment in placebo group while no significant change in functional parameters was noted in vitamin E group. About 8% of salivary glands in vitamin E group and 18% of salivary glands in placebo group revealed a 10% decrease in MSP after radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: The rate of functional deterioration in salivary glands may be decreased by using vitamin E as a protective agent against radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction following radioiodine therapy. However further studies with larger series of patients are suggested to confirm the effect of vitamin E as a radioprotective agent for prevention of salivary gland injuries following high dose radioiodine therapy.

  15. Peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of two groups of patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (n = 165) was evaluated retrospectively. Total thyroidectomy was the standard procedure in both groups, but the peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes differed. In group 1 (n = 84), only clinically positive lymph nodes were resected, and if residual postoperative 131I uptake was found, an ablation dose of 131I was given. In group 2 (n = 81), all of the tissue in the tracheoesophageal groove was removed routinely at total thyroidectomy and frozen section was done of the lymph nodes lying along the internal jugular vein. If metastases were found, a modified radical dissection of the neck was performed on the affected side. The two patient groups were comparable with regard to risk factors--local tumor stage, age and sex. Almost twice as many patients were found to have metastases to the lymph nodes in group 2. There was no significant difference in the ten year over-all or recurrence free survival time between the two groups. In group 1, there were more recurrences on the explored side of the neck but fewer distant metastases; however, both findings were not significant. In group 2, significantly more instances of hypoparathyroidism and palsy of the accessory nerve were found (p less than 0.05). Thus, when a more extensive search was carried out, more metastases to the lymph node were discovered and treated, but this did not prevent red and treated, but this did not prevent recurrences in the neck nor did it improve survival time. This approach resulted in more postoperative morbidity. There seems to be no justification for prophylactic removal of regional lymph nodes in instances of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, but modified radical neck dissection may be beneficial if clinically suspect regional lymph nodes are present in the lateral part of the neck. 52 references

  16. Conduta conservadora no carcinoma papilífero da glândula tireóide Partial resection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

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    Josias de Andrade Sobrinho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento do carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo da glândula tireóide, através de tireoidectomia parcial com seguimento superior a cinco anos. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 105 prontuários de pacientes portadores de carcinoma diferenciado da glândula tireóidea operados no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo de 1977 a 1997 e selecionados 31 casos que apresentavam nódulos limitados a um lobo da glândula com seguimento superior a cinco anos e submetidos à lobectomia total mais istmectomia. RESULTADOS: Observamos somente um caso (3% de disfonia transitória com paresia de prega vocal unilateral que regrediu espontaneamente. Não houve casos de hipoparatireoidismo transitório ou definitivo. O seguimento médio foi de 12,6 anos, sendo todos com seguimento superior a cinco anos; 10 casos (32% com seguimento entre 10 e 15 anos e 10 casos (32% com seguimento além de 15 anos. Não foram observados casos com recorrência loco-regional ou metástase à distância, estando todos eles assintomáticos e sem doença. CONCLUSÃO: Nesta série, a tireoidectomia parcial para carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo, mostrou-se eficaz.BACKGROUND: To analyse the survival rate after partial resection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland. METHODS: After a retrospective study of 105 files of patients operated on at Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo from 1977 to 1997, 31 patients with a single node were selected. They were submitted to partial resection (total lobectomy plus istmectomy, and evaluated for five years or more postoperatively. RESULTS: It was observed one case of transitory disphony (3% with spontaneous regression.There were no cases of hypoparathyroidism. Medium follow up was of 12,6 years, with 10 (32% with follow up between 10 and 15 years and 10(32% with more than 15 years. No regional or distant recurrences were observed , and all patients are doing well. CONCLUSION: In this series, partial thyroidectomy was efficient as radical therapy for papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland.

  17. Effectiveness of Toyota process redesign in reducing thyroid gland fine-needle aspiration error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen S; Grzybicki, Dana Marie; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Balassanian, Ronald; Janosky, Janine E; Vrbin, Colleen M

    2006-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Toyota Production System process redesign resulted in diagnostic error reduction for patients who underwent cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. In this longitudinal, nonconcurrent cohort study, we compared the diagnostic error frequency of a thyroid aspiration service before and after implementation of error reduction initiatives consisting of adoption of a standardized diagnostic terminology scheme and an immediate interpretation service. A total of 2,424 patients underwent aspiration. Following terminology standardization, the false-negative rate decreased from 41.8% to 19.1% (P = .006), the specimen nondiagnostic rate increased from 5.8% to 19.8% (P < .001), and the sensitivity increased from 70.2% to 90.6% (P < .001). Cases with an immediate interpretation had a lower noninterpretable specimen rate than those without immediate interpretation (P < .001). Toyota process change led to significantly fewer diagnostic errors for patients who underwent thyroid fine-needle aspiration. PMID:16938657

  18. Comparative sonographic and scintigraphic investigations in autonomous adenomas of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of active thyroid tissue can be detected on scintigraphic images and consequently the diagnosis of an autonomous thyroid adenoma is established on the basis of scintigraphic examinations. The sonographic examination is considerably supplemented by scintigraphic information. Domain of sonography is the determination of size and structure of adenomas and of the extranodular tissue. In the primary diagnosis of a decompensated autonomous a adenoma, sonography permits the fast differential diagnostical delineation of a shape anomaly or an aplasia of the thyroid lobes and the detection of the contralateral lobe (for example due to a tumor, a focal inflammation, a cyst). When the diagnosis has been confirmed, besides in-vitro tests sonography is the preferential non-invasive follow-up technique which can be repeated at choice. One disadvantage of this method is that retrosternal parts of larger struma and adenomas cannot be imaged and detected sonographically. (orig./MG)

  19. Lipid-rich residual bodies in the human thyroid gland: ultrastructural, histochemical, and morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Eyden, B P

    1994-10-01

    Eleven samples of surgical and autopsy thyroid tissue were studied by classical histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, light microscope quantitation and transmission electron microscopy in order to characterize lipid-rich residual bodies (LRRBs) previously reported in human myometrium. The following observations were made: 1) LRRBs were found largely in follicular epithelial cells; 2) they had exactly the same histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics as LRRBs from myometrium; 3) they had a distinctive distribution and morphology compared with lipofuscin; 4) a lysosomal nature was confirmed by their content of acid phosphatase and cathepsin D; 5) they were virtually absent from both the new-born thyroid and from thyroid carcinoma; 6) there was a statistical linear correlation between LRRB frequency and patient age. In conclusion, LRRBs have been demonstrated in an extra-uterine location, and are confirmed as residual lysosomes, probably having been involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:7820818

  20. Differential expression of Galectin-3 in papillary projections of malignant and non-malignant hyperplastic thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Marija J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 is a a beta-galactoside binding protein recently proposed to be a promising presurgical molecular marker for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. We analyzed galectin-3 expression immunohistochemically in papillary areas of hyperplastic lesions of benign thyroid tissue in comparison with malignant papillary projections of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. A monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and ABC immunohistochemical technique were used to evaluate galectin-3 expression in 26 cases of benign papillary hyperplasia (8 cases of hyperplastic adenoma, 8 cases of hyperplastic colloid goiter, 10 cases of Graves disease in comparison with 25 cases of PTC. Immunohistochemical results showed no reactivity for galectin-3 in papillary areas of benign hyperplastic lesions. Strong cytoplasmic galectin-3 immunoreactivity was found in all 25 cases of PTC. These results show that galectin-3 expression is a feature of malignant papillary projections but not of benign papillary hyperplasia. Thus, the immunohistochemical evaluation of galectin-3 might contribute to differential diagnosis between malignant and benign thyroid lesions with papillary projections.

  1. Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Gland Volume in Schoolchildren 7-11 years from West Kazakhstan

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    Kh I Kudabayeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine thyroid volume by ultrasound in schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, from oil and gas areas of West Kazakhstan. Materials and Methods. During the period from May to December 2013 cross-sectional study was conducted on schoolchildren living in the oil and gas and clean areas of West Kazakhstan. A total of 815 schoolchildren aged 7-11 years who met the study criteria were included in the study. Anthropometry was measured before the ultrasound, then the expert radiologist conducted measurement of thyroid volume using a portable ultrasound machine according to recommendations of WHO. Urinary iodine was tested in 10% of students selected randomly. Results. The prevalence of goiter in our sample using the 97th percentile of the volume recommended by WHO / ICCIDD (2007 was 24.7 ± 1.50% (49.8% girls and 51.2% boys. Average thyroid volume measured by ultrasound in the oil and gas regions was 4.43 ± 1.66 ml, in a safe area of 2.9 ± 1.24 ml. The difference in thyroid volume was statistically significant p <0.0001. The difference in thyroid volume between boys compared areas was statistically significant ( p <0.0001: 4.62 ± 1.75 ml and 2.78 ± 0.93 ml; between girls 4.23 ± 1.53 ml and 3.05 ± 1.52 ml, respectively ( p <0.0001.Mean volume thyroid does not correlate with the age of the participants, but weakly correlated with BMI ( r = 0.3; p <0.0001. Median and 97th percentile thyroid volumes of our subjects were higher than the reference values reported to WHO. Median urinary iodine (UI was 193 mg/l. Conclusion. Thyroid size of schoolchildren in west region of Kazakhstan is higher than the reference values reported to WHO. The high prevalence of goiter in the areas of oil and gas on of versus iodine-replete conditions available to the regional populations according to urinary iodine (UI suggests the influence of other goitrogenic factors in the region and requires further study.

  2. One-demensional echographic examination (A scan) in diagnosis of thyroid gland disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results were compared of A scan echography, scintiscanning and thin needle biopsy examinations in 115 eufunctional, mostly nodular, goiters. The objective was to assess the suitability of echographic examination for differentiating solid and cystic formations in the thyroid. The echography and scintiscanning results agreed in 88.7%, agreement for echography and biopsy was in 79.1%. The said figures are comparable with the degree of reliability of echographic examination as found in the literature (around 90%). Its value permits including this mode of echographic examination (A scan) in the differential diagnosis of solid and cystic formations of the thyroid. (author)

  3. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. Ht day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  4. [Total thyroidectomy as the most frequent surgical procedure on the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupka, Z; Hrubý, I; Kyjas, P; Gladis, P; Jandousová, E

    2001-07-01

    In 1997 and 1999 at the Second Surgical Clinic 35 patients with thyroid disease were operated. The authors reflect on the increasing radicality of operations from the aspect of the endocrinologist and surgeon. Extended surgical operations in relation to the original endocrinological indications are explained by the surgical finding and results of the histological examination. PMID:11505693

  5. Output parameters of the 131I bi-phasic vs. monoexponential biokinetics model in thyroid gland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, F.; Jirsa, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 107, ?. 4 (2006), s. 177-177. [Days of Medical Biophysics /29./. 16.05.2006-18.05.2006, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1ET100750404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thyroid activity * model of activity * effective half -life * residence time * radiation dose Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  6. An Atypical Metastasis of Follicular-Type Adenocarcinoma of the Thyroid Gland to Thumb

    OpenAIRE

    Gazi Huri

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastasis in the hand is rare. The etiology of metastatic hand cancers is different from other bones. Bronchogenic carcinoma is the most common primary tumor metastasis to hand. In this paper a rare case of thumb metastasis from “follicular-type carcinoma” of the thyroid is presented.

  7. Thyroid gland hormones in newborn calves treated with clinoptilolite receiving different amounts of colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoji? Velibor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the natural mineral adsorber clinoptilolite on serum levels of thyroid hormones in newborn calves in the first 48 hours postpartum. A total number of 68 newborn Holstein calves divided in four groups were used in the present study. Calves were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1 0.75 L of colostrum in 12h intervals, with 5 g/L of clinoptilolite immediately after birth (Oh at 12h and 24h after birth (0.75+; 2 0.75L of colostrum in 12h intervals (0.75-, which represents the first control group; 3 1.5L of colostrum in 12h intervals, with 5 g/L of clinoptilolite immediately after birth (Oh, at 12h and 24h after birth (1.5+, and 4 1.5 L of colostrum in 12h intervals (1.5-, which represents the second control group. The calves were born with high blood serum thyroid hormones concentrations (9.7-13.5 nmol/L for T3 and 201-235 nmol/L for T^. At 6. hours after birth serum thyroid hormone levels increased in all groups, but become significantly lower at 48. hours after birth. Clinoptilolite treatment could influence the rise in blood serum thyroid hormones concentration during the early postnatal period. This was most evident in the treated group of calves that received 1.5 L of colostrum (T3, 6h, 11.7±3.4:19.4±7.4, p<0.01; 1.5+ vs. 1.5-. Results indicate that there is a possible effect of clinoptilolite treatment on blood serum thyroid hormones concentration in newborn calves during the first 48 hours of life.

  8. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Context: F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. Aims: The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson's correlation analysis. Results: Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 ?IU/ml, median: 7.37 ?IU/ml, range: 0.074-211 ?IU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Conclusions: Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules. PMID:25589800

  9. Double ectopic thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a well-known developmental anomaly. We present a child with a unique anatomical variant of this anomaly, namely double ectopic thyroid. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the scintigraphic findings and to emphasize the importance of performing a thyroid scan in every case of thyroid ectopia to accurately identify all sites of functioning thyroid tissue. (orig.)

  10. Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis. Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers. We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years. The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma. The papillary carcinoma was continuous with the anaplastic carcinoma. The findings were supported by immunohistochemistry. The patient was managed by a total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection followed by chemotherapy. However, she died two months after surgery. The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers. This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.

  11. Clinical significance of computed tomography (CT) on tumors of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the diagnosis of struma, useful information can be obtained by many kinds of examination, such as palpation, hormone tests, soft X-ray radiography, ultrasonography and radioisotopic examination. This report presents a diagnostic evaluation of CT with special reference to struma. The pathological conditions involved in this study were hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, chronic thyroiditis, nodular struma, nodular cystic struma, follicular adenoma, follicular adenocarcinoma and papillary adenocarcinoma. In each case, the CT images were compared with the intra- and post-operative observations, and the macro- and micro-findings. The results were: 1. CT scanning is useful in determining the extent and position of the tumor as well as its relationship to the adjacent organs. 2. CT scanning makes it easy to differentiate between cystic and solid tumors. 3. When the solid tumor is more than 30 mm in diameter, CT scanning can help to guess whether it is malignant, though not what histologic type it is. (author)

  12. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Hadj-kacem, Hassen; Kallel, Rihab; Belguith-maalej, Salima; Mnif, Mouna; Charfeddine, Ilhem; Ghorbel, Abdelmounem; Abid, Mohamed; Ayadi, Hammadi; Masmoudi, Saber

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS), an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA), and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL). However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21) of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junc...

  13. Crystal Structure of Iodotyrosine Deiodinase, a Novel Flavoprotein Responsible for Iodide Salvage in Thyroid Glands*

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Seth R.; Mctamney, Patrick M.; Adler, Jennifer M.; Laronde-leblanc, Nicole; Rokita, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    The flavoprotein iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) salvages iodide from mono- and diiodotyrosine formed during the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. Expression of a soluble domain of this membrane-bound enzyme provided sufficient material for crystallization and characterization by x-ray diffraction. The structures of IYD and two co-crystals containing substrates, mono- and diiodotyrosine, alternatively, were solved at resolutions of 2.0, 2.45, and 2.6 ?, respectively. The structur...

  14. Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland are almost all benign

    OpenAIRE

    Papotti, Mauro Giulio

    2008-01-01

    In 1987, Carney et al reported 11 thyroid tumors with the following features: circumscription or encapsulation, trabecular architecture with intratrabecular hyalin and colloid, polygonal and spindle cells, nuclei with frequent grooves and cytoplasmic inclusions, occasional psammoma bodies, and a low mitotic rate. The neoplasms did not recur or metastasize during a follow-up period that averaged 10 years, and they were titled hyalinizing trabecular adenomas. Subsequently, the ...

  15. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Kaplowitz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10?mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  16. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplowitz PaulB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10?mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  17. An assessment of the potential role of routine radionuclide thyroid scanning in the differentiation between solid and cystic lesions in the solitary thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of the conventional sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan, to differentiate cystic from solid solitary or dominant non-functioning nodules in the thyroid was investigated in 104 patients. Although these nodules are thought to be non-functioning, a low level of radioactivity can be detected in some of the nodules. The assessment was based on the level of radioactivity in the nodules. The nodules with higher activity were considered to have a higher probability of being solid. This diagnosis was confirmed either by ultrasound, or by histological examination, or both, and sensitivity and specificity evaluated with ROC curve analysis which reached 81% sensitivity with a specificity of 44%. The method was more reliable for larger than for smaller nodules reaching a sensitivity of 81% with a specificity of 84%. The results indicate that sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scanning can provide a useful procedure to distinguish between cystic and solid lesions in the thyroid. (orig.)

  18. Determination of the Rates of Accumulation and Loss of Iodide and of Protein-Binding of Iodine in the Human Thyroid Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid gland may be described in terms of an open three-compartment model, with serum iodide, thyroid iodide and thyroid protein-bound iodine pools. Three kinetic parameters describe this model: the unidirectional clearance, C, of radioiodide into the thyroid iodide pool from the serum, the exit rate constant, kTB, determining the escape of iodide from the thyroid iodide pool to the serum before binding occurs, and the binding rate constant kb. A new method of analysis is presented which for the first time allows the calculation of these three kinetic parameters in man from observed values of thyroid radioiodine uptake and serum radioiodide activity. A simple iterative computer program is used which adjusts the values of kTB, kb and C until the sum of squares of differences between the calculated and observed radioiodine uptakes is a minimum, within predetermined limits of precision. The thyroid radioiodine uptake was determined at intervals during a period of hours in 15 hyperthyroid and 7 euthyroid subjects by quantitative scintiscanning. The serum radioiodide concentration was determined from venous blood samples withdrawn during this period. In each case, the unidirectional clearance and exit rate constant for iodide and the binding rate constant for iodine were calculated. No statistically significant difference was found between the calculated and observed values of thyroid radioiodine uptake, implying that the mod radioiodine uptake, implying that the model is a satisfactory representation of thyroid radioiodine accumulation during the time interval used in these studies. The values of C and kb were found to be significantly greater in the hyperthyroid than in the euthyroid subjects. No significant difference was found in the value of kTB for the two groups. The hyperthyroid subjects were found to convert trapped iodide more efficiently to protein-bound iodine than the euthyroid subjects. Determination of the serum inorganic 127I concentration has enabled the quantity of iodine in the thyroid trapped iodide pool to be estimated. This quantity was not significantly different in the two groups of subjects. Possible uses of this new test of thyroid function in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction and in assessing the nature and extent of suppression of thyroidal uptake of iodine by antithyroid drugs are discussed. (author)

  19. Familial thyroid ectopy and hemiagenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, T.; Gilboa, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Two siblings had sublingual thyroid glands and hypothyroidism. A third sibling had a left lobe agenesis of the thyroid, but normal function of the gland. This is the second such family to be described.

  20. Population of antithyroid autoantibodies as a source of antibodies of various levels of specificity and functionality: the clinical importance of a phenomenon of combination theory at monitoring of patients with autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Andreeva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature is dedicated to comparative analysis of pathogenetic and clinicodiagnostic significance of antithyroid autoantibodies (autoAB differing in their specificity (?B to thyroglobulin (anti-TG and ?B to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, anti-TGPO, and functionality TG- and TPO-antibodies, namely antibodies-proteases in pathogenesis autoimmune diseases thyroid gland and possibility of their use in modern diagnostics of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  1. The influence of low-level radiation and gangliosides on adenylate cyclase activity in thymus and thyroid glands of chicks in ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate cyclase (AC) activity was studied in thymus and thyroid gland of intact chick embryos and those irradiated with a dose of 0.029 Gy prior to incubation, and newly hatched chocks in the presence of total ganglioside fractions extracted from the same organs. Gangliosides were shown to increase the enzyme activity of thymocytes and thyreocytes during the postnatal development. It is suggested that small radiation doses potentiate the stimulatory effect of ganglioside fractions on AC

  2. Clustering of sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast cancer in a woman as a new cancer susceptibility disorder: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Newman Brian D; Maher Joseph F; Subauste Jose S; Uwaifo Gabriel I; Bigler Steven A; Koch Christian A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Multiple distinct tumors arising in a single individual or within members of a family raise the suspicion of a genetic susceptibility disorder. Case presentation We present the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid, followed several years later with subsequent diagnoses of breast cancer and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Although the patient was also exposed to radiation from a pipe used in the oil field industr...

  3. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid in Treating Patients With Metastatic and/or Locally Advanced or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  4. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis.

  5. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis

  6. A Study on the Radiation Dose of 131I in the Thyroid Gland during the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    53 patients with hyperthyroidism have been analyzed with special reference to therapeutic response to radioactive iodine(131I) treatment. Mean effective half-life, 24 hour uptake rate and radiation dose of 131I in hyperthyroid patients included in this study were respectively. 1) Mean effective half-life of 131I was 4.7±1.5 days in the trace dose and 5.0±1.5 days in the therapeutic dose. 2) Mean 24 hour uptake rate of 131I was 72.7±11.1% in the tracer dose and 73.4±12.3% in the therapeutic dose. 3) Mean radiation dose of 131I was 5319±2648 RAD as predicted and 5692±2843 RAD as actual. A single dose of radioactive iodine treatment was satisfactory in 34 patients (radioiodine resistant) A radioiodine resistant group of patients with hyperthyroidism was distinctively characteristic in the following aspects. 1) Mean thyroid weight calculated in the resistant group (63.9±14.0 gm) was significantly (p131I in the resistant group (3,684±1,745 RAD) was significantly (p131I in the resistant group (4,100±1,691 RAD) was significantly (p131I among the groups (p>0.05). 7) The average mean % difference of effective half-life, uptake rate and radiation dose measured following the tracer and therapeutic dose of 131I were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Therefore effective half-life, uptake rate and radiation dose of the therapeutic dose of 131I were readily predictable following the tracer dose of 131I. 8) It is concluded that the possibility of resistance to radioactive iodine treatment may be anticipated in patients with thyroid gland large in size and compromised 131I uptake rate.

  7. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  8. Effect of radioiodine irradiation of thyroid gland in vitro with a dose of 4-5 Gy on iodide transport in thyrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the influence of ouabain on the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptake in thyroid gland preliminarily irradiated by radioiodine (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy) in vitro. Newborn pig thyroid tissue was incubated in a medium, containing 37 kBq/ml of 131-iodine (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy), washed and achieved by collagenase dissociation. Thyrocytes were incubated with thyrotropin (100.0 mE/ml), ouabain (0.1 mol/l), and 125-iodide (0.4 kBq/ml). Then cells were washed, stored at 4 degree C for 60 days, and the 125-iodide uptake was assessed. Ouabain depressed both the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptakes by thyrocytes in vitro. After preliminary radioiodine irradiation of the thyroid tissue (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy), ouabain stimulated both the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptakes by thyrocytes

  9. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  10. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  11. ACTUALIZACIÓN EN EL FUNCIONAMIENTO DE LA GLÁNDULA TIROIDES EN CANINOS.PRIMERA PARTE:: FUNCIONAMIENTO NORMAL / UPDATE OF THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTIONING IN CANINES. PART I:: NORMAL FUNCTIONING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Henry, Osorio; Catalina, López Salazar.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Actualizar conceptos sobre el funcionamiento normal de la glándula tiroides en caninos. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la literatura disponible de los últimos 50 años en las bases de datos BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus y Scirus, al igual que artíc [...] ulos históricos, textos y referencias citadas en trabajos públicos. Resultados. Se obtuvo información pertinente relacionada con los objetivos propuestos en la presente revisión, por lo cual puede clasificarse en 3 secciones a saber: síntesis de las hormonas tiroideas, transporte de las hormonas tiroideas, funciones de las hormonas tiroideas. Conclusión. La glándula tiroides juega un papel importante, como productora de hormonas tiroideas, siendo necesarias para la diferenciación celular y crecimiento del organismo. El buen funcionamiento de las vías metabólicas depende de estas hormonas, las que tienen efectos específicos sobre diferentes órganos, manteniendo la homeostasis entre todos los tejidos. Abstract in english Objective. To update concepts related to normal function of the thyroid gland in canines. Materials and methods. Information from the last 50 years including the BBCS-LILACS data bases, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Scirus, databases as well as historical articles, te [...] xts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results. Pertinent information related with the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into three sections as follows: synthesis of thyroid hormones, transport of thyroid hormones and functions of thyroid hormones. Conclusion. The thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends of these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all tissues.

  12. Molecular testing for oncogenic gene mutations in thyroid lesions: a case-control validation study in 413 postsurgical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Thomas J; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie; Shinde, Rupali; Langfield, Laura; Vinco, Michelle; Laosinchai-Wolf, Walairat; Labourier, Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    Molecular testing for oncogenic gene alterations provides clinically actionable information essential for the optimal management of follicular cell thyroid cancer. We aimed to establish the distribution and frequency of common oncogenic gene mutations and chromosomal rearrangements in a comprehensive set of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. A case-control study was conducted in 413 surgical cases comprising 17 distinct histopathologic categories, 244 malignant, 169 benign, and 304 double-blinded specimens. Seventeen alterations of BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, PAX8, and RET genes were evaluated using a single validated technology platform. Following verification of analytical sensitivity, accuracy, and precision in model and surgical specimens, 152 molecular positive results were generated in lesions representing multiple stages of progression and epithelial differentiation as well as rare subtypes of primary, secondary, or recurring tumors. Single mutations were found in 58% of primary malignant lesions and 12% of benign (P < .001). In the blinded validation set, mutation distribution and frequency were distinct across variants of follicular and papillary carcinomas. BRAF or RET-PTC was detected exclusively in malignant lesions but not in follicular carcinomas (P < .001). RAS or PAX8-PPARG were present in 23% of adenomas, and NRAS was found in a single nonneoplastic lesion (P = .0014). These data substantiate the diagnostic utility of molecular testing for oncogenic mutations and validate its performance in a variety of surgical specimens. Standardized and validated multianalyte molecular panels can complement the preoperative and postoperative assessment of thyroid nodules and support a growing number of clinical and translational applications with potential diagnostic, prognostic, or theranostic utility. PMID:24830619

  13. Protection of the thyroid gland in the event of releases of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major protective action to be considered after a serious accident at a nuclear power facility involving the release of 131I is the use of stable iodide as a thyroid blocking agent to prevent thyroid uptake of radioiodines. For greatest effectiveness, the blocking agent should be administered within a few hours after an accident. Since reliable radiation monitoring data may not be available that quickly, the decision to administer stable iodide should be based on a pre-planned estimate of the probable degree of contamination from the accident. For people beyond the immediate vicinity of the reactor, the decision to administer stable iodide, to instruct them to remain indoors, or to evacuate them would depend on the type of accident, on preplanned estimates of release, on wind direction and, later, on monitoring data as they become available. An extensive review of mass evacuation shows that masses of up to 150,000 persons have been evacuated safely in natural or potential man-made disasters. These evacuations have been carried out within hours without loss of life, panic or looting. Based on these experiences, urban as well as rural populations can be evacuated promptly and safely

  14. Chemopreventive effects of orange peel extract (OPE). II: OPE inhibits atypical hyperplastic lesions in rodent mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sadanori; Fan, Kunhua; Ho, Chi-Tang; Ghai, Geetha; Yang, Kan

    2007-03-01

    Cancer chemoprevention via the ingestion of natural substances is a current topic of considerable interest. Flavonoids are a family of biologically active phytochemicals having a variety of biological effects. Orange peel extract (OPE) is an abundant source of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) with potential chemopreventive properties. The OPE used here was a mixture containing tangeretin (19.0%), heptamethoxyflavone (15.24%), tetramethoxyflavone (13.6%), nobiletin (12.49%), hexamethoxyflavone (11.06%), and sinensitin (9.16%). C57Bl/6 mice were fed a new "Western-style" diet (NWD), which had previously induced atypical hyperplasias in mammary gland, and NWD supplemented with a standardized OPE containing 30% PMFs. Mice were fed one of four diets: (1) AIN-76A diet (control); (2) NWD; 0.25% OPE in NWD; or (4) 0.5% OPE in NWD. After 3 months of feeding, atypical hyperplasias developed in mammary glands of mice fed NWD, but not in controls. After feeding OPE in NWD, atypical hyperplasias per mouse decreased in frequency compared to feeding NWD alone (P < .05 in mice fed 0.25% OPE). Apoptosis increased in OPE-treated groups (P < .01) with no inhibition of mitosis. Thus, a standardized preparation of OPE with 30% PMFs decreased development of an atypical hyperplastic lesion and increased apoptosis in ductal epithelial cells of mouse mammary gland. PMID:17472462

  15. Intrathoracic papillary thyroid carcinoma from occult primary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Anastasia; Astrinakis, Emanuelle; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Karros, Panagiotis; Margaritis, Dimitrios; Prassopoulos, Panos

    2014-03-01

    A 42-year-old woman undertook a chest radiograph for a routine evaluation prior to surgery for pelvic endometrioma, which revealed a right paratracheal mass slightly displacing the trachea to the left. CT of the thorax disclosed a well demarcated, heterogeneous, lobular, right paratracheal mass, bearing punctate, coarse, and curvilinear calcifications. MRI further revealed two components within the lesion: a larger, cystic, exhibiting thin septations, and a solid component at the lower part exhibiting strong enhancement. No continuity of the mass with the thyroid gland was demonstrated, which had normal size and no focal lesion. Histological examination of the resected mass disclosed lymph node tissue infiltrated by papillary thyroid carcinoma; subsequent total thyroidectomy revealed small foci of papillary carcinoma within both lobes of the thyroid gland. Ablative dose I-131 was administered and the patient was put on daily thyroid supplements. PMID:23446741

  16. Diagnosing diseases of the thyroid gland by means of scintiscanning and puncture cytology taking into consideration the nodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains the results of scintigraphical and puncture-cytological examinations carried out during an observation period of appr. 3 years on 548 patients with goiters from the Upper-Bavarien endemis region. In total, we had 484 thyroid gland scintigrams which showed 335 uninodular, 71 multinodular, and 78 diffuse goiters. The 335 solitary nodular goiters were allocated 278 cold, 36 warm, and 18 hot nodes; in three cases, the scintigram could not be assessed due to exogenous iodine contamination. In the 71 multinodular goiters, we found 118 cold, 28 warm, and 9 hot nodes. Cytological findings were established in 548 patients. In 484 cases, the findings were negative, in 19 cases suspicious, and in 17 cases positive. The efficiency of cytological diagnosis of malignant tumours can be stated to be 87.5%. The rate of falsely negative smears was 12.5%; cytologically, in 10.9% of the preparations falsely suspicious diagnoses were established, and in 1.6% the diagnoses were falsely positive. (orig./MG)

  17. Radioimmunoassay of human calcitonin in serum and tissue from healthy individuals and patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific radioimmunological method for measurement of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) in human serum and tissue is described. Of healthy individuals of both sexes, 85 % had measurable iCT in serum (mean, 0.23 ng/ml). Of 29 patients who had received treatment for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), 19 had increased serum iCT (0-60 ng/ml to205 ng/ml). Elevated serum iCT was also found preoperatively in 2 MCT patients. Eleven of the patients with abnormal elevations of serum iCT were alive 4 to 13 years after the operation. Concentration of iCT in extracts from MCT varied from 0.5 to 540 ng/ml wet weight. The diagnostic value of this method and its importance for pre- and post-operative evaluation of these patients are improved by the use of selective venous catheterization in basal state and during stimulation of CT secretion. (Auth.)

  18. Development of an iodine captor for the study of the performance of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detection-measurement system (DETEC - PC) to be used in those studies of iodine reception in thyroid. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind module of measurement and the application software. The measurement module, communicates through an interface RS-232 series with the Personal Computer where the application software resides (DETEC). The software was designed chord with the principles from the Guided Programming to Objects and it was programmed in C++. The software besides the measurement of the patients, carries out the statistical processing of the lot of samples to use, fixed automatically the spectrometric parameters for the measurement, it possesses a database where it is stored the information of the studied patients and a help with the options of the system. (Author)

  19. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Kacem, Hassen; Kallel, Rihab; Belguith-Maalej, Salima; Mnif, Mouna; Charfeddine, Ilhem; Ghorbel, Abdelmounem; Abid, Mohamed; Ayadi, Hammadi; Masmoudi, Saber

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS), an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA), and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL). However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21) of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junctions among patients affected with Graves' disease (GD) hyperthyroidism. Ten mono-allelic variants were identified, seven of which are intronic and previously unreported. Two, c.898A>C (p.I300L) and c.1061T>C (p.F354S), of the three exonic variants are non synonymous. The p.F354S variant is already described to be involved in PS or NSHL inheritances. The exploration by PCR-RFLP of p.I300L and p.F354S variants among 132 GD patients, 105 Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), 206 Healthy subjects and 102 families with NSHL have shown the presence of both variants. The p.F354S variation was identified both among patients (1~HT and 3 GD) and healthy subjects (n=5). Whereas, the p.I300L variant was identified only in GD patients (n=3). Our studies provide evidence of the importance of systematic analysis of SLC26A4 gene sequences on models other than deafness. This approach allows the identification of new variants and the review of the pathogenic effects of certain mono-allelic variants reported responsible for PS and NSHL development. PMID:21045265

  20. Space-occupying lesions in the pineal gland region in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative CT and MRI studies of 24 patients with space occupying lesions of the pinealis region were analysed. MRI demonstrated all 24 lesions, whereas CT could detect only 20 out of 24. MRI was superior to CT in assessment of size, localisation and relation to adjacent structures. No significant difference was found between CT and MRI in preoperative prediction of tumour histology. (orig.)

  1. Dose calculations for 123I, 124I, 125I and 131I in the thyroid gland of the mouse, rat and man and comparison with thyroid function for mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the radiotoxicity of various iodine isotopes to the thyroid gland, refined dosimetric calculations of the average dose rate distribution and total absorbed dose were performed using Monte Carlo procedures applied on a microscopic scale to the electrons emitted by the isotopes and on a macroscopic scale to the photons. The calculated dose rates depended strongly on the average follicle radius, surrounding cell layer thickness and thyroid mass and the total absorbed doses were calculated from them for the mouse, rat and man as a function of the age at the time of administration. The thyroid function of mice and rats after injection of various isotopes, as measured by several authors, was compared with the calculated average absorbed doses in the thyroid and in different parts of the cell layers. Changes in cell layer thickness due to diet were taken into account. The calculated average absorbed dose in the outermost half of the cell layer was found to be better as a prediction of thyroid damage for all species mentioned. The improvement in prediction was obvious for mice and rats, but less important for adult man. (author)

  2. Transforming events in thyroid tumorigenesis and their association with follicular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, A P; Nelson, V; Fernando, M; Horwitz, G

    2001-10-01

    Thyroid tumors comprise a broad spectrum of neoplastic phenotypes, and distinct molecular events have been implicated in their pathogenesis. Pituitary tumor transforming gene, originally isolated from GH(4) pituitary cells, is tumorigenic in vivo, regulates basic fibroblast growth factor secretion, and is homologous to a securin inhibitor of chromatid separation. Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 is expressed at low levels in several normal human tissues and is abundantly expressed in neoplasms, including colorectal carcinoma, where pituitary tumor transforming gene expression correlated highly with tumor invasiveness. As pituitary tumor transforming gene is regulated by E and as thyroid cancer shows a strong female preponderance, we examined pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 expression and action in human thyroid tumors and in normal human and rat thyroid cells. Increased pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 expression was evident early in thyroid tumors and was most abundantly expressed in a subset of thyroid hyperplasia, follicular adenomas, and follicular carcinomas (1.8-fold; P FRTL5 thyroid cells and in primary human thyroid cell cultures causes in vitro transformation and produces a dedifferentiated neoplastic phenotype. As pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 was abundantly overexpressed in follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, we propose that pituitary tumor transforming gene overexpression may play a role in the early molecular events leading to divergent development of follicular and papillary carcinoma. PMID:11600580

  3. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Presenting as a Focal Uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Tae Seok; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Diffuse increased uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F FDG PET) is a well-known finding of the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Nevertheless, a pathologic confirmation is needed in cases of a focal 18F FDG uptake in the thyroid gland. This article reports a rare case of a focal 18F FDG uptake lesion by PET, which was revealed pathologically to be lymphocytic thyroiditis

  4. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will have low blood levels of T4 and high blood levels of TSH. Hyperthyroidism Also known as overactive thyroid and thyrotoxicosis, hyperthyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid gland produces a level of ... too high. Hyperthyroidism can speed up your body’s metabolism, causing ...

  5. Comparison of various methods relating to radionuclide examination of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the medical images obtained using as a scintillation detector device either a gamma camera with pinhole collimator, a gamma camera with parallel hole collimator or a scanner equipped with a focussing collimator was compared on the basis of visual evaluation of 140 scintigrams of the thyroid, prepared following administration of 99 mTc pertechnetate. The following conclusions could be drawn: Decisive advantages of the scanner were colour contrast, non-distorted organ visualisation and uncomplicated localisation of palpatory findings. The images provided by the gamma camera and parallel hole collimator turned out to be unsatisfactory despite the use of such processing techniques as smoothing and contrast enhancement. The scintigrams obtained using the camera with pinhole collimator were characterized by the highest resolution capacity and thus permitted any details to be ascertained with a high degree of accuracy. Information in excess of the findings revealed by the scintiscanner and parallel hole collimator was provided in 40% and 55% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  6. Image fusion analysis of 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide scintigraphy and CT/MRI in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy: the importance of the lacrimal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical structures that show uptake of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). The study population comprised a series of 20 TAO patients attending the out-patient thyroid clinic and 12 patients presenting head or neck tumours. Scintigraphy was carried out with our newly developed tracer, technetium-99m labelled EDDA-HYNIC-TOC (99mTc-TOC). Morphological imaging was done with either magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray computed tomography without contrast medium. Both imaging procedures were done within an interval of 3-4 weeks. For the image fusion procedure, specific external reference markers were used for each imaging modality. The markers were screwed onto a reference frame, which was held in place via a vacuum-fixed mouthpiece. The anatomical structure showing tracer uptake that was most frequently recognised was the lacrimal gland, followed by the retronasal area, cervical lymph structures, salivary glands, the anterior insertion points of the extra-ocular muscles and discrete areas of the neck extensor muscles. The lacrimal gland and the retronasal area showed the highest and most frequent uptake of 99mTc-TOC in TAO patients, whereas such uptake did not occur in the retrobulbar space. In spite of knowledge of these results of image fusion, no changes in the involved structures could be detected on morphological imaging. It is concluded that bindlogical imaging. It is concluded that binding of 99mTc-TOC is more frequently localised to the anterior compartment of the eye and to the neck. The previously used term ''orbital'' uptake should be abandoned and replaced by a descriptive term relating to the anatomically recognised structure showing tracer accumulation, i.e. the lacrimal gland. The uptake of octreotide by lymphoid and salivary glands opens a new field of investigation related to the physiology of somatostatin. (orig.)

  7. Spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in the rat accelerated by thymectomy and low doses of irradiation: mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors involved in the production of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and sublethally irradiated rats were investigated. The study suggested that a gene linked to RTl of the rat major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a selective depletion of suppressor T cells and high radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland were required in varying degrees to initiate the autoimmune thyroiditis in these rats. K cells in the spleen markedly increased at the initial stage and subsequently decreased at the appearance of the thyroid lesion, suggesting the consumption of K cells by thyroid antigen-antibody complexes formed in situ and in the circulation. The data generally support the three genes concept that at least three genetically determined defects participate in triggering the production of autoimmune thyroiditis - namely, Ir genes within the MHC of the species, diminished ability of T cells to suppress autoimmune responses and a genetic defect in the thyroid gland. (author)

  8. Evaluation of multiple-atlas-based strategies for segmentation of the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segmenting the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images is of vital clinical significance in designing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. In this work, we evaluate and compare several multiple-atlas-based methods to segment this structure. Using the most robust method, we generate automatic segmentations for the thyroid gland and study their clinical applicability. The various methods we evaluate range from selecting a single atlas based on one of three similarity measures, to combining the segmentation results obtained with several atlases and weighting their contribution using techniques including a simple majority vote rule, a technique called STAPLE that is widely used in the medical imaging literature, and the similarity between the atlas and the volume to be segmented. We show that the best results are obtained when several atlases are combined and their contributions are weighted with a measure of similarity between each atlas and the volume to be segmented. We also show that with our data set, STAPLE does not always lead to the best results. Automatic segmentations generated by the combination method using the correlation coefficient (CC) between the deformed atlas and the patient volume, which is the most accurate and robust method we evaluated, are presented to a physician as 2D contours and modified to meet clinical requirements. It is shown that about 40% of the contours of the left thyroid and about 42% of the right thyroid can id and about 42% of the right thyroid can be used directly. An additional 21% on the left and 24% on the right require only minimal modification. The amount and the location of the modifications are qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. We demonstrate that, although challenged by large inter-subject anatomical discrepancy, atlas-based segmentation of the thyroid gland in IMRT CT images is feasible by involving multiple atlases. The results show that a weighted combination of segmentations by atlases using the CC as the similarity measure slightly outperforms standard combination methods, e.g. the majority vote rule and STAPLE, as well as methods selecting a single most similar atlas. The results we have obtained suggest that using our contours as initial contours to be edited has clinical value. (paper)

  9. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and ... a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and ...

  10. Cirugía mayor ambulatoria de tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides / Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto Manuel, Luzardo Silveira; Juana Elisa, Eirin Arañó.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo sobre la ejecución de cirugía mayor ambulatoria para eliminar tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides, lo cual fue realizado en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany" de Santiago de Cuba dura [...] nte los años 1996-2008, ambos incluidos, previa valoración clínica de 74 pacientes en la consulta especializada de endocrinología, donde se decidió que podían ser operados con carácter definitivo. En la casuística predominaron el sexo femenino, los grupos etarios de 31-45 años, la hemitiroidectomía como técnica quirúrgica, la acupuntura como procedimiento analgésico y el adenoma folicular como resultado citohistológico. Se produjeron complicaciones leves en 5 integrantes de la muestra, pero la recuperación fue absoluta en todos, de manera que incluso 72 de ellos egresaron antes de las 24 horas. Este método operatorio, por la buena aceptación, es beneficioso para pacientes e instituciones hospitalarias. Abstract in english A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of "Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany" Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both in [...] cluded, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.

  11. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar Taha Abu-Samra; Yassir Adam Shuaib

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and S...

  12. Prevalence of salivary glands lesions from histopathologic diagnosis of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of PUCPR in the period of 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre BETTIO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesions that affect salivary glands are a group of clinic entities ranging from local pathological alterations to the manifestation of systemic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of cases of lesions regarding salivary glands in patients of dental clinic of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR. Material and methods: A total of 1990 histopathologic reports was analyzed in data of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, in the period of 1999 to 2008. Seventy-three cases of salivary glands diseases were analyzed, according to sex, age and histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Mucocele was the most prevalent lesion, with 58 cases (2.9%. Others diseases were diagnosed, such as: pleomorphic adenoma (0.3%, cystic adenoid carcinoma (0.1%, sialoadenitis (0.1%, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (0.05%, Sjögren’s syndrome (0.05%, ranula (0.05% and adenomatoid hyperplasia (0.05%. No predilection for sex was observed, but the majority of diseases occurred principally during the three first life decades. Conclusion: These findings reinforce that the occurrence oflesions associated to the salivary glands is low when compared to others oral diseases. The more common pathological entities that affect salivary glands are associated to traumatic agents and affect adult male young patients.

  13. Metastasis in the pancreas of a primary carcinoma of the thyroid gland diagnosed by F18-FDG-PET - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present a patient, who was sent to F 18-FDG-PET because of oncological follow-up examination. The 79-year-old woman - had a hemithyroidectomy of her left thyroid lobe because of a C-cell-carcinoma twelve years ago and a heminephrectomy because of a hypemephrome 17 years ago. F18-FDG-PET (370 MBq) examination was done. Acquisition started 70 minutes after injection on a full ring PET scanner (ECAT HR+, Siemens). The blood glucose level was 105 mg/dl. The woman showed a pathological FDG-uptake in the left lateral tail of the pancreas, the right liver lobe and multiple pathological lymph nodes in the lower abdomen. There was no pathological FDG-uptake in the remaining thyroid gland. Histology of the pancreas showed a metastasis of the thyroid c-cell carcinoma in the pancreas. Metastases in the pancreas are very rare, especially metastases of a thyroid carcinoma. Therefore we wanted to demonstrate that F18-FDG PET is a sensitive and reliable method to identify such metastases. (author)

  14. NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renê, Gerhard; Suely, Nonogaki; José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro, Fregnani; Fernando Augusto, Soares; Maria Aparecida, Nagai.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stim [...] uli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P

  15. Radiation doses delivered to lens, thyroid gland, bone marrow and brain during radiologic work-up of chronic sinusitis. Comparison between plain radiographs and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for exact delineation of inflammatory sinus disease, especially before endoscopic surgical treatment. Thermoluminescent dosimetry studies were performed on a Rando humanoid phantom to compare radiation doses used in sinus examinations. Radiation doses were determined for lens, thyroid gland, condylar marrow and brain. Studies included standard sinus views (Waters, Caldwell, Hirtz and lateral), CT scan in axial and coronal planes and in planes determined by the axis of the naso-frontal duct, CT low-dose. (authors). 11 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland : is the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 or galectin-3 in primary tumour an indicator of metastatic disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow an indolent course with an excellent prognosis. However, a more aggressive behaviour with regional and distant metastases does occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the immunohistochemical markers cyclin D1 or galectin-3 might indicate the presence of metastatic disease in patients with PMC at the time of diagnosis.

  17. Evaluation of multiple-atlas-based strategies for segmentation of the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images for IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Niermann, K. J.; Deeley, M. A.; Dawant, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Segmenting the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images is of vital clinical significance in designing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. In this work, we evaluate and compare several multiple-atlas-based methods to segment this structure. Using the most robust method, we generate automatic segmentations for the thyroid gland and study their clinical applicability. The various methods we evaluate range from selecting a single atlas based on one of three similarity measures, to combining the segmentation results obtained with several atlases and weighting their contribution using techniques including a simple majority vote rule, a technique called STAPLE that is widely used in the medical imaging literature, and the similarity between the atlas and the volume to be segmented. We show that the best results are obtained when several atlases are combined and their contributions are weighted with a measure of similarity between each atlas and the volume to be segmented. We also show that with our data set, STAPLE does not always lead to the best results. Automatic segmentations generated by the combination method using the correlation coefficient (CC) between the deformed atlas and the patient volume, which is the most accurate and robust method we evaluated, are presented to a physician as 2D contours and modified to meet clinical requirements. It is shown that about 40% of the contours of the left thyroid and about 42% of the right thyroid can be used directly. An additional 21% on the left and 24% on the right require only minimal modification. The amount and the location of the modifications are qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. We demonstrate that, although challenged by large inter-subject anatomical discrepancy, atlas-based segmentation of the thyroid gland in IMRT CT images is feasible by involving multiple atlases. The results show that a weighted combination of segmentations by atlases using the CC as the similarity measure slightly outperforms standard combination methods, e.g. the majority vote rule and STAPLE, as well as methods selecting a single most similar atlas. The results we have obtained suggest that using our contours as initial contours to be edited has clinical value.

  18. Congenital thyroid hemiagenesis with multinodular goiter

    OpenAIRE

    Bhartiya, Sk; Verma, A.; Basu, S.; Shukla, Vk

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare form of thyroid dysgenesis characterized by an absence of half of the thyroid gland. Developmental hemi-thyroid anomalies can result from either an abnormal descent or an agenesis of one lobe of the thyroid gland. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman with history of a longstanding gradually progressive thyroid swelling without any complication. An ultrasonographic examination diagnosed the absence of the left thyroid lobe and enlargement of the right lobe, wh...

  19. Detection for residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between Tc-99m pertechnetate scan and high dose I-131 therapy scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of nuclear imaging in the detection of residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion, we have compared neck scintigrams with Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m scan) and high dose I-131 iodide (I-131 scan) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. One hundred thirty-five thyroidectomized patients for differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three had a previous history of radioiodine therapy. Planar and pin-hole images of anterior neck with Tc-99m were acquired at 20 minutes after injection, followed by I-131 scan three days after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 7 days interval. Patients were asked to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement more than 4 weeks. All subjects were in hypothyroid state. Seventy out of 135 patients (51.9%) showed concordant findings between Tc-99m and I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan did not show any uptake in thyroid bed in 11 of 112 patients without previous history of radioiodine therapy, but 9 of them showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan showed no bed uptake in all of the 23 patients with previous history of radioiodine therapy, in contrast 14 of them (60.9%) showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. These results suggest that Tc-99m scan has poor detectability for residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesion in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients, compared to high dose I-131 therapy scan. Tc-99m scan could not detect any remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patiemnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, especially

  20. Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Parenchymal impairment of salivary glands following high-dose radioiodine treatment is a well-known side effect in general caused by free radicals. Therefore, the radioprotective effect of the radical scavenger amifostine was evaluated prospectively in patients receiving high-dose radioiodine treatment. Patients and methods: Parenchymal function was assessed by quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy performed in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment with either 3 GBq 131I (n=21) or 6 BGq 131I (n=29) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-five patients treated with 500 mg/m2 amifostine intravenously prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment were compared to 25 control patients receiving physiological saline solution. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO-criteria. Results: In 25 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced parenchymal function of parotid and submandibular glands by 40.2±14.1% and 39.9±15.3%, respectively. Nine out of these 25 patients developed Grade I and 2 Grade II xerostomia. In contrast, in 25 amifostine-treated patients there was no significant (p=0.691) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage of salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can bby high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.)