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Sample records for thyroid gland lesions

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of CD44 in thyroid gland lesions

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    Kiziridou Anastasia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD44 is a polymorphic family of cell surface proteoglycans and glycoproteins implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion interactions and tumor metastasis. Its expression appears to be an indicator of invasive and metastatic behavior in carcinomas. The purpose of our study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CD44 protein in thyroid lesions and its association to other histopathological parameters. METHODS: Samples from thyroid lesions were obtained from 40 patients treated in our hospital. The material consisted of 5 cases of multinodular goiter, 7 cases of thyroiditis (Hashimoto type, 5 cases of follicular adenoma, 4 cases of Hurthle cell tumor, 15 cases of thyroid carcinoma (11 papillary carcinomas, and 4 myeloid tumors, and 4 cases of normal thyroid tissue. Immunostaining was performed using the Ventana ES automated immunostainer. A monoclonal antibody was used and avidin-biotin method was applied to paraffin-embedded samples. A membranous immunostaining pattern was considered positive. RESULTS: CD44 expression was detected in three adenomas (60%, mostly of follicular type, and in eight carcinomas (72%. The CD44 immunostaining was especially apparent in papillary type of carcinomas which showed high expression. In normal thyroid tissue, a reduced CD44 expression was observed. CONCLUSION: The results of our study indicate that deregulated expression of CD44 contributes to the ability of thyroid carcinomas for invasion and metastasis and may constitute a prognostic factor for malignant biological behavior.

  2. Oncocytic lesions of the thyroid, kidney, salivary glands, adrenal cortex, and parathyroid glands.

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    Máximo, Valdemar; Rios, Elisabete; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Oncocytic cell represents a special phenotype of neoplastic cells reflecting a unique biologic process characterized by the huge proliferation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells. This phenotype is driven by quite specific molecular mechanisms that interfere with mitochondrial function and metabolism. The oncocytic phenotype is more common in tumors arising in tissues presenting low proliferative rate, such as thyroid, kidney, salivary glands, adrenal cortex, and parathyroid glands, and it is superimposed on the genotypic and conventional histologic features of the tumors. In this short review, we address the similarity of the molecular alterations and of the biological features of the neoplastic cells in the oncocytic tumors of the different organs. We also discuss the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant oncocytic tumors as well as the prognosis of the malignant ones. We conclude that this rather unique phenotype, which is observed in tumors from different organs, indicates common metabolic alterations that may represent a useful target for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24406625

  3. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

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    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  4. Carcinosarcoma of the Thyroid Gland

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    Ekici, Mehmet Fatih; Kocak, Cengiz; Bayhan, Zlf; Zeren, Sezgin; Yaylak, Faik; Metineren, Mehmet Hseyin; Kocak, Fatma Emel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Surgeon has significant role in the management of such rare and controversial clinical entities related to thyroid gland. In this case report we have presented an elderly patient with rapid enlargement in thyroid that was related to carcinosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 60-year-old lady was presented with rapid enlargement of the thyroid gland. A fine needle aspiration of the nodule in right lobe was performed several weeks before presentation to our clinic. End diagnosis was a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with spindle cell component. Thus the nodule was recognized to be a carcinosarcoma. Conclusion. Thyroid surgery merits a multidisciplinary approach. Indeed the surgeon should make a conclusive decision in some controversial and rare clinical entities such as carcinosarcoma. PMID:25705539

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... an enlarged thyroid, but your question has any connection to the thyroid gland, Dr. T will be ... what does the parathyroid gland do in the body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. ...

  6. Ectopia of thyroid gland

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    A case of ectopic thyroid is presented. The differential diagnosis of this pathology with the tumors in the base of the tongue, including euthyroid patients is related. The most outstanding feature is that the diagnosis is easily made by cintilography with iodine or technetium. The hormonal studies (T3, T4) usually are inefficient to establish the diagnosis. (Author)

  7. Metastasis to the Thyroid Gland; Unusual Site of Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The incidence of metastasis to the thyroid gland in autopsy series varies from 1.25% to 24%. Metastasis to the thyroid gland is usually considered as a terminal event, and the effectiveness of conventional treatment has been questioned. Methods: Seven patients with metastasis to the thyroid gland were studied retrospectively. Primary tumor origin was identified in all of them. Metastasis to the thyroid gland was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology or histology. Data were analyzed for the type of malignant lesions, the clinical course of the disease, and the prognosis after thyroid involvement. Results: Two patients had lung as a primary tumor site. Breast. iris, kidney, parotid and soft tissue sarcoma were the involved primary sites in the other cases. The time from the diagnosis of primary tumor to metastasis to the thyroid gland was considerable (ranged from 13135 months, median 60 months). Fine needle aspiration cytology detected metastasis in five of seven patients. Treatment was surgery alone or surgery with adjuvant therapy. One patient didn't receive any treatment. Conclusions: In any patient with a previous history of malignancy, no matter how old that history is, a new thyroid mass should be considered as recurrence until proved otherwise. Although detection of metastasis to the thyroid gland often indicates poor prognosis, aggressive surgical and medical therapy may be effective in a small percentage of patients

  8. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage and ... This shows some of the structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, the nerves to ...

  9. Cystic parotid gland lesion evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated differential diagnoses of cystic parotid gland lesions and the efficacy of preoperative diagnosis. Of 191 parotid gland nodules resected between January 2003 and October 2008, 167 (87%) were benign and 24 (13%) malignant. Thirty-five parotid gland nodules whose components were almost cystic were enrolled in this study. All cystic lesions were retrospectively evaluated with respect to preoperative diagnostic examinations and histopathological confirmed diagnosis. Cystic components in surgical specimens were also evaluated histopathologically. The relationships with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological confirmed diagnosis were studied. Of 35 cystic lesions, 11 were complete cystic masses and had no mural nodules, while remaining 24 were incomplete and had mural nodules. Histopathological examinations showed that 5 were nonneoplastic, 27 were cystic degenerations of benign tumors, and 3 were cystic degenerations of malignant tumors. In the 11 complete cysts, preoperative diagnosis could not be made using any modality, whether with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), salivary scintigraphy, or 67-gallium citrate scintigraphy. Of 24 incomplete cysts, only 9 cystic Warthin tumors were diagnosed correctly before surgery. Studies of cystic components in MRI and histopathology suggested that hemorrhagic degeneration of malignant tumors should be kept in mind for cystic lesions showing hemorrhagic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly before surgery, but the evaluation of cystic components by MRI and FNAC is helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  10. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

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    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to review the data on thyroid ultrasound elastography. PMID:27103947

  11. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

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    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce ... of Ultrasound of the Thyroid? What is an Ultrasound of the Thyroid? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ...

  12. Effect of iodine-137 on sex and thyroid hormone binding to blood plasma proteins in children with functional lesions of the thyroid gland as a result of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying characteristics of specific interaction of estradiol-, testosterone- and thyriod-binding blood globulins with the corresponding ligands in children from Gomel region with with endemic swelling of the thyroid gland (degrees 1 and 2) affected by iodine-131 revealed were a reduced cooperativity in estradiol T-3 binding and a halved affinity to androgens and thyroids as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a drastic decline in the binding capacity of estradiol- and testosterone-binding globulins in the blood plasma. The endemic thyroid gland swelling is supposed to be due to sexual malfunction in teenagers

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... that not correct? She would have had perhaps lymph nodes removed? Absolutely. Okay. 4 OR Live Bah 3926 ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  14. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... caused sometimes by diet, and other times by environment. And what are the symptoms, besides difficulty swallowing, ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  15. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ... what does that do? In certain types of cancers if there is concern that there may be ...

  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... will see every moment of this procedure as it takes place over the course of the next ... picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage ...

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... it has a blood vessel that supplies its nutrition. Yes. And we’ll see if we can ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  18. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now why was this patient a particularly good candidate for this kind of surgery? The size of ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  19. Fine structural lesions and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to polychlorinated biphenyls.

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    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) produced ultrastructural lesions of thyroid follicular cells and a reduction in serum levels of thyroid hormones in neonatal (0, 7, 14, and 21 days of age) Osborne-Mendel rats exposed to 50 or 500 ppm PCB in utero and by the milk. Litter size was decreased significantly in rats fed 500 ppm PCB. Body weights at 21 days of age were reduced in rats exposed to 50 and 500 ppm PCB. The ultrastructural lesions in follicular cells were dose- and age-dependent but were ...

  20. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland

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    Čaparević Zorica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland can be defined as a lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland. Lymphomas of the thyroid gland represent less than 5% of primary thyroid neoplasms and are two to three times more common in women than in men, whereas the median age is usually close to 60 years. Majority of thyroid lymphomas are diffuse, large-cell lymphomas. The incidence of thyroid lymphomas in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis has markedly increased and this phenomenon is probably related to their pathogenesis. Clinical presentation Unlike most other thyroid neoplasms, lymphomas are usually rapidly enlarging masses and local symptoms are common: pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea or stridor. Diagnosis To evaluate the extent of disease, a chest x-ray and CT scans of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are necessary. An excisional or large-needle biopsy may also be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. Occasionally, these tumors can be confused with anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which can lead to serious mistakes in management. A gallium scan or a positron emission tomography (PET scan can help later to establish whether any residual abnormality, observed on x-ray studies after treatment, contains active lymphoma or scar tissue. After diagnosis, patients are clinically staged (without surgery using appropriate computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy Assessment of the extent of thyroid lymphomas is crucial for prognosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy may improve the prognosis in patients with intrathyroidal disease only. It is very important to identify patients with favorable prognostic factors and to treat them with standard chemotherapy (CHOP and radiotherapy protocols. Patients with diffuse large-cell primary thyroid lymphomas should not be treated with radiation therapy alone. Conclusion The best treatment results for malignant lymphomas of the thyroid gland are achieved using a combined-modality therapy.

  1. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

  2. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

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    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity. PMID:24388198

  3. Historical review of the thyroid gland surgery

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    Ignjatovi? Mile D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid gland surgery passed through history from the suggestions for prohibition, during middle of XIX century due to unacceptable mortality even for mediaeval conditions, to highest level of surgical art later, as W. Halsted sad. First thyreoidectomy was done by Albucasis (El Zahrawi in 925 A.D, and after him by Roger from Salerno. While Pierre-Joseph Desault in 1791 has done first operation on thyroid gland that can fulfill todays criteria, Theodor Billroth gave scientific grounds of thyroid surgery. Genius attitude and surgical talent of Theodor Kocher raised thyroid surgery on scientific level, brought surgical skills on the top of surgical art pyramid, and brought him personally to the Nobel Prize in 1909. Very important contribution to development of thyroid surgery gave its giants: Johann von Mikulicz, William Halsted, Charles Mayo, George W. Crile and Frank Lahey. Thomas P. Dunhill, F. A. Coller, A. M. Boyden, and many others did important contribution, too. Development of thyroid surgery was constant to nowadays, with tendention for multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers. Thyroid surgery in Serbia followed this world trends, in spite of great problems in this area during history.

  4. Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland

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    Adapa, Pavani [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chung, Tae-Woong [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gwangju (Korea); Popek, Edwina J. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States); Hunter, Jill V. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Pediatric Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Ewing sarcoma of the bone is a highly malignant round-cell tumor that typically presents between 10 to 20 years of age and is more common in boys. It can have an extraosseous origin, although it is rare. We report a case of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the thyroid gland in a 9-year-old girl. (orig.)

  5. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Bastholt, Lars; Specht, Lena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Pedersen, Henrik Baymler; Pedersen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Peer

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow an...... time of diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the 1(st) of January 1996 to 31(st) of December 2002 a total of 169 PMC patients were diagnosed and registered in the national Danish thyroid cancer database DATHYRCA and 131 of these were eligible for the study. Forty-three (33%) had histologically...

  7. SCHWANNOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND – A CASE REPORT

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    Subramaniam, V.; TV. Adarsha; S. Khandige

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an infrequent site for the occurrence of a Schwannoma. These tumours most often mimic a thyroid nodule. A case of Schwannoma of the thyroid gland which was diagnosed on histopathological examination after a hemithyroidectomy is reported here.

  8. Squamous metaplasia in thyroid gland as histologic diagnostic pitfall: a case report

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    Haideh Haeri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is rare to find squamous metaplasia in the thyroid gland. Its existence is usually seen in association with a pathological lesion such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In most cases the squamous cells are few in number and squamous metaplasia is focal and small in size. Extensive squamous metaplasia of the thyroid gland is a very rare finding.Case Presentation: We report a case of massive squamous metaplasia in Hashimoto thyroiditis in a 53 year-old- male with a four year history of hypothyroidism. Also seen in the history is impaired thyroid function tests of low T3 and T4 levels with rise in TSH. The patient currently presented with neck discomfort and a somewhat firm nodular neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous nodular enlargement of both thyroid lobes and a calcified nodule of the left lobe. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule was performed which reported findings suspicious for malignancy. Based on these findings the patient underwent total thyroidectomy.Conclusion: In this article we address the causes and sources of massive squamous metaplasia in the thyroid gland. We also discuss the histopathologic differential diagnostic lesions which could be the cause of potential pitfalls encountered in the interpretation of the cytopathology and histopathology of such lesions arising in this gland.

  9. [Disorders of the thyroid gland in pregnancy].

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    Skřivánek, A; Lubušký, M; Studničková, M; Holusková, I; Procházka, M

    2013-01-01

    Functional disorder of the thyroid gland affects individuals of all ages. Incidence and nature of the disease is influenced by supplying iodine, genetic and immunological factors and other external effects. Increased function occurs in 1-2% of the adult population, reduced function in the younger population diagnosed in about 5%, in women aged over 50 years we have been at 10-15%. The incidence of thyroid diseases is higher in women than in men (5-8:1) and significantly increases with age. Approximately as common as overt forms of thyroid disease are their subclinical forms. Thyroid disease, especially asymptomatic reduction of function for direct examination is diagnosed up to 5% of pregnant women. Untreated decreased thyroid function of mothers may have significant negative impact on the course of pregnancy, as well as on fetal development, especially in the psychomotoric area. Women with the presence of antithyroid antibodies are at risk of pregnancy deepening malfunctions and/or postpartum thyroiditis. Czech Endocrinological Society currently pursuing a systematic screening of other risk population groups, including notably the pregnant and nursing women, women in old age and ill with some other disease or treatment with certain drugs. PMID:23607390

  10. The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thyroid Hormones Concentration and Histopathological Changes of Thyroid Gland in Sheep

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    M. Nouri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the thyroid histological and hormonal changes in response to ambient temperature variations, thyroid glands and blood samples were randomly collected from 410 indigenous sheep of either sex and different age groups from municipal Ahvaz slaughter house. The extent of fluctuations in triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, T3 uptake and Free Thyroxin Index (FTI and thyroid histopathological lesions were scrutinized in 2 months in year 2003, viz February (the coldest month and August (the hottest month. A marked decline was discernable in T3, T4 and FTI in August compared to February, but mean value for T3 uptake increased. Out of 410 pairs of thyroid glands, 169 (41.2% had lesions in which histopathological changes were categorized as follicular atrophy (43.6%, ultimobranchial cyst (30.2%, paranchymal cyst (6.4%, lymphocytic thyroiditis (6.2%, hyperemia/hemorrhage (5.5%, follicular cell hyperplasia (4%, C cell hyperplasia (1.4%, colloid goiter (1.1% and adenoma (1.1. Mean of thyroidal parameters for T4 and FTI was higher in lesioned group (p<0.05. The frequency of lesioned thyroid was higher in summer than winter (p<0.05. The result of this study showed that high ambient temperature has profound effect on thyroid function, secretion and pathological changes in sheep.

  11. Oxyphilic carcinoma of the thyroid gland

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    Stankov Karmen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxyphilic tumors of the thyroid gland are rare tumors characterized by the presence of Hürthle cells - mitochondrion-rich, eosinophilic epithelial cells. Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCC of the thyroid behave in a more aggressive fashion as compared to other well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Many recent studies have been focused on the further elucidation of pathogenesis and the role of mitochondrial hyperplasia in carcinogenesis of these neoplasms. The importance of combining morphological and genetic approaches in the study of HCC has been emphasized by the difficulties encountered in establishing adequate differential diagnostic criteria between benign and malignant forms, as well as by the resistance of HCC to radio and chemotherapy. It has been well documented that the Hürthle cells are characterized by profound aberrations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genome and by alterations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other key genes involved in energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis.

  12. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

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    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or laboratory examinations. Parathyroid scan is a noninvasive method used in determining parathyroid adenoma, and Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4} subtraction methods are commonly applied. The thyroid gland was not visualized on Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy of suppressed thyroid tissue in a study by Turkolmez et al.. It should be taken into account that sometimes we may not be able to visualize a normal thyroid gland, and in these cases we might encounter suboptimal visualization in T1-201 subtraction method as well. Erdil et al. foun that Tl-201 is superior to Tc-99m MIBI in the visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue with a toxic thyroid nodule. Kiratli et al. mentioned decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the thyroid gland in hemodialysis patients. However, no patient presented an absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in the thyroid gland with secondary hyperthyroidism. In this case, the thyroid was not suppressed and the TcPO{sup -4} scan thyroid gland was normal, but the thyroid gland was not visualized with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, and Tl-201 accumulation in the thyroid gland was not sufficient. To the best of our knowledge, from a search of the published literature, there has been no case like this previously reported.

  13. A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Thyroid Gland

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    Lee, Jae-Geun; Yang, Youngro; Kim, Kwang Sik; Hyun, Chang Lim; Lee, Ji Shin; Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Daeho

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis to the thyroid gland from distant cancer is rare, and, in some cases, is a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. A 77-year-old man presented with a neck mass detected about 1 month previously. He had undergone a right nephrectomy owing to renal cell carcinoma 14 years previously. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a few atypical follicular cells with nuclear atypia. Under a tentative diagnosis of papillary thyroid ...

  14. Arteriovenous fistula of the thyroid gland associated with spontaneous bleeding from a flow-induced aneurysm of the inferior thyroid artery.

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    Klingler, P J; Freund, M C; Seelig, M H; Knudsen, J M; Martin, J K

    1999-05-01

    A case of acute, spontaneous cervical hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm of the inferior thyroid artery is described. This lesion was accompanied by an arteriovenous fistula within the thyroid gland that caused a flow-induced aneurysm. Diagnosis and treatment were successfully performed by selective angiography with endovascular occlusion and embolization. Both diagnostic and therapeutic management are discussed, and the related literature is reviewed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an aneurysm of a thyroid artery in conjunction with an intraparenchymatous arteriovenous fistula of the thyroid gland. PMID:10319081

  15. Interactive MR-guided biopsies of the thyroid gland: validation of a new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility and utility of an interactive MR-guidance system to target and biopsy thyroid lesions, and to compare resolution between ultrasound and interventional MR imaging in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Twenty thyroid lesions of 18 patients were interactively biopsied using a 0.5-T superconducting open magnet system. Stereotactic localization of the needle and imaging was accomplished using T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images. Representative cytological material was retrieved in 16 of 20 lesions (benign cystic or colloid goiter: n = 14; one de Quervain's thyroiditis and one follicular neoplasia). Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm detected by ultrasound could not be visualized adequately on GRE images. Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm were successfully biopsied by ultrasound (three colloid and haemorrhagic goiters and one adenoma). Magnetic-resonance-guided interactive biopsies and positioning of non-ferromagnetic needles in the thyroid gland are technically feasible and safe. Compared with high-resolution ultrasound, lesions larger than 1.5 cm can be adequately visualized and biopsied. Magnetic-resonance-guided placement of non-ferromagnetic needles is no substitute for high-resolution ultrasound in clinical work-up of thyroid lesions. (orig.)

  16. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  17. Diagnosis of inflammatory processes in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method proposed is based on the specific deposition of the labelled leucocytes in the inflammatory area - diffuse (in diffuse thyroidites), or focal (in focal form). 99mTc-HMPAO (370 mBq) and 111In-oxine (10-14 mBq) are used for in-vitro labelling of the autologic leucocytes. Thyroid scanning on gamma camera using 111In-oxine is performed on hours 2 and 24, and when using 99mTc- HMPAO - on hours 1, 2 and 24. The method is noninvasive, highly specific and especially suitable for nodal formations of the gland. The results from its application in 2 patients are reported. 2 figs

  18. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  19. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  20. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  1. Genetic aspects of etiology and development of thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Yu.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on thyroid gland cancer development and progression have identified new classes of tumor markers, proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressing genes, cell receptor genes, identified genetic tumor-predisposing polymorphism and some other significantly important segments of genome. The identification has been based mainly on revealing of DNA abnormal consequences, specific for occurrence of thyroid gland cancer and its progression.

  2. Present trends in laboratory diagnosis of thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief survey is presented of the main in vitro methods presently used in the diagnosis of disorders of the thyroid gland. Next to the determination of total thyroxine, the determination of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) has come to the fore as a test used for verifying hypothyrosis and hyperthyrosis. Modern methods for the so-called direct determination of free thyroid hormones, primarily free thyroxine which in recent years aroused great hopes as a means of rapid and accurate assessment of the function of the gland also have their limitations and do not resolve controversial problems related to the accurate determination of total free thyroxine. The direct determination of concentrations of TBG (thyroxine-binding globulin) is a complement of thyroid function tests only in case of suspect abnormality of TBG concentration. The determination of thyroglobulin is considered to be useful in differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland as an indicator of relapse and the new early incidence of metastases in patients following surgery and isotope destruction of the thyroid gland and metastases. Next to radioisotope methods (radioimmunoassay and the radioimmunometric method) enzyme immunoassay methods are being used in in vitro diagnostics of the thyroid gland. (author). 1 tab., 20 refs

  3. Evaluation of focal thyroid lesions incidentally detected in fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography images

    OpenAIRE

    O Yaylali; F S Kirac; Yuksel, D; E Marangoz

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Increased uptake in the thyroid gland (TG) is often identified as an incidental finding on the whole body fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) in non-thyroid cancer patients. Currently, there is no consensus on the appropriate approach for the management of these cases. Thyroid ultrasound, scintigraphy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are suggested to exclude malignant thyroid lesions. Our aim is to ...

  4. [Differential diagnosis of the low-echo thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, H; Hruby, W; Braun, U; Stellamor, K; Habsburg, E

    1990-08-01

    Hypothyrosis as a result of inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland, often is a diagnostic problem because of the insidious onset and its lack of specific symptoms. In the rather large amount of literature about sonography of the thyroid no papers with a systematic approach to this entity are found. In a prospective study we evaluated 36 proven cases and found a characteristic sonographic pattern of the thyroid with regard to its size, contour and structure. PMID:2259913

  5. [Differential diagnosis of a low echo thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, H; Hruby, W; Braun, U; Stellamor, K; Habsburg, E

    1991-03-01

    Hypothyrosis as a result of inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland, often is a diagnostic problem because of the insidous onset and its lack of specific symptoms. In the rather large amount of literature about sonography of the thyroid no papers with a systematic approach to this entity are found. In a prospective study we evaluated 36 proven cases and found a characteristic sonographic pattern of the thyroid with regard to its size, contour and structure. PMID:2058216

  6. Goiter gland clinical examination using thyroid uptake equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiter Gland Clinical examination using thyroid uptake equipment developed by BATAN has been performed. The clinical examination was performed in the Ario Wirawan Lung Hospital in Salatiga. The gland functionality was determined by measuring the absorption of 131I by the goiter gland, which was performed by placing the detectors in front of the patient's throat. To obtain the diagnosis result rapidly, the thyroid uptake device equipped with a devasys USB interface capable of receiving digital data. The data is processed by computer to obtain uptake curves. The result were then compared with the patient's blood analysis result obtained using standard Radioimmunoassay equipment. (author)

  7. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimashkieh Haytham

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (500 cells, cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation, cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin, and background (colloid-like material and macrophages. Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51500 cells with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma. Immunocytochemical analysis for PHT was performed for 14 cases (6 destained smears and 8 cell blocks which showed distinct cytoplasmic positivity. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland. Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin. Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology. Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

  8. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... them for you. By the way, if your issue is something other than an enlarged thyroid, but ... is in fact the thyroid that is the issue? Basically, it’s done through blood tests and a ...

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ... decide if the symptoms are consistent with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What ...

  11. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough thyroid hormone (“hypo” means ‘under’ or ‘below’). hyperthyroidism (hi-purr-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid ... makes too much thyroid hormone, which is called hyperthyroidism. Think of your body as a car and ...

  12. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... the gland. It wraps posteriorly to the spine. Wow. I’m going to try to deliver the ... with the muscle and work perfectly. No kidding. Wow. And what does the parathyroid gland do in ...

  13. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-06-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland.

  14. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland

  15. Lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Stenman, Göran; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Heegaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence rate, distribution, patient characteristics and indications for surgical intervention of lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007. Material and methods: All biopsied/surgically removed lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark during the period 1974-2007...

  16. The Radioimmunoassay in the diagnostic of thyroid gland disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this research was to study the value of Radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the thyroid gland disorders in practical health persons. Quantitative criteria have been worked for estimation of thyroid gland function for the population of Belarus Republic in according with region ecological situation, on basis concentrations of Thyrotropin, Thyroxine, Triiodothyronine, Thyroglobulin, Thyroxine binding globulin have been determined by RIA in blood samples. The analysis of the data obtained has given to reveal latent forms of hyperthyroidism and latent forms of hypothyroidism, what authors regard as remote medical consequences of the Chernobyl Reactor accident

  17. Inhibition of Thyroid Hormone Release from Cultured Amphibian Thyroid Glands by Methimazole, 6-Propylthiouracil, and Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis. . . This information can then be used to select chemicals for further evaluation in v...

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THYROID LESIONS IN WARDHA DISTRICT OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarth Shukla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To establish a significant predominance of thyroid lesions in and around Wardha district, and to establish specific etiological link for the predominance the thyroid lesions. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This was a hospital based analytical prospective study, conducted in Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital (A.V.B.R.H. involving 108 patients. The study was carried over a duration of 1 year January 2010 to December 2010. Patients attending endocrinological clinics and the newly detected cases of thyroid lesions, within set parameters of study, were the subjects of this study. OBSERVATION: Thyroid lesions which we came across in the course of the study were Thyrotoxicosis, Myxoedema, Thyroiditis, Diffuse goitre, Nodular Goitre and Carcinoma Thyroid . These were correlated with epidemiological factors like Age, Sex, Region, Diet and Iodine Intake. Significant relationship between thyroid function, age of patient, diet was seen in comparison to individual thyroid lesions. CONCLUSION : G oitre was the commest pathology encountered . Almost all of the thyroid lesions were of hypothyroid in their function with exception of thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma. Thyroid lesions were found predominantly in females, Age related lesion pathology was significant, and vegetarian and non - vegetarian diets along with low and high iodine salt uptake had obvious pathological effects on thyroid

  19. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... 4.1 centimeters. Because of the change the feeling was the patient should go ahead and consider ... its a substantial size gland. Im gently feeling the extent of the gland. It wraps posteriorly ...

  20. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

  1. Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovi? Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT scan showed left lobe thyroid tumor with tracheal deviation on the right site. Extended total thyroidectomy was done. Intraoperative consultation with the pathologist confirmed thyroid cancer. The pathologist diagnosed thyroid paraganglioma on the base of immuohistochemical investigation. This thyroid paraganglioma was positive for neuron-specific enolase, chomogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein highlighted the sustentacular cells. Tumor cells were nega-tive for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic. After the surgery the patient was treated with chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of thyroid hormone and serum neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A level, every 6 months. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest and abdomen CT scan as well as further tests (chest x-ray, ultrasound of the neck, and whole body octreotide scintigraphy were done. No primary neuroendocrine tumor in digestive sistem or in the chest was found. After more than 3 years the patient has no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of thyroid paraganglioma, followed by chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with thyroid gland paraganglioma.

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead ... you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... also, during that time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid- ... the “Ask” icon on your screen. You can send in your questions live via the web to ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... above on both sides. And, Dr. T, what causes an enlarged thyroid to begin with? A goiter ... we could talk about some of the other causes in more detail for having to have your ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... could take just a moment or two to use this diagram and explain a little bit about ... is so specific to thyroid surgery? Absolutely. We use a modified beach chair position for the patient. ...

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... get started and move over to your surgical team. And if youd be so kind as ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... removal of an enlarged thyroid from this female patient. As you can see, we are already in ... us. Well before we hear more about the patient, I wonder if you could take just a ...

  8. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... you speak to why the thyroid is so important when it comes to hormone production in the body and how it can affect your overall health if its failing to work properly? It regulates ...

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... it’s failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ... body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is there some reason that ...

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... also, during that time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid- ... the Ask icon on your screen. You can send in your questions live via the web to ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... get started and move over to your surgical team. And if you’d be so kind as ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

  12. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... caused sometimes by diet, and other times by environment. And what are the symptoms, besides difficulty swallowing, ... them for you. By the way, if your issue is something other than an enlarged thyroid, but ...

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will offer to answer as many of those ... is up. Let’s begin now by introducing our doctor. Dr. T, can we ask you to come ...

  14. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... They can have fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel sluggish, they can be hyperactive, ... thyroid, the symptoms would be what? Fatigue, feeling cold, having no energy, listless. And is surgery usually ...

  15. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... involved in this procedure and how the thyroid functions in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a ... you today and tell us what each person’s function is in the operating room. Absolutely. Thank you. ...

  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... diagram and explain a little bit about the anatomy involved in this procedure and how the thyroid ... easily to all of these parts of the anatomy. Correct. This is the trachea here, and this ...

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... some spread, it will destroy the other living cells that are too small to remove surgically that ... often that an enlarged thyroid presents with cancerous cells? It may, yes. Okay. And, again, I believe ...

  18. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... production in the body and how it can affect your overall health if it’s failing to work ... decide if the symptoms are consistent with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What ...

  19. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... anatomic structures. And people at home may be hearing a monitor going off. Can you explain what ... Now, is there some reason that we are hearing about so many thyroid problems, particularly in women ...

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... the thyroid is removed, does it go into pathology? 11 OR Live Bah 3926 Absolutely. It will ... on is adequate. We’ll discuss the final pathology, and then we’ll reinforce that the patient ...

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... your vocal cords to be back up to speed maybe a week later. So they should not ... often that an enlarged thyroid presents with cancerous cells? It may, yes. Okay. And, again, I believe ...

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... as you can see, the blue part with these electrodes running down. The important part of this ... is the thyroid that’s the problem and perhaps these symptoms aren’t telling us about some other ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the ... plastic closure. The patients recover very nicely. The robotic surgeries are requiring up to three surgeons. Oh, ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... some greater explanations once we get in. All right. The patient’s thyroid is much larger than this, ... for the surgery today. That is correct. All right. Let me just go to our second diagram ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... How do you identify that it is in fact the thyroid that is the issue? Basically, it’s ... experiencing this more than men. It does, in fact, have something to do with hormonal changes during ...

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... enlarged thyroid from this female patient. As you can see, we are already in the OR which ... answer as many of those questions as he can get to before the hour is up. Lets ...

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... its failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ... body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is there some reason that ...

  8. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... see if you can regulate the thyroid? Medication primary, and then surgery if there’s some anatomic abnormalities. ... our website. It is filled with very valuable information. Dr. T, we’ve fixed your microphone and ...

  9. Alterations within the rat thyroid gland during vitamin A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands from female rats kept vitamin A deficient for one, two, and three months were examined by electron microscopy. After one month on the diet, no consistent alterations were noted. After two months, the colloid in some follicles displayed a peripheral zone of decreased density. In addition, ultimobranchial follicles within the gland had become keratinized. After two to three months on the diet, cells were seen entering the colloid. Many of these cells were identified as follicular cells. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies indicated that thyroids of vitamin A deficient rats took up less radioiodide than thyroids of control rats. It's possible that the presence of follicular cells in the colloid reflects an accelerated turnover of these cells and could indicate an early pathological sign

  10. [The effect of radiation on thyroid gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goln, T; Dienstbier, Z; Hermansk, Z

    1989-01-13

    In the submitted review the authors discuss briefly the sequelae of irradiation of the thyroid gland. The most frequent postirradiation affection is usually latent hypothyroidism. The risk of the development of carcinoma in the irradiated gland is cca 200-700 cases per 1 million subjects per year per 1 Gy. The latent period is most frequently 15-30 years. Women and children are roughly twice as sensitive. The authors outline also the problem of 131I and its role in disasters of nuclear reactors. It is considered a 10 times weaker cancerogen than external radiation. In the conclusion the authors discuss possibilities of prevention with a more detailed account of the pharmacological block of the thyroid gland. The authors give also recommended doses to be used in the prophylactic administration of potassium iodide. PMID:2720738

  11. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ahin Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. Objective. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Methods. Between June 2011 and June 2012, 461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.849.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. Results. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.982.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.092.05 mL and 14.532.55, respectively (p<0.05. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left in all patients of both sexes. In addition, the study establishes a significant correlation between the thyroid volume and height, weight and body surface area of the subjects of both sexes (p<0.05. In the light of our findings we can provide reference values in order to evaluate patients who have thyroid hyperplasia or who are considered as normal. Conclusion. We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country.

  12. Uncertainties in determination of 131I activity in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The absorbed dose due to the iodine 131I uptake is usually calculated from the measurements of the iodine activity in thyroid, under the assumption that the particular thyroid gland is not very different in shape and size from the standard one. Present paper illustrates how the size and the depth of the thyroid in the neck influence the value of the absorbed dose, estimated from the measurements with a Nal scintillation counter. The accuracy of the estimation can be improved by measuring the energy spectrum of the radiation emitted from the thyroid gland. The measurements were performed using a special water phantom of our construction. It was shown that the ratio of the counting rate in the energy peak of 364 keV to the counting rate in the Compton scattering band (between 100-140 keV) can be used for determination of the effective depth of the thyroid. The uncertainties of the method are discussed based on results of calibration measurements and calculations of the emitted photon spectra. The practical usefulness of the method was tested in the Brodno hospital in Warsaw, where 95 patients with different thyroid's disease have been investigated. For 62 of them the results of USG with a size of thyroid's slices were accessible. In the majority of the cases the activity of iodine in thyroid determined without taking into account a thyroid's depth was slightly lower (up to 30 % of the difference) then the activity determined from spectrometric measurement. However, there was a group of about 20 % of the patients for whom the error of standard measurement of iodine uptake was high and in some cases even over 100 % of the measured values. (author)

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... actually cause the muscles to seal. Taking a big gland out, like we did, creates a lot ... Okay, but so that would be about this big. So we’re talking about something about like ...

  14. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... iodine, ablating the gland. Those patients that are refractory to the treatment or who may be allergic ... to do an emergency thyroidectomy if they were refractory to the medications. 15 OR Live Bah 3926 ...

  15. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient will go on to receive radioactive iodine treatment. And what does that do? In certain types ... gland. Those patients that are refractory to the treatment or who may be allergic to the medications ...

  16. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

  17. Development of Thyroid Gland Specific Markers of Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid Axis Disruption in the Amphibian Model Species Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis.

  18. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Ersoy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metastasis has been noted in the postoperative course of five years. She is the youngest patient with SMECE in literature. In this report, we briefly present the clinical and biologic course of this patient’s neoplasm and also review the associated literature. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 39-41

  19. Sonography and scintiscanning of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is intended as a synopsis of diseases of the thyroid, dealing with the sonography, scintiscanning, cytomorphology and histomorphology of the various diseases, as well as with clinical examination and therapy. The material presented is a textbook and an atlas, reviewing the current state of knowledge and skill in the application of the various imaging methods available at present, their clinical value and restraints with regard to optimised thyroid diagnosis. The many illustrations and drawings explain the potentials and limits of structural and functional examination techniques, with the sonograms being accompanied by schematic drawings in order to facilitate image analysis. (orig./MG) With 124 figs., 43 tabs

  20. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid from this female patient. As you can see, we are already in the OR which means you will see every moment of this procedure as it takes ... Some of this we’ll be able to see actually as we do our dissection and explain ...

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Now we’re just going through the superficial fat layers. And what is your concern as you ... re having trouble swallowing or they’re feeling heart palpitations, the first ... with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... is so specific to thyroid surgery? Absolutely. We use a modified beach chair position for the patient. The patient is in a partially sitting up position, this allows for diminished blood in the field by allowing the venous return to be by gravity so that we have ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Sure. That is part of the geologists important role in this procedure, and I think our patients ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Sure. That is part of the geologists important role in this procedure, and I think our patients ... its failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ...

  6. 131I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Torlak

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic doses of 131I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of 131I (64-277 µCi. Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before 131I administration (4-month-old animals and three times following 131I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 ± 8.16 to 55.0 ± 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 ± 6.9 to 25.4 ± 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after 131I administration to rats, which was not 131I dose dependent.

  7. Phenotype of blood lymphocytes in correlation with histological picture in thyroid gland of rats treated with potassium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind the former results which confirmed the functional relationship between the thyroid and the immune system, and the administration of potassium iodide (KI in the therapy of auto-immune diseases, we considered it of interest to investigate the pathogenesis of KI induced experimental thyroiditis, by studying the morphology of thymus, thyroid gland and spleen, as well as the phenotype of lymphocytes in the thymus and peripheral blood in relation to the expression of CD4 and CD8 molecules. The experiments have been carried out on 30 male Wistar rats, divided in 3 groups. The first group (n=10 received KI (225 μg/g, i.p., the second group (n=10 received KI (675 μg/g, i.p., while the third group (n=10 received sodium chloride (0.9%, i.p.. The intensity of histological lesions in the thyroid gland, was statistically significant (p<0.01 in KI treated groups, compared to the controls. KI also significantly decreased rat body mass, and increased masses of thymus and thyroid gland (p<0.05. No statistically significant difference was found in thymocyte and peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulation numbers between the groups. Our experiments suggest that KI, at least in some doses could induce mild lymphocytic thyroiditis in rats, and that this simple, practical and non-expensive model of experimental thyroiditis could be of importance for further research.

  8. [Thyroid gland and pregnancy - summary of important findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid hormones play fundamental role in conception and pregnancy and are essential for normal adult health, fetus and childhood development. Many studies have shown an association between maternal thyroid diseases esp. hypothyroidism with obstetric problems and/or psychomotoric impairment in the offspring. The prevalence of undiagnosed lower thyroid function in pregnancy is present in about 4-8 % of pregnant women, and euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity (6-8 %) are further candidates for thyroid disorders in pregnancy. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50 % more thyroxine in pregnancy to maintain an euthyroid state to keep TSH ideally 2.5 mIU/l in the first trimester of pregnancy and TSH 3.0 mIU/l in the second and third trimester. Consequently, there is a need to start the substitution therapy as soon as diagnosis of subclinical and /or overt hypotyroidism is established, and in majority of euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease there is a need to start therapy as well. Most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant. As maternal thyroid disease is a quite prevalent condition and often asymptomatic, but easily diagnosed and for which an effective, safe and cheap treatment is available, endocrinological societies including ČES ČLS JEP worldwide are suggesting the need of thyroid dysfunction screening as a simple prevention attitude. Hormone determination of TSH and TPOab antibodies should be performed early during the first trimester, using trimester-specific reference values. Furthermore, adequate iodine supplementation during pregnancy is critical and if feasible it should be initiated before the woman attempts to conceive. PMID:26486478

  9. A Rare Case of Isolated Cystic Hydatid of Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eken, Huseyin; Isik, Arda; Balci, Gulhan; Firat, Deniz; Cimen, Orhan; Soyturk, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Hydatid cysts are most frequently localized within the liver and lungs, although they can also be found in highly vascularized tissues such as the brain, muscle, heart, pancreas, adrenal, and thyroid glands.A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with complaints of a progressively growing mass that was compressing the surrounding tissues and causing respiratory distress. The pathological result was obtained as cytic hydatid.In patients with diagnosed hydatid cysts in the liver, systemic evaluation is necessary to rule out involvement of other organs. Among patients presenting with growths located in the neck, primary hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland must be considered in endemic regions. PMID:26962790

  10. Differential diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We designed this study to determine the potentiality of the conventional CT in the diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions, especially in solving the diagnostic difficulty between neoplasm and inflammation. We performed retrospective study of 35 patients and 2 of them had bilateral lesion of chronic inflammation, hence we analysed 37 cases of submandibular gland lesions. There were 9 cases of tumor (including 1 basal cell carcinoma, and 8 pleomorphic adenomas), 22 cases of chronic inflammation, and 6 cases of acute inflammation. CT scans were evaluated for the degree of enlargement (graded as iso, mild or marked enlargement), pattern of contrast enhancement, contour deformity of the gland, and several other items. Neoplastic masses showed more marked enlargement of the gland (77%) than chronic inflammation (22%). Degree of enhancement showed no difference among the lesions. Enhancement pattern was more inhomogeneous in neoplasm (80%) than in chronic inflammation (5%). Deformity of the natural contour of the gland was more frequent in neoplasm (all of 9 cases) than in chronic inflammation (32%). Acute inflammation showed internal low attenuation probably by abscess formation (3/6 cases) and overlying soft tissue swelling (all of 6 cases), and the age of patients was characteristically younger than other disease (mean, 9 years). Several findings were more specific to disease, such as dystrophic calcifications to pleomorphic adenoma (37%) and calculi with or without ductal dilatation to chronic inflammation (45%). Pre and postcontrast enhanced CT scan can serve as a predictor of pathologic nature of the submandibular gland lesions

  11. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Rani1, Kamlesh Khatri2, Renu Chauhan1

    2013-01-01

    Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experime...

  12. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschowitz Sharon; Sayre James W; Ju JW; Ragavendra Nagesh; Chopra Inder; Yeh Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In ...

  13. The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

  14. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Rani1, Kamlesh Khatri2, Renu Chauhan1

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate (MSG is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experimental group was given 4mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate intra-peritoneally for seven days. Controls were maintained. After thirty days of the last dose, all the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were dissected out, processed and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and examined for histomorphometry under Zeiss light microscope and Image Pro-Express Analyzer. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in the body weight of the MSG treated animals, although these animals consumed less food than the controls. A significant increase in the size of the follicles ac-companied by an increase in the mean height and area of the folli-cular cells and decreased colloid in some of the follicles was ob-served, pointing towards an increase in thyroid gland activity.

  15. Assessment of Salivary Gland Function Using Salivary Scintigraphy in Pre and Post Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Diagnosed Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badam, Raj Kumar; Suram, Jyotsna; Babu, Dara Balaji Gandhi; Marshal, Rahul; Bontha, Sharath Chandra; Lavanya, Reddy; Kanth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid carcinoma represents less than 1% of all cancers. The first line of treatment for thyroid cancer is partial/total thyroidectomy. High-dose Iodine131 therapy using Iodine radioisotopes is commonly used in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. In this process, the non-thyroidal tissues, such as, salivary gland, stomach and breast tissues also take up radioactive iodine. Salivary gland scintigraphy is widely accepted as a sensitive and valid method for evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction after Radioactive Iodine131 Therapy (RIT). Aim To assess and compare the salivary flow rates, relative uptake and ejection fractions in parotid and submandibular glands just before and one month after Iodine131 therapy. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 24 patients diagnosed with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent partial/total thyroidectomy and were due for radioactive iodine therapy. These patients were divided into two groups based on the lesion based dosimetry (Group A: 60-100Gy; Group B: 100-150Gy). Salivary gland assessment was done by salivary gland scintigraphy before and after RIT. Statistical Analysis The data collected was tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software version16 using paired t-test and individual sample t-test. Results A statistically significant difference in the uptake percent and ejection fraction percent in the parotid and submandibular glands before RIT and one month after RIT was observed in the study. Conclusion We inferred from the study that there was an overall decrease in uptake percent and ejection fraction percent one month post RIT in both parotid and submandibular glands. Also, a statistically significant difference was noted in the uptake and ejection fraction percent between Group A and Group B concluding the fact that the damage is dose related. PMID:26894178

  16. TIME AND DOSE-DEPENDENT THYROID HORMONE RELEASE FROM XENOPUS THYROID GLAND CULTURES IN RESPONSE TO THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND INHIBITION BY METHIMAZOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis.

  17. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor in Hashimotos thyroiditis with nodular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Ruggeri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hashimotos thyroiditis (HT is an autoimmune thyroid disease frequently associated with hyperplastic nodules (HNs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is expressed in benign thyroid nodules and over-expressed in malignant thyroid nodules, particularly in papillary thyroid carcinomas. To elucidate the role of HGF in the development of HNs in association with HT we evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of HGF in both nodular and extranodular tissues, obtained from 30 HTs and 15 goiter samples. Six normal thyroid glands were used as controls.All normal control tissue samples exhibited no evidence of HGF immunoreaction. HNs showed weak to moderate HGF immunoreaction,which was located exclusively in the cytoplasm of stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells. However, the percentage of positive cases was higher in HNs arisen in the context of HT, compared to HNs not associated with HT (30/30 or 100% vs 4/15 or 40%; p<0.001. HGF immunoreactivity was also detected in all extranodular tissues from HT specimens (30/30 or 100%, but we found some significant differences. In fact, while in HNs observed in the context of HT lesions HGF was expressed only in stromal cells, in the extranodular tissues from the same thyroid gland affected by HT it was also detected in the cytoplasm of the epithelial follicular cells. Furthermore, HTs showed a much higher HGF staining grade in the extranodular tissue compared to HNs. Finally, a clear positive correlation was observed in HT between the proportion of HGF expressing follicular cells and the grade of lymphoid aggregates of the thyroid gland. In conclusion, HGF is much more frequently and highly expressed in thyroid tissue with HT, compared to goiter. In HT glands HGF can be detected in both follicular thyroid cells and stromal cells, while in HNs, either from goiters or associated with HT, its expression is restricted only to the stromal cells.These data indicate that HGF may play a role in cell proliferation processes occurring in thyroid glands affected by HT, probably under the regulation of the lymphoid infiltrate.

  18. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was unknown) were nearly twenty-times the average background concentration, while the concentration in the person who ingested Ra-226 in a medicinal preparation was about two-hundred times our background concentration. A variety of studies of small cohorts of persons either occupationally exposed to Ra-226, given Ra-224 as part of medical treatments, or among beagle dogs given Ra-226 in long-term health studies, has shown evidence of a small but significant increase in thyroid cancer rates. The findings presented here have implications for improving dosimetry models of Ra-226 in soft tissues and for projecting health risks from natural radium intake. (author)

  19. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  20. [Effect of space flight aboard "Kosmos-1129" on thyroid hormone content of the blood and thyroid gland of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigranian, R A; Kalita, N F; Makho, L; Langer, P; Knopp, Ia

    1985-01-01

    Thyrotrophin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and reverse triiodothyronine were measured in plasma and thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the thyroid gland of the rats flown for 18.5 days onboard Cosmos-1129. Postflight the plasma content of thyrotrophin and triiodothyronine increased and that of thyroxine decreased and the gland content of thyroxine and triiodothyronine diminished. It is postulated that in the flight animals the functional activity of the thyroid gland declined. PMID:3974186

  1. Involvement of the thyroid and the salivary glands in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas at initial diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The clinical spectrum of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is different from that in adults, with frequent extranodal involvement. We searched the incidence and radiological appearance of the secondary involvement of the thyroid and salivary glands by ultrasonography (US) to assess its importance for staging of the disease. Materials and methods: We examined the thyroid, parotid and submandibulary glands of 43 children with NHL, age ranging between 9 months and 17 years, by US. Results: According to US findings, involvement of the parotid gland was very common as detected in 18 of the cases with NHL (41%). It was the most common organ involved in lymphoma. Lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland, with bilateral multiple focal lesions, was detected in two patients and proved by fine needle aspiration biopsy in all cases (5%). Salivary gland and thyroid involvement changed staging in three (6%) of the patients, however, the treatment plan was unchanged. Conclusions: This study shows that anatomic sites, known to be very rarely involved at the initial presentation of the disease is actually more commonly involved in childhood NHL. However, it does not cause any significant change in the treatment planning or in the survival

  2. Iodide transport and its regulation in the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to examine the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide induced suppression of subsequently determined iodide transport activity in the thyroid gland. Two model systems were developed to identify the putative, transport-related, iodine-containing, inhibitory factor responsible for autoregulation. The first system was a maternal and fetal rabbit thyroid tissue slice preparation in which iodide pretreatment inhibited the maternal 125I-T/M ratio by 30% and had no significant effect on fetal iodide transport. In the second system, the role of protein synthesis in the autoregulatory phenomenon was studied. Cat thyroid slices pretreated with0.1 mM cycloheximide for 60 min prior to preexposure to excess iodide demonstrated a significant reduction in the degree of iodide included autoregulation. In both of these systems iodide induced suppression of cAMP accumulation remained intact. These findings suggest (1) fetal rabbit thyroid lacks the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide transport and (2) protein synthesis is involved in the mechanism of thyroid autoregulation of iodide transport

  3. [Hormonal therapy in differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, G; Davì, M V; Petroziello, A; Sussi, P L

    1994-01-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) suppression therapy using thyroid hormone plays an important role in the management of patients thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid cancer. The rationale for TSH suppression is that differentiated thyroid cancer cells have TSH receptors and show increased adenylate cyclase activity following TSH exposure. L-thyroxine is used for long-term therapy. L-triiodothyronine is preferred when suppressive therapy must be discontinued for radioiodine scan, since its shorter half-life allows more rapid increases of TSH levels. The assessment of TSH suppression is still uncertain. The development of second and third TSH assay generations with progressive improvement in sensitivity has made the TRH test unnecessary and has raised the issue of the TSH level indicative of TSH suppression. In clinical practice TSH values below 0.1 mU/L are considered compatible with appropriate TSH suppression. Serum thyroglobulin is a reliable marker of metastatic disease after total surgical and radioiodine ablation of the thyroid gland and it is useful in the surveillance of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:7882445

  4. Management of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslano?lu, Seil; Eren, Erdem; zkul, Y?lmaz; Ci?er, Ejder; Kopar, Aylin; nal, Kaz?m; Etit, Demet; Ttnc, G Yazg?

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma; and the association between clinicopathological parameters and thyroid gland invasion. Medical records of 75 patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent total laryngectomy with thyroidectomy were reviewed, retrospectively. Preoperative computed tomography scans, clinical and operative findings, and histopathological data of the specimens were evaluated. There were 73 male and two female patients with an age range of 41-88years (mean 60.4years). Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 62 (82.7%) and total thyroidectomy was performed in 13 patients (17.3%). Four patients had histopathologically proven thyroid gland invasion (5.3%). In three patients, thyroid gland involvement was by means of direct invasion. Thyroid gland invasion was significantly correlated with thyroid cartilage invasion. Therefore, prophylactic thyroidectomy should not be a part of the treatment policy for these tumors. PMID:26547312

  5. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  6. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  7. The thyroid gland and thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) during early development and metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Joseph G; Klaren, Peter H M; Mariavelle, Emeline; Das, Krishna

    2016-04-01

    The sheepshead minnow is widely used in ecotoxicological studies that only recently have begun to focus on disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine disrupting compounds. However, reference levels of the thyroid prohormone thyroxine (T4) and biologically active hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and their developmental patterns are unknown. This study set out to describe the ontogeny and morphology of the thyroid gland in sheepshead minnow, and to correlate these with whole-body concentrations of thyroid hormones during early development and metamorphosis. Eggs were collected by natural spawning in our laboratory. T4 and T3 were extracted from embryos, larvae and juveniles and an enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to measure whole-body hormone levels. Length and body mass, hatching success, gross morphology, thyroid hormone levels and histology were measured. The onset of metamorphosis at 12-day post-hatching coincided with surges in whole-body T4 and T3 concentrations. Thyroid follicles were first observed in pre-metamorphic larvae at hatching and were detected exclusively in the subpharyngeal region, surrounding the ventral aorta. Follicle size and thyrocyte epithelial cell heights varied during development, indicating fluctuations in thyroid hormone synthesis activity. The increase in the whole-body T3/T4 ratio was indicative of an increase in outer ring deiodination activity. This study establishes a baseline for thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnows, which will be useful for the understanding of thyroid hormone functions and in future studies of thyroid toxicants in this species. PMID:26573854

  8. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue

  9. [Sclerotherapy of solid nodules in the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, A N

    2003-01-01

    We have studied long-term effects (3-8 years) of transcutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol in a group of 123 patients at the age from 17 to 87 y.o. The patients had benign solid nodular formations of thyroid gland at volume from 0.7 to 162.8 ml. It was revealed, that a reduction degree of the solid nodular formations don't depend on ingoing sizes. The efficiency of sclerotherapy first of all is up to internal structure of the solid nodular formation and its stroma structure development. PMID:14723146

  10. Digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands of human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands is described. This instrument is used to measure the activity of 125I in thyroid glands of human being directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent

  11. Papillary-follicular cancer of the thyroid gland in combination with diffuse toxic goiter and endocrinous ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficulties in the diagnosis of the thyroid gland papillary cancer at the background of diffuse toxic goiter are shown using concrete examples. Scanning of the thyroid gland by 131I and paracentetic biopsy were realized. Combined pathology of the thyroid gland and endocrinous ophthalmopathy are diagnosticated

  12. ANALYZING THE GRAY ZONE IN FOLLICULAR LESIONS OF THYROID

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    Chetna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Fine needle aspiration (FNA is used as a gold standard for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. But, diagnostic efficacy of FNA declines sharply when follicular patterned lesions of thyroid are considered. Hence these lesions form a gray zone where a definite diagnosis on FNA is difficult. This article discusses the umbrella diagnosis of follicular lesions on cy tology, which largely comprises of four entities i . e. , adenomatous goiter, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma . AIMS : To assess the accuracy of FNAC in differentiating benign and malignant fol licular patterned lesions so as to contribute to better patient care. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A retrospective analysis was conducted between 2009 and 2014 at our institution. Sixty two cases with diagnosis of follicular lesion and follicular lesion with atypical cells on FNA were included in the study. The cytological features were correlated with histopathology and the results tabulated. RESULTS : Sixty two cases with a FNA diagnosis of follicular lesion or follicular lesion with atypical cells was a nalyzed in the present study. The diagnosis of Follicular lesion was noted in 46 cases and follicular lesion with atypical cells in 16 cases. The histopathology diagnosis was adenomatous goiter in 35 cases, follicular adenoma in 16 cases, follicular ca rcinoma in four cases, and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC in seven cases. The malignancy rate in follicular pattern lesions (N=62 was 17 . 7% and neoplasia rate was 43 . 5%. In atypical or suspicious cases (N=16 the malignancy rat e was 43 . 7% and the neoplasia rate was 68 . 7%. CONCLUSION : Follicular - patterned thyroid lesions remain a gray zone and a challenge for cytopathologist. High malignancy rate in these patients supports the concept of giving an umbrella diagnosis of follicu lar lesion and advising excision of the nodule for histopathology to confirm the diagnosis or maintain close follow up.

  13. Fine needle aspiration cytology: sensitivity and specificity in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Thyroid enlargement is one of the common problems in patients presenting at outpatients department of ENT particularly in females. Thyroid nodules are common, thyroid cancer is uncommon and the most common way for it to present is as a solitary thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in thyroid diseases. Method: This prospective analytic study was conducted at ENT Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College/Abbasi Shaheed Hospital during year 2004-8. One hundred and five cases were enrolled who underwent thyroid surgery after complete evaluation by history, clinical examination, Thyroid profile, Thyroid Scintigraphy, Ultrasound neck and FNAC. In cases which were revealed malignant by FNAC, CT scan were done to see the extent of disease and neck node status. Surgery was done in all cases and specimens sent for histopathology. Results: Male to female ratio of the patients was 1:8.5. Most common lesion was benign nodule (96). Malignant lesions were 9 in FNAC. In histopathology, the benign nodules were 92, and malignant cases were 13. Sensitivity of FNAC was 61.53% and specificity was 98.9%. Conclusion: FNAC in Thyroid has high sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  14. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

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    Hirschowitz Sharon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In a prospective study, 609 solid thyroid gland tumors were percutaneously probed using standard 25 gauge fine needles, their tissue toughness ranked on the basis of the nature and strength of the haptic force feedback cues, and subjected to standard fine needle biopsy. The tumors' toughness rankings and final cytological diagnoses were combined and analyzed. The interpreting cytopathologist was blinded to the tumors' toughness rankings. Results Our data showed that cancerous and noncancerous tumors displayed remarkable haptically distinguishable differences in their material toughness. Conclusion The qualitative method described here, though subject to some operator bias, identifies a previously unreported in vivo approach to classify fracture toughness of a solid tumor that can be correlated with malignancy, and paves the way for the development of a mechanical device that can accurately quantify the tissue toughness of a human tumor.

  15. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

  16. Ultrasonography-histopathology correlation in major salivary glands lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Cecilia; Nekula, Diana Maria; Mocan, Simona Liliana; Void?zan, Toader Septimiu; Co?arc?, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Major salivary glands display a various and complex pathology, showing different evolution and prognosis, depending on the histopathological form. The choice of an appropriate treatment plan for the best outcome, therefore the proper surgical approach, would imply preoperative knowledge of the histopathological diagnosis. However, any core-biopsy performed prior to surgery presents the risk of a false result and increases the difficulty of latter surgery. Therefore, some complementary examinations are used, among these, ultrasonography. The retrospective study (April 2010-March 2013) conducted in the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Tirgu Mures, Romania, aims to evaluate the relevance of the ultrasonography by itself in leading towards a proper preoperative assessment and diagnosis, and thus, in choosing the proper treatment plan. The study included 33 lesions of the major salivary glands, undergoing first ultrasonography, then curative surgery. Different characteristics (shape, dimension, consistency, vascularization, homogeneity, delimitation) were assessed on ultrasonography as well as on histopathology; finally, the correlation between those two examinations was evaluated, by comparing diagnoses. The results of our study are similar to others, showing that ultrasonography can diagnose preoperatively the majority lesions of major salivary glands. The conclusions of the study sustain the importance of ultrasonography as a routine examination in major salivary glands lesions. PMID:26193218

  17. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

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    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  18. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  19. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  20. The trapping of iodine and pertechnetate by normal, multinodular and dyshormonogenic thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for the trapping rates of 123I and sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and the retention of 123I by normal, multinodular and dyshormonogenic thyroid glands. The method used involved background correction of the raw thyroid using time-activity blood curves. The trapping rates of iodine and pertechnetate by normal glands were similar and comparable to those obtained by other methods. Increased trapping of iodine and pertechnetate and impaired retention of iodine was observed in multinodular and dyshormonogenic thyroid glands. (U.K.)

  1. Branchial Cleft-Like Cysts Involving 3 Different Organs: Thyroid Gland, Thymus, and Parotid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Tadao; Kondo, Tetsuo; Oishi, Naoki; Tahara, Ippei; Kasai, Kazunari; Inoue, Tomohiro; Mochizuki, Kunio; Katoh, Ryohei

    2015-10-01

    Branchial cleft cysts (BCCs) are also named lateral cervical cysts and widely acknowledged as being derived from embryonic remnants. Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) generally show microscopic features that are identical to those of BCCs, and rarely occur at unusual sites or organs.A case of multiple cysts arising in both lobes of the thyroid gland, thymus, and right parotid gland in a 41-year-old man is reported. Clinically, the patient presented with Hashimoto's thyroiditis for about 20 years and had past histories of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and severe respiratory infection.This case is unusual in that multiple cysts arose synchronously and/or heterochronously and grew, increasing their sizes in these different organs. Microscopic examinations revealed that all of the cysts were composed of squamous epithelium, dense lymphoid tissue with germinal centers, and a fibrous capsule. These findings corresponded to those of BCCs or LECs. It is notable that the histopathological features were nearly the same in the individual organs. A review of the literature disclosed no previous such reported cases.The etiology is unknown. However, based upon the similar histopathological features of all the excised specimens, common immune and/or hematopoietic disorders may have contributed to their occurrence and development in association with putative genetic abnormalities. PMID:26496296

  2. Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

  3. Early thyroid gland dysfunction and biorhythmic activity disturbance in patients with cardiovascular pathology and atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvarts Yu.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the problem of combined pathology of the thyroid gland and cardiovascular system, the state of thyroid homeostasis in atrial fibrillation. The main mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on the heart and blood vessels, particularly changes in the cardiovascular system with hypo-or hyperthyroidism; the possibility of substitution therapy in subclinical disease have been presented in the article. Characteristics of daily rhythmic activity of thyroid gland in normal and various pathological conditions with persistent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation have been considered.

  4. [MORPHOFUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE THYROID GLAND AFTER EXPOSURE TO MELATONIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko, R V

    2015-01-01

    Morphofunctional state of the thyroid gland (TG) of young rats after exposure of exogenous melatonin in the spring and autumn periods was investigated. Exogenous melatonin (Unipharm Inc., USA) was administered to experimental group of animals daily at a dose 5 mg/kg. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. It was shown an increase of the cross-section area of follicles by 31% and colloid by 30% (in spring), reduction of the area of follicle epithelium by 12% (in autumn), an increase in the follicle internal diameter and a decline in the thyroid epithelium height by 12% (in autumn) in TG of experimental groups rats. Also it was shown a decline of follicle-colloid index and growth of colloid accumulation index, reduction amount of interfollicular islets. The introduction of melatonin in the spring period brought down the amount of connecting tissue elements. Melatonin introduction in the autumn period reduced the thickness of connective tissue trabecules in TG. The introduction of melatonin in the spring period resulted in more substantial changes in the structure of TG, as compared to an autumn experiment. Thus, melatonin administered both in the spring and in the autumn periods reduces the functional activity and physiological regeneration of TG. PMID:26845843

  5. Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(μg/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.)

  6. The Effects of Neck Irradiation on Thyroid Gland for Tumors of the head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-five patients with tumors of the head and neck treated with either radiation therapy alone or combined with surgery or chemotherapy were studied prospectively to evaluate the effects of radiation therapy to the neck on thyroid gland between September 1986 and October 1992. All patients were serially monitored for thyroid function tests before and after radiation therapy. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 35 to 60 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Median follow-up time was 30 months with a range of 11 to 85 months. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction was 40%; forty-five patients (60%) euthyroid, 2 patients (3%) clinical hypothyroidism, 27 patients (36%) subclinical hypothyroidism and 1 patient (1%) hyperthyroidism. No thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer were detected in any patients. Thyroid dysfunction appeared earlier in patients who underwent surgery than in those patients treated with radiation therapy alone or combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p=0.0013). By multivariate analysis, risk factors that significantly influenced a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction were female sex (p=0.0293) and combination of total laryngectomy and radiation therapy (p=0.0045). In conclusion, evaluation of thyroid function before and after radiation therapy with periodic thyroid function tests are recommended to detect thyroid dysfunction in time and thyroid hormone replacement therapy is recommended whenever thyroid dysfunction develops

  7. Image Processing for Morphological Investigation of the Carcinome Thyroid Gland: Modern Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nedzved, A.; Fridman, M.; Belotserkovsky, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes automation methods for diagnostics of the thyroids gland carcinoma. It based on image processing technology and calculation of characteristics from image. Methods are used for investigation of histological samples.

  8. [Results of percutaneous sclerotherapy of benign nodular affections of the thyroid gland with ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, A N

    2006-01-01

    The results of experimental (150 animals) and clinical (783 patients) studies of percutaneous sclerotherapy of benign nodular affections of the thyroid gland with ethanol are analyzed. Reduction of the cysts depends first of all on ratio of fluid to solid components. Technical features of the method and disputable points of mechanism of action are discussed. High efficacy of sclerotherapy in benign nodular affections of the thyroid gland is demonstrated. PMID:16715982

  9. Metastasis of Dermatofibrosarcoma from the Abdominal Wall to the Thyroid Gland: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kreze; Andrea Zápotocká; Tomáš Urbanec; Jiří Koskuba; Mikuláš Pura; Pavel Vítek; Pavol Praženica; Eva Traboulsi

    2012-01-01

    Metastases in the thyroid gland are very rare. Even the rarer are sarcoma metastases. A 52-year-old woman was referred to our department for evaluation of a nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid gland. She had a history dermatosarcoma of the abdominal wall with known metastasis in the lung. Clinically she had neck pain and worsened swallowing. Objective assessment (ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance) indicated a voluminous right lobe nodule with mechanical syndrome, and...

  10. Effect of vertical angulation to dose of thyroid glands in periapical radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoi, Keitaro; Satoh, Keiji; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-10-01

    Much attention has been given to reducing the dose of radiation in dental radiography in terms of the highest risk for the head and neck. Organ doses in intraoral radiography vary greatly with subtle differences in vertical angulation. Quantitative determination of doses delivered to the thyroid gland is thus necessary in determining adequate doses and risk for dental radiography. A personal computer program, prepared for estimating organ doses under various radiographic conditions, was used to evaluate the effect of vertical angulation on the dose delivered to the thyroid gland in radiography of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Review of the literature revealed that the calculated dose delivered to the thyroid gland is approximately in accordance with the data of the actual determination under the same radiographic conditions. The dose-dependence of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland on vertical angulation of the maxilla was much more than that of the mandible. In the mandible, the dose delivered to the thyroid gland increased about three fold at a field size of 6 cm[phi] and about 1.5 fold at 8 cm[phi] when the vertical angulation changed from -40deg to 0deg. In the maxilla, the delivered dose increased about 480 times at a field size of 6 cm[phi] when vertical angulation changed from 0deg to 50deg and rapidly increased about 280 times at 8 cm[phi] when the angulation changed from 0deg to 40deg. The dose of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland was evaluated as a function of product of the irradiated volume within the primary beam directed at the thyroid gland and the inverse square of the distance between a subject's surface and the thyroid gland. (N.K.).

  11. Tuberculous abscess of the thyroid gland : A case report of CT demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of tuberculous abscess of thyroid gland in 32-years old female. On CT scan, multiple peripheral enhancing low density abscess were found in the right thyroid gland. Abscess cavity with skin and subcutaneous manifestations were also noted in the right anterior neck. This was confirmed as chronic granulomatous caseous necrosis and acid-fast bacilli were identified by Ziehl-Neelsen stain

  12. THE THYROID GLAND STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS DURING STANDARD THERAPY AND BIOLOGICAL THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. Akhunova; F V Valeeva; I. G. Salikhov

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the condition of the thyroid gland in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) during standard therapy and biologicaltherapy (infliximab).Subjects and methods. Twenty-six patients with AS were examined; some of them received biological therapy with infliximab, while the others took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The structuralunctional state of thyroid gland was evaluated in all patients. The effect of therapy was evaluated by the ASAS criteria. The efficiency of the...

  13. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  14. Metabolic Pathways of Tetraidothyronine and Triidothyronine Production by Thyroid Gland: A Review of Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mansourian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetraidothyronine (T4 and Triiodothyronine (T3 are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT and diiodothyrosine (DIT on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction , or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO, which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin to show themselves.

  15. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Key statistics for thyroid cancer What is thyroid cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland The thyroid gland is below the thyroid ...

  16. Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

  17. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Michael [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: ormying@polyu.edu.hk; Sin Manhong [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Shuk-fan [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-11-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = {pi}/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects.

  18. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = π/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects

  19. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  20. Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko O.O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

  1. Melatonin in the thyroid gland: regulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone and role in thyroglobulin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marin, R; Fernandez-Santos, J M; Morillo-Bernal, J; Gordillo-Martinez, F; Vazquez-Roman, V; Utrilla, J C; Carrillo-Vico, A; Guerrero, J M; Martin-Lacave, I

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is an indoleamine with multiple functions in both plant and animal species. In addition to data in literature describing many other important roles for melatonin, such as antioxidant, circadian rhythm controlling, anti-aging, antiproliferative or immunomodulatory activities, our group recently reported that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin and suggested a paracrine role for this molecule in the regulation of thyroid activity. To discern the role played by melatonin at thyroid level and its involvement in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, in the present study we have analyzed the effect of thyrotropin in the regulation of the enzymatic machinery for melatonin biosynthesis in C cells as well as the effect of melatonin in the regulation of thyroid hormone biosynthesis in thyrocytes. Our results show that the key enzymes for melatonin biosynthesis (AANAT and ASMT) are regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, exogenous melatonin increases thyroglobulin expression at mRNA and protein levels on cultured thyrocytes and this effect is not strictly mediated by the upregulation of TTF1 or, noteworthy, PAX8 transcription factors. The present data show that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin under thyroid-stimulating hormone control and, consistently with previous data, support the hypothesis of a paracrine role for C-cell-synthesised melatonin within the thyroid gland. Additionally, in the present study we show evidence for the involvement of melatonin in thyroid function by directly-regulating thyroglobulin gene expression in follicular cells. PMID:26579570

  2. Increasing the Number of Thyroid Lesions Classes in Microarray Analysis Improves the Relevance of Diagnostic Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, J.F.; Mirebeau-Prunier, D; Raharijaona, M.; Franc, B.; Triau, S; Rodien, P.; Goeau-Brissonniere, O.; Karayan-Tapon, L; M Mello; Houlgatte, R.; Malthiery, Y; Savagner, F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic markers for thyroid cancers identified by microarray analysis have offered limited predictive accuracy so far because of the few classes of thyroid lesions usually taken into account. To improve diagnostic relevance, we have simultaneously analyzed microarray data from six public datasets covering a total of 347 thyroid tissue samples representing 12 histological classes of follicular lesions and normal thyroid tissue. Our own dataset, containing about half the thyroid tis...

  3. Infringement of cytokines regulation and morphological changes of thyroid gland in Wistar rats with experimental thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Zdor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of abundance of autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland, Graves’ Disease in particular, the role of immune regulation and the possibility of controlling it by estimating the function of regulatory T-limphocytes are important questions today. Available for practical estimation of T- and B-lymphocytes tolerance disorder in GBD are serum levels of Th1- and Th2- marker cytokines. Experimental thyrotoxicosis in Wistar rats showed significant increase in serum Il-1α, IFN-γ and Il-10 depending on the increase of thyroid hormones, as well as significant changes in correlation between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines with the shift towards Th1-marker cytokines in supernatant thyroid glands of the animals with thyrotoxicosis. Are found out also changes of proliferative activity thyrocytes with change of average diameter of follicles of a thyroid gland.

  4. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common finding in Nuclear Medicine in this patient population. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  5. The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesing Adam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attributed to normal aging. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, as well as thyroid neoplasms, require special attention in elderly subjects. Intriguingly, decreased thyroid function, as well as thyrotropin (TSH levels progressively shifting to higher values with age may contribute to the increased lifespan. This short review focuses on recent findings concerning the alterations in thyroid function during aging, including these which may potentially lead to extended longevity, both in humans and animals.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of 296 diagnosed cases of thyroid nodules referred to cytology unit, pathology department, NCI, who underwent FNAC for diagnosis. The results were categorized according to the recent Bethesda classification into: insufficient for diagnosis, benign, atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant sampling. The final histologic diagnosis and/or clinico-radiologic follow-up assessment for non-neoplastic lesions were considered the gold standard. Results: The study included 296 cases presented with thyroid nodules who underwent diagnostic thyroid FNAC. Female to male ratio was 5.2:1, and the median age was 44 years. Ninety-eight cases (33.1%) were diagnosed as benign, 40 cases (13.5%) as follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 49 cases (16.5%) as follicular neoplasm, 30 cases (10.1%) as suspicious for malignancy, 58 cases (19.5%) as malignant, and 21 cases (7.1%) as unsatisfactory. Nodular hyperplasia represented the majority of benign cases (89.8%), while papillary carcinoma was the most frequent malignant lesion (72.4%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with their corresponding final histologic ones. FNAC achieved a sensitivity of 92.8, a specificity of 94.2%, a positive predictive value of 94.9%, a negative predictive value of 91.8%, a false positive rate of 7.2%, a false negative rate of 5.8%, and a total accuracy of 93.6%.

  7. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  8. Comparative thyroid gland volume by two methods: Ultrasonography and planar scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of thyroid gland volume plays a key role in the treatment of thyroid diseases by radioactive iodine 131I. Radioiodine therapy is a routine procedure of treatment hyperthyroidism for over 50 years. Today modern diagnostic has a number of medical diagnostics instruments whose using to estimate of thyroid volume. Undoubtedly these method we can include a ultrasonography (US) and planar scintigraphy (PS) whose characterized by noninvasive. The aims of this papers is evaluate of thyroid volume on the basis of method ultrasonography and planar scintigraphy

  9. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs. PMID:22688583

  10. Galectin-3 Immunostaining in Cytological and Histopathological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Ga lectin-3 is a human lectin linked to malignant transformation in different organs including thyroid gland. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions in cytological and histological samples. Material and Methods: This study included a total of 79 cases; 19 multi nodular goiter (MNG), 19 follicular adenoma (FA), 13 follicular carcinoma (FTC) and 28 papillary carcinoma (PTC). Galectin-3 immunostaining was applied on histological sections from all the cases (retrospective analysis) as well as for the available preoperative FNAC (28 cases) (prospective analysis). Results: Retrospective analysis: The positivity percentage of galectin-3 was 10.5%, 92.3%, 93% for non-malignant, FTC and PTC respectively. According to H score, glaectin-3 immunostaining was significantly lowered in FA) 1±2.8 as compared to papillary (158.5±88.6) and follicular carcinoma (150±83.9) (p>0.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between FTC and PTC (p=0.56) or between classic and follicular variants of PTC (p='0.51). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for galectin-3 staining were 93%, 89.5%, 90.5% and 92% respectively. Prospective analysis: There were five benign, six malignant and 17 indeterminate cytology cases. Galectin-3 immunostaining was able to detect the benign nature of 11/17 indeterminate cytology. Combination of standard cytological evaluation with galectin-3 immunostaining markedly improved sen¬sitivity (71% versus 85%), specificity (75% versus 94%), positive predictive value (83% versus 92%) negative predictive value (60% versus 87.5%) and diagnostic accuracy (72% versus 90%). Conclusion: We suggest Galectin-3 as a supplementary immunostaining in histological diagnosis of difficult thyroid follicular lesions and in preoperative evaluation of indeterminate thyroid cytology to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical interference in benign lesions.

  11. HIGH RESOLUTION ULTRASONOGRAPHIC AND COLOUR DOPPLER EVALUATION OF THYROID LESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the utility of gray - scale USG and colour doppler to identify patterns of thyroid lesions and to correlate the characteristics of benign and malignant nodules with pathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2013 to September 2014, a total of 100 patients (17 males and 83 females were included in this study. The gray scale and Doppler characteristics of various lesions were determined. The results were then compared with fine needle aspiration (FNA/histopathological diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients examined, 9 (9% were found to be malignant on cytopathology. The malignant nodules demonstrated presence of microcalcification ( S ensitivity 44.5%, specificity 98.5%; irregular or poorly defined margins ( S ensitivity 77.7%, specificity 90%; absent or thick incomplete halo ( S ensitivity 88.8%, specificity 87.3%; RI >0.7(sensitivity 88.8%, specificity 95.7% and type iii and iv flow(sensitivity 77.7%, specificity 59%. CONCLUSION: Gray - scale USG and colour Doppler features of thyroid nodules are useful to distinguish patients with clinically significant thyroid nodules from those with innocuous nodules despite the overlap of findings. From our study, it is apparent that the USG findings of poorly defined margins, absent halo and RI> 0.7 have a high diagnostic accuracy and microcalcifications have high NPV for identifying malignant thyroid nodules.

  12. Chronic urticaria in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: Significance of severity of thyroid gland inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gulec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a clear association between autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and chronic urticaria/angioedema (CUA. However, not all patients with AT demonstrate urticaria. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate in which patients with AT did CUA become a problem. A sensitive inflammation marker, neopterine (NP was used to confirm whether the severity of inflammation in the thyroid gland was responsible for urticaria or not. Methods: Neopterine levels were assessed in patients with AT with urticaria and without urticaria. Furthermore, levels were compared in relation to pre and post levothyroxine treatment. Twenty-seven patients with urticaria (Group 1 and 28 patients without urticaria (Group 2 were enrolled in the study. A course of levothyroxine treatment was given to all patients, and urine neopterine levels before and after the trial were obtained. Results: All patients completed the trial. Mean age in Group 1 and Group 2 was similar (35.70 ± 10.86 years and 38.36 ± 10.38 years, respectively (P=0.358. Pre-treatment urine neopterine levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P=0.012. Post-treatment levels decreased in each group, as expected. However, the decrease in the neopterine level was insignificant in the patients of Group 2 (P=0.282. In Group 1, a significant decrease in post-treatment neopterine levels (P=0.015 was associated with the remission of urticaria. Conclusion: In patients with CUA and AT, pre-treatment elevated levels of NP, and its decrease with levothyroxine treatment along with symptomatic relief in urticaria, may be evidence of the relationship between the degree of inflammation in thyroid and presence of urticaria.

  13. An Abattoir Study of Ovine Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Lesions and the Respective Serum T3 andT4 Levels in an Endemic Goiter Region in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Barati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of histologic thyroids lesions and the respective thyroid hormones changes of ewes in an endemic goiter region and to find out any impact of this condition on the fetal thyroid structures and serum thyroid hormones. In the present study a total number of 100 pregnant ewes and their fetuses slaughtered at slaughterhouse were selected for the study. The sera were prepared from the jugular vein blood of ewes and fetuses umbilical cords. The ewes and fetuses thyroids subjected to histopathological examination and radioimmunoassay procedure was used for sera T3 and T4 assay. The results showed a high prevalence of thyroid lesions in ewes and their fetuses. The different kinds of lesions including cysts, follicular hyperplasia, hemorrhage and inflammation were seen in ewes. In the fetuses thyroid structural changes were cysts resemble structures; hemorrhage and hyperemia. Mean T4 concentration was significantly higher in the ewes with pathologic thyroid compared to normal animals. However, there was not any significant difference between pathologic and normal ewes’ thyroids on serum T3. Although, existence of lesions on fetal thyroids did not affect the serum concentrations of T4 and T3, there was a significant correlation between T4 and T3 serum concentrations of fetuses and their age. In conclusion, the significant prevalence of fetal and maternal thyroid pathological changes in the endemic goiter region raises a question about probable congenital source of these variations. The thyroid lesions significantly influenced the functions of mothers' gland but not fetuses.

  14. Morbidity risk for thyroid gland carcinoma after treatment with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long period the radionuclid I-131 was used in the nuclear medicine in connection with diseases of the thyroid gland carcinoma for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university of Homburg/Saar about 25000 persons were treated with I-131 for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes in the years 1960 to 1977. From all those 25000 persons a number of 11775 persons who were living at the time of first treatment in the Saarland and whose diagnosis was not 'thyroid gland carcinoma' at that time are extracted. With the help of the incidence rates of thyroid gland carcinoma of the population of the Saarland - that population is regarded as comparative population - an expectation value of thyroid gland carcinoma is calculated for the regarded patient collektive. A comparison - anonymized with respect to the data of particulars - of the patient collective with that persons registered in the Cancer Registry of the Saarland yields to observed values of thyroid gland carcinoma which can be compared with the expectation values. The observed value is - regarding a latent period of 10 years - by a factor of 4-3,3 in case of men and by a factor of 1,8-1,6 in case of women higher than the expectation value. (orig.)

  15. Age and its influence on effects of iodine-131 in guinea pig thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the differences in age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, we exposed fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs to single graded doses of 131I. Injected quantities ranged from 1 to 100 μCi 131I, depending on the age group, and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rad. At approximately 100 days of age (or 100 days after dosing for adults), a single microcurie of 131I was given and animals were killed 1 day later to provide data on thyroid weight and percentage 131I uptake. Analysis of these data and information on pathology suggested that the fetal and weanling guinea pig thyroid glands were more radiosensitive than the adult thyroid; the neonatal thyroid appeared less radiosensitive than that of the adult. The increase in radiosensitivity of the young thyroid glands over the adults, however, did not appear to be greater than twofold. Nevertheless, the demonstration of age-related radiosensitivity requires that it be considered by those who assess radiologic risks to human populations

  16. Interfering factors in in vivo diagnostics of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anamnestic iodine contamination and medication with thyroid drugs were registered in 260 patients of a clinical thyroid care unit and 200 patients of a thyroid doctor's office in the southern German endemic goiter region. We found in the university clinic 54% patients with interfering factors, 30% with iodine contamination and 20% with multiple interferences. In the physician's practice there were 18%, nearly all treated with thyroid hormone. The influence of those factors on thyroidal technetium uptake and the resulting restriction on its diagnostic value is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rikke Klby; Bjrndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnosis and treatment planning of the lesions of the salivary gland. METHODS: Eight hundred seventy-nine aspiration biopsies of the lesion of the salivary gland over a 10-year period, from...

  18. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  19. Interrelation specific autoimmune pathologies of a thyroid gland with inorganic autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Paramonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a pathology of a thyroid gland at rheumatic diseases, in particular at rheumatoid arthritis, remains actual and to this day. The work purpose was studying antitelogenesis to thyroid hormones at patients with mixt autoimmune pathology. In whey of blood of patients with RA and autothyroid pathology are found out antibodies (AB to Т3 and Т4, their concentration correlates with activity of pathological process. It is shown, that level AB to Т3 and Т4 authentically differs from the maintenance of the given antibodies in whey of blood of healthy faces. Level of antibodies to thyroid hormones can be considered as the criterion predicting development of pathology of a thyroid gland at patients with RA.

  20. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by μ-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  1. Determination of isotopic ratio of calcium by gamma activation analysis and free radical oxidation of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemiluminescence and gamma activation analysis was used to determine the isotopic ratio of calcium in normal,non-malignant and cancerous tissues of thyroid gland.This result was used for diagnostics of cancerous thyroid gland morbidity.The high value of isotopic ratio 44Ca/48Ca in paratumor tissues of thyroid gland has allowed concluding about significance of transmembrane circulation calcium

  2. Prevention pathways of thyroid gland diseases under the radiation impact and endemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant increase in thyroid gland diseases as a result of radiation, endemic factors and unbalanced nourishment needed for the development of effective prophylactic measures. The scientists of Research Center for Radiation Medicine have realized a complex approach to the solution of microelement deficiency problem, i.e. creation of food substance, medications enriched with both iodine and a complex of microelements, vitamins, polysaccharide and other nutrients for prophylaxis of thyroid, erythroid, immune system diseases and minimization of internal irradiation dose

  3. Modern concepts of preoperative preparation of patients with thyroid gland disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sabljak Vera; Kalezić Nevena; Ivanović Branislava; Živaljević Vladan; Diklić Aleksandar; Paunović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of patients with thyroid gland disease, in any kind of surgery, should include the possibility of difficult intubation caused by thyromegaly, the hormonal status (its disbalance), as well as the screening, and therapy of consequences of thyroid imbalance on specific organ systems, especially cardiovascular. It is necessary to select the adequate anesthetics and other pharmacological agents, according to current hormonal status. It is also necessary to select the ...

  4. The Effect of Methimazole on Thyroid Gland Uptake of Technetium in Hyperthyroid Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Farshid Gheisari; Gholamreza Pishdad; Mehrdad Emami; Kasra Behdad; Aida Karimpour; Maryam Sharifian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methimazole on Technetium-99m reabsorbing by thyroid gland , it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole. Patients and Methods: Among all the patients with hyperthyroidism who referred to nuclear medicine ward of Shiraz University of medical sciences, 50 patients were randomly selected. we asked the ...

  5. Chronic gamma-radiation impact upon the state of thyroid gland of tundra voles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The histomorphological estimation of the thyroid gland status of tundra voles living in the radiation polluted sites (30-km zone around Chernobyl nuclear plant and the Komi Republic) was given in the experiment. Nature populations of tundra voles have more high variety of the thyroid parenchyma morphological reconstructions in comparison with the experimental animals. Mechanisms of the response to the radiation influence in the nature and in the experiment are different. (author)

  6. Fallout 131I in western Nevada cattle thyroid glands: 1962-early 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been continuing interest in historical fallout data. The authors have previously published data concerning the concentrations of fallout radioactive 131I in the thyroid glands of cattle from the Nevada Test Site and from commercial slaughter cattle. These data showed that bovine thyroid 131I was an effective monitor of both local and worldwide fresh nuclear fallout. This paper extends the data on commercial slaughter cattle from western Nevada through early 1969

  7. Effectiveness of skin absorption of tincture of I in blocking radioiodine from the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topical application of tincture of iodine (I) was found to be effective in blocking the thyroid uptake of orally administered 131I in humans. Abdominal skin application of tincture of I resulted in an approximately 82% reduction in the uptake of 131I by the thyroid gland. The effectiveness varied among individuals and may have depended on the quantity applied and on the application site. In each study group, elevated levels of serum I were observed

  8. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body in Balance › Thyroid Nodules Fact Sheet Thyroid Nodules March 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Hindi ... Singer, MD Leonard Wartofsky, MD What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped ...

  9. Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author)

  10. [On debatable questions of percutaneous sclerosing therapy of benign tumors of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, A N

    2006-01-01

    Certain debatable questions of the mechanism of reducing the thyroid nodules, technical details of the method are discussed on the basis of considerable clinical experiences with percutaneous sclerosing ethanol therapy of benign thyroid nodules (783 patients) and results of experiments in 150 animals and 11 volunteers. A precise preliminary calculation of the amount of ethanol introduced in one session of the sclerosing therapy and during the whole course of treatment was shown to be necessary and possible. A pronounced inflammatory response during the sclerosing therapy was proved to take place but when ethanol got beyond the limits of the thyroid gland. So, the ethanol destruction of the thyroid tissue is possible in the situation of recurrent disease. The degree of a reduction of the thyroid nodules depends not on their initial size but on their inner structure and the development of the fibrous tissue. PMID:16568853

  11. A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T4) and/or triiodothyronine (T3). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism

  12. Quantification of salivary gland function in thyroid cancer patients treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Damage to salivary gland function following external irradiation has been documented. However, the extent of damage following radioiodine (131I) therapy for thyroid cancer has not been adequately studied. We evaluated salivary dysfunction in Ca-thyroid patients treated with therapeutic doses of 131I. Methods and Materials: A simple acquisition and analysis protocol using 99mTcO-4 (pertechnatate) and a gamma camera computer system was planned. The uptake of 99mTcO-4 by the salivary glands at 10 min and percent of excretion of 99mTcO-4 from the glands in response to a sialogogue (lemon juice) was studied in 33 patients treated with 1.369-38.702 GBq of 131I (Mean = 10.16 GBq, standard deviation 7.659 GBq) in addition to 14 athyreotic controls. Results: Significant damage to the salivary gland in terms of abnormal percent uptake or excretion was noted in 72.73% of the patients. Forty-eight percent of the patients treated with 131I showed asymmetrical involvement of the salivary complexes as opposed to none of the controls. Reduction in uptake of 99mTcO-4 or response to sialogogue was dose dependent, being more marked with higher radioiodine doses. Parotid glands were more affected than submandibular glands following 131I therapy. Conclusions: 131I therapy produces a significant effect on salivary gland function that is dose related and becomes evident over a period of several months after treatment

  13. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

  14. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis

  15. Comparative radioisotope study on the function of the thyroid gland of some farm animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope functional investigations of the thyroid gland were carried out with weaned lambs and pigs. The 131I captation capacity of the thyroid gland was studied to characterize the inogranic phase of iodine exchange. The evaluation of the hormone producing function of the thyroid gland required the determination of the level of the protein-bound 131 I (PB 131 I), T3-binding capacity of the thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) and the ratio of the T3-binding capacity of TBG and the free thyroxine (T4) calculated as the FT4 index.Established was the species peculiarity of the 131 I captation capacity of the thyroid gland in weaned lambs and pigs in the early phases of investigation. At the second hour the percent captation was calculated as 7.2+-0.8 and 1.11+-0.21%, respectively. The values of PB 131 I, T3-binding capacity of TBG and FT4 of pigs varied within the limits of 1.20+-0.05%, 0.605+-0.012, and 0.976+-0.015 and of weaned lambs they were 0.954+-0.009%, 0.912+-0.017 and 0.890+-0.03. (authors)

  16. Radiation-induced head and neck tumours: is the skin as sensitive as the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six hundred and five persons, randomly selected from 2400 patients who had been irradiated 16-46 yr previously for benign diseases in the head and neck region, were recalled and examined for radiation-associated tumours. Three hundred and sixty-seven patients were alive, 179 had died and 66 had emigrated. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients were clinically examined, 87 refused or were unable to participate and 16 could not be contacted. Eighteen of the clinically examined patients had been or were being treated for 20 skin carcinomas with a mean latency of 37 yr. In this group only 7 carcinomas of the thyroid gland were observed, with a mean latency of 38 yr. Eleven carcinomas of the skin and 3 of the thyroid gland were reported in the group which was examined by questionnaires. The observed number of carcinomas of the skin is higher than expected according to the dose-effect relationship of UNSCEAR, whereas the number of carcinomas of the thyroid gland is lower. It is concluded that there might be less difference in susceptibility for the induction of tumours by ionizing radiation between the skin and the thyroid gland than is commonly assumed. (author)

  17. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the...

  18. Bayesian classification of sonograms of thyroid gland based on Gaussian mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Ludvík; Smutek, D.

    Stavanger : NOBIM, 2004, s. 36-40. [NOBIM 2004. Stavanger (NO), 27.05.2004-28.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/03/0049; GA MŠk LN00B107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : thyroid gland * Bayesian classification * Gaussian mixtures Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  19. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  20. The thyroid gland function assessment in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy during breast cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: For many years much attention has been focused on an interaction between the breast disease and the thyroid gland function in the literature. In those studies the question whether disease changes in the thyroid gland can induces the breast disease was addressed. On the other hand there are a few works concerning the inverted question whether the breast cancer therapy, in particular after mastectomy and chemotherapy, can disturb the thyroid gland function. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the mastectomy and chemotherapy on the thyroid gland function in women after breast cancer therapy. Material and methods: 173 patients aged 30 - 80 (average 56) were included in this study. The studied group comprised 97 women after breast cancer therapy (average age 60). The control group consisted of 76 patients (average age 55). 75 patients after mastectomy of the studied group were additionally treated with chemotherapy, but in 22 women chemotherapy was not applied. The following methods were used to carry out the research: the USG method was applied to evaluate thyroid morphological condition in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy; the color Doppler technique was used for dynamic presentation and fine- needle aspiration biopsy: examination of the thyroid functional state by measuring the TSH, fT3, fT4 hormone concentration and the level of antithyroid antibodies. Results: An average concentration of antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and anti-Tg was found significantly higher in the studied group of women after chemotherapy, comparing with the control group. The level of fT3 hormone concentration was comparable in all investigated groups. Nevertheless, the average concentration of TSH was found higher in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy and as a consequence leading to hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the high level of the concentration of antithyroid antibodies: (anti-TPO and anti- Tg), which lead to destruction of the thyroid gland tissue, the thyroid gland function of the women after mastectomy and chemotherapy should be monitored morphologically as well as functionally. (author)

  1. Uncertainties in determination of 131I activity in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The values of the iodine 131I uptake determined from the measurements with a NaI scintillation counter might be significantly influenced by the thyroid position in the human neck. It is shown that the ratio of the counting rate in the energy peak of 364 keV to the counting rate in the Compton scattering band can be used for the determination of the effective depth of the thyroid. The uncertainties of the standard method are discussed basing on results of calibration measurements. The investigations of 95 patients with different thyroid diseases showed that the measured iodine spectrum was considerably different from the standard for about 20% of them, indicating possible high uncertainties of the standard measurements, which assume a fixed thyroid depth of 20 mm. (authors)

  2. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  3. Effects of 131I on thyroid glands of guinea pigs of different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the limited data on age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, and because of a need for this information, we injected fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs with single, graded dosages of iodine-131. Dosages were 0 to 100 μCi 131I and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rads. Subsequent testing of the animals' thyroid glands, in terms of function and size, yielded this order of radiosensitivity: wealing > fetus > neonate > adult. The differences, with regard to effects per rad, did not appear to exceed a factor of 6 between the most and least radiosensitive age-groups

  4. Efficiency of a lead-containing tie for radiation protection of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fluoroscopy the examiner is usually protected by a radiation-reducing body shield, leaving the thyroid unprotected. The fact that the thyroid is located in a region of the neck usually covered by the shirt collar led to the idea of designing a tie with lead core, providing easy and ''decorative'' reduction of the radiation dose. Sonographic examinations were carried out in 20 volunteers (10 men, 10 women) to determine the size of the gland and its coverage by such a tie. The reduction of the surface and organ dose was assessed using film dosimetry with scattered radiation, the body of the examiner being simulated by an Alderson phantom. On average 88% of the thyroid gland surface area was covered. Surface dose was reduced to 1%, and organ dose to 10% of the value without the protection tie. (Author)

  5. Scintigraphic study of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of scintigraphic salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine. Patients were divided in two groups: null or mild dysfunction (grade I-II), moderate-severe dysfunction (grade III-IV) and statistical Mann-Whitney U test was applied. The radioiodine dose ranged between 80 and 200 mCi. Nineteen patients were found to be less affected (group 1), corresponding to grades I and II, and 11 patients were more affected (group 2), with grade III involvement. The severity of involvement of the salivary glands was not related with the dose of radioiodine used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and the sex of the patients had no clear influence either. Other factors are possibly related to the severity of salivary gland involvement

  6. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Misa Agustiño

    2012-07-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR, which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01 after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10 W/Kg or 0.104±5.10−3 W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity.

  7. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound. Thyroid screening participants were invited, with informed consent, from 6 exposed and 2 non-exposed villages of the Semipalatinsk region. Of those screened, 1320 were presumably exposed and 1678 presumably were not. This collaborative research project was supported by the CRDF, USA, International award no.KN2-434. Reconstructed average gamma dose was used as a preliminary index of total thyroid dose from internal and external sources of radiation exposure. Nodular thyroid gland was identified in 920 participants, of whom 500 were recommended for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). Nodule prevalence was 18% among men and 39% among women with a 3.5% per year positive gradient in prevalence overall by age at screening, and was significantly associated with estimated gamma radiation dose. Excess prevalence rate was approximately the same among men and women, with a 3-fold higher dose-specific relative risk among men compared to women. Prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased non-significantly with dose, but prevalence of follicular neoplasm was not associated with dose. Cytopathology review identified 30 papillary carcinomas in 27 cases and 10 follicular neoplasms in 10 cases. Some patients with thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer were referred to surgical department. They have been treated successfully by surgery or by percutaneus injection of erythrocyte pharmacocytes in accordance with our own procedure. Intraoperative thyroid tissue sampling was done to do some molecular and genetic investigation. Several aspects related to hormone status of thyroid patients, the thyroid gland function among various group of patients, morphological findings, surgical tactics and rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities living around the SNTS, will be presented. (author)

  8. Thyroid lesions in children and adolescents after the Chernobyl disaster: Implications for the study of radiation tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the most obvious effect is manifested by an increase in the prevalence of thyroid gland diseases in the exposed children and adolescents. In this study, we describe a comparative analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and morphological features of 92 malignant and 59 benign thyroid lesions from patients 5-18 yr of age exposed to radiation in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. All of them were operated at the same institution during the period from September 1991 through December 1992. The highest number of patients that subsequently developed thyroid carcinomas was in the group that was less that 1 yr of age at the time of Chernobyl, and this number decreased progressively through age 12 yr. Conversely, none of the patients with benign lesions only was less than 2 yr old at the time of the accident, and an exposure age of 5-6 yr was a threshold separating significant prevalence of malignant tumors in younger children from the more frequently benign lesions in older patients (P ≤ 0.001). Fifty-two percent of the children with carcinomas and only 24% with benign lesions (P ≤ 0.005) were residents of the Gomel region, which is the most contaminated in Belarus. The morphology of thyroid tissue adjacent to carcinomas showed a high prevalence of multinodular and diffuse changes, but not of adenomas or solitary adenomatoid nodules. There was a high prevalence of focal micropapillary hyperplasia with graded degrees of severity, which we hypothesize may correspond to precursors for papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl radiation-associated tumors. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-directed induction of the CREM gene in the thyroid gland participates in the long-term desensitization of the TSH receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Lalli, E.; Sassone-Corsi, P

    1995-01-01

    Thyroid gland function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis via the secretion of TSH, according to environmental, developmental, and circadian stimuli. TSH modulates both the secretion of thyroid hormone and gland trophism through interaction with a specific guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor (TSH receptor; TSH-R), which elicits the activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. After TSH stimulation, the levels of TSH-R RNA are known to decrease dramatically ...

  10. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.

  11. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Ga Ram [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.

  12. Diagnosis and Reporting of Follicular-Patterned Thyroid Lesions by Fine Needle Aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Faquin, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 3 decades, fine needle aspiration (FNA) has developed as the most accurate and cost-effective initial method for guiding the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules. Thyroid FNA specimens containing follicular-patterned lesions are the most commonly encountered and include various forms of benign thyroid nodules, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Based primarily upon the cytoarchitectural pattern, FNA is used as a scre...

  13. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-03

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  14. Clinical Significance of Diffuse 18F FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent 18F FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse 18F FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.21.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0664.6 vs. 57.346.4, P18F FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The 18F FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  15. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  16. 131I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    OpenAIRE

    V. Torlak; Zemunik, T.; D. Modun; Capkun, V; V. Pesutic-Pisac; Markotic, A.; M. Pavela-Vrancic; A. Stanicic

    2007-01-01

    Therapeutic doses of 131I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of 131I (64-277 µCi). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before 131I ad...

  17. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  18. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  19. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  20. Ocular surface and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Pelinsari Lana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Many reports have indicated an association between thyroid dieases and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of the tests used for dry eye diagnosis and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods: Forty-two patients (group 1 with autoimmune thyroid disease and 30 controls (group 2 were selected. Tear film break up time, Schirmer I test, Schirmer II test, ocular staining with 1% rose Bengal and salivary gland cintilography were performed in both groups. Results: Regarding the ocular surface damage observed by Rose Bengal test there was no difference between groups (p=0.77. For tear film break up time the groups did not differ statistically (p=0.46. There was no statistical difference between groups 1 and control in scintigraphy of the salivary gland (p=0.99. A statistical difference between the patients with thyroid disease and the control group was seem only in the Schirmer II test (p=0.0009. Conclusions: No patients fulfilled all criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. It is possible that it could be underestimated.

  1. Clinical evaluation of diffuse hyperperfusion in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate radionuclide angiography of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with bilateral diffuse hyperperfusion (BDH) on sup(99m) Tc-pertechnetate (sup(99m) TcO4-) radionuclide angiography of the thyroid gland were compared with other clinical informations (i.e. type of goiter, thyroid function, static image findings and final diagnosis) and evaluated its clinical significance. Out of 143 patients studied with radionuclide angiography of the thyroid gland, 1 patient showed marked and inhomogenous BDH. Former had multinodular goiter which showed multiple cold nodules on static image, and was euthyroid adenomatous goiter. Among the 42 patients with homogenous BDH, no correlation was found between the grade of BDH and type of goiter (p > 0.05) or thyroid function (p > 0.01). Homogenous BDH was found among patients with chronic thyroiditis, adenoma, differentiated adenocarcinoma, thyroid surgery, Graves' disease or normal thyroid. Among the patients with nodular goiter, BDH was noted in the patients with chronic thyroiditis (74%), adenoma (13%), differentiated adenocarcinoma (7%) and thyroid surgery (7%). In the case of nodular goiter with BDH and homogenous radionuclide accumulation on static image, the diagnosis of chronic thyroiditis was most likely, whereas nodular goiter with BDH and cold nodule, the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms was most likely. Although sensitivity and accuracy were low, both hypothyroid state with BDH and marked BDH regardless of thyroid function were specific for chronic thyroiditis (specificity; 100% and 94%, respectively). (author)

  2. Automated segmentation of thyroid gland on CT images with multi-atlas label fusion and random classification forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Chang, Kevin; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    The thyroid gland plays an important role in clinical practice, especially for radiation therapy treatment planning. For patients with head and neck cancer, radiation therapy requires a precise delineation of the thyroid gland to be spared on the pre-treatment planning CT images to avoid thyroid dysfunction. In the current clinical workflow, the thyroid gland is normally manually delineated by radiologists or radiation oncologists, which is time consuming and error prone. Therefore, a system for automated segmentation of the thyroid is desirable. However, automated segmentation of the thyroid is challenging because the thyroid is inhomogeneous and surrounded by structures that have similar intensities. In this work, the thyroid gland segmentation is initially estimated by multi-atlas label fusion algorithm. The segmentation is refined by supervised statistical learning based voxel labeling with a random forest algorithm. Multiatlas label fusion (MALF) transfers expert-labeled thyroids from atlases to a target image using deformable registration. Errors produced by label transfer are reduced by label fusion that combines the results produced by all atlases into a consensus solution. Then, random forest (RF) employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled thyroids to recognize features. The trained forest classifier is then applied to the thyroid estimated from the MALF by voxel scanning to assign the class-conditional probability. Voxels from the expert-labeled thyroids in CT volumes are treated as positive classes; background non-thyroid voxels as negatives. We applied this automated thyroid segmentation system to CT scans of 20 patients. The results showed that the MALF achieved an overall 0.75 Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the RF classification further improved the DSC to 0.81.

  3. Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

  4. Impact of TNM classification categories on thyroid gland carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, P.; Vlček, P.; Jirsa, Ladislav; Personová, K.

    Glasgow : BioScientifica, 2006. s. 938-938. ISSN 1470-3947. [European Congress of Endocrinology incorporating the British Endocrine Societies /8./. 01.04.2006-05.04.2006, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100750404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : TNM * thyroid carcinoma * tumor size * misclassification Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  5. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7-week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3–72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids. (author)

  6. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions

  7. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34?E-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34?E-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  8. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  9. Phototherapeutic Effect of Low-Level Laser on Thyroid Gland of Gamma-Irradiated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Nadia; Omran, Manar; Ghanem, Hala; Elahdal, Mahmoud; Kamel, Nashwa; Attia, Elbatoul

    2015-01-01

    One inescapable feature of life on the earth is exposure to ionizing radiation. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to gamma-radiation and endocrine disrupters. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to stimulate tissue repair, and reduce inflammation. The aim of this study was to gauge the value of using Helium-Neon laser to repair the damaged tissues of thyroid gland after gamma-irradiation. Albino rats were used in this study (144 rats), divided into control, gamma, laser, and gamma plus laser-irradiated groups, each group was divided into six subgroups according to time of treatment (total six sessions). Rats were irradiated once with gamma radiation (6 Gy), and an external dose of laser (Wavelength 632.8 nm, 12 mW, CW, Illuminated area 5.73 cm(2), 2.1 mW cm(-2) 120 s, 1.4 J, 0.252 J cm(-2)) twice weekly localized on thyroid region of the neck, for a total of six sessions. Animals were sacrificed after each session. Analysis included thyroid function, oxidative stress markers, liver function and blood picture. Results revealed improvement in thyroid function, liver function and antioxidant levels, and the blood cells count after LLLT. PMID:25975382

  10. Differentiation of thyroid lesion detected by FDG PET/CT using SUV ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the usefulness of SUV ratio to discriminate focal thyroid lesion incidentally detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET) in patients with malignant disease. A total of 2167 subjects with malignant tumor underwent PET/CT for staging. Forty-five of 2167 subjects (2.1%) showed hypermetabolic thyroid lesions on FDG PET. Of 45, 21 lesions were confirmed by pathology (n = 16) or follow up exam (n=5). Seventeen patients had focal FDG uptakes, while 4 patients had diffuse thyroid uptakes. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured by drawing region of interest (ROI) on bilateral thyroid lobes and liver. From 21 patients, 12 thyroid lesions were confirmed as malignant lesions and 9 lesions as benign lesions. All of bilateral thyroid FDG uptakes were determined as benign disease such as thyroiditis. From seventeen focal thyroid incidentaloma, FDG PET had 100 % (12/12) of sensitivity and 60 % (3/5) of specificity, retrospectively. Malignant nodules had a significantly higher lesion to liver ratio than those of benign nodules (2.10.9 vs. 1.20.6, p=0.029). With ROC curve, the best cut-off value of lesion to liver was 1.0 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 60 % (area under the curve=0.783). The SUV ratio of lesion to contralateral lobe do not have statistical significance to determine malignancy (3.72.1 vs. 2.61.7, p=0.079). This study showed that focal thyroidal FDG uptake detected by FDG PET could be differentiated with best performance by SUV ratio of lesion to liver.

  11. Differentiation of thyroid lesion detected by FDG PET/CT using SUV ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the usefulness of SUV ratio to discriminate focal thyroid lesion incidentally detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET) in patients with malignant disease. A total of 2167 subjects with malignant tumor underwent PET/CT for staging. Forty-five of 2167 subjects (2.1%) showed hypermetabolic thyroid lesions on FDG PET. Of 45, 21 lesions were confirmed by pathology (n = 16) or follow up exam (n=5). Seventeen patients had focal FDG uptakes, while 4 patients had diffuse thyroid uptakes. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured by drawing region of interest (ROI) on bilateral thyroid lobes and liver. From 21 patients, 12 thyroid lesions were confirmed as malignant lesions and 9 lesions as benign lesions. All of bilateral thyroid FDG uptakes were determined as benign disease such as thyroiditis. From seventeen focal thyroid incidentaloma, FDG PET had 100 % (12/12) of sensitivity and 60 % (3/5) of specificity, retrospectively. Malignant nodules had a significantly higher lesion to liver ratio than those of benign nodules (2.10.9 vs. 1.20.6, p=0.029). With ROC curve, the best cut-off value of lesion to liver was 1.0 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 60 % (area under the curve=0.783). The SUV ratio of lesion to contralateral lobe do not have statistical significance to determine malignancy (3.72.1 vs. 2.61.7, p=0.079). This study showed that focal thyroidal FDG uptake detected by FDG PET could be differentiated with best performance by SUV ratio of lesion to liver

  12. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  13. Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Mohan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification. Mature bone formation is a rare phenomenon, but extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH has also been rarely reported in thyroid gland. The combination of mature bone formation and EMH is rarer and has been reported, in a single case report, in a multinodular goitre. We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle- aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature.

  14. Thyroid gland state in persons of Kiev region after Chernobyl accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Chernobyl accident, the growth of thyroid pathology, particularly the children's thyroid cancer, has been noted in Kiev Region. Reconstruction of exposure doses on thyroid gland is one of the major problems on liquidation of medical effects of the Chernobyl accident. While accessing the dose load it is necessary to take into account not only iodine-131 contribution to the radiation load, but also that of other iodine short-living radionuclides as well as radionuclides of other chemical elements inhalated or swallowed into the organism. Analysis of pathological involvement of the thyroid gland is to be performed with regard for the state of other organs and systems, i.e. on the entire organism level, thyroid gland playing the leading role in its functioning

  15. Effect of bone-marrow protection on the development of radiation reaction in the thyroid gland in chronic X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexually mature mice were irradiated every day totally (whole body) or partially (subtotally) /with lead shielding of the lower extremities/ with a dose of 100 rad. Histological preparations of the thyroid gland were prepared on the first day after achievement of different total doses from 800 to 3200 rad. The morphological and functional state of the gland was evaluated by the height of the epithelian cells, the percentage of the gland components: epithelia, colloids and connective tissue and the percentage of follicules with colloid resorption zones. Once a total dose of 800 rad has been achieved in totally and subtotally exposed mice, a heterogeneous morphological pattern was observed - a manifestation of transition in the functional state of the gland from excitation to total inhibition. Identical morphological inhibition pattern was observed in totally and subtotally irradiated animals with 1600 rad. After total irradiation with 2400 rad an activation was more pronounced in shielded mice. After irradiation with the maximal total dose of 3200 rad, all totally irradiated animals were killed. In survived animals - subtotally irradiated with the same dose - parallel with areas of severe destructive lesions, areas of strumogenesis were observed as well. Thirty days after irradiation (with a total dose of 1600 rad) the restoration processes in the gland of subtotally irradiated mice were more complete and active. After a functional load - administration of the antithyroid preparation 6-methyl thiouracyl - the changes in the thyroid of totally irradiated animals were more serious than in subtotally irradiated ones. The results of this investigation indicate that bone marrow protection by shielding of sections of the bone marrow exerts beneficial influence on the radiation reaction in the thyroid gland, in the sense of a more rapid and complete course of the restoration processes in it. (A.B.)

  16. The effect of 131I on salivary glands function in 131I treated thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary glands can accumulate 131I and may damage its function during 131I treated thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study is to understand the extent of the injury and its relation with dosage after high-dose radioiodine therapy. Radionuclide dynamic imaging is used to quantitatively calculate the absorption rate and excretion rate of salivary glands. There was no significant difference between patients group and normal controls in absorption rate (P > 0.05), but there existed difference in excretion rate (P 37 MBq but among the groups with dosage 131I treatment

  17. Influence of the spleen on hydrocortisone receptors in thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sup (3)H-hydrocortisone is able to interact with homogenized glycocorticoid receptors of the thyroid cells of female rats. Five days old female rats were submitted during four days to subcutaneous treatment with 3,3 mg/kg b.w. of protein, extracted from the spleen of normal and schistosomotic animals, and were killed at 18 days old. Using the Scatchard analysis of the saturation curve, it was observed that the maximum number of hydrocortisone receptors (Bmax), changes as a function of treatments with the extracted protein from both normal and schistosomotic animals. An increase of 65% in Bmax for such animals relative to control occurred. Those results are in agreement with other studies [1, 2, 7] showing that the spleen of schistosomotic animals is able to inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, possibly acting on the hormonal regulation of growth and on the basic metabolism, with the ability of changing the number of the hydrocortisone receptors. (author)

  18. Assessment of the role of cone beam computed sialography in diagnosing salivary gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahed, Nagla' a; Abo-Taleb, Noha Saleh Mahmoud [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Korea, Republic of); Amer, Maha E. [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University, El Menia City (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess cone-beam computed (CBCT) sialography imaging in the detection of different changes associated with lesions of salivary glands. This study consisted of 8 cases with signs and symptoms from salivary gland lesions. Conventional sialography using digital panoramic and lateral oblique radiographs and CBCT sialography were performed for each subject. The radiographs were evaluated by 3 radiologists independently of each other. The results were compared between conventional sialography and CBCT sialography in the evaluation of various lesions associated with the salivary glands. There was an agreement between the radiologists in interpreting the lesions that affected salivary glands with both techniques. The detection of the presence of stones or filling defects, stenosis, ductal evagination, dilatation, and space occupying lesions was 83% for conventional sialography compared with CBCT sialography. CBCT sialography was superior to conventional sialography in revealing stones, stenosis, and strictures, especially in the second and third order branches. It would be advisable to perform CBCT sialography in cases of obstructive salivary gland diseases for better demonstration of the ductal system of the gland.

  19. Assessment of the role of cone beam computed sialography in diagnosing salivary gland lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess cone-beam computed (CBCT) sialography imaging in the detection of different changes associated with lesions of salivary glands. This study consisted of 8 cases with signs and symptoms from salivary gland lesions. Conventional sialography using digital panoramic and lateral oblique radiographs and CBCT sialography were performed for each subject. The radiographs were evaluated by 3 radiologists independently of each other. The results were compared between conventional sialography and CBCT sialography in the evaluation of various lesions associated with the salivary glands. There was an agreement between the radiologists in interpreting the lesions that affected salivary glands with both techniques. The detection of the presence of stones or filling defects, stenosis, ductal evagination, dilatation, and space occupying lesions was 83% for conventional sialography compared with CBCT sialography. CBCT sialography was superior to conventional sialography in revealing stones, stenosis, and strictures, especially in the second and third order branches. It would be advisable to perform CBCT sialography in cases of obstructive salivary gland diseases for better demonstration of the ductal system of the gland.

  20. The effect of MR contrast medium dose on pituitary gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and pituitary gland-to-lesion contrast conspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and gland-lesion contrast ratio in patient groups in which half-dose (HD), standard-dose (SD) and double-dose (DD) contrast medium was used in pituitary MR imaging. Pituitary gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement were measured and gland-lesion contrast ratios were calculated in 18 patients receiving HD (0.05 mmol/kg), 9 receiving SD (0.1 mmol/kg) and 13 receiving DD (0.2 mmol/kg) contrast medium. Gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement over baseline were determined employing DICOM region of interest measurements and compared after normalization to temporal lobe white matter. Contrast ratios and differences were also calculated and compared. Gland enhancement and lesion enhancement were greater with larger contrast medium doses (gland: HD 50%, SD 99%, DD 132%; microlesion: HD 19%, SD 54%, DD 86%). The gland-lesion contrast ratios were similar with the three doses (25.6%), reflecting expected similar fractional contrast medium distributions in spite of different doses. The signal difference between gland and microlesion, therefore, was a fixed percentage of gland enhancement (?S approximately 26%) with greater signal differences with larger contrast medium doses. Greater gland-to-lesion signal differences with larger contrast medium doses would likely improve pituitary microlesion visualization and margin characterization aiding in microlesion detection as well as preoperative planning. (orig.)

  1. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Hilsted, Linda; Main, Katharina M

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children. DE...

  2. Morbidity of the thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area after the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of accident on the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPP all the territory of Bryansk area underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. The density of losses has made from 1-5 up to 30 and more Ci/km2 on different areas. Besides in the territory of Bryansk area the deficiency of iodine is registered from easy weight up to an average degree. Among the problems of modern thyroidology the thyroid gland cancer takes a special place in connection with progressing increase of its frequency in zones of ecological trouble and iodic deficiency. The purpose of the given work consisted in estimation of dynamics of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area before and after accident on the Chernobyl NPP. For the period from 1975 to 1985 on the territory of Bryansk area 308 cases of thyroid gland cancer, including 2 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children (in 1975 and 1984) have been revealed. These years morbidity in Bryansk area has changed from 0,78 on 100000 population in 1975 up to 2,6 in 1981-1982. Since 1986 up to 2004 on territory of Bryansk area 2638 cases of thyroid gland cancer have been revealed. Morbidity of the given pathology has increased from 3,3 on 100 thousand population in 1986 up to 23,6 on 100 thousand in 2004. The highest all-Russian parameter of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer was in 2003 - 5,4. Thus, morbidity of thyroid gland cancer in our area since 1989 up to 1999 was on the average 2 times more, than across the Russian Federation, and in 1999-2004 - more than 3 times. Thus rates of the increase of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer at inhabitants of southwest territories (density of radioactive pollution of Cs 137 over 5 Ci/km2, more than at inhabitants of Bryansk area. The highest parameter on these territories is noted in 2004 (27,3), more than in 5 times more, than in the Russian Federation. The parity of men and women among inhabitants of Bryansk area, who fell ill with thyroid gland cancer before accident on the Chernobyl NPP changed from 1:4 up to 1:8. Laws of the parity of quantity of thyroid gland cancers revealed at men and women before accident in comparison with data after accident are not noted. For the after accident period (1986-2004) 57 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children of Bryansk area have been revealed, among them 49 underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. Since 1986 for 1990 it is the 5-4 years period after accident on the Chernobyl NPP, during this period the thyroid gland cancer has not been revealed at a single child. The basic peak of morbidity of children of Bryansk area by thyroid gland cancer has fallen to 1992-1999 when parameters of morbidity were at 10-20 time more, than across the Russian Federation. Thus parameters of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer among children of southwest territories exceeded the data on Bryansk area in several times. Possibly, growth of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer, both at children, and at adult inhabitants of Bryansk area is possible to consider as the phenomenon of oncoepidemiological character, connected with influence of radiation factors after the Chernobyl NPP accident

  3. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3{+-}11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1{+-}10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2{+-}12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2{+-}1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  4. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3±11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1±10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2±12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2±1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  5. Evaluation of focal thyroid lesions incidentally detected in fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Yaylali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Increased uptake in the thyroid gland (TG is often identified as an incidental finding on the whole body fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT in non-thyroid cancer patients. Currently, there is no consensus on the appropriate approach for the management of these cases. Thyroid ultrasound, scintigraphy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB are suggested to exclude malignant thyroid lesions. Our aim is to determine the importance of increased F-18-FDG uptake in the TG on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scans in patients who are being screened for various forms of non-thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 2000 cases undergoing whole body PET/CT scanning between April 2011 and October 2012. The age, sex, type of primary cancer, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max , size of the thyroid nodules and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs on 18 F-FDG PET/CT images and if available, the biopsy results were evaluated. Results: In total, 57 patients (23 men, 34 women, mean age ± standard deviation (SD, 60.89 ± 14 years showed an increased fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG uptake by the TG (average SUV max : 4.07 ± 3.7. The CLNs were detected in 19/57 patients (33%. Only 20 cases (35% received FNAB. The final histopathological diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma in seven patients (mean SUV max ± SD: 6.0 ± 5.43 and benign thyroid disease in seven patients (mean SUV max ± SD: 2.36 ± 0.63. The FNAB results were undetermined for six patients. Conclusion: Focal high 18 F-FDG uptake in the TG may be associated with an increased risk of malignancy, but the clinical significance is unclear. More data are needed to elucidate the role of the SUV in the differentiation of benign and malign thyroid lesions. If a focal increase in 18 F-FDG uptake in the TG on PET/CT is present, a prompt histopathological evaluation should be suggested to clinicians for definitive diagnosis.

  6. Detection of BRAF Gene Mutation in Preoperative Diagnostic of Thyroid Gland Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yu Semyonov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the utility of BRAFV600E mutation detection in preoperative thyroid cancer diagnostic. Material and methods: We studied 46 aspirates taken by FNA from patients with thyroid gland nodes. Thyroid tissue aspirates DNA was extracted by sorbent method. BRAF gene mutation was analyzed with primers specific for wild and mutant gen type by RT-PCR. Results: All patients were divided into three groups by cytological conclusions: colloid nodules (9, PTC (19, and suspicious for malignancy (18. In the group of patients with PTC all diagnoses were confirmed by histology, and BRAF gene mutation was detected in 15 (79% FNAB specimens. In the group with suspicious cytological diagnosis only one patient had follicular cancer by histology and positive BRAF mutation. There were detected no BRAF mutation in 16 patients with histologically proven follicular adenoma, in 9 patients with colloid nodular goiter and in one patient with follicular cancer. Thereby, we received the following criteria valuers of method’s reliability: sensitivity – 76%, specificity – 100%, diagnostic accuracy – 89%. Conclusions: Detection of the BRAFV600E mutation may be a useful adjunct marker for preoperative diagnostic of thyroid gland cancer.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ≤ 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

  8. Change of dynamics of development of a thyroid gland at children of school age of the both Gomel' and Mogilev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The given work estimates dynamics of development of a thyroid gland depending on age and anthopometrical parameters at children of school age. Results of work can be used in the further researches on the given subjects, for diagnostics of pathologies of a thyroid gland and their prevention, forecasting of groups of risk of diseases by a thyroid gland of children of school age and teenagers depending on development of anatomic, anthopometrical and age data. (authors)

  9. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: A puzzling entity on fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nasit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT is a rare unique but controversial thyroid neoplasm, characterized by prominent trabecular growth pattern and stromal hyalinization. Whether HTT is a benign tumor or a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is still unclear. Cytology findings of HTT have been described in few reports. Cytological features of HTT frequently overlap with those of PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma, which can lead to frequent misdiagnosis. In order to avoid overtreatment like total thyroidectomy, pathologist should be aware of cytological features of HTT. We present a case of 35-year-old female with a right-side thyroid swelling for three years. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed. According to The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, cytological diagnosis of benign thyroid neoplasm was made. Histopathology of the right thyroidectomy specimen showed HTT. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of HTT requires a very meticulous and cautious approach in the evaluation of cytological features. Trabecular pattern of cells, vague curved nuclear palisading, radiating arrangement of cells around hyaline material, spindled to elongated cells, filamentous cytoplasmic processes with ill-defined cell border and yellow bodies are important diagnostic features of HTT. Nuclear features alone are insufficient for the diagnosis of HTT. Any suspicious cytology of thyroid lesion should follow hemithyroidectomy and histopathological evaluation.

  10. Ameliorative Role of Marjoram Against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes in Thyroid Gland in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of marjoram, grey green leaf, against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland of male albino rats. Marjoram (100 mg/kg/day) was given to rats via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4.5 Gy) and the last dose of marjoram was administered 24 hr before irradiation. Thyroid gland was taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15 th day post-irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed significant decrease in serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and blood glutathione (GSH). Treatment with marjoram (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation induced toxicity in thyroid gland tissues which was evident by improved status of most parameters under investigation. These results suggest that marjoram could increase the antioxidant defence systems of thyroid gland and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation.

  11. Morphometric characteristic of rats cardiomiocytes with thyroid gland activated by magnetic field in condition of radiation immobilized stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiment with 30 white male rats the morphometric characteristics of cardiomiocytes at combined radiation immobilized stress and their correction by means of activation of thyroid gland by magnetic field were studied. At the stress the average value of mitochondria, crists in one mitochondria, total quantity of crists in one electronogram, area correlation of mitochondria and myofibrils, energetic coefficient of mitochondria were decreased. Previous magnetic activation of thyroid function limited a reduce of parameters caused by combined stress. Magnetic field effect on thyroid gland without the stress increases average value of crists in one mitochondria. These data confirm the protective role of magnetic activation of thyroid gland in condition of combined stress. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Estereologa de la Glndula Tiroides Humana Stereology of the Human Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Salgado A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La glndula tiroides es una glndula endocrina voluminosa, impar, mediana y simtrica, que ocupa la parte anterior del cuello, en la unin del tercio inferior con los dos tercios superiores. La unidad funcional y estructural de la glndula tiroides es el folculo tiroideo. Los folculos estn separados unos de otros por escaso tejido conectivo interfolicular. Se ha observado en modelos experimentales animales, diversos valores estereolgicos de clulas foliculares, parafoliculares y coloide. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si existe un patrn estereolgico en la glndula tiroides humana en un grupo etreo y sexo definidos. Para ello, se ocup una muestra de 6 glndulas tiroides humanas extraidas de cadveres no fijados, de individuos adultos de sexo masculino, sin antecedentes de patologa o alteracin tirodea.Se procesaron histolgicamente con H-E para su estudio estereolgico. Los resultados mostraron valores promedio para la densidad de volumen del tejido glandular (33,8% y del coloide (63,17%, densidad de superficie del folculo tirodeo (21,09 mm2/mm3, densidad de nmero de clulas foliculares (10,81 x 105 clulas/mm3 y parafoliculares (1,81 x 105 clulas/mm3. Conocido el volumen promedio de la glndula (21,3 mm3, se determin el nmero total de clulas foliculares (230,22 x 105 y parafoliculares (38,33 x 105. Adems, se determin el nmero de folculos por mm2 (46,18 folculos/mm2. El conocimiento previo de los valores numricos y proporciones normales esterelogicos permite establecer parmetros que determinen la alteracin hiper o hipotrfica de origen endmico o exgeno que lleven a estratificar ciertas alteraciones, hecho observado en modelos experimentales donde las diferencias son significativas.The thyroid gland is a an extensive, medium and symmetrical endocrine gland situated on the anterior side of the neck at the lower third and the upper third junction. The thyroid follicle is the functional and structural unit of the thyroid gland. Follicles are separated from each other by narrow interfollicular connective tissue. Stereological values of follicular, parafollicular and colloid containing follicles have been observed in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of a stereological pattern in the human thyroid gland defined by age and sex. A sample of six human thyroid glands of adult males with no history of thyroid disease or disorder obtained from non fixed human cadavers; of these cadavers the gland was removed and processed for thyroid follicle density (21.09 mm 2/mm 3, follicular cell number density (10.81 x10 5 cells/mm3 and parafollicular (1.81 x 10 cells/mm 3. With the average gland volume (21.3 mm 3 we determined the total number of follicular cells (230.22 x 10 5 and parafollicular (38.33 x 105. The number of follicles per mm 2 (46.18 follicles/mm2 was also determined. Prior information and knowledge of numerical values and normal stereological proportions provides excellent parameters for determining hyper or hypotrophic endemic or exogenous alterations leading to stratification of certain disorders which was already observed in experimental models where differences amongst models were significant.

  13. Fucus vesiculosus Ameliorates Histological and Biochemical Changes in Thyroid Gland and Ovary of Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of Fucus vesiculosus, a brownish-green seaweed, against gamma- radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland and ovary tissues of female albino rats. Fucus vesiculosus (100 mg/kg body weight/ day) was given to rats, via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4 Gy) and the last dose of Fucus vesiculosis was administered 60 minutes before irradiation. Thyroid gland and ovary were taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15th day post irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm, and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Observations of ovary sections showed dissolution of the majority of primary follicles, immature follicles and increased fibroblasts and inflammatory cells surrounded the dissolved follicles. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed a significant decrease in serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. Moreover, blood glutathione (GSH) content was decreased. Treatment with Fucus vesiculosus (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation-induced toxicity in the tissues, which was evident by improved status of most investigated parameters. These results suggest that Fucus vesiculosus could increase the antioxidant defense systems and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation

  14. Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

  15. Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study, study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants, exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid, language (German and English. The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive, work experience (junior and senior surgeons,distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation, more in-depth studies are required on the variations of radiation dose in orthopaedic staff, at different anatomical locations and situations.

  16. USING A NON-RADIOACTIVE IODINE AS A GATEKEEPER SUBSTANCE FOR THE THYROID GLAND FROM THE RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine is essential for the formation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, the two thyroid hormones that are essential for maintenance of normal metabolic rates in all the cells. The workers who exposed to radioactive iodine are that workers using radioimmunoassay techniques and those at reactors. The thyroid gland is a target organ of iodine thus, when it captured radioactive iodine as 125I and 131I through inhalation or food contamination, the thyroidal cells will be destroyed and the thyroid hormones production will be decreased leading hypothyroidism. Also, the individual living at places suffering from dietary iodine deficiency will need a source of iodine to maintain a normal level of thyroid hormones in blood. The present study aims to evaluate the protective dose of non-radioactive iodine, which saturate the cells of the thyroid gland with iodine and prevent entrance and capture of radioactive iodine by the thyroid cells and acting as a gatekeeper of the thyroid gland during manipulation of radioactive iodine and radioactive accidents. This study also evaluated the expected dose of iodine intake for the people suffering from dietary iodine deficiency

  17. Dynamic MR imaging for diagnosis of lesions adjacent to pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Matsushita, Tsuyoshi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Kobayashi, Keiko; Horichi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Tachibana, Osamu; Yamashita, Junkoh

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of dynamic studies for the preoperative diagnosis of tumor lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland. We examined 13 tumors. We obtained pre- and post-contrast thin slice T1-weighted images of the sellar regions. FSE sequences were used for dynamic study. The capability to distinguish the tumor from the pituitary gland and additional information obtained from the dynamic study were evaluated. Two meningiomas were identified more clearly on the dynamic than on the delayed study. In two cavernous hemangiomas, the peripheral nodular stains gradually increased during the dynamic study. For the preoperative evaluation of lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland, the dynamic study can often identify the lesions more clearly and may provide additional information.

  18. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  20. Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumor with Thyroid Gland Metastasis: Case Report

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    Cristina Corina Pop Radu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NET represent approximately 20% of all primary neoplasms of the lung. Histologic confirmation is important for treatment and prognosis determination. NET are classified according to four subtypes in the lung: typical carcinoid tumor (TC, atypical carcinoid tumor (AC, small cell carcinoma (SCC, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC. TC is low-grade, AC is intermediate-grade, and SCC and LCNEC are high-grade malignancies. Case report: A 57 years old woman, affected by a cervical anterior tumor and a proliferative tissue below the glottis was referred to our Endocrinology Department from ENT service for a second opinion. An ultrasound scan of the neck showed a polynodular goiter with bilaterally lymph nodes enlargement with suspicious malignancy characters. She had undergone surgery for the cervical anterior mass and for the laryngeal biopsy. Histopathological examination results were consistent with a SCC; neoplastic cells showed immunoreactivity to synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase and chromogranin. The serum levels of serotonin, cromogranin A, calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, ACTH, PTH, TSH, FT4 were normal. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of her left thyroid lobe nodule was performed and the cytopathological exam was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. Thoracic and abdominal computed tomography was normal at that moment. Chest CT revealed the primary pulmonary tumor at 6 months after presentation. The therapeutic option for advanced or metastatic NETs is mainly palliation of symptoms; options need to be individualized and, therefore, rely on the knowledge of multidisciplinary teams.

  1. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

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    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  2. Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report

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    Ohbuchi Toyoaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and extending nearly to the anterior cervical skin. A migratory fish bone was suspected, and the foreign body was removed under general anesthetic, combined with a hemithyroidectomy. The injured esophageal mucosa was sutured and closed. Our patients postoperative course was uneventful, and she was allowed oral food intake seven days after the surgery. No evidence of recurrence was seen over the postoperative follow-up period of 42?weeks. Conclusion We should be aware that fish bone foreign bodies may migrate out of the upper digestive tract and lodge in the thyroid gland.

  3. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinical and pathologic study of twenty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasbach, D A; Mondschein, M S; Harris, N L; Kaufman, D S; Wang, C A

    1985-12-01

    Among 20 patients with malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland, the mean age at diagnosis was 63 years and the male to female ratio was 1:6. All patients had a firm, rapidly enlarging neck mass. In 90% of the patients the mass had been present for less than 1 year; in 40%, for less than 1 month. Approximately half of the patients tested had hypothyroidism; three fourths had elevated antithyroid antibodies. There was one nodular lymphoma. The remaining 17 cases available for review were diffuse. Thyroid lobectomy was performed in seven patients, limited excision in eight, and needle biopsy alone in five. External irradiation was administered in 11 cases (55%). Chemotherapy was used alone in one patient (5%) and in combination with radiotherapy in eight (40%). Six patients (30%) were alive without evidence of recurrent disease at follow-up ranging from 1 to 12 years. Eleven patients had died of lymphoma, all but one dying within 1 year. One patient died of other causes and two were lost to follow-up study. There was no appreciable effect of patient age or sex, lymphoma histology, or extent of surgical resection on survival. Treatment of choice for primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland appears to be external irradiation or chemotherapy, alone or in combination. The role of surgery is limited to making a tissue diagnosis of lymphoma, unless the tumor is completely intrathyroidal. PMID:3906977

  4. Thinking About Your Thyroid: Get to Know This Small But Mighty Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid to be over-active, while one called Hashimoto’s disease can make the thyroid under-active. Thyroid ... Weight loss Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Thyroid Tests Graves’ Disease Hashimoto’s Disease Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Thyroid Cancer CONTACT ...

  5. Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter. Initial feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine (RI) such as 131I or 124I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with ?-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of 124I. Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) or ?-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies. (author)

  6. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  7. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  8. Body, heart, thyroid gland and skeletal muscle weight changes in rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Jirmanová, Isa

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2001), s. 619-626. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid state * skeletal muscles * body and organ weight Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  9. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in AIDS patients: CT characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast agent-enhanced CT scans in nine male patients with histologically proved benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the perotid gland were reviewed. All scans showed cystic-appearing masses with peripheral rim enhancement corresponding to the macroscopic appearance of the lesion. Five patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or had infections seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Three patients were members of high-risk groups. Only one patient had symptoms of the SICCA syndrome. Once a rare cause of parotid gland enlargement, benign lymphoepithelial lesions have recently been seen with increasing frequency in patients with HIV infection. Although the CT appearance is not pathognomic, correlation results of aspiration cytology and with clinical history can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion

  10. Comparison of three methods used for measurement of radioiodine fixation in thyroid gland of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Marija Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare the results of estimation of radioiodine uptake using three methods in a study on mice, and to test reliability of the radioiodine uptake estimation by gamma camera. The study is conducted on 21 white, Swiss-type mice of both sex at age of 10 weeks, weighing between 25 g and 34 g. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.37 ± ± 0.03 MBq of radioiodine 131I. After 72 hours the mice were anesthetized, and radioactivity of thyroid region was measured by gamma camera (the 1st method, in situ. After the measurement, the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were carefully excised together with adjacent trachea and placed at the bottom of a test tube. The radioactivity of the excised tissue was then measured by both gamma camera (the 2nd method and gamma counter (the 3rd method. This method is treated as a standard and the most accurate. In the study we used Siemens e_cam gamma camera and Wallac Wizard 1470 Automatic Gamma counter. The radioiodine fixation determined using those three methods was 25.25 ± 7.32%, 26.08 ± ± 8.55% and 25.74 ± 7.18%, without statisticaly significant difference s between methods (p > 0.05. The high correlation between the three methods of measuring radioiodine fixation in thyroid gland was observed: (1 the correlation coefficient between the fixation rate obtained by gamma camera in situ and the fixation rate obtained by measuring the radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma camera was 0.869 (p < 0.01; (2 the correlation coefficient between fixation rate obtained by gamma camera in situ and the fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma counter was 0.890 (p < 0.01; (3 the correlation coefficient between fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma camera and the fixation rate obtained by measuring radioactivity of extirpated thyroids by gamma counter was 0.835 (p < 0.01.

  11. Effects of Menopause and Diabetes on the Rat Thyroid Gland: A Histopathological and Stereological Examining

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    Zeliha Yetim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Menopause is described as the arrest of the menstruation cycle and ending of reproductive potential. Diabetes mellitus (DM occurs with Type 1 diabetes that is originated from the absence of insulin and Type 2 diabetes depending on insulin resistance. It is one of the most common endocrine disorders encountered in clinical practice that can cause serious health complications. Therefore, the objective of the present thesis was to investigate the effects of menopause and diabetes upon the thyroid using a rat model. Materials and Methods: 24, 12 weeks old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into; non-diabetic healthy control group (Group I, n = 6, diabetic group (Group II, n = 6, ovariectomy group (Group III, n = 6, and ovariectomy plus diabetic group (Group IV, n = 6, respectively. Results: In histopathological examinations, the thyroid gland of the diabetic group had large follicles with cuboidal or almost squamous epithelial lining surrounding wide lumen. There were areas of disorganized follicles with decreased colloid. In the ovariectomized (OVX rats, there was hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and disorganized follicles with complete obstruction of their lumina. Mitotic cells were available. Some parafollicular cells had lack of cytoplasm. Post ovariectomy diabetes-induced group (Group IV, there were some species between follicles and remarkable reduction of colloid. Hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles, solid cell nests, and mitotic cells were also seen increasingly in this group. Follicular lumen area of ovariectomy group is closer to the control group. The increase of the lumen area in the DM group was the largest, diabetes+ovariectomy group also had an increase in the follicular lumen area. Conclusion: Finally; postmenopausal aging and diabetes in rats, may cause thyroid degeneration. DM and menopause both cause oxidative stress. But their damages on thyroid tissue are different. It means they cause oxidative stress via different ways. DM + OVX group compared to other groups has the greatest damage. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(2.000: 49-53

  12. Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in Treatment.

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    Bhattacharya A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid surgeons are becoming increasingly more aware of a histologically distinct subset of thyroid carcinoma whose classification falls between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas with respect to both cell differentiation and clinical behavior. This subtype of tumors has been categorized as poorly differentiated or insular carcinoma, based on its characteristic cell groupings. Although the differentiation of insular carcinoma from other thyroid carcinomas has important prognostic and therapeutic significance, relatively little about insular carcinoma has been published in the otolaryngology literature. In this article, we discuss a case of insular carcinoma of thyroid presenting with concurrent distant metastasis to skull, lung, ribs, and inguinal region with review of the literature. We conclude that insular thyroid carcinoma warrants aggressive management with total thyroidectomy and excision of accessible giant lesion followed by radioactive iodine ablation of any remaining thyroid tissue.

  13. [Character of the changes in the thyroid gland of animals maintained on a vegetable oil diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, Iu N; Kalinina, N I

    1977-01-01

    The effect produced by different quantities of sunflower seed oil on some iodine metabolic rates was studied in experiments on 44 albino male-rats. Rations containing 27 and 54 per cent (in terms of calorific value) of sunflower seed oil were found to have an adverse effect on the condition of the thyroid gland. Rations with the said quantities of vegetable oil inhibit the mechanisms governing the transformation of inorganic and hormonally inactive organic compounds of iodine in its hormonally active forms. With the iodine content in the diet in an amount of 40-80 microgram this circumstance, however, does not have any essential effect on the level of the iodine binding by the thyroid tissue proteins and blood serum. PMID:602104

  14. Effect of reserpine on salivary gland radioiodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients with thyroid cancer were treated with reserpine in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure to the salivary glands from 100-150 mCi doses of I-131 therapy to thyroid remnants or metastases. Three control patients were not treated with reserpine but did receive 100-150 mCi of I-131. Parotid/background ratios of activity after radioablative doses of I-131 in patients not treated with reserpine were significantly higher than the patients treated with reserpine, and this was also true seven days after the radioablative dose. Combined therapy with reserpine, chewing gum, lemon candies, and hydration is suggested for the prevention of sialadenitis and xerostomia due to large doses of radioiodine

  15. Effects of Imbalance in Trace Element on Thyroid Gland from Moroccan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadeli, Sana; Bouhouch, Sabir; Skalny, Anatoly V; Barkouch, Yassir; Pineau, Alain; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Sedki, Azeddine

    2016-04-01

    The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status. However, other trace elements like selenium and zinc can influence the thyroid function. Hair samples (n = 68) were collected from goitrous and non-goitrous children aged 8-12 years living in the area of Al Haouz Marrakech-(Morocco). Trace element concentrations (Cr, Fe, Mg, Zn, Se, I) in hair were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Difference in the mean concentration of each trace element between groups was determined by ANOVA test. The mean concentration levels of I, Se, and Zn for goitrous children were lower and were similar to the mean concentrations reported in the literature for subjects with goiter. The regression results gave us a better model that revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Zn contents and significant negative relation with I and Se. The overall findings of the present study revealed that the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increase are I and Se deficiency. This work could shed some light on the effects of trace elements-other than iodine-on the thyroid disorders. PMID:26315305

  16. Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of radiation dose to the radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues - ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands - during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty (DCP). Method: Radiation dose was determined in an Alderson Rando phantom and in 13 patients. Radiation dose was measured directly using Ca-F2-thermoluminescent dosimetry crystals (TLD) which were placed on each eyelid, parotid gland and thyroid gland. Results: The mean radiation dose to the lens placed next to the path of radiation was 6.58 mGy in the Alderson-Rando phantom and 5.43 mGy in patients during DCP. The mean radiation dose to the contralateral lens was 1.37 mGy and 1.7 mGy to the parotid gland placed next to the X-ray tube. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland was max. 0.4 mGy during DCP. Conclusion: Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid gland and throid gland during fluoroscopy-guided DCP was 25 times higher than during diagnostic dacryocystography. The radiation dose to radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues during fluoroscopy-guided DCP is much below the threshold dose for ocular lens cataract. (orig.)

  17. HIGH RESOLUTION SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF PALPABLE THYROID LESIONS WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION- A PROSP ECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Thyroid lesions are found in 3-7% of population wor ldwide. The overwhelming majority of thyroid nodules are benign in nature. Thyroid ca ncers are rare; however thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy involving the endocrine glan ds and is responsible for approximately 1.5% of new cancer cases annually. The clinical challeng e is to distinguish the few clinically significant malignant nodules from the many benign nodules beca use malignant thyroid lesions shows good long term prognosis after surgical excision. Aims : To Assess the sensitivity and specificity of sonographic findings in differentiation of benign a nd malignant thyroid lesion. Method: A hospital based prospective study was done on 100 patients wi th palpable thyroid nodules using high resolution ultrasonography and findings correlated with fine needle aspiration cytology. Result: Sensitivity and Specificity of sonography to differ entiate benign and malignant thyroid lesions (FNAC correlation was 70.59 % & 96.39 % respectively. Pr esence of non shadowing echogenic cholesterol crystals showed high sensitivity of 58.70 % and spe cificity of 83.33 % for benign thyroid nodules. Sensitivity and Specificity of absence of thin peri pheral halo around malignant lesions were 70.4 % & 65.8% respectively. Sensitivity and Specificity of hypoechogenicity for malignant lesions were 64.71 % and 98.80 %.Presence of fine calcification was sh owing high Sensitivity & Specificity of 64.71 % and 93.98 % respectively in malignant lesions. Pred ominant intra-nodular colour flow pattern in solid nodules was predictive of malignancy with Sensitivi ty 82.35 and Specificity 84.34 %. Higher RI value (greater than 0.77 were significantly found in mal ignant lesions with sensitivity of 78.57 % and specificity of 92.31%. Solid and predominantly soli d lesions show high Sensitivity, Specificity for being a malignant lesion 70.59 % & 55.42 respective ly but less Positive Predictive Value of24.49 %. Conclusion: Sonographic characteristics of marked hypoechoic ec hotexture, solid and predominantly solid nature, absence of peripheral halo, presence of cholesterol crystals, fine calcification, and internal vascularity with high resistive index show high diagnostic accuracy to differentiate benign and malignant lesions.

  18. Investigation of the results of therapy of anaplastic thyroid gland carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the treatment of 28 patients with an anaplastic thyroid gland carcinoma are investigated, to see whether an optimal therapy is indicated. The execution of an operation before radiotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis (statistically this conclusion is not wholly justified). The presence of metastases at the beginning of the therapy gave rise to a worse prognosis than the absence of metastases. The combination treatment of chemotherapy and either surgery or radiotherapy was only applied to two patients so no conclusions can be made about its benefit. (C.F.)

  19. Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

  20. [Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, less common disorder of the thyroid gland complicating the pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajka, L; Binder, T

    2016-12-01

    The case report focuses on the case of heavy Graves - Basedow thyreotoxicosis in 33 years old secundipara who was transferred to our departement from regional hospital for decompensation of gestational hypertension, oligohydramnios and the suspition on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In our clinical praxis the problems of thyroid gland in terms of its reduced function in pregnant women are getting more frequent. The goal of this article is to describe the less often situation, the hyperthyroidism in the third trimestr of the pregnancy. Thyretoxicosis in pregnancy is associated with higher risk of preterm labour, preeclampsia, IUGR, heart failure and stillbirth. Some of these complications confirmes our case report. PMID:26741159

  1. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  2. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY IS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN THE THYROID LESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules the main indication for FNAC, and the goal of this diagnostic procedure is to detect thyroid neoplasm for surgical resection and to identify non-neoplastic lesions that may be managed conservatively. MATERIAL AND METHOD Three hundred and fourteen patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed on physical examination underwent fine-needle aspiration with 23-gauge needle and 10ml syringe. FNAC results were classified into non-neoplastic lesion and neoplastic lesion for diagnosis. RESULT AND ANALYSIS We included 314 cases; 37 were male and 277 were female with female-to-male ratio of 7.48:1. The age ranged from 8 to 87 years with a median age of 47.5 years. Maximum number of patients were found in age group of 41-50 years. In the present study we found 285(90.76% non-neoplastic lesion and 29(9.23% neoplastic lesions. Out of 285 non-neoplastic lesion, most commonly encountered were colloid goiter 178(56.68% and second most common thyroiditis 100(31.84%. Out of 314,29(9.23% neoplastic lesions, most commonly encountered neoplasm were papillary carcinoma 14(4.45% followed by 9(2.86% follicular neoplasm, Hurthle cell neoplasm 2(0.63%, medullary carcinoma 4(1.27%. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ? To study the distribution of various thyroid lesions among the age and sex groups. ? To study the cytomorphological, clinical and biochemical correlation. CONCLUSION Clinical features and serum findings when used alone to diagnose thyroid lesion, diagnosis will be missed in many cases.

  3. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File Formats ...

  4. Radio-in-vitro investigation of the thyroid gland situation of fullterm newborn babies immediately post partum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    145 cord sera from fullterm, vital eutrophic newborn babies of uncomplicated pregnancies have been tested for the thyroid gland parameters RT3-U, ST3-U, T4, T3, T4/T3-ratio, total balance of free iodine-hormone indices and TSH to answer the questions of the thyroid gland situation. In the fullterm newborn baby an euthyroid metabolic balance was found on comparison with the simultaneously determined thyroid specific situation of the adult. The T3-situation is identical with that of the euthyroid adult. Thyroid levels, the conversion of T4 to T3 as well as the values of the total balance are slightly elevated, like in women under contraceptive hormone therapy. The basal TSH secretion immediately post partum is similar to the one on day 5 post partum. (orig.)

  5. Ionizing radiation effects on thyroid gland state and peroxidation of lipids in adult and old rats with a hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the results of studies of peculiarities of thyroid gland (TG) state and antioxidant/prooxidant balance in the organism of adult and old (4 and 22 months) rats with hyperthyroidism after a single X-ray irradiating at the dose of 4.3 Gy. On the data on the levels of thyroid hormones in blood, body and TG mass, the indices of specific secretion of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were calculated

  6. A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Cuevas, S.; Baena Ocampo, L. [Hospital de Oncologia (Mexico). Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery

    1995-12-01

    This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient`s pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author).

  7. A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient's pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author)

  8. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  9. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia in a complex neoplastic lesion involving anogenital mammary-like glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazmitel, Marina; Pavlovsky, Michal; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2009-10-01

    Anogenital mammary-like glands (AMLG) may give rise to various pathologic lesions identical to those known in mammary pathology. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a relatively frequent hormonal change associated with different benign and malignant processes in the breast, was only once mentioned in the literature concerning the pathology of AMLG. We present here a new case of PASH in a lesion of AMLG. The present case of PASH is remarkable because of its occurrence within a complex lesion evidencing the changes identical to or reminiscent of blunt duct adenosis, fibroadenoma and hidradenoma papilliferum. PMID:19508499

  10. Comparison of skin absorbed radiation dose in thyroid gland area during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Akhlaghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid gland is one of the critical organs during radiation in the head and neck region. The aim of this study was to compare absorbed radiation dose by skin in the thyroid area during spiral tomography and panoramic radiography by means of thermoluminance dosimetry (TLD.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six LiF (TLD-100 thermoluminescence dosimetry chips were utilized in this experimental in vitro study. One TLD chip was placed on the tube side and another was placed on the opposite side of the thyroid gland of a sliced anatomic Alderson head and neck phantom during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography. The dosimeters were read by a SOLARO 2A TLD reader twice followed by calculation of the absorbed dose. The results were analyzed by Wilcoxon’s test at a confidence interval of 95%.Results: The mean dose for screen-film panoramic radiographs was 34 µGy in the left thyroid and 39 on the right side. With spiral tomography the thyroid gland received a mean dose of 30‒71 µGy. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean thyroid doses between anterior and posterior spiral tomography and panoramic examination (p value > 0.05.Conclusion: Skin absorbed radiation dose of a tomographic examination, which includes four sections with a specific thickness, are almost comparable to that with a panoramic radiographic technique. Key words: Absorbed dose, Spiral tomography, Panoramic radiography.

  11. SALIVARY GLAND LESIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 100 CASES OF SALIVARY SWELLING PRESENTING FOR FNAC AT CYTOPATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT, CIMS, BILASPUR

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    Ganguly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine - needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the salivary gland is a time tested, cost effective, reliable and safe technique in the diagnosis of both neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions of the salivary gland. It also helps to eliminate confusion with lymphadenopathies as there is a lot of overlap in the clinical presentation of both saliv ary gland and lymph node swellings. Here we aim to study the incidence of common salivary gland pathologies in our set up and also attempt to analyze the role of FNAC in differentiating between sialadenopathies and lymphadenopathies. METHODS: A retrospecti ve study of 100 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with salivary gland pathologies and referred to Cytopathology Section, Department of Pathology, CIMS, Bilaspur for FNAC was conducted from 01.04.2004 to 07.05.2010. Clinically diagnosed lymph node s wellings which subsequently evinced salivary gland cytopathology were also included in this study. The lesions were classified based on cytomorphological diagnostic criteria and different incidental parameters like age, sex, location, presenting symptoms, duration of complaints etc were calculated. RESULTS: The lesions were broadly categorized cytomorphologically into non - neoplastic salivary gland lesions (42.5%, benign neoplastic salivary gland lesions (46.25% and malignant salivary gland lesions (11.25 % after excluding the negative results (aspiration failure, inadequate material, non salivary cytopathology. M : F Ratio was 1.56:1 (61:39. Parotid was the most common salivary gland involved (47.5%. The most common benign salivary neoplasm was pleomorph ic adenoma (38.75% and the most common malignant neoplasm was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (7.5% . CONCLUSION: FNAC is a reliable, safe and simple outpatient procedure in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, and is also of some value in distinguishing sal ivary lesions from clinically indistinguishable non salivary swellings occurring in the same locations

  12. The usefulness of Al face block fabrication for reducing exposure dose of thyroid glands in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Eun Ae [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Currently, there are many studies being conducted around the world to reduce exposure dose to radiation for patients to receive medical treatments in a safe environment. We developed and fabricated of this shield that the patients are protected from the radiation and are need of safety control during breast imaging. In this study, for breast imaging, GE Senography 2000D were used and set at SID 65 cm, 28 kVp, and 63 mAs. The measuring instrument was Flukes Victoreen 6000-529. And we performed Face Block on with 30 patients. The chamber on the actual thyroid glands to take CC and MLO and measure the dosage before and after wearing the Face Block. For the results, after wearing the Face Block, exposure was decreased by 53.8%-100% and 65.8% in average in CC View and by 50%-100% and 60.7% in average in MLO View. The development of the Face Block that practically decreased the exposure dose of thyroid glands, crystalline eyes during breast imaging and reduced the patients anxiety during breast imaging. The Face Block is expected to improve patients satisfaction and contribute to reducing patients exposure dose, but more efforts should be made to reduce exposure dose to medical radiation.

  13. The usefulness of Al face block fabrication for reducing exposure dose of thyroid glands in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there are many studies being conducted around the world to reduce exposure dose to radiation for patients to receive medical treatments in a safe environment. We developed and fabricated of this shield that the patients are protected from the radiation and are need of safety control during breast imaging. In this study, for breast imaging, GE Senography 2000D were used and set at SID 65 cm, 28 kVp, and 63 mAs. The measuring instrument was Flukes Victoreen 6000-529. And we performed Face Block on with 30 patients. The chamber on the actual thyroid glands to take CC and MLO and measure the dosage before and after wearing the Face Block. For the results, after wearing the Face Block, exposure was decreased by 53.8%-100% and 65.8% in average in CC View and by 50%-100% and 60.7% in average in MLO View. The development of the Face Block that practically decreased the exposure dose of thyroid glands, crystalline eyes during breast imaging and reduced the patients anxiety during breast imaging. The Face Block is expected to improve patients satisfaction and contribute to reducing patients exposure dose, but more efforts should be made to reduce exposure dose to medical radiation

  14. [Studies of the morphology of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone levels in the blood of rats in experiments on "Kosmos-1667" and "Kosmos-1887"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhuta-Plakutina, G I; Kabitskiĭ, E N; Dmitrieva, N P; Amirkhanian, E A

    1990-01-01

    Using histological, electron microscopic, and biochemical (measurement of total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in plasma) method, thyroid glands of 17 male rats of the Wistar SPF strain flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 and for 13 days on Cosmos-1887 were investigated. It was found that a longer exposure to space flight effects (for 13 days) led to a thyroid activity decline (significant reduction of thyrocyte size and nuclear area, accumulation of colloid drops in the cytoplasm, decrease of iodinated thyroglobulins in the colloid, etc.) together with a substantial decrease of T4 and T3 in plasma. The above structural and functional changes in the thyroid gland and hormonal status are characteristic of a moderate stress-reaction and reflect variations of the early and intermediate stages of adaptation to microgravity during 7- and 13-day space flights. PMID:2214661

  15. 3-Cloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a rat thyroid gland carcinogen, does not affect serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen; Tuominen; Kosma; Huuskonen

    2000-06-01

    3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a chlorine disinfection by-product in drinking water, causes follicular adenomas and carcinomas in thyroid glands of Wistar rats with an unknown mechanism. We evaluated effects of MX on blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) levels in male and female Wistar rats to assess their role in the tumorigenesis. The levels of TSH, PRL and GH in serum of male rats were not significantly affected by a single dose of 1, 10 or 60 mg/kg of MX administered by gavage 2 h before sampling. In repeated dose experiments MX was administered at dose levels of 1, 10 or 60 mg/kg of MX (40 mg/kg for females) in water by gavage daily for 1 or 3 weeks. Thyroid glands, adrenal glands and the liver were evaluated for morphological changes and cell proliferation activity after staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The dose of 60 mg/kg MX was toxic upon repeated administration. Nevertheless, MX did not affect blood TSH and T(4) levels at any time point in either sex. T(3) concentration increased transiently in males (by 37% after week 1) at the highest MX dose but not in females. MX did not change the weights of thyroid glands, their morphology and cell proliferation activity by the end of the week 3. MX did not affect blood PRL levels but decreased GH levels in males at all doses after the first week of MX treatment. The results indicate that MX does not alter blood TSH and thyroid hormone levels in rats, and imply that MX may not cause thyroid follicular cell tumors by TSH-mediated hormonal promotion. PMID:10996547

  16. The uptake of 125I by the thyroid gland and its morphological maturity in newly hatched duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histological observations revealed that in two-day-old ducklings the thyroids were very differentiated. In some birds they were very poorly developed, i.e. the tissue was not organized into follicles, whereas in others there was a structure almost typical of this gland. The thyroids of ducklings nine days old presented an almost normal histological picture and only small islands of the tissue not organized into follicles were visible. The less developed were the thyroids the higher was their 125I uptake. (author)

  17. A THYROID GLAND SHOWING PYRAMIDAL LOBE WITH LEVATO R GLANDULAE THYROIDEA .

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    Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Literature is replete with wide range of common and rare variations of thyroid gland. The presence of pyramidal lobe (accessory lo be a rostral directed stalk that results from the retention and growth of the caudal end of thyroglossal duct and fibrous or fibromuscular levator glandulae thyroidea (LGT ari sing from its apex are commonly occurring variations . A 50 yrs Old Male Cadaver showed leva tor glandulae thyroidea with cranio caudal extension from the body of the hyoid bone to the ap ex of pyramidal lobe which was projecting upwards from the left th of isthmus without any encroachment on the left lo be of the thyroid gland. In the groove clearly demarcating pyramidal lobe from the left lobe, a glandular branch of anterior branch of left superior thyroid artery w as seen. It entered the pyramidal lobe inferiorly, just above the lower border of the isth mus. Just adjacent to the right lobe a small portion of isthmus with prominent and free upper border and lower border is seen. Due its frequent presence it may not be fascinating to the Anatomists but can definitely challenge the skill o f operating neck surgeons performing thyroidectomies, lobectomies and isthmusectomies an d Otolaryngologists performing tracheostomies ,tracheotomies and laryngotomies. T he wide range of variations in the number, size, extent and consistency of the levator glandul ae thyroidea (LGT and pyramidal lobe necessitate the pre operative ultrasonographic examina tion or scintigraphical images or intense contrast enhancement on CT/MRI scan for total anato mical details enabling relatively a safer surgery.

  18. The use of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, Roberto F; Phan, Mimi N; Keshava, Keerthana; Jose M. Garcia; Grosu, Horiana; Lazarus, D Ray; Iribarren, Juan; Rosen, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-palpable thyroid nodules can be difficult to access by conventional ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration, particularly when they are intrathoracic. Many of these patients are subject to multiple follow up scans or invasive diagnostic procedures such as mediastinoscopy or surgical resection. We aim to describe the feasibility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for diagnosis of thyroid lesions. Methods All EBUS-TBNA performed at ou...

  19. Vitiliginous lesions during contact immunotherapy for alopecia in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Yasunobu Kato; Toshiyuki Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is frequently used for the treatment of alopecia, but sometimes unwanted side effects occur. Herein we report a case which developed vitiliginous lesions induced by topical SADBE application in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis. A 60-year-old female visited our department, complaining of diffuse alopecia of the scalp. She was suffering from chronic autoimmune thyroiditis over several years, and taking thyradin (90mg per day).

  20. [The thyroid gland--running the show behind the scenes--2nd part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdenka, L

    2009-01-01

    This paper follows on the previous article and describes the consequences of thyroid dysfunction in other medical branches. When treating celiac disease gastroenterologists should look for coincidentile hypothyreosis, which may also be associated with atrophic gastritis. Treatment by proton pump blockers may influence resorbtion of levothroxin. Heart disease problems in patients with thyreopathy is well known, yet further diagnostic methods may probably reveal even more nuanced heart complications in subclinical cases. The development of autoimmune disease is influenced by treatment with interferon, which is used in other medical branches. In female patients with breast cancer, antithyroid antibodies are found more frequently, and also subclinical dysfunctions are discovered more often than in the control group. Co-operation between gynecologists and endocrinologists may yield significant results, since a min, 4% of pregnant women are unaware of their thyroid malfunction. The malfunction may have negative impact on fetus psychomotoric development. Active search for thyroid gland dysfunction, existence of antibodies is in selected diseases fully warranted. PMID:19634272

  1. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. PMID:26589365

  2. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland evaluations in patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic examinations during tuberculosis therapy: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary abnormalities was determined in 91 women who received an average of 112 fluoroscopic chest examinations during pneumothorax treatment for tuberculosis more than 40 yr previously and in 72 women treated for tuberculosis by other modalities. Thyroid abnormalities were determined by physical examination, scintiscans, and measurements of serum free T4 index, TSH, and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Thyroid nodules were diagnosed in 7.7% of the exposed and 4.2% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 1.8; 90% confidence interval 0.6-5.7). Autoimmune thyroid disease was diagnosed in 15.2% of the exposed and 6.9% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-6.2). No salivary tumors were detected. Two exposed women and 1 comparison woman had primary hyperparathyroidism. Although absorbed dose to the thyroid could not be precisely determined, approximately 60 rads would be expected to yield the observed excess of thyroid nodules. While the prevalence ratios were not significantly increased in the exposed group, the results suggest that susceptibility of the thyroid to nodules from cumulative radiation doses of this magnitude could be increased even when the doses are accumulated over years and that such x-ray exposure of the thyroid gland may predispose the patient to the development of autoimmune disease

  3. Initial experience with software system JODNEW for evaluation biophysical characteristics related to treatment of carcinoma of thyroid gland by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research tries to exploit sophisticated methods for a balancing of positive and negative consequences of radionuclide applications. We have tailored Bayesian data processing in order to support decision making during treatment of thyroid diseases with help of 131I. After successful experimental phase we have implemented them. This novel in-house developed software system JODNEW i now tested. It aim at: (1) increasing quality of raw biophysical data exploited in diagnostics and therapy of thyroid diseases; (2) estimating cumulated activity so that MIRD methodology can be well used; (3) decreasing working load on staff. JODNEW is an extensive data-base system co-operating with advanced estimation algorithms coded in C++. The Bayesian methodology adopted allows us to exploit expert knowledge, models of observed processes as well as measured data in a consistent way. This is important in the considered case when the number of measurements is quite limited and influence of biological and physical variations is high. Moreover, all estimates are qualified by the remaining uncertainty. During diagnostics> The (functioning) volume of thyroid gland and body mass are measured. A diagnostic amount of 131I is administered. Three whole body measurements of elimination rate by urine (excretions) are made within 2 days after administration. The accumulated activities above thyroid gland and other lesions are registered within several days. Evaluation and measurements during therapy are: The accumulation ability is evaluated using diagnostic data. Consequences of 131I administration are judged, then, the therapeutic activity is selected and administered. The accumulation dynamics is supervised and reaching radio-hygienic limits influencing patient regime is predicted. The common features of these steps are: (1) Individual measurements are corrupted by a high and varying uncertainty; (2) The number of measurements is limited; (3) A significant expert experience is available; (4) The subsequent medical decisions have to be supported also by information about uncertainty of data. (authors)

  4. Investigations of the 131-iodine accumulation in the white male rats thyroid gland during chronic parathion intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 131-iodine accumulating ability of the white male rats thyroid gland during chronic parathion intoxication was investigated. The investigation was carred out through dermal application scheduled as follows: a first series of laboratory animals treated twice a week with 1 or 2 mg/kg water solution of parathion for 45 days and a second series of laboratory animals treated thrice a week with 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg for 150 days. Investigation of the 131-iodine accumulating capacity of the thyroid gland after intraperitoneal application of 1 or 2 μCi was carried out at the 30th, the 45th, the 90th and the 150th day. The thyroid gland weight and the protein-binding 131-iodine in the plasma was checked. The results show that the 131-iodine accumulation during prolonged parathion application undergoes phase-changes: at the beginning increased 131-iodine accumulation existed (after the first month), later a tendency toward decreasing in the iodine accumulating capacity of the thyroid gland was established. Only dosage of 1 mg/kg provoke an enhancement of the 131-iodine accumulation after the first as well after the fifth month of the course of parathion treatment. (author)

  5. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens.

  6. Effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the thyroid gland structure and function of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgendy Mohamed S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen therapy is widely used nowadays in women to treat many postmenopausal symptoms but it may have some undesirable effects due to multiple organs affection. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in ovarictomized rats as a model simulating menopause. Findings Thirty adult female Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in this study; the first group was sham-operated, while the second and third groups were ovariectomized. The first and second groups were injected with olive oil while the third group was injected with estradiol dipropionate daily for three months, after that; hormonal assay for T3, T4, TSH and specimens of the thyroid were taken and processed to be examined by light and electron microscopy. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of T3 and T4 decreased in ovariectomized animals and significantly increased after estradiol treatment, while TSH increased in ovariectomized animals and decreased with estradiol treatment. Histological and morphometric study in ovariectomized group revealed marked accumulation of colloid in follicular lumens with decreased epithelial height in addition to increased connective tissue amount. After estradiol treatment the follicles became smaller in size, having small amount of colloid with increased epithelial height in addition to decreased connective tissue content. Ultrastructural study supported these results in addition to the presence of large amount of intracytoplasmic colloid vesicles after estradiol treatment. Conclusion Low estrogen level may lead to mild thyroidal hypofunction while estradiol treatment may lead to hyperactivity so it should be used very cautiously in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms to avoid its undesirable stimulatory effect on the thyroid.

  7. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens

  8. Silent thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism , followed by hypothyroidism . ... earliest symptoms result from an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). These symptoms may last for up to 3 ...

  9. Patterns of Benign and Malignant Lesions of the Thyroid in Two Wilayahs of Northeastern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoum, Mona; Kherfi-Kadi, Hind; Benharkat-Boughaba, Ouahiba; Djemaa-Bendjazia, Aicha; Keghouche, Sihem; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Azzouz, Amina; Kadi, Yacine; Hainaut, Pierre; Bouslama, Zihad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare histological patterns and to estimate the burden of thyroid cancers in the two Wilayahs (departments) of El-Taref and Guelma in northeast of Algeria (total population 0.9 million), locally reputed as having different rates of endemic thyroid diseases and cancer. A retrospective analysis of central pathology registers and clinical records of patients with thyroid diseases, covering the period 20082012, was conducted. A total of 145 cases of thyroid cancers with histological confirmation were registered in the two Wilayahs during the period, with a female to male ratio of 5.9?:?1. Estimates of crude incidence rates suggested that thyroid cancers were twice as frequent in the Wilayah of Guelma compared to El-Taref (p < 0.05) with a tendency to occur at a younger age in resident of the Wilayah of El-Taref. Diagnoses of thyroid adenoma were more frequent in the Wilayah of Guelma, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid lesions, including goitre, was similar in the two Wilayahs. This first descriptive study on geographic variations in thyroid cancer in Northern Africa suggests that significant differences may occur in relation with environmental and lifestyle exposures. PMID:26681943

  10. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  11. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares Corrêa Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial.Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its clinical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

  12. Reliability of fine needle aspiration and ex tempore biopsy in the diagnosis of salivary glands lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanin Radoslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Interpretation of cytological material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA of salivary glands is one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. FNA is performed easily, it is minimally invasive, inexpensive, fast, reliable and provides valuable information to clinicians about the nature of the lesion and therapeutic modalities. Ex tempore diagnosis, frozen section (FS is a diagnostic tool that is essential in determining the modalities of surgical treatment of lesions of the salivary glands. Today this method is used in determining the status of resection margins and infiltration of adjacent anatomical structures. The aim of this study was to present our experiences in the application of FNA and FS in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and diagnostic reliability of these methods. Methods. The study included 36 patients. In all the patients, cytological analysis was done before surgery and histological analysis of the surgical material. In 23 of the patients the FS diagnostics was done. Then we compared FNA and FS findings with histopathological findings. Results. Correlation of cytological and histological diagnosis showed sensitivity of 83.3%, specificity 96.67%, positive predictive value 83.3%, negative predictive value of 96.77% and diagnostic accuracy of 97.2%. Based on the relationship between FS diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 96.67%, while positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 100% each. Conclusion. The study confirmed that FNA is a sensitive, reliable diagnostic method for differentiation of lesions of the salivary glands. In cases with no posibility to definite differentiation in FNA samples, and with the need to assess the resection margins and invasion of anatomical structures, it is recommended to use FS diagnostics.

  13. [Thyroid gland function in neonates with transient hyperthyrotrophinemia from a region of slight iodine deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabska-Pietrzak, B; Lacka, K; Krysińska, I; Zamysłowska, H; Bartkowiak, M; Korman, E

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid gland function in neonates and babies with transient hyperthyrotrophinemia during the first twelve months of life in an attempt to establish the causes of this condition in neonates born in a region of slight iodine deficiency. Thirty-eight newborns were screened. Clinical observations and measurements of serum T3, T4, TSH levels as well as urinary iodine were conducted for one year (at the age of 2 weeks, 3-4 months, and after one year of life). The screened children showed significantly higher values of T4 (p psychomotoric development did not appear more frequently than in the general pediatric population. PMID:8657507

  14. Thyroid Disease and Teens

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    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Print A ... other parts of your body. continue What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland ...

  15. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Symptoms Hypothyroidism Thyroid Nodules Lifestyle and Prevention Thyroid Disorders The thyroid gland is located at the ... lives, and must be closely monitored by physicians. Thyroid Nodules Thyroid disorders can also occur because of ...

  16. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Thyroid Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Thyroid Disorders Print A ... the world is a thyroid? What Is the Thyroid? The thyroid (say: THYE-royd) is a gland, ...

  17. Benign Schwannoma Mimicking Metastatic Lesion on F-18 FDG PET/CT in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sungmin

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of benign schwannoma mimicking metastatic carcinoma. A 55-year-old female with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) 5.3 at the right chest wall. Conventional chest CT demonstrated a 5.4 cm ovoid mass lesion between the intercostal muscles and liver. Pathology revealed a schwannoma...

  18. Effects of radiation on parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While radiation has well-recognized effects on follicular cells of the thyroid gland, those on parafollicular C cells are not yet established. Low-dose radiation that has been proved to be nonablative and carcinogenic to follicular cells was administered to 8-week-old Long-Evans rats to study the changes in C cell number and function. Circulating calcitonin levels were significantly reduced in animals that had undergone radiation at age 24 months. Mean calcitonin values were 0.66 (+/- 0.20) ng/ml and 1.64 (+/- 0.59) ng/ml for control males and females compared with 0.14 (+/- 0.06) ng/ml and 0.11 (+/- 0.01) ng/ml for males (P less than 0.05) and females (P less than 0.001) that had undergone radiation, respectively. These levels correlated well with C cell population density in thyroid glands in the control group and in the group that had undergone radiation as evidenced by light microscopy. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed C cell hyperplasia in 77% of control animals of both sexes compared with 4% in animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.005). Immunoperoxidase staining with an anticalcitonin antibody showed virtual absence of C cells in most animals that had undergone radiation compared with diffusely scattered cells in animals in the control group. Medullary carcinomas occurred in 14% of animals in the control group compared with 3% of animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that the radiation dosage that is carcinogenic to the follicular epithelium causes lethal injury to C cells and thus suggest that C cells are more sensitive to radiation than are follicular cells. This increased sensitivity could explain the virtual absence of C cells, decrease in calcitonin levels, and reduced numbers of medullary carcinomas in the animals that had undergone radiation

  19. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... producing a hormone knows as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Most people who have an underactive thyroid gland ... levels of T4 and high blood levels of TSH. Hyperthyroidism Also known as overactive thyroid and thyrotoxicosis, ...

  20. Clinical Experience of In-Vivo Activation Analysis of Iodine in the Thyroid Gland. An Assessment of the Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies described earlier have been extended to the measurement of iodine in the thyroid glands of patients with non-toxic goitre. A collimated beam of neutrons from the UTR-100 kW reactor irradiates the patient's thyroid producing 128I and, incidentally, other isotopes, principally 24Na and 38CI. It is shown that the simple procedure of inserting boron or cadmium in the beam reduces the activity of these latter unwanted isotopes compared with the activity of 128I. A shadow-shield thyroid monitor, developed specially for these studies, is used to measure the induced activity. Sensitivities of about 1 mg or less of thyroidal iodine are shown to be attainable with a dose to the gland estimated pessimistically as about 14 rem and more realistically as about 6 rem. Problems experienced with the irradiation and counting techniques and the interpretation of the results are assessed and the progress made in overcoming these difficulties is described. Comparisons of results from in-vivo measurements and from in-vitro activation analysis and biochemical analysis on the same gland after thyroidectomy have shown that there is good agreement between the in-vivo and in-vitro activation results, but the values from these analyses, although in reasonable agreement with, tend to be higher than, the biochemical results. The reasons for this are still being investigated. (author)

  1. Clinical diagnostic study by means of magnetic resonance imaging for lesions of the major salivary gland region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lesions situated in the major salivary glands was clinically discussed in this study. A total of 46 patients with salivary gland disorders treated in our department over the past five years were assessed by mean of MRI, and in 11 patients the findings were compared with the histopathological features of lesions sectioned at the same level postoperatively. In addition, preliminary investigations to introduce a new qualitative diagnostic procedure for estimation of salivary gland function in geriatric patients were attempted. In this investigation, T1 and T2 values, and signal intensity ratios of the submandibular gland were measured in elderly patients complaining of dry mouth and in healthy controls. Likewise, salivary gland function was examined by taste stimulation induced by applying citric acid to the tongue surface just before starting MRI. MRI clearly demonstrated lesions in the salivary glands. The histopathological diagnosis could not be accurately predicted by signal intensity. However, benign tumors showed higher intensity signals than did malignant tumors on T2-weighted images. Cystic lesions could be differentiated from tumors by signal intensity. Histopathological features of salivary gland tumors corresponded to the MRI signal intensity. Relaxation times of T1 and T2 values and signal intensity in each major salivary gland were diminished in elderly patients in a resting condition. Only T1 values in healthy subjects remarkably responded to taste stimulation. These results suggest that MRI is useful and beneficial not only in the qualitative diagnosis of tumors arising from salivary glands but also in the estimation of salivary gland function. MRI should therefore be included in routine diagnostic examinations for salivary gland disorders. (author)

  2. Radioactivity-induced modifications in the weight of the thyroid gland of the New Zealand adult rabbit

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    Alcaraz, M.; Genoves, J.L.; Berna, J.D.; Meseguer, J.; Garcia-Ayala, A.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactivity-induced modifications in the weight of the thyroid gland of the New Zealand adult rabbit, as well as the radioactivity-induced ultrastructural changes underwent by these glands were studied. In order to achieve this, three groups, each of 36 animals, were established: One group regarded as erythroid, another of animal treated with propylthiouracil (PTU), and a third group treated with protirelin (TRH). The animals belonging to each group were distributed in six lots according to the total dose of radiation administered to their thyroid glands: 0 Gy (non-radiated group), 4 Gy, 8 Gy, 12 Gy, 12 Gy, 16 Gy and 20 Gy. The results obtained showed that the isolated use of thyroid gland weight as a biological parameter is not a specific indicator of the degree of radiosensitivity, nor of the status of functional glandular activity. The structural changes induced by radioactivity occurred earlier and were more intense in the group treated with protirelin (TRH) which was considered as hyperfunctioning.

  3. Radioactivity-induced, modifications in the weight of the thyroid gland of the New Zeland adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity-induced modifications in the weight of the thyroid gland of the New Zealand adult rabbit, as well as the radioactivity-induced ultrastructural changes underwent by these glands were studied. In order to achieve this, three groups, each of 36 animals, were established: One group regarded as euthyroid, another of animal treated with propylthiouracil (PTU), and a thrid group treated with protirelin (TRH). The animals belonging to each group were distributed in six lots according to the total dosis of radiation administered to their thyroid glands: 0 Gy (non-radiated group), 4 Gy, 8 Gy, 12 Gy, 16 Gy and 20 Gy. The results obtained showed that the isolated use of thyroid gland weight as a biological parameters is not a specific indicator of the dregee of radiosensitivity, nor of the status of functional glandular activity. The structural changes induced by radioactivity occurred earlier and were more intense in the group treated with protirelin (TRH) which was considered as hyperfunctioning. (Author)

  4. The Role of Elastosonography in the Differentiation of Parotid Gland Lesions: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parotid gland is the mostly affected site among major salivary gland tumors in up to 85% of cases. Preoperative knowledge of the tumour nature is crucial since it influences the surgical procedure and patient’s morbidity, especially the risk of facial nerve palsy. Ultrasonography is commonly used as the first line imaging modality for the salivary gland lesions. A pitfall is that the histologic pleomorphism often reflects an imaging pleomorphism. Herein we aimed to present the role of elastosonography in three parotid lesions: a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma, a Wharthin’s tumour and a malignant parotid tumour. Our findings show that malignant parotid lesion was the stiffest lesion according to elastosonography. Wharthin’s tumour demonstrated soft elastosonographic features. The pleomorphic adenoma was also interpreted as stiff by elastosonography suggesting that the elastosonographic features of pleomorphic adenoma may resemble those of malignant lesions limiting the utility of the technique

  5. Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice

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    Iwata Tomoyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS. Methods We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and total thyroxine (TT4 levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Results TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area. Conclusions An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.

  6. Evaluation of the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques

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    Hamid Badrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The use of sophisticated radiographic techniques is absolutely necessary in dentistry. The use of these techniques exposes the sensitive organs of head and neck to x-rays. The aim of the present study was to investigate the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 TLD GR-200 circular dosimeters (Thermoluminans Detector were used in male RANDO-like phantom (head and neck segment, i.e. the first 10 segments in order to determine the radiation dose absorbed by the thyroid gland. Then spiral computed tomographies were provided from the anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible along with a lateral Scout view as a guide. Conventional spiral tomographies were prepared from the maxilla, mandible and both jaws with a panoramic radiograph as a guide. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS 11.5 (a = 0.05. Results: The highest and lowest thyroid gland absorbed doses were observed with computed tomography of both jaws and conventional spiral tomography of the anterior maxilla, respectively (5.92 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ± 0.01 mSiv. The mean amount of the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland was lower in the conventional spiral tomography compared to computed tomography. The two techniques revealed significant differences in the absorbed doses except for conventional spiral tomography in the posterior and anterior regions of the mandible (p value = 0.276.Conclusion: According to results of the present study, the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in the conventional spiral tomography in different regions of the jaws was less than CT scan techniques. As a result, it appears the use of conventional spiral tomography is preferred over CT scans in limited regions where three-dimensional and cross-sectional views are required.Key words: Thyroid gland, Film dosimetry, Spiral Computed Tomography.

  7. Atypical imaging features of adrenal gland lesions in children – report of three cases and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential diagnosis of adrenal pathology depends on the child’s age and imaging findings. Three children without clinical symptoms of neoplasm, with an adrenal lesion discovered on diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Laboratory tests for neoplasm were negative. The final diagnosis was based on histopathological examinations after surgical resection. 1. The value of diagnostic imaging and laboratory tests in differential diagnosis of adrenal gland lesions is limited. 2. Malignant tumors of adrenal glands should be taken into account in children. 3. Surgical resection should be considered in diagnostic algorithm of adrenal gland masses. 4. The final diagnosis is always based on histopathological examination

  8. RET rearrangement: toward a molecular genetic definition of tumor-inducing radiation effects in the thyroid gland after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetic analyses of thyroid carcinomas in children exposed to radioactive fallout after Chernobyl revealed a complete lack of mutational activation of H-, K- or N-RAS or of a mutational inactivation of P53. However, a high prevalence of RET rearrangements was found. ELE/RET rearrangements of the RET/PTC3 type were preferentially observed suggesting that this paracentric inversion at chromosome 10 represents a typical form of genetic lesion in thyroid tumors of children after Chernobyl. (orig.)

  9. Role of monitoring in diagnostics of diseases of the thyroid gland at children at the moment of the disaster on ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking back on eighteen-year experience of liquidation of consequences of disaster on Chernobyl NPP shows the importance of monitoring in formation of pathology of a thyroid gland at children, undergone to radiating influence. (Authors)

  10. Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis

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    de Matos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19, galectin-3 (Gal-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1. However, current results remain controversial. The aim of the present article was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CK-19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 markers, as well as their associations, in the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Methods A systematic review of published articles on MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library was performed. After establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 articles were selected. The technique of meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was employed and global values of sensitivity, specificity, area under the summary ROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (dOR were calculated. Results For the immunohistochemistry technique, the positivity of CK-19 for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions demonstrated global sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 73%; for Gal-3, sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 81%; and for HBME-1, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 83%. The association of the three markers determined sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 97%, and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.1. Similar results were also found for the immunocytochemistry assay. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that the three immunomarkers studied are accurate in pre- and postoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Nevertheless, the search for other molecular markers must continue in order to enhance this diagnostic accuracy since the results found still show a persistency of false-negative and false-positive tests. Virtual slides Http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3436263067345159

  11. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Soares Corrêa Silva; Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro Chagas; Maurício Buzelin Nunes; Rodrigo Assis de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial.Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid folli...

  12. Effect of 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ after surgery on the function of parathyroid gland in differentiated thyroid cancer

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    ZHAO, ZHI-HUA; LI, FENG-QI; HAN, JIAN-KUI; LI, XIAN-JUN

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignant tumor of the endocrine glands. Although surgery is the optimal treatment utilized, the disease is characterized by recurrence and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of iodine-131 (131I) ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ following surgery on the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and its effect on the function of the parathyroid gland. A total of 160 patients diagnosed with DTC, who were consecutively admitted to our Hospital between June 2012 and June 2014 and underwent total thyroidectomy or subtotal resection, were included in the present study. After three months, the patients were administered 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment and underwent a whole body scan after 1 week to determine whether ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment was successful or not. The treatment was repeated within 3 months if not successful. Of the 160 patients, 24 patients had cancer metastasis (15.0%). The average dose of 131I used for the first time was 6.4+1.2 GBq and the treatment was successful in 66 cases (41.3%). The average treatment time was 2.8±0.6 therapy sessions. The results showed that, prior to and following the first treatment and at the end of the follow up, levels of the parathyroid hormone, serum calcium and phosphorus were compared, and no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) was observed. There were 5 patients with persistent hypothyroidism and 8 patients with transient hypothyroidism. The levels of thyroglobulin were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). A total of 48 patients (30%) with hypothyroidism were identified. In conclusion, the results have shown that DTC resection and 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment did not significantly impair the parathyroid function, thereby improving the treatment effect. PMID:26668598

  13. Analysis of the behavior and characteristics of thyroid lesions identified by biopsy fine needle aspiration and gammagraphic diagnosis: Hospital Calderon Guardia: period 2004-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid lesions have meant one of the most important pathological entities in the Costa Rican population for many years, which have been increased by new diagnostic examinations and early detection and timely thanks to the preventive medicine that is exerted on the security of the country. After the nuclear accident Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union for several decades ago has shown an increase in neoplastic lesions as well as was appreciated after the implementation of the first atomic bomb in World War II, this behavior is the interest to see how thyroid pathology develops in the environment and what have been the Costa Rican experiences in correlation with the expected time to the global statistics. The behavior pattern observed of the lessons of the thyroid gland and based on clinical findings and in some cases together with scintigraphy have allowed to study the development seen through the ultrasound and cytopathological result. The behavior of the patients was similar to global statistics, being most frequent the benign lesions than malignant, and the scintigraphy correlation with lesions were found to be cold was significant for determination of malignant or suspicious for malignancy. Some of these lesions that were suspicious for malignancy scintigraphy and ultrasound were benign have been found to fall within the expected rate for this type of injury. The study consisted of sampling in 2023 noted that the prevalence was 9:1 in women compared with men, which agrees as thyroid diseases are more common in women than in men as well as the expected results in malignant lesions that remained the same behavior. As expected in the age ranges of suffering from thyroid lesions remained between the fifth and sixth decade of life, which has allowed to observe the frequency of different benign and malignant lesions that occurred during this study in the decades and periods covered. While before the study of thyroid lesions was occupied by scintigraphy and endocrinological management has been viewed that incidentalomas appreciated by the teams high-resolution ultrasound bring a benefit in the care of the patient early and fast like its minimally invasive intervention to characterize the thyroid lesions that are suspicious of malignancy or indeterminate by clinical and other diagnostic methods, a fact that increases in the routine study of thyroid pathology. In fact in the cost benefit study of FNA for early patient care is relatively cheap with a great evaluation of lesions and is important for determination of injury, because if there were suspected, sonographically, it is easier to seek the consent from patient and treating physician to take the sample and lead to better clinical guidance, histological and radiological, fact that will allow the patient a concise definition of your case. (author)

  14. Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate with the intensity of the administered activity of radioiodine, the previous condition of dental integrity and in patients living in the interior of our country in zones of 'bad' water containing tracers of arsenic and fluorine. In 13 patients submitted to intense treatment of dental problems posterior WBS showed a decrease of the positive maxilla areas or they were not found. The presence of metastasis in the active maxilla area was in all cases negative. Our observations confirm that radioiodine is deposited in maxillary bone in relation of dental lesions and that this 131-I move in a very slow place. This mechanism of fixation has to be determined. We fully recommended taking into account the existence of dental illness or incomplete dental treatments when the administration of higher activities than 3.7 GBq (150 mCi). (author)

  15. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt Towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and The Histology of Thyroid Gland of Goitrogenic Rat

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    Risman Heli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic substances can inhibit of iodine taking by the thyroid gland. Thus iodine concentration in thyroid gland will be low, and this phenomena is indicated by inflammation in the thyroid gland. Moreover, it can cause releaseing of an excessive amount of free radicals. This radicals, in the body, causes oxidative stress and also increase the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. This is also as an indicator for lipid peroxidation and the decreasing of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treatment with KIO3 and KI salt was intended to study the level of supplementation of iodine (I2 toward level of MDA in serum and histological description of rat’s thyroid gland. The MDA levels was determined through TBA test (Thio Barbituric Acid, meanwhile the histological pattern of rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results indicated both of KIO3 and KI salt significantly (p<0.01 reduced MDA level in the serum. Treatment with KIO3 salt gave 33.62% while KI salt slightly higher (37,02%. In addition, both of treaments displayed an recovering effect in thyroid gland.

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy and Pitfalls of Preoperative Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Salivary Gland Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in salivary gland lesions. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 82 patients presented at NCI, Cairo University with salivary gland lesion who underwent preoperative FNAC diagnosis with subsequent excision and histopathologic assessment. Cytology results were classified as negative, positive, suspicious for cancer and inadequate. The definitive histopathologic report according to WHO Histological typing was the gold standard diagnosis against which FNAC was compared. Results: Our study included 82 patients who underwent preoperative FNAC of major salivary glands with subsequent surgical excision. Male to female ratio was 1.4: 1. The median age was 42 years. Parotid gland was involved in (68.3%), submandibular in (28%) and sub mental gland in (3.7%). Forty cases (48.8%) were cytologically diagnosed as benign lesions, 26 (31.7%) were malignant and 10 (12.2%) were suspicious. Cytological findings were non diagnostic in 6 (7.3%). The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma; 16 out of 40 cases (40%), while the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma; 22 out of 26 cases (84.6%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones and were true-negative in 37 (92.5%), true-positive in 33 (91.6%), false-negative in 3 (8.3%) and false-positive in 3 (7.5%) cases regarding detection of malignant tumors. The cytologic diagnosis achieved a sensitivity of 91.7%; a specificity of 92.5%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 92.5% and diagnostic accuracy 92%. The rates of agreement of histopathologic type for benign and malignant tumors were 89.2% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC were 91.7%, 92.5% and 92%, respectively. Attention to subtle morphologic changes, pitfalls and limitations are important to increase diagnostic accuracy. Multidirectional aspiration is preferred to avoid selective sampling. Re-aspiration of solid portion after cyst fluid aspiration is necessary to decrease the rate of inadequacy

  17. Histological and immunohistochemical study of the thyroid gland of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.18444

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    Clarice Machado-Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, is widely distributed in countries of South America. In Brazil it is considered an endangered species because of natural habitat destruction and illegal hunting.  In reptiles, the thyroid gland plays an integral part in ecdysis, reproduction, tail regeneration, growth, endocrine function and metabolism rate. The aim of the present study was to characterize the thyroid gland morphology of C. latirostris, based on histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. The thyroid glands were fixed in Bouin's fluid and serial cross sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Mallory’s trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue (AB pH 1.5 and 2.5. The immunohistochemical technique for 5-HT-IR cells was used. The thyroid gland has a dense irregular connective tissue forms a capsule enveloping the gland. There are several follicular acini of varying size lined by simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium in the thyroid gland. The follicles are connected by interfollicular connective tissue which contains blood vessels. We observed the presence of lymph nodes around the entire gland. There was a positive PAS reaction and negative AB reaction in the colloid. 5-HT-IR cells were detected around the follicle cells. No striking morphological differences were observed between C. latirostris and other domesticated mammals.

  18. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of atrophic orthotopic thyroid gland in a patient with acquired hypothyroidism: Evaluation with hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately one per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in one in 4,000 to 8,000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. Multiple ectopia in the presence of orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a 13-year-old boy with stunted growth and developmental delay caused due to acquired hypothyroidism. Technetium scan performed as per management protocol identified dual ectopia of thyroid. The role of hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted

  19. Radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during digital subtraction angiography of arteries supplying the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To find out the individual level of radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during DSA of arteries supplying the brain, considering the indication. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 72 patients during aortic arch and cerebral artery angiographies using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Results: During 20 aortic arch angiographies the measured values were within non-critical limits, whereas during carotid, vertebral or cerebral fourvessel angiography of the left ocular lens exposure values of more than 500 mGy (max. 782 mGy) were stated in two of 52 cases. The highest measured exposure relating to the right ocular lens was 126 mGy, to the thyroid gland 88 mGy. However, in 51 of 52 cases thyroid gland doses of below 51 mGy were measured. In 71 of 72 cases there was a lateral difference between right and left lens exposure up to twice the measured dose for the right ocular lens during aortic arch angiographies and up to sixteenfold in respect of the left lens during cerebral angiographies. (orig./AJ)

  20. Primary squamous cell carcinomas in the thyroid gland: an individual participant data meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas arising from the thyroid gland (SCCTh) is extremely rare diseases, which have never been fully studied. Thus, we performed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of published SCCTh cases, to understand the clinical characteristics and to identify the prognostic factors of primary SCCTh. A literature search was conducted within Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases and KoreaMed using the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: primary, squamous, carcinoma, cancer, and thyroid. Eighty-four patients' individual data from 39 articles and five patients' data in our institute were selected for analysis (N = 89). The mean age at diagnosis was 63.0 years (range, 2490) and female preponderance (M:F = 1:2) was noted. The commonest complaint was the anterior neck mass, followed by dyspnea or dysphagia, and extension to the adjacent structure was found in 72%. The median survival was 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.023.0) and 3-year survival rate (3YSR) was 37.6% by KaplanMeier method, but only 20.1% by a shared frailty model for adjusting heterogeneity. Complete resection (R0) of tumors was the only significant prognostic factor in multivariable analysis, and the benefit of adjuvant treatment was not proved. The prognosis of patients with SCCTh is very poor (20% in 3YSR), but complete resection of disease is correlated with improved survival. To achieve complete surgical eradication of tumors, early detection and accurate diagnosis should be emphasized

  1. Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands from turtles (Chrysemys dorbigni) pretreated with potassium iodide were incubated with 125I-insulin in the presence or absence of unlabeled insulin, in order to study its specific uptake. At 24 degrees, the specific uptake reached a plateau at 180 min of incubation. The dose of bovine insulin that inhibited 50% of the 125I-insulin uptake was 2 micrograms/ml of incubation medium. Most of the radioactive material (71%) extracted from the gland, after 30 min incubation with 125I-insulin, eluted in the same position as labeled insulin on Sephadex G-50. Only 24% eluted in the salt position. After 240 min incubation, increased amount of radioactivity appeared in the Na125I position. When bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone, a substantial reduction of radioactivity was observed in the insulin and Na125I elution positions. Dissociation studies were performed at 6 degrees in glands preincubated with 125I-insulin either at 24 or 6 degrees. The percentage of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble radioactive material in the dissociation medium increased with incubation time at both temperatures. However, the degradation activity was lower at 6 than at 24 degrees. The addition of bovine insulin to the incubation buffer containing 125I-insulin reduced the radioactive degradation products in the dissociated medium. Chloroquine or bacitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125I-hGH or 125I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

  2. FUNCIONAMIENTO NORMAL Y AUMENTADO DE LA GLNDULA TIROIDES EN EQUINOS / NORMAL AND INCREASED FUNCTIONING OF THYROID GLAND IN EQUINES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JSE HENRY, OSORIO; FELIPE, RAMREZ ECHEVERRY.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir y analizar el funcionamiento normal de la glndula tiroides en equinos y los factores que aumentan en ellos los niveles de hormonas tiroideas. Materiales y mtodos: Mediante la revisin de la literatura disponible de los ltimos 50 aos en las bases de datos BBCS-LILACS, fuente a [...] cadmica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus y Scirus, al igual que artculos histricos, textos y referencias citadas en trabajos publicados. Resultados: la informacin obtenida relacionada con los objetivos propuestos en la presente revisin, permite clasificar en 4 secciones a saber: sntesis y secrecin de hormonas tiroideas; transporte y metabolismo; funciones; hipertiroidismo en los equinos. Conclusin: La glndula tiroides juega un papel importante, como productora de hormonas tiroideas, las cuales son necesarias para la diferenciacin celular y crecimiento del organismo. El buen funcionamiento de las vas metablicas depende de estas hormonas, las que tienen efectos especficos sobre diferentes rganos, manteniendo la homeostasis en todos los tejidos. Abstract in english Objective: to describe and analyze the normal functioning of the thyroid gland in equines and the factors which increase the thyroid hormone levels. Materials and methods: information from the last 50 years included in the BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Acadmica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Sc [...] irus, data bases as well as historical articles, texts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results: important information related to the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into two sections as follow: synthesis, liberation and metabolism of thyroid hormones; factors that modify the thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: the thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends on these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all the tissues.

  3. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  4. Thyroid lesions incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT ― a two centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamsek Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid on PET-CT examinations represents a diagnostic challenge. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax is one possible parameter that can help in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid PET lesions.

  5. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  6. Clinical Significance of Diffuse {sup 18F} FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sung; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jandee; Soh, Euy Young; An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou Univ. School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2{+-}1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0{+-}664.6 vs. 57.3{+-}46.4, P<0.0001). Mean attenuation values in the diffuse uptake group were significantly lower (72.2{+-}15. vs. 97.0{+-}16.0, P<0.0001). An inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and mean attenuation values of residual thyroid in all patients (r=-0.57, P<0.0001) and subgroup with diffuse uptake (r=-0.31, P<0.05). In this study, diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The {sup 18F} FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of tumoral thyroid tissues of thyroid glands of people from Gomel region as against Brest one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis in vivo of histologically normal and tumoral thyroid tissues has shown that in organism of examined patients with thyroid cancer mutation process taken place not only in tumor but in histologically normal tissue. As a result of investigations pursued a significant increase in the level of aberrant cells in thyroid cell populations was revealed in people from Gomel regions as against Brest one

  8. Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman) surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes). Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation

  9. Thyroid tumors following 131I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 μCi of Na 131I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for 131I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor

  10. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Mahdi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treated to give KIO3 and KI salt was intended to determine the level of supplementation of iodine (I2, the level of MDA in serum and histological rat thyroid gland. MDA levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the KIO3 and KI salt was significantly (p<0.05 reduce levels of MDA in the serum of treatment with KIO3 salt (33.62% and KI salt (37,02% and improving histological of the thyroid gland rats.

  11. Chest CT incidentalomas: thyroid lesions, enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, and lung nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Luba; Quint, Leslie E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A computed tomography (CT) incidentaloma is an incidentally detected and previously unsuspected finding or abnormality that is not related to the indication for obtaining the CT examination. The aim of this article is to review the frequency of incidentalomas on chest CT scans, discuss the potential clinical significance of the findings, and suggest guidelines for reporting, further evaluation, and follow-up, with particular focus on thyroid lesions, enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes ...

  12. Monitoring intervals for measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129I in thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the monitoring interval, which can be implemented in the Laboratorio de Contaminacion Interna del Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, for direct measurement in the thyroid gland of radionuclides 125I and 129I . Were used two measuring systems, one employing a scintillating detector and the other detector Phoswich. Both detectors were placed inside a depth camera, 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5m of dimension covered with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm lead, 1.8 mm tin and 1.5 mm of copper. Was calculated for each system, the minimum detectable activity, and based on this, the monitoring interval is determined. Was obtained, for 125, all tested intervals, 120, 90,60,30 , 14, and 7 days may be implemented with both systems. In the case of the radionuclide 129 I, with the installation of scintillating detector can only be implemented the intervals 120, 90, and 60 days , and for installation with Phoswich, all evaluated

  13. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation but presenting in different ways. For example, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism ... This would be the case in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. If the thyroiditis causes rapid thyroid cell ...

  14. Usefulness of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT in the metastatic lesions of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-MIBI is widely used as a tumor-seeking agent for parathyroid tumor, lung cancer, etc. We tried to detect the metastatic lesions of thyroid cancer by 99mTc-MIBI SPECT and evaluated 131I-uptake in the region of 99mTc-MIBI accumulation. Twenty-seven cases of thyroid cancer (23 papillary adenocarcinoma, 3 follicular adenocarcinoma, 1 unknown) were examined by 99mTc-MIBI. All cases were confirmed by surgery. Thyroglobulin was measured in all cases before 99mTc-MIBI SPECT 131I-therapy (4.5-5.5 GBq) was performed on 24 patients and whole body scintigram was taken 7-10 days after. Thirty minutes after an injection of 99mTc-MIBI (740 MBq), SPECT with a three-head gamma camera was performed. Abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-MIBI was noted in 14 patients, all cases detected on CT or MRI. In 11 of the 13 cases in which accumulation was not visualized, no metastasis was detected. Most cases of abnormal accumulation on 99mTc-MIBI showed a high level of thyroglobulin. Metastatic lesions of follicular adenocarcinoma in three patients (right humerus, axillary region and sternum) showed strong accumulation of 99mTc-MIBI, and 131I was strongly taken up in these lesions. 131I was also taken up in the metastatic lesions of papillary adenocarcinoma with marked accumulation of 99mTc-MIBI. 99mTc-MIBI did not accumulate in a case with diffuse pulmonary uptake of 131I. 99mTc-MIBI SPECT could detect occult metastatic lesions in the soft tissue more clearly than CT or MRI. In conclusion, 99mTc-MIBI study might be useful as a follow-up study of patients after surgery for thyroid cancer. (author)

  15. MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Ivanova, T.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 {+-} 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 {+-} 25 ml, with 2.1 {+-} 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high. (orig.)

  16. Towards high performance cell segmentation in multispectral fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Edgar; Venkatesan, Vishwanath; Shah, Shishir

    2010-06-01

    Thyroid nodule is a common cancer of the thyroid gland that affects up to 20% of the world population and approximately 50% of 60-year-old persons. Early detection and screening of the disease, especially analysis by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), has led to improved diagnosis and management of the disease. Simultaneously, advances in imaging technology has enabled the rapid digitization of large volumes of FNAC specimen leading to increased interest in computer assisted diagnosis (CAD). This has led to development of a variety of algorithms for automated analysis of FNAC images, but due to the large scale memory and computing resource requirements, has had limited success in clinical use. In this paper, we present our experiences with two parallel versions of a code used for texture-based segmentation of thyroid FNAC images, a critical first step in realizing a fully automated CAD solution. An MPI version of the code is developed to exploit distributed memory compute resources such as PC clusters. An OpenMP version is developed for the currently emerging multi-core CPU architectures, which allow for parallel execution on every desktop system. Experiments are performed with image sizes ranging from 1024 x 1024 pixels up to 12288 x 12288 pixels with 21 spectral channels. Both versions are evaluated for performance and scalability. PMID:19720425

  17. Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

  18. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

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    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients undergoing radiation therapy to neck where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland.

  19. Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process

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    Zyablov Е. V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

  20. Normal values of thyroid gland in Isfahan, an iodine replete area

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    Atoosa Adibi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Because of different values of thyroid volume in different populations, and the effects of different trace element and geographic substances on thyroid volume, we decided to evaluate thyroid volume and its determinants using ultrasound in healthy adults of Isfahan, a centrally located city in Iran, an iodine replete area.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 1500 healthy adults were enrolled by cluster sampling. Serum TSH level and morning urine iodine level were measured. Thyroid exam was performed according to WHO criteria and history of previous or present thyroid disease was taken. If all the mentioned results were normal they were considered clinically normal. One third of these normal subjects referred for thyroid ultrasonography. If ultrasonography of thyroid parenchyma texture was normal, and there was no nodule by sonography (thyroid incidentaloma, thyroid volume was measured using ellipsoid formula (X×Y×Z×8/6. Correlation between thyroid volume and age, sex, BMI, TSH level and urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient, t-Test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Thyroid volume more than 97% of this population was considered as goiter sonographically. Data expressed as mean ± SD, unless otherwise stated.
    • RESULTS: We finally studied 200 subjects (123 Males, 77 females, average age: 37.27 ± 11.80 Years. The overall thyroid volume was 9.53 ± 3.68 ml. Males thyroid volume (10.73 ± 3.44 ml was significantly higher than the females one (7.71 ± 2.63 ml (P < 0.001. The thyroid volume ranges were 3-23.9 ml, 3.6-23.9 ml and 3-14.3 ml in all, males and females, respectively. Thyroid volume values more than 97 percentile of this reference range were 10.14 ml, 11.48 ml and 8.37 ml in all, males and females respectively, and were considered goiter sonographically. Thyroid volume had a positive correlation with age (r = 0.163, P = 0.022, but did not have correlation with serum TSH, UIC, and BMI, in both sexes. There was a strong correlation between thyroid volume, and height and body surface area (r = 0.48, P < 0.001.
    • CONCLUSIONS: It was documented that thyroid volume is higher in male sex and increases with age, and have a positive correlation with body surface area and height.
    • KEY WORDS: Adult, thyroid, ultrasonography, volume.

  1. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinosarcoma and Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: PET CT Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a patient who was diagnosed with a concurrent primary tumor by 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET imaging performed for staging of an endometrial cancer. FDG uptake was detected in the uterus, where the primary cancer was located, and in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. The biopsy sample from the hypermetabolic nodular lesion in thyroid gland revealed intermediate cytology according to Bethesda Classification. The patient underwent hysterectomy and thyroidectomy. An endometrial carcinoma in the uterus and a multicentric thyroid papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland were diagnosed.

  2. Calibration of a Ge-detector system for the quantitative measurement of I-125 incorporated in the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf equipped the new AKH Hospital in Vienna with a whole-body counter, essentially consisting of two detector systems: (1) 4 NaI(Tl) detectors within a shielded counting chamber for high sensitivity and (2) 1 HPGe-detector to achieve high resolution as well as low detectable radiation energy. This work describes the geometrical definition of a measuring equipment and the calibration of the HPGe-detector for the purpose of monitoring I-125 activity (radiation energy approx. 30 keV) incorporated in the thyroid gland

  3. Coexisting iodine avid and iodine nonconcentrating lesions with multiple distant soft tissue metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distant soft tissue metastasis and the simultaneous presence of iodine concentrating and nonconcentrating lesions in papillary thyroid cancer are extremely rare. The concerned patient, a histopathologically proven case of papillary thyroid cancer with nodal metastases treated with total thyroidectomy, bilateral cervical nodal dissection, and radioablation, subsequently developed lung, muscle, and liver metastasis. Triggered by increased thyroglobulin, the iodine-131 whole body scan and 200 mci iodine-131 post-therapy scan showed a left gluteus maximus lesion and a liver lesion. Fludeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan intended to find additional lesions revealed iodine and FDG nonconcentrating bilateral pulmonary nodules and a single FDG avid hepatic and two muscle metastases. Although FDG concentration in metastatic pulmonary nodules is generally low, the CT characteristics were classical for metastatic lesion. A follow-up FDG PET-CT study six months after 200 mci iodine-131 radioablation showed treatment response in muscle and liver lesions but not lungs

  4. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  5. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  6. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Diego Mendonça Uchôa; Vanessa Yépez

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellul...

  7. Poorly differentiated ("insular") carcinoma of the thyroid gland--two cases report.

    OpenAIRE

    Paik, S. S.; Kim, W S; Hong, E. K.; Park, M H; Lee, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Poorly differentiated ("insular") carcinoma of the thyroid shares insular, trabecular, and solid histological patterns that are different from those of papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic varieties. This tumor is situated morphologically and biologically in the intermediate position between the well differentiated (papillary and follicular) and the totally undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid tumors. We report two cases of insular carcinoma of the thyroid, occurring in 39-year-o...

  8. 31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands. Clinic results and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prospective study, 15 normals and 20 patients with space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands were examined by MRT images and by in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy. The spectra of malignant tumours showed a significant increase in concentration of phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters and inorganic phosphates when compared with normals. In addition there was an enormous reduction in creatine phosphates. Increased pH values and marked increase in concentration of inorganic phosphates correlated with poorly vascularised necrotic tumour segments. Concentrations of ATP and PCr were similar to normal muscle tissue. High concentrations of PME and PDE correlated directly with the proliferation of tumour cells and were an important marker for the bioenergy and phospholipid metabolism of the growing tumour. Standardised in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands provides noninvasive prognostic information on the type and behaviour of the lesion and is complementary to clinical and histological findings. (orig.)

  9. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer; Rekonstruktion der Schilddruesendosis fuer Kinder mit Schilddruesenkrebs in Weissrussland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robl, R.; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1997-10-01

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope {sup 131}I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of {sup 1}31 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I. The inferred {sup 131}I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs-deposition density and a few {sup 131}I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of {sup 131}I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the {sup 129}I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the {sup 129}I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  10. The Contributions of Gamma Probe to Lesion Detectability and Surgical Safety in Recurrent Thyroid Cancer at Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Sinan Gltekin; Gleser Saylam; Tuncay Deliba??; Hakan Korkmaz

    2013-01-01

    In patients, who underwent thyroid surgery or treated with I-131 radioiodine previously for differentiated thyroid cancer, a second surgical intervention carries higher risks due to distortion of the natural anatomy and development of fibrotic/cicatricial tissue. In addition, accurate assessment of current status about extent of the disease is important in terms of success of the surgery. In this case report, we present the positive contribution of intraoperative gamma probe used for lesion d...

  11. Malignant glomus tumor of the thyroid gland where is heretofore an unreported organ: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Na Rae; Kim, Taeeun; Ahn, Jungsuk; Lee, Sangho; Lee, Young Don; Cho, Hyun Yee

    2015-03-01

    Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon clinically benign tumors. Malignant glomus tumors are rare, and only a small number develop metastatic foci. The usual location is deep dermis or subcutis, but it has been reported in various locations. A 55-year-old man presented with an incidentally found thyroid mass. Neck ultrasound showed a mass with a heterogeneous hypoechoic calcific mass in the right lobe. Right lobectomy specimen showed the 3.6-cm-sized calcified mass composed of sheets of uniform round to polygonal cells and intervening staghorn-shaped vessels. Occasional cellular atypism and necrosis with increased mitotic activity (up to 7 per 10 high-power fields) were found. Infiltration to the residual thyroid parenchyma, vessel, thyroidal capsule, and strap muscle was found. These tumor cells were strongly positive for smooth muscle actin, collagen type IV, and vimentin with pericellular reticulin-cuffing. Ultrastructurally, closely packed oval-shaped tumor cells having cytoplasmic mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulums with pinocytotic vesicles along the plasmalemmal surface and thin filaments of 6 nm in diameter were surrounded by thick basal lamina. That mass was diagnosed as a malignant glomus tumor. Incidentally, a 0.5-cm-sized papillary carcinoma was found through entire embedding. Complete thyroidectomy with chemotherapy was done. Thirty months later, multiple metastases developed in the brain and lung, and he expired. To our knowledge, neither benign nor malignant thyroid glomus tumor has been previously described. Here, we describe the first case of a malignant glomus tumor in the thyroid gland. PMID:25544269

  12. Automated benign & malignant thyroid lesion characterization and classification in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vinitha Sree; Molinari, Filippo; Garberoglio, Roberto; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) based technique for automatic classification of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images. The images were obtained from 20 patients. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and histology confirmed malignancy. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and texture based features were extracted from the thyroid images. The resulting feature vectors were used to train and test three different classifiers: K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), and Decision Tree (DeTr) using ten-fold cross validation technique. Our results show that combination of DWT and texture features in the K-NN classifier resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.9%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 99.8%. Thus, the preliminary results of the proposed technique show that it could be adapted as an adjunct tool that can give valuable second opinions to the doctors regarding the nature of the thyroid nodule. The technique is cost-effective, non-invasive, fast, completely automated and gives more objective and reproducible results compared to manual analysis of the ultrasound images. We however intend to establish the clinical applicability of this technique by evaluating it with more data in the future. PMID:23365926

  13. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor presenting as a parotid gland mass: Expanding the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions in salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT are rare benign soft tissue tumors affecting mostly young adults. The most common affected sites include the knee, ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers. The temporomandibular joint is occasionally affected. Herein, we report a case of a 31-year-old Caucasian male who presented clinically with a parotid gland mass. The initial clinical and radiological work-up failed to reveal any involvement of the adjacent temporomandibular joint. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a cellular tumor composed of mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells with fibrosis and hemosiderin deposition. This was subsequently found to be a TGCT arising from the temporomandibular joint. Giant cell-rich lesions are uncommon in salivary glands. Herein, we describe the cytomorphology and clinico-radiographic features of this tumor with emphasis on the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions presenting in salivary glands. Despite its rare occurrence, this entity should be considered when giant cells are prominent in specimens acquired from this location.

  14. Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Radiation Protection of the Thyroid Gland in Chernobyl Patients with Acute Radiation Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Just after the Chernobyl accident there were three groups of factors which could influence on the incorporation of radioactive iodine into the victims at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The first group was related with the amount of radioactive iodine in the air, the second with radiation protection measures and the third with clinical condition of the victims. The purpose of this investigation was to study relationships among them. The subject of the research was 108 case histories of the victims after short-term external gamma-exposure from 0.5 to 12.7 Gy. 92 of them fell ill with acute radiation disease. Their thyroid glands were exposed to radiation iodine within 0.01-12 Gy. A multifactor analysis was used for studying the relationships among the radioactive iodine intake, development of prodromal radiation syndrome and taking in 0.125 g of potassium iodine to protect the thyroid gland. The investigation shows that the highest level of iodine incorporation was determined in the men stayed at the nuclear power plant for the first hour after the beginning of the accident. A protective effect of potassium iodine depended on the time of taking in. The vomiting was a reason for decreasing the effect due to the loss of some potassium iodine with vomiting materials during the prodromal period of acute radiation disease. The level of the radionuclide incorporation had no influence on the development of the acute radiation syndrome. (author)

  15. Analysis of thyroid hormones in gland and serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (THs), which are critical for growth and development in all vertebrates, can be impacted through chemical perturbation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Amphibian and mammalian models are being used to address this research priority within US EPA...

  16. Kinetics of radioiodine released from prelabelled thyroid gland in vivo: Influence of propylthiouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of free and hormone bound blood iodine after stimulation with endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are not satisfatorily characterized. We studied these kinetics in mice injected with 125I and thyroxine. In control mice the injected 125I is organified within the thyroid and incorporated into thyroid hormones, whereas in mice treated with the thyreostatic drug propylthiouracil (PTU), most 125I remains inorganic, since the thyroperoxidase activity is inhibited by PTU. We found that during blockade of TSH secretion by means of thyroxine, blood 125I activity was significantly higher in PTU-treated animals than in controls, indicating that PTU impaired thyroidal uptake of 125I. On the fourth day after the thyroxine load, the blockade of TSH secretion vanished. This caused the blood 125I activity to increase markedly. The increase of blood 125I was as high in PTU-treated animals as in controls. After the peak, blood 125I was cleared according to first order kinetics, with a half-time of 0.72 days (= 17.3 hours) in PTU-treated animals and of 6.3 days in controls (P<0.001). It is suggested (1) that PTU impairs thyroidal uptake of iodide, (2) that endogenous TSH stimulates release from the thyroid of inorganic iodide as well as of thyroid hormones, and (3) that inorganic iodide released by the thyroid has a much shorter biological half-life than hormone-bound iodine. (author)

  17. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas an...

  18. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis of Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-il; Lee, Jong Jin; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    A 69-year-old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed, and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  19. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis pf Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 69 year old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed,and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  20. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis pf Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Il; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Jin [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Jin Ho [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    A 69 year old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed,and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  1. Comparison between ultrasonography and computed tomography for detecting the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland: A prospective multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Na [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, busan (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jin Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To compare the detection rates of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland (TPL) using ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in a prospective multi-center study. We enrolled 582 patients who underwent neck CT at six institutions. Each radiologist prospectively evaluated the presence and features of TPLs on thyroid US. Radiologists were divided into two groups according to their previous experience in detecting TPL on US or CT. The same radiologist also retrospectively assessed CT findings, blinded to the corresponding US findings. The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid glands were detected in 230 cases (39.5%) on US and in 276 cases (47.6%) on CT. The TPL detection rate at the six institutions ranged from 22.0% to 59% for US and from 34.1% to 59% using CT. There were significant differences between US and CT in the detection rate, length, anteroposterior diameter, volume, and superior extent of TPL (p < or = 0.027). The TPL detection rates on both US and CT (p < 0.001) differed significantly according to the experience level of the radiologists. When the CT result was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, as well as the accuracy of US for TPL detection were 72.6%, 91.5%, 89.3%, 77.3%, and 82.1%, respectively. Our prospective multicenter study revealed that US could detect TPL with relatively high diagnostic accuracy compared to CT. Because the detection rate of TPL varied significantly according to the radiologists' level of experience, careful inspection is necessary to avoid imaging pitfalls and ensure appropriate evaluation of TPL on both US and CT.

  2. Effect of Exogenous Thyroxine on Mophology and Development of Thyroid Gland in Marble Goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus Bleeker Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Awang Soh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine effect of the exogenous thyroxine (T on ontogeny of thyroid 4 gland in marble goby larvae and to found out whether the exogenous T can alter the follicle structure and the 4 level of T in marble goby. The larvae were exposed for 1 h in T solution at 0.1 ppm. Untreated larvae (control 4 4 were not immersed in T hormone. It was found that T levels in treated larvae were higher than control, but the 44 development patterns in both treated larvae and control were similar in which occurred a decreasing of T levels 4 from 3-7 days after hatching (dAH, and then increased again from 10 dAH onwards. The histological evidences that the follicles structure in treated larvae were difference than control, in which suggested abundance of thyroid hormone. These findings suggested that thyroid hormones (THs may play an important role during early larvals life and metamorphosis period. High total T levels in the treated larvae suggested that exogenous 4T has a predictable role to increase T level, especially in early larval stage of marble goby.

  3. An Abattoir Study of Ovine Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Lesions and the Respective Serum T3 andT4 Levels in an Endemic Goiter Region in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Barati; Annahita Rezaei; Mohammad Nouri; Mohammad Darakhshesh

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of histologic thyroids lesions and the respective thyroid hormones changes of ewes in an endemic goiter region and to find out any impact of this condition on the fetal thyroid structures and serum thyroid hormones. In the present study a total number of 100 pregnant ewes and their fetuses slaughtered at slaughterhouse were selected for the study. The sera were prepared from the jugular vein blood of ewes and fetus...

  4. [A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, J; Zarzycki, W; Kinalska, I

    1992-06-01

    A case is reported of centrocytic-centroblastic malignant lymphoma situated in the thyroid and simulating goitre. Attention is called to difficulties in establishing of correct diagnosis. PMID:1441535

  5. Metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland: report of 3 cases and brief review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastases to the thyroid are encountered rarely in clinical practice, but the number of cases seems to have increased in recent years. The reason of this increase may be a more frequent use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and the use of more sophisticated, complicated imaging techniques in patients with thyroid masses. Also, in addition to these reasons, the use of more organo-specific immunohistochemical antibodies in the examination of surgical specimens may affect the differential diagnosis of malignant tumours. Three metastatic tumours to thyroid were found in the retrospective review of malignant thyroid tumours diagnosed between January 1993 and December 2007. The primary tumours were clear cell carcinoma of the kidney, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and breast carcinoma-ductal type. A detailed clinical history, careful histological examination and essential immunohistochemistry helped in attaining the correct diagnosis

  6. Correlation of fine needle aspiration cytology with histopathology findings in cases of thyroid lesions in Bir Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To correlate the findings of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC with the histopathology( HPE of the excised nodule or specimen and to assess the accuracy and efficacy of FNAC in the diagnosis of the thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted at the Department of Ear Nose Throat (ENT & Head & NecK Surgery( HNS, National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu from 2nd January 2009 to 29th December 2011. One hundred patients with thyroid nodule were included in the study. Results: Out of 100 patients 77 were females and 23 males. The age ranged from 11-60 years. Statistical analysis of results for Benign Thyroid lesion showed 98.6% sensitivity, 75 % specificity. Likewise, results for Malignant thyroid lesions showed 75 % sensitivity, 98.6 % specificity . Conclusion: FNAC has high accuracy in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid lesions. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-1, 23-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i1.9670

  7. Osseous metaplasia with mature bone formation of the thyroid gland: Three case reports

    OpenAIRE

    CHUN, JI-SUN; Hong, Ran; Kim, Jung-A

    2013-01-01

    Nodular hyperplasia (nodular or multinodular goiter) is the most common form of thyroid disease. These nodules may undergo secondary changes in the form of hemorrhages, calcification and cystic degeneration. However, osseous metaplasia with mature bone formation rarely occurs. The present study reports the cases of three female patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as nodular hyperplasia with osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation. The patients underwent right lobectomy, near total th...

  8. Modification of the activity of lymphocytes by xenotransplantation of thyroid gland tissue and by the transfer factor of immune reactivity in the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of a thyroid tissue is one of the possible methods for the curing of functional disorders of thyroid gland that appear due to the influence of insufficient environmental conditions on organism. By the micro method of lymphocyte blast transformation reaction, the functional activity of Wistar rat's splenocytes is studied. In the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis before and after xenotransplantation of the organic cell culture of thyroid gland of newborn pigs, the opportunities for correction of immunological disorders with the help of transfer factor preparations are investigated. The transfer factor is a low-molecular weight leukocyte extract (? 10kD) with immuno modulating activities. The reducing of self and PHA-stimulated proliferation of rat's splenocytes with [J131]-induced hypothyrosis is found. Bovine and human transfer factor preparations activate the proliferation of splenocytes from animals with hypothyrosis and animals with xenotransplantation

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  10. Lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid is caused by an alteration in the embryological migration of the gland. Its most common location is the base of the tongue, and it is generally discovered by chance. We present a case of lingual ectopic thyroid gland diagnosed by computerized tomography (CT) and confirmed by isotopic study

  11. Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on the Morphology of Thyroid Gland in Male Wistar Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Onu*, B. O. Oke1, P. C. Ozegbe1 and J. O. Oyewale2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted to document the effect of alcohol on the morphology of thyroid gland of male rat offspring whose dams consumed alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. Seventy-five female rats divided into three groups, 1, 2, and 3, of 25 each and their offspring were used. Group 1 served as control (C, group 2 was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and lactation (APL while group 3 was exposed to alcohol during lactation only (AL. At day 35 and 49 postpartum 5 male rat offspring were randomly selected from the three groups and sacrificed. After the sacrifice, the thyroids were dissected out and their absolute and relative weights determined. Thereafter, the thyroid tissues were prepared for routine histological examination. The results of the investigation showed significant reduction (P<0.05 in the weights of the thyroid and thyroid follicles. There was also disorganization and desquamation of follicular cells. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake during pregnancy and/or lactation could be injurious to the thyroid glands of the offspring.

  12. Evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology as a screening tool in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Methods: The retrospective study comprised data of all patients who presented for fine needle aspiration cytology at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, between January 2009 and April 2011. The data was retrieved from the departmental records and the results were recorded. All cases who underwent subsequent surgery were also retrieved and histopathology results were compared with the cytology results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Results: Of the 327 patients, the results were inconclusive in 18 (5.5%), benign in 230 (70.3%), suspicious in 64 (19.6%) and malignant in 15 (4.6%) cases. Besides, 59 (18%) of these patients underwent subsequent surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology was calculated to be 85.7%, 73.3%, 50% , 94.2% and 76.2% respectively. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a reasonably sensitive, specific and accurate initial diagnostic test for pre-operative evaluation of patients with thyroid swellings. The clinicians should be encouraged to use the procedure as it is minimally invasive and easily performed in an outpatient setting. (author)

  13. NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stimuli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant, follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001. A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas (P = 0.043. In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007 and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES high-risk group (P = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.

  14. Deficiency of respiratory chain complex I in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Franz A; Neureiter, Daniel; Feichtinger, René G; Trost, Andrea; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Mayr, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Oncocytic cells (OCs) are characterized by an accumulation of mitochondria and their occurrence in the thyroid gland of patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is well known. However, their properties and functional relevance are poorly understood. We investigated OC lesions (n=212) in the thyroid of 12 HT patients. Loss of complex I protein was observed in oncocytic lesions of each of the patients. In addition to isolated complex I deficiency, 25% of oncocytic lesions showed combined deficiency of complex I and IV. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time a defect of respiratory chain complex I in OCs of HT patients. PMID:26554844

  15. Peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of two groups of patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (n = 165) was evaluated retrospectively. Total thyroidectomy was the standard procedure in both groups, but the peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes differed. In group 1 (n = 84), only clinically positive lymph nodes were resected, and if residual postoperative 131I uptake was found, an ablation dose of 131I was given. In group 2 (n = 81), all of the tissue in the tracheoesophageal groove was removed routinely at total thyroidectomy and frozen section was done of the lymph nodes lying along the internal jugular vein. If metastases were found, a modified radical dissection of the neck was performed on the affected side. The two patient groups were comparable with regard to risk factors--local tumor stage, age and sex. Almost twice as many patients were found to have metastases to the lymph nodes in group 2. There was no significant difference in the ten year over-all or recurrence free survival time between the two groups. In group 1, there were more recurrences on the explored side of the neck but fewer distant metastases; however, both findings were not significant. In group 2, significantly more instances of hypoparathyroidism and palsy of the accessory nerve were found (p less than 0.05). Thus, when a more extensive search was carried out, more metastases to the lymph node were discovered and treated, but this did not prevent recurrences in the neck nor did it improve survival time. This approach resulted in more postoperative morbidity. There seems to be no justification for prophylactic removal of regional lymph nodes in instances of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, but modified radical neck dissection may be beneficial if clinically suspect regional lymph nodes are present in the lateral part of the neck. 52 references

  16. Peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamming, J.F.; van de Velde, C.J.; Goslings, B.M.; Fleuren, G.J.; Hermans, J.; Delemarre, J.F.; van Slooten, E.A. (University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1989-08-01

    The management of two groups of patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (n = 165) was evaluated retrospectively. Total thyroidectomy was the standard procedure in both groups, but the peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes differed. In group 1 (n = 84), only clinically positive lymph nodes were resected, and if residual postoperative 131I uptake was found, an ablation dose of {sup 131}I was given. In group 2 (n = 81), all of the tissue in the tracheoesophageal groove was removed routinely at total thyroidectomy and frozen section was done of the lymph nodes lying along the internal jugular vein. If metastases were found, a modified radical dissection of the neck was performed on the affected side. The two patient groups were comparable with regard to risk factors--local tumor stage, age and sex. Almost twice as many patients were found to have metastases to the lymph nodes in group 2. There was no significant difference in the ten year over-all or recurrence free survival time between the two groups. In group 1, there were more recurrences on the explored side of the neck but fewer distant metastases; however, both findings were not significant. In group 2, significantly more instances of hypoparathyroidism and palsy of the accessory nerve were found (p less than 0.05). Thus, when a more extensive search was carried out, more metastases to the lymph node were discovered and treated, but this did not prevent recurrences in the neck nor did it improve survival time. This approach resulted in more postoperative morbidity. There seems to be no justification for prophylactic removal of regional lymph nodes in instances of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, but modified radical neck dissection may be beneficial if clinically suspect regional lymph nodes are present in the lateral part of the neck. 52 references.

  17. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas and Salivary Glands of the Rat and Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Thomas; Brander-Weber, Patricia; Dangler, Charles; Deschl, Ulrich; Elwell, Michael R; Greaves, Peter; Hailey, Richard; Leach, Michael W; Pandiri, Arun R; Rogers, Arlin; Shackelford, Cynthia C; Spencer, Andrew; Tanaka, Takuji; Ward, Jerrold M

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for nonproliferative and proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for classifying lesions in the digestive system including the salivary glands and the exocrine pancreas of laboratory rats and mice. Most lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature, the diagnostic criteria, and the photomicrographs are also available electronically on the Internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and age related lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test items. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for the digestive system will decrease misunderstandings among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:26973378

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation of selenium and iodine on growth performance, carcass characteristics and histology of thyroid gland in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Kadhim, Khalid Kamil; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Goh, Yong Meng; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary selenium (Se), iodine (I) and a combination of both on growth performance, thyroid gland activity, carcass characteristics and the concentration of iodine and selenium in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle in goats. Twenty-four bucks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: control (CON), basal diet without supplementation, basal diet + 0.6 mg Se/kg dry matter (DM) (SS), 0.6 mg I/kg DM (IP), or combination of 0.6 mg/kg DM Se and 0.6 mg/kg DM I (SSIP) and fed for 100 days. Animals fed diet SSIP exhibited higher (P < 0.05) body weight and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than those fed other diets. Dressing percentage of goats fed the supplemented diets was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control. Carcasses from the IP group had higher (P < 0.05) total fat proportion than the SSIP group. The levels of both elements were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in LL muscle in supplemented goats. Thyroid follicular epithelial cells of IP and SSIP animals were significantly higher than those of CON and SS groups. The study demonstrated that the combined Se and I dietary supplementation improves growth performance, carcass dressing percentage and increases the retention of Se and I in goat meat. PMID:26560071

  19. Thyroid abscess.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohondia O

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid abscess arising from Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis (AST is a rare clinical disorder. The ability of the thyroid gland to resist infection is well known and infection in the thyroid gland is rare, particularly so with the advent of widespread usage of antibiotics. An internal pharyngeal fistula (Pyriform sinus fistula is the most common underlying abnormality in patients with AST. We report a case of an adult male who presented with a thyroid abscess. The causal organism was found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Intravenous antibiotics and, incision and drainage of the abscess led to an uncomplicated recovery.

  20. Impact of the accuracy of automatic segmentation of cell nuclei clusters on classification of thyroid follicular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chanho; Kim, Changick

    2014-08-01

    Automatic segmentation of cell nuclei clusters is a key building block in systems for quantitative analysis of microscopy cell images. For that reason, it has received a great attention over the last decade, and diverse automatic approaches to segment clustered nuclei with varying levels of performance under different test conditions have been proposed in literature. To the best of our knowledge, however, so far there is no comparative study on the methods. This study is a first attempt to fill this research gap. More precisely, the purpose of this study is to present an objective performance comparison of existing state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Particularly, the impact of their accuracy on classification of thyroid follicular lesions is also investigated "quantitatively" under the same experimental condition, to evaluate the applicability of the methods. Thirteen different segmentation approaches are compared in terms of not only errors in nuclei segmentation and delineation, but also their impact on the performance of system to classify thyroid follicular lesions using different metrics (e.g., diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, etc.). Extensive experiments have been conducted on a total of 204 digitized thyroid biopsy specimens. Our study demonstrates that significant diagnostic errors can be avoided using more advanced segmentation approaches. We believe that this comprehensive comparative study serves as a reference point and guide for developers and practitioners in choosing an appropriate automatic segmentation technique adopted for building automated systems for specifically classifying follicular thyroid lesions. PMID:24677732

  1. Study of serum TSH content in functioning thyroid gland adenoma by 'supersensitive' immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinations of serum TSH levels by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)-math TSH (Mallinckrodt) kit and of the thyroid function by scintiscanning using 99mTc-pertechnetate (20-40 MBq) were carried out paralelly in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients. A comparison of the two tests allowed a better distinction of preclinical hyperthyreosis from toxic adenomas. (L.E.)

  2. Effects of metamorphosis and captivity on the in vitro sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was tested in vitro. Thyroids were taken from subjects representing metamorphic stages I (premetamorphic larvae), II (onset of climax), and VII (completion of gill resorption), as well as from captivity control larvae. Exogenous TSH reduced the cumulative uptake of 125I in vitro by thyroids from stage I larvae after 24 and 48 hr. The capacity of thyroids to release thyroxine (T4) in vitro was used subsequently as a measure of their responsiveness to TSH. Baseline levels of T4 release in vitro were variable but did not differ significantly among developmental stages. A low dose of bTSH (5 X 10(-6) IU/ml) did not increase in vitro T4 release compared with that of controls. A larger dose (5 X 10(-4) IU/ml) caused greater increases in T4 release from thyroids of stage II and VII subjects than from those of controls. This dose produced only a small response by thyroids from captivity-control subjects. The results suggest that the thyroids of Ambystoma increase in their capacity to respond to TSH during the process of metamorphosis

  3. Thyroid gland hormones in newborn calves treated with clinoptilolite receiving different amounts of colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoji? Velibor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the natural mineral adsorber clinoptilolite on serum levels of thyroid hormones in newborn calves in the first 48 hours postpartum. A total number of 68 newborn Holstein calves divided in four groups were used in the present study. Calves were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1 0.75 L of colostrum in 12h intervals, with 5 g/L of clinoptilolite immediately after birth (Oh at 12h and 24h after birth (0.75+; 2 0.75L of colostrum in 12h intervals (0.75-, which represents the first control group; 3 1.5L of colostrum in 12h intervals, with 5 g/L of clinoptilolite immediately after birth (Oh, at 12h and 24h after birth (1.5+, and 4 1.5 L of colostrum in 12h intervals (1.5-, which represents the second control group. The calves were born with high blood serum thyroid hormones concentrations (9.7-13.5 nmol/L for T3 and 201-235 nmol/L for T^. At 6. hours after birth serum thyroid hormone levels increased in all groups, but become significantly lower at 48. hours after birth. Clinoptilolite treatment could influence the rise in blood serum thyroid hormones concentration during the early postnatal period. This was most evident in the treated group of calves that received 1.5 L of colostrum (T3, 6h, 11.73.4:19.47.4, p<0.01; 1.5+ vs. 1.5-. Results indicate that there is a possible effect of clinoptilolite treatment on blood serum thyroid hormones concentration in newborn calves during the first 48 hours of life.

  4. Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of NIS gene transcripts was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland. PMID:25448256

  5. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 μIU/ml, median: 7.37 μIU/ml, range: 0.074-211 μIU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  6. Giant sternal metastasis secondary to follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Sotirios; Perelas, Apostolos; Toufektzian, Levon; Mazarakis, Nikolaos; Pechlivanides, Georgios

    2012-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our department for investigation and treatment of a progressively enlarging multinodular goiter and a fast growing mass infiltrating the sternum. The patient was euthyroid, but computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography showed a mass in the anterior mediastinum infiltrating the sternum, with a dominant nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Fine needle aspiration biopsy results from both the cervical and the mediastinal masses were suggestive of follicular thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, thymectomy, and total removal of the mass, along with parts of the sternum, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and attached ribs. The thoracic wall was reconstructed with gortex dual mesh covered by muscle flaps from both pectoralis major muscles. Pathological analysis of both masses confirmed the fine needle aspiration findings and the patient received three cycles of radioactive iodine treatment. She had an uneventful postoperative course, but died of a stroke 8 years later. PMID:22576227

  7. Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis. Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers. We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years. The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma. The papillary carcinoma was continuous with the anaplastic carcinoma. The findings were supported by immunohistochemistry. The patient was managed by a total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection followed by chemotherapy. However, she died two months after surgery. The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers. This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.

  8. Paraplegia in a puerperal woman due to spinal metastasis from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an unusual case of paraplegia which occurred on the second postnatal day. Investigations revealed a spinal mass at D-7 level. Histopathology of the tumor showed it to be a spinal metastasis from a solitary thyroid malignant nodule. The patient had laminotomy and biopsy, followed later by total thyroidectomy. She also had radiotherapy and radio-iodine ablation. We discuss the therapeutic modalities of such a condition. (author)

  9. Output parameters of the 131I bi-phasic vs. monoexponential biokinetics model in thyroid gland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, F.; Jirsa, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 4 (2006), s. 177-177. [Days of Medical Biophysics /29./. 16.05.2006-18.05.2006, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET100750404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thyroid activity * model of activity * effective half-life * residence time * radiation dose Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  10. No evidence of radiation risk for thyroid gland among schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess thyroid status among the schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan, and to evaluate the current status of iodine deficiency in this area, we performed medical screening of schoolchildren in two villages, Kaynar and Karaul villages, East Kazakhstan Region, Republic of Kazakhstan, located within 100 km of SNTS. A total of 196 schoolchildren were chosen at random. Control groups comprised 250 schoolchildren from Nagasaki, an iodine-rich area, and 100 schoolchildren from Gomel, an iodine-deficient area contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Ultrasound screening of thyroid revealed three cases of benign thyroid disease (two cases of goiter and one single cyst), but no cases suspicious of malignancy. The urinary iodine (UI) concentrations of subjects in Kaynar and Karaul ranged from 21.8 to 735.8 μg/L, 4.3% of whom showed low UI concentrations (<50 μg/L), compared with 0% in the Nagasaki group and 52% in the Gomel group. The median UI concentration in Kaynar and Karaul was 153.2 μg/L, which was significantly lower than that in Nagasaki (366.3 μg/L, p<0.0001) but higher than that in Gomel (47.3 μg/L, p<0.0001). In conclusion, there was a low incidence of morphological abnormalities in the thyroid, and no evidence for severe iodine deficiency among the Kazakhstan children studied. These results suggest that there is no transgenerational risk for schoolchildren born from parents irradiated as a result of tests carried out in SNTS. (author)

  11. [Some neurologic and psychiatric complications in endocrine disorders: the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszalós, Zsuzsa

    2007-02-18

    Thyroid hormones are of primary importance for the perinatal development of the central nervous system, and for normal function of the adult brain. These hormones primarily regulate the transcription of specific target genes. They increase the cortical serotonergic neurotransmission, and play an important role in regulating central noradrenergic and GABA function. Thyroid deficiency during the perinatal period results in mental retardation. Hypothyroidism of the adults causes most frequently dementia and depression. Other less common clinical pictures include myxoedema coma, dysfunction of cerebellum and cranial nerves. Hypothyroidism also increases predisposition of stroke. Peripheral diseases frequently include polyneuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, myalgic state, and rarely myokymia. Nearly all the hyperthyroid patients show minor psychiatric signs, and infrequently psychosis, dementia, confusion state, depression, apathetic thyrotoxicosis, thyrotoxic crisis, seizures, pyramidal signs, or chorea occur. The peripheral complications may be indicated by chronic thyrotoxic myopathy, infiltrative ophthalmopathy, myasthenia gravis, periodic hypokalemic paralysis and polyneuropathy. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone was confirmed in a number of patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Significantly elevated antithyroid antibody titers characterize Hashimoto's encephalopathy. This condition is a rare, acute - subacute, serious, life threatening, but steroid-responsive, relapsing-remitting, autoimmune disease. PMID:17344150

  12. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in a patient with a normal thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Shilo, S; Hirsch, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism can develop even in the presence of an otherwise normal gland. One of the less common sources of iodine is tablets of seaweed, sold over the counter without prescription. We report the case of a 72 year old female who developed clinical and laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism while ingesting sea-kelp (Vitalia) tablets. Six months after stopping the tablets, the symptoms and laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism had disappeared. No evidence of pre-existing th...

  13. The influence of low-level radiation and gangliosides on adenylate cyclase activity in thymus and thyroid glands of chicks in ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate cyclase (AC) activity was studied in thymus and thyroid gland of intact chick embryos and those irradiated with a dose of 0.029 Gy prior to incubation, and newly hatched chocks in the presence of total ganglioside fractions extracted from the same organs. Gangliosides were shown to increase the enzyme activity of thymocytes and thyreocytes during the postnatal development. It is suggested that small radiation doses potentiate the stimulatory effect of ganglioside fractions on AC

  14. An assessment of the potential role of routine radionuclide thyroid scanning in the differentiation between solid and cystic lesions in the solitary thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of the conventional sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan, to differentiate cystic from solid solitary or dominant non-functioning nodules in the thyroid was investigated in 104 patients. Although these nodules are thought to be non-functioning, a low level of radioactivity can be detected in some of the nodules. The assessment was based on the level of radioactivity in the nodules. The nodules with higher activity were considered to have a higher probability of being solid. This diagnosis was confirmed either by ultrasound, or by histological examination, or both, and sensitivity and specificity evaluated with ROC curve analysis which reached 81% sensitivity with a specificity of 44%. The method was more reliable for larger than for smaller nodules reaching a sensitivity of 81% with a specificity of 84%. The results indicate that sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scanning can provide a useful procedure to distinguish between cystic and solid lesions in the thyroid. (orig.)

  15. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  16. The Rate of Metabolism and Performance of Broiler Who Gets Skin Treatment Rations Containing Cassava Flour and Injection Solution Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Windusari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research was to find out the effect of the thyroid gland flour given by injection and skin cassava flour given in the diet on metabolic rate and performance of broiler chickens. Feeds were arranged with protein content (18% and metabolism energy (2900 kcal/kg in accordance with recommendations of Nutrition Research Council (NRC. As many as 35 were one week old chicks used in this study. Completely random design was used in this research, with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. Each of these repeats was placed 3 ducks and kept for 3 months. The treatment consisted of P1 (control diet, P2 (70% basal diet + 30% cassava peel without steam, P3 (100% basal ration with treatment of the thyroid gland injection of starch solution as much as 10 mg per day in subcutaneous, P4 (100% basal ration with treatment of the thyroid gland flour solution injection of 20 mg per day in subcutaneous. The results showed that metabolic activity of broilers increased concurrently with the increasing age characterized by increased oxygen consumption, body heat production and basal metabolic rate

  17. A Study on the Radiation Dose of 131I in the Thyroid Gland during the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    53 patients with hyperthyroidism have been analyzed with special reference to therapeutic response to radioactive iodine(131I) treatment. Mean effective half-life, 24 hour uptake rate and radiation dose of 131I in hyperthyroid patients included in this study were respectively. 1) Mean effective half-life of 131I was 4.7±1.5 days in the trace dose and 5.0±1.5 days in the therapeutic dose. 2) Mean 24 hour uptake rate of 131I was 72.7±11.1% in the tracer dose and 73.4±12.3% in the therapeutic dose. 3) Mean radiation dose of 131I was 5319±2648 RAD as predicted and 5692±2843 RAD as actual. A single dose of radioactive iodine treatment was satisfactory in 34 patients (radioiodine resistant) A radioiodine resistant group of patients with hyperthyroidism was distinctively characteristic in the following aspects. 1) Mean thyroid weight calculated in the resistant group (63.9±14.0 gm) was significantly (p131I in the resistant group (3,684±1,745 RAD) was significantly (p131I in the resistant group (4,100±1,691 RAD) was significantly (p131I among the groups (p>0.05). 7) The average mean % difference of effective half-life, uptake rate and radiation dose measured following the tracer and therapeutic dose of 131I were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Therefore effective half-life, uptake rate and radiation dose of the therapeutic dose of 131I were readily predictable following the tracer dose of 131I. 8) It is concluded that the possibility of resistance to radioactive iodine treatment may be anticipated in patients with thyroid gland large in size and compromised 131I uptake rate.

  18. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  19. Entrance surface dose measurement on the thyroid gland in orthopantomography: The need for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid make it an organ of concern in dental x-ray examinations. A National Radiation Protection Department sponsored pilot study carried out in the Dental Radiology Department of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, to assess if the radiation dose in panoramic radiographies could be reduced without significant impairment of the subjective image quality. Materials and methods: Thermoluminescent dosimetry is widely acknowledged to be the recommended method for measuring entrance surface doses. In this study, entrance surface doses was measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) on the thyroid of 40 patients who had referred to the School of Dentistry, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Patients were no exposed to any additional radiation and the radiographs were used for diagnostic purposes. Thermoluminescent dosimetry were calibrated with radiation energies similar to those commonly used in orthopantomography. Results: The overall mean entrance surface doses on the thyroid in orthopantomography was 0.071±0.012 mGy (ranged from 0.01 to 0.40 mGy). The mean entrance surface doses for radiographies performed with 66 k Vp (20 patients) and 68 k Vp (20 patients) were 0.072± 0.016 respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between these means. Conclusions: The measured surface doses in our study are inconsistent with the only one already reported about the same experiment. However, due to lack of national diagnostic reference levels for orthopantomography, it is not clear whether in case of the Pm 2002 Cc unit used in this experiment, reducing the radiation dose to a level that still keeps a diagnostically acceptable image quality is necessary

  20. THE BETHESDA SYSTEM FOR REPORTING THYROID CYTOLOGY - UNIFORM TERMINOLOGY TO AID IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THYROID LESIONS: STUDY IN KMCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fine needle aspiration has been widely accepted as diagnostic procedure of choice in assessment of non-toxic thyroid nodule. Despite thyroid cytology being widely used as a first-line investigation to guide clinical management, until recently there was no standardized terminology for FNAC reporting. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytology (TBSRTC has attempted to standardize reporting in aspiration smears. AIMS The objective of the present study was to report thyroid cytology smears by TBSRTC into various categories, analyse their cytological features using TBSRTC monograph, conveying brief management plan to clinicians and correlated with histopathology specimens whenever they are available. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 138 patients who presented with thyroid swelling were subjected to thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC and the smears were made followed by H and E staining. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytology was followed on aspiration smears using criteria published in the atlas and related literature. The clinicians were communicated implied risk of malignancy and recommended clinical management along with report. Histopathology specimens whenever received were processed as per standard methods. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated using histopathology diagnosis as gold standard results: Distribution of 138 cases as per Bethesda system of reporting was done. Benign category was the largest (75.4% followed by ND/UNS category (8.7%, malignant and SFM constitutes 2.9% and 4.3% total 7.2%, AUS/FLUS constitutes 5.8%, while FN/SFN constitutes 2.9%. If FN/SFN is included in malignant group the sensitivity increases, but the specificity decreases. There is marked decrease in positive predictive value. CONCLUSION Our findings were consistent with others, who used the Bethesda cytopathology reporting system. Applying a standard terminology reporting system for thyroid, FNA may enhance the communication between pathologists and clinicians, assists them to find out the rate of malignancy in each cytological group and facilitating a more consistent approach for patients management

  1. Profile of salivary gland flow dysfunctions in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma submitted to radioiodine therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Clara Fontes, Vieira; Aline Sampaio Lima, Rodrigues; Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira da, Cruz; Fernanda Ferreira, Lopes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effects of radioiodine therapy on salivary flow in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: A sample comprising 88 patients submitted to ablation with iodine 131 was included in the study. The patients were submitted to sialometry and evaluation of the presence of x [...] erostomia before, 10 days and 3 months after radioiodine therapy. RESULTS: Xerostomia was observed in 36.4% of the patients before radioiodine therapy, 59.15% at 10 days after therapy, and 25% at 3 months after therapy. Significant differences were observed in non-stimulated salivary flow rates between the second and third evaluations (p

  2. The thyroid gland is a major source of circulating T3 in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Chanoine, J P; Braverman, L E; Farwell, A P; Safran, M.; Alex, S.; Dubord, S; Leonard, J L

    1993-01-01

    In rats, the respective contribution of the thyroid and peripheral tissues to the pool of T3 remains unclear. Most, if not all, of the circulating T3 produced by extrathyroidal sources is generated by 5'-deiodination of T4, catalyzed by the selenoenzyme, type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (5'D-I). 5'D-I in the liver and kidney is almost completely lost in selenium deficiency, resulting in a marked decrease in T4 deiodination and an increase in circulating T4 levels. Surprisingly, circulating ...

  3. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  4. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  5. Crystal Structure of Iodotyrosine Deiodinase, a Novel Flavoprotein Responsible for Iodide Salvage in Thyroid Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Seth R.; McTamney, Patrick M.; Adler, Jennifer M.; LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole; Rokita, Steven E.; (Maryland)

    2009-08-13

    The flavoprotein iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) salvages iodide from mono- and diiodotyrosine formed during the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. Expression of a soluble domain of this membrane-bound enzyme provided sufficient material for crystallization and characterization by x-ray diffraction. The structures of IYD and two co-crystals containing substrates, mono- and diiodotyrosine, alternatively, were solved at resolutions of 2.0, 2.45, and 2.6 {angstrom}, respectively. The structure of IYD is homologous to others in the NADH oxidase/flavin reductase superfamily, but the position of the active site lid in IYD defines a new subfamily within this group that includes BluB, an enzyme associated with vitamin B{sub 12} biosynthesis. IYD and BluB also share key interactions involving their bound flavin mononucleotide that suggest a unique catalytic behavior within the superfamily. Substrate coordination to IYD induces formation of an additional helix and coil that act as an active site lid to shield the resulting substrate {center_dot} flavin complex from solvent. This complex is stabilized by aromatic stacking and extensive hydrogen bonding between the substrate and flavin. The carbon-iodine bond of the substrate is positioned directly over the C-4a/N-5 region of the flavin to promote electron transfer. These structures now also provide a molecular basis for understanding thyroid disease based on mutations of IYD.

  6. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid in Treating Patients With Metastatic and/or Locally Advanced or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  7. A Study on the Effects of the X-Ray Irradiation and Thyroid Gland on the Erythropoietic System in Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of X-ray irradiation and the thyroid gland on the erythropoietic system were studied in the white male rabbits. The total body irradiation was done in doses of 250r and 500r to each of 5 rabbits for 10 days. The factors were 220 KV, 10 mA, FLI/4 Cu+1 mmAl (HVL:2.0 mmCu) 50 cm F.S.D. The thyroid dysfunction was experimentally induced by giving 2 mg of thyroid tablets per kg body weight for 15 days in 5 rabbits for hyperthyroidism and by giving 1.5 mC of 131I per kg body weight in another 5 rabbits for hypothyroidism. Fourteen healthy rabbits were used as control. The hematologic changes and ferrokinetic data obtained from 59Fe and apparent half survival of the red blood cells obtained from 51Cr were compared. Following were the results: A. X-ray irradiated group; 1) There were no significant changes in hematologic findings except for leucopenia. A slight decrease of red blood cells was observed in 500r irradiated animals. 2) The decrease in the iron turnover rates of the plasma and red blood cells as well as in the red cell renewal rate were found in both groups. A significant decrease of the red cell iron utilization rate was observed in the 500r irradiated animals. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were slightly, in the 250r (12.10.80 days), and markedly shortened in the 500r irradiated animals (9.81.38 days), the normal being 14.01.6 days. 4) It appears, therefore, that the anemia caused by X-ray irradiation is due to the inhibition of hemopoietic function and the excess destruction of the red blood cells. B. 1) The slight increase of the red blood cell count and circulating blood volume with the normal serum iron level were observed in the hyperthyoid group, while the decrease of the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values with a marked decrease of the serum iron level in the hypothyroid group. 2) A marked decrease of the plasma iron disappearance rate with increase of plasma iron turnover, red cell iron utilization and red cell iron turnover were observed in the hyperthyroid group, while the marked delay and decrease in the hypothyroid group. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were almost the same with the control in the hyperthyroid group, (14.01.58 days) while a marked shortening in the hypothyroid group (10.60.30 days). 4) It was reconfirmed that the thyroid hormones bear a close relationship with the erythropoietic system, namely, the latter is stimulated by the former. The lack of the thyroid hormones thus induces the bone marrow depression leading to anemia the major cause of which, therefore, is not hemolysis.

  8. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis

  9. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis.

  10. Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto T. Bertelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento.Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

  11. Diagnosing diseases of the thyroid gland by means of scintiscanning and puncture cytology taking into consideration the nodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains the results of scintigraphical and puncture-cytological examinations carried out during an observation period of appr. 3 years on 548 patients with goiters from the Upper-Bavarien endemis region. In total, we had 484 thyroid gland scintigrams which showed 335 uninodular, 71 multinodular, and 78 diffuse goiters. The 335 solitary nodular goiters were allocated 278 cold, 36 warm, and 18 hot nodes; in three cases, the scintigram could not be assessed due to exogenous iodine contamination. In the 71 multinodular goiters, we found 118 cold, 28 warm, and 9 hot nodes. Cytological findings were established in 548 patients. In 484 cases, the findings were negative, in 19 cases suspicious, and in 17 cases positive. The efficiency of cytological diagnosis of malignant tumours can be stated to be 87.5%. The rate of falsely negative smears was 12.5%; cytologically, in 10.9% of the preparations falsely suspicious diagnoses were established, and in 1.6% the diagnoses were falsely positive. (orig./MG)

  12. Radioimmunoassay of human calcitonin in serum and tissue from healthy individuals and patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific radioimmunological method for measurement of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) in human serum and tissue is described. Of healthy individuals of both sexes, 85 % had measurable iCT in serum (mean, 0.23 ng/ml). Of 29 patients who had received treatment for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), 19 had increased serum iCT (0-60 ng/ml to205 ng/ml). Elevated serum iCT was also found preoperatively in 2 MCT patients. Eleven of the patients with abnormal elevations of serum iCT were alive 4 to 13 years after the operation. Concentration of iCT in extracts from MCT varied from 0.5 to 540 ng/ml wet weight. The diagnostic value of this method and its importance for pre- and post-operative evaluation of these patients are improved by the use of selective venous catheterization in basal state and during stimulation of CT secretion. (Auth.)

  13. Space-occupying lesions in the pineal gland region in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative CT and MRI studies of 24 patients with space occupying lesions of the pinealis region were analysed. MRI demonstrated all 24 lesions, whereas CT could detect only 20 out of 24. MRI was superior to CT in assessment of size, localisation and relation to adjacent structures. No significant difference was found between CT and MRI in preoperative prediction of tumour histology. (orig.)

  14. Development of an iodine captor for the study of the performance of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detection-measurement system (DETEC - PC) to be used in those studies of iodine reception in thyroid. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind module of measurement and the application software. The measurement module, communicates through an interface RS-232 series with the Personal Computer where the application software resides (DETEC). The software was designed chord with the principles from the Guided Programming to Objects and it was programmed in C++. The software besides the measurement of the patients, carries out the statistical processing of the lot of samples to use, fixed automatically the spectrometric parameters for the measurement, it possesses a database where it is stored the information of the studied patients and a help with the options of the system. (Author)

  15. Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in Treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya A; Sandeep Bansal; Amit Shankar; Gupta, Ashok K.; Rijuneeta Gupta; Amanjit Bal

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid surgeons are becoming increasingly more aware of a histologically distinct subset of thyroid carcinoma whose classification falls between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas with respect to both cell differentiation and clinical behavior. This subtype of tumors has been categorized as poorly differentiated or insular carcinoma, based on its characteristic cell groupings. Although the differentiation of insular carcinoma from other thyroid carcinomas has important prognostic ...

  16. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using 124I PET(/CT) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after 131I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and ≥96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq 124I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered 131I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The 124I PET(/CT) salivary gland dosimetry indicated that lemon juice stimulation shortly after 131I administration in radioiodine therapy increases the absorbed doses to the salivary glands. (orig.)

  17. Thyroid cancers and benign thyroid pathologies among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work is to detect the frequency and the character of thyroid diseases manly with thyroid cancer diagnosed among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia. Conclusions: Usually, in Latvia every year there are 2-3 thyroid cancer cases per 100 thousand inhabitants, but there are 3 cases per 5 thousands Chernobyl clean-up workers - that mean 20 times more than in general population. The first case of thyroid follicular and papillary carcinoma in the Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia was diagnosed after a latent period of 10 years. Among benign thyroid lesions, cystic colloid goiter and nodular colloid goiter seem to be commonly associated with radiation exposure to the thyroid gland

  18. Disruptive mitochondrial DNA mutations in complex I subunits are markers of oncocytic phenotype in thyroid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparre, Giuseppe; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Bonora, Elena; Pennisi, Lucia Fiammetta; Toller, Matteo; Iommarini, Luisa; Ghelli, Anna; Moretti, Massimo; Betts, Christine M; Martinelli, Giuseppe Nicola; Ceroni, Alberto Rinaldi; Curcio, Francesco; Carelli, Valerio; Rugolo, Michela; Tallini, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Oncocytic tumors are a distinctive class of proliferative lesions composed of cells with a striking degree of mitochondrial hyperplasia that are particularly frequent in the thyroid gland. To understand whether specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are associated with the accumulation of mitochondria, we sequenced the entire mtDNA in 50 oncocytic lesions (45 thyroid tumors of epithelial cell derivation and 5 mitochondrion-rich breast tumors) and 52 control cases (21 nononcocytic thyroi...

  19. Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No signs of metastatic disease are present up to date. The differences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland

  20. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm / Osteossarcoma primrio da glndula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; Joo Grigoleti, Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Karla Lais, Pgas.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumores mesenquimais da glndula tireoide so extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primrio de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na regio cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas [...] de calcificao. A pea cirrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 11 7,5 cm. microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por clulas poligonais de tamanho intermdio, com um padro condroide em algumas reas e formao de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpresso negativa para AE1/AE3, protena glial fibrilar cida (GFAP), antgeno da membrana epitelial (EMA), p53 e fator de transcrio da tireoide (TTF-1) e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnstico de osteossarcoma primrio da glndula tireoide foi, ento, estabelecido. Abstract in english Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consi [...] sted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 11 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.

  1. Stereotoracic skin biopsy in non-palpable woman mammary glands lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy stereotactic breast biopsies in non palpable lesions were performed in asintomatic patients, studied with mammography, physical examination and high-resolution ultrasonography. A 14-gauge cutting needle was used with excursion of 2 and 20 mm. in high likelihood probably benign lesions and low likelihood probably malignant lesions, not snographical evident and not less than 4 mm. in diameter. Long term follow-up or surgical correlation is available in only 46 biopsies, with 35 negative results and 11 positive results for cancer. Follow-up mammography was recommended in 34 of 35 negative results and one case showed mammographic lesion progression, a false negative result, with sensitivity 90.9% and NPV 97%. Needle wire localization and open surgery was recommended in 11 positive results, with total agreement between stereotactic core biopsy and open surgery, with specificity 100% and PPV 100%. The indication of stereotactic biopsy in non palpable lesions as an alternative to surgical biopsy in order to decrease the number of surgical biopsies with negative results and in consequence lowering costs of diagnosis of asintomatic malignant lesions, with error of 2.1% and 2.8% minor complications

  2. Comparison of various methods relating to radionuclide examination of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the medical images obtained using as a scintillation detector device either a gamma camera with pinhole collimator, a gamma camera with parallel hole collimator or a scanner equipped with a focussing collimator was compared on the basis of visual evaluation of 140 scintigrams of the thyroid, prepared following administration of 99 mTc pertechnetate. The following conclusions could be drawn: Decisive advantages of the scanner were colour contrast, non-distorted organ visualisation and uncomplicated localisation of palpatory findings. The images provided by the gamma camera and parallel hole collimator turned out to be unsatisfactory despite the use of such processing techniques as smoothing and contrast enhancement. The scintigrams obtained using the camera with pinhole collimator were characterized by the highest resolution capacity and thus permitted any details to be ascertained with a high degree of accuracy. Information in excess of the findings revealed by the scintiscanner and parallel hole collimator was provided in 40% and 55% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  3. Image fusion analysis of 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide scintigraphy and CT/MRI in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy: the importance of the lacrimal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical structures that show uptake of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). The study population comprised a series of 20 TAO patients attending the out-patient thyroid clinic and 12 patients presenting head or neck tumours. Scintigraphy was carried out with our newly developed tracer, technetium-99m labelled EDDA-HYNIC-TOC (99mTc-TOC). Morphological imaging was done with either magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray computed tomography without contrast medium. Both imaging procedures were done within an interval of 3-4 weeks. For the image fusion procedure, specific external reference markers were used for each imaging modality. The markers were screwed onto a reference frame, which was held in place via a vacuum-fixed mouthpiece. The anatomical structure showing tracer uptake that was most frequently recognised was the lacrimal gland, followed by the retronasal area, cervical lymph structures, salivary glands, the anterior insertion points of the extra-ocular muscles and discrete areas of the neck extensor muscles. The lacrimal gland and the retronasal area showed the highest and most frequent uptake of 99mTc-TOC in TAO patients, whereas such uptake did not occur in the retrobulbar space. In spite of knowledge of these results of image fusion, no changes in the involved structures could be detected on morphological imaging. It is concluded that binding of 99mTc-TOC is more frequently localised to the anterior compartment of the eye and to the neck. The previously used term ''orbital'' uptake should be abandoned and replaced by a descriptive term relating to the anatomically recognised structure showing tracer accumulation, i.e. the lacrimal gland. The uptake of octreotide by lymphoid and salivary glands opens a new field of investigation related to the physiology of somatostatin. (orig.)

  4. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave’s disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of ...

  5. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar Taha Abu-Samra; Yassir Adam Shuaib

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and S...

  6. Value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rikke Klby; Bjrndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    1997 to 2006, were reviewed with special reference to its value in the clinical treatment of patients. RESULTS: Cytologic as well as histologic diagnoses of 382 patients were available. In these diagnoses, the sensitivity of malignancy was 83% and specificity was 99%. The positive predictive value was...... 98%, and the negative predictive value was 97%. The overall accuracy was 93%. The correct subtyping of the benign lesions was 97%, and the exact type-specific concordance of the malignant lesions was 71%. CONCLUSION: Considerable benefit to the patient may result from the cautious use of FNAB of...

  7. Prevalence of salivary glands lesions from histopathologic diagnosis of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of PUCPR in the period of 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre BETTIO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesions that affect salivary glands are a group of clinic entities ranging from local pathological alterations to the manifestation of systemic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of cases of lesions regarding salivary glands in patients of dental clinic of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR. Material and methods: A total of 1990 histopathologic reports was analyzed in data of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, in the period of 1999 to 2008. Seventy-three cases of salivary glands diseases were analyzed, according to sex, age and histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Mucocele was the most prevalent lesion, with 58 cases (2.9%. Others diseases were diagnosed, such as: pleomorphic adenoma (0.3%, cystic adenoid carcinoma (0.1%, sialoadenitis (0.1%, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (0.05%, Sjögren’s syndrome (0.05%, ranula (0.05% and adenomatoid hyperplasia (0.05%. No predilection for sex was observed, but the majority of diseases occurred principally during the three first life decades. Conclusion: These findings reinforce that the occurrence oflesions associated to the salivary glands is low when compared to others oral diseases. The more common pathological entities that affect salivary glands are associated to traumatic agents and affect adult male young patients.

  8. Ciruga mayor ambulatoria de tumores benignos de la glndula tiroides Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Manuel Luzardo Silveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se efectu un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo sobre la ejecucin de ciruga mayor ambulatoria para eliminar tumores benignos de la glndula tiroides, lo cual fue realizado en el Servicio de Ciruga General del Hospital Clinicoquirrgico Docente "Dr. Joaqun Castillo Duany" de Santiago de Cuba durante los aos 1996-2008, ambos incluidos, previa valoracin clnica de 74 pacientes en la consulta especializada de endocrinologa, donde se decidi que podan ser operados con carcter definitivo. En la casustica predominaron el sexo femenino, los grupos etarios de 31-45 aos, la hemitiroidectoma como tcnica quirrgica, la acupuntura como procedimiento analgsico y el adenoma folicular como resultado citohistolgico. Se produjeron complicaciones leves en 5 integrantes de la muestra, pero la recuperacin fue absoluta en todos, de manera que incluso 72 de ellos egresaron antes de las 24 horas. Este mtodo operatorio, por la buena aceptacin, es beneficioso para pacientes e instituciones hospitalarias.A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of "Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany" Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.

  9. Studies on the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland through foods contaminated by gaseous radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that iodine-131 released in the air is taken in the body through skin, inhalation and foods. Among them it is supposed that the path through foods such as milk and leaf vegetables must be critical. Because of the comparatively less consumption of milk in Japan, however, the leaf vegetables may be the most suspicious food followed by milk. This paper concerns the parameters used for the estimation of the oral intake of the nuclide discharged into the air. A specially designed exposure chamber was developed for the measurement of so-called velocity of deposition. The experiment was done by use of two chemical forms of stable iodine. The velocity of deposition obtained was 2.6 x 10-3 cm/sec for methyl iodine and 1.8 x 10-1 cm/sec for elemental iodine, respectively. The elemental iodine deposited easily onto inner wall of the chamber. And therefore space was allowed for the discussion how to identify the concentration of the elemental iodine circulating in the chamber. The yield of commercially available leaves of spinach was 1.7 to 2.0 kg/m2 of the field. Consumption of milk and leaf vegetables was surveyed in Tokai-mura. Infants of 6 months after birth ingested about 1000 ml of mother milk or powdered milk. Children upto 2 years old took about 500 ml of market milk and 15 g of leaf vegetables. Those of 2 to 5 years old had about 300 ml of market milk and 50 to 80 g of leaf vegetables. Estimation was done on the stable iodine intake which was one of the factors relating to the transfer rate of radioactive iodine to thyroid gland. It was conjected that at least more than 800 ?g of stable iodine could be ingested everyday by an adult inhabited there. As to infants, the work is now in progress. (author)

  10. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Presenting as a Focal Uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Tae Seok; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Diffuse increased uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F FDG PET) is a well-known finding of the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Nevertheless, a pathologic confirmation is needed in cases of a focal 18F FDG uptake in the thyroid gland. This article reports a rare case of a focal 18F FDG uptake lesion by PET, which was revealed pathologically to be lymphocytic thyroiditis

  11. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland during amiodarone therapy: a study of 297 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Płazińska, Maria Teresa; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata; Woliński, Kosma; Stangierski, Adam; Miechowicz, Izabela; Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Gut, Paweł; Królicki, Leszek; Zioncheck, Maja; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aims to explore and compare the efficacy of radioiodine treatment (RIT) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients who have been treated with amiodarone (AM) in the past or are currently undergoing AM treatment. Clinical observation of a group of patients with amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism during a 12-month follow-up period was used for comparison. Design This was a observational, two-centered study. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 2 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months after RIT. Patients Group A: At baseline (61 males [M] and 17 females [F], mean age 50±19 years), there were 78 euthyroid patients with cardiac arrhythmias, who were treated with AM and developed amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, and currently require retreatment with AM. Group B: Hyperthyroid patients (92 M and 26 F, mean age 72±11.8 years) after AM therapy in the past. Group C: Hyperthyroid patients (66 M and 13 F, mean age 63.9±13.2 years) currently treated by AM. Group D: Hypothyroid patients (6 M and 16 F, mean age 61.4±10.4 years) after AM therapy. The patients from Groups A, B, and C were retreated with AM after ~3–6 weeks of RIT. Results In Group A, after 12 months of RIT therapy, recurrent thyrotoxicosis was observed in six (7.7%) cases, and persistent hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 42 (53.8%) cases. In Group B, hyperthyroidism occurring during treatment with AM was found in 40 (33.9%) patients, and permanent hypothyroidism was observed in eleven (12.5%) cases. After annual follow-up in Group C, nine (11.4%) patients were diagnosed with hypothyroidism, while 27 (34.1%) patients were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. In Group D, all patients had permanent hypothyroidism and when the concentration of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was >10 µIU/mL, l-thyroxine was applied. Conclusion Our study showed that radioiodine administration is advisable in certain circumstances, even in euthyroid patients. It allows for continuation of further long-term AM treatment. Additionally, RIT allows for the reintroduction of AM therapy that was previously terminated. Hence, it can help control life-threatening tachyarrhythmias and decrease episodes of thyrotoxicosis.

  12. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  13. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and ... a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and ...

  14. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the brain, called thyroid stimulating hormone (abbreviated TSH). The amount of TSH that the pituitary sends into the blood stream ... sees very little T4, then it produces more TSH to tell the thyroid gland to produce more ...

  15. Detecting and Treating Thyroid Nodules and Cancer Before, During, and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made in the thyroid gland. For this reason, thyroid dysfunction (changes in how well your thyroid gland works) ... for physicians about the detection and treatment of thyroid dysfunction in women during pregnancy and after birth. Who ...

  16. Spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in the rat accelerated by thymectomy and low doses of irradiation: mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors involved in the production of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and sublethally irradiated rats were investigated. The study suggested that a gene linked to RTl of the rat major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a selective depletion of suppressor T cells and high radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland were required in varying degrees to initiate the autoimmune thyroiditis in these rats. K cells in the spleen markedly increased at the initial stage and subsequently decreased at the appearance of the thyroid lesion, suggesting the consumption of K cells by thyroid antigen-antibody complexes formed in situ and in the circulation. The data generally support the three genes concept that at least three genetically determined defects participate in triggering the production of autoimmune thyroiditis - namely, Ir genes within the MHC of the species, diminished ability of T cells to suppress autoimmune responses and a genetic defect in the thyroid gland. (author)

  17. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Age, gender, and exposure to radiation can affect the risk of thyroid cancer. Medullary thyroid cancer is sometimes caused by a change in a gene that is passed from parent to child. Signs of thyroid cancer include a ...

  18. Metastasis in the pancreas of a primary carcinoma of the thyroid gland diagnosed by F18-FDG-PET - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present a patient, who was sent to F 18-FDG-PET because of oncological follow-up examination. The 79-year-old woman - had a hemithyroidectomy of her left thyroid lobe because of a C-cell-carcinoma twelve years ago and a heminephrectomy because of a hypemephrome 17 years ago. F18-FDG-PET (370 MBq) examination was done. Acquisition started 70 minutes after injection on a full ring PET scanner (ECAT HR+, Siemens). The blood glucose level was 105 mg/dl. The woman showed a pathological FDG-uptake in the left lateral tail of the pancreas, the right liver lobe and multiple pathological lymph nodes in the lower abdomen. There was no pathological FDG-uptake in the remaining thyroid gland. Histology of the pancreas showed a metastasis of the thyroid c-cell carcinoma in the pancreas. Metastases in the pancreas are very rare, especially metastases of a thyroid carcinoma. Therefore we wanted to demonstrate that F18-FDG PET is a sensitive and reliable method to identify such metastases. (author)

  19. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  20. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland during amiodarone therapy: a study of 297 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnywojtek A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agata Czarnywojtek,1,2,* Maria Teresa Płazińska,3,* Małgorzata Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak,4 Kosma Woliński,1 Adam Stangierski,1 Izabela Miechowicz,5 Joanna Waligórska-Stachura,1 Paweł Gut,1 Leszek Królicki,3 Maja Zioncheck,6 Marek Ruchała1 1Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, 3Nuclear Medicine Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, 4Department of Health Prophylaxis, Laboratory of Medical Electrodiagnostics, 5Department of Computer Science and Statistics, 6Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: This study aims to explore and compare the efficacy of radioiodine treatment (RIT in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients who have been treated with amiodarone (AM in the past or are currently undergoing AM treatment. Clinical observation of a group of patients with amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism during a 12-month follow-up period was used for comparison.Design: This was a observational, two-centered study. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 2 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months after RIT.Patients: Group A: At baseline (61 males [M] and 17 females [F], mean age 50±19 years, there were 78 euthyroid patients with cardiac arrhythmias, who were treated with AM and developed amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, and currently require retreatment with AM. Group B: Hyperthyroid patients (92 M and 26 F, mean age 72±11.8 years after AM therapy in the past. Group C: Hyperthyroid patients (66 M and 13 F, mean age 63.9±13.2 years currently treated by AM. Group D: Hypothyroid patients (6 M and 16 F, mean age 61.4±10.4 years after AM therapy. The patients from Groups A, B, and C were retreated with AM after ~3–6 weeks of RIT.Results: In Group A, after 12 months of RIT therapy, recurrent thyrotoxicosis was observed in six (7.7% cases, and persistent hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 42 (53.8% cases. In Group B, hyperthyroidism occurring during treatment with AM was found in 40 (33.9% patients, and permanent hypothyroidism was observed in eleven (12.5% cases. After annual follow-up in Group C, nine (11.4% patients were diagnosed with hypothyroidism, while 27 (34.1% patients were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. In Group D, all patients had permanent hypothyroidism and when the concentration of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was >10 µIU/mL, l-thyroxine was applied.Conclusion: Our study showed that radioiodine administration is advisable in certain circumstances, even in euthyroid patients. It allows for continuation of further long-term AM treatment. Additionally, RIT allows for the reintroduction of AM therapy that was previously terminated. Hence, it can help control life-threatening tachyarrhythmias and decrease episodes of thyrotoxicosis. Keywords: amiodarone, amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, radioactive iodine, radioiodine treatment, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia

  1. Lesion dose in differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases after rhTSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal: 124I PET/CT dosimetric comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal radioiodine excretion is ∝50% faster during euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. We therefore sought to assess lesion dose/GBq of administered 131I activity (LDpA) in iodine-avid metastases (IAM) of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in athyreotic patients after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). We retrospectively compared mean LDpA between groups of consecutive patients (N = 63) receiving 124I positron emission tomography/computed tomography (124I PET/CT) aided by rhTSH (n = 27) or THW (n = 36); we prospectively compared LDpA after these stimulation methods within another individual. Data derived from serial PET scans and one CT scan performed 2-96 h post-124I ingestion. A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) calculated the treatment groups' mean LDpAs adjusting for statistically significant baseline intergroup differences: non-IAM were more prevalent, median IAM count/patient lower in cervical lymph nodes and higher in distant sites, median stimulated thyroglobulin higher, mean cumulative radioiodine activity greater and prior diagnostic scintigraphy more frequent in the rhTSH patients. Mean LDpAs were: rhTSH group (n = 71 IAM), 30.6 Gy/GBq; THW group (n = 66 IAM), 51.8 Gy/GBq. The difference in group means (rhTSH less THW), -21.2 Gy/GBq, was statistically non-significant (p = 0.1667). However, the 95% confidence interval of that difference (-51.4 to + 9 Gy/GBq) suggested a trend favouring THW. The within-patient comparison found 2.9- to 10-fold higher LDpAs under THW. We found some suggestions, but no statistically significant evidence, that rhTSH administration results in a lower radiation dose to DTC metastases than does THW. A large, well-controlled, prospective within-patient study should resolve this issue. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of multiple-atlas-based strategies for segmentation of the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segmenting the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images is of vital clinical significance in designing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. In this work, we evaluate and compare several multiple-atlas-based methods to segment this structure. Using the most robust method, we generate automatic segmentations for the thyroid gland and study their clinical applicability. The various methods we evaluate range from selecting a single atlas based on one of three similarity measures, to combining the segmentation results obtained with several atlases and weighting their contribution using techniques including a simple majority vote rule, a technique called STAPLE that is widely used in the medical imaging literature, and the similarity between the atlas and the volume to be segmented. We show that the best results are obtained when several atlases are combined and their contributions are weighted with a measure of similarity between each atlas and the volume to be segmented. We also show that with our data set, STAPLE does not always lead to the best results. Automatic segmentations generated by the combination method using the correlation coefficient (CC) between the deformed atlas and the patient volume, which is the most accurate and robust method we evaluated, are presented to a physician as 2D contours and modified to meet clinical requirements. It is shown that about 40% of the contours of the left thyroid and about 42% of the right thyroid can be used directly. An additional 21% on the left and 24% on the right require only minimal modification. The amount and the location of the modifications are qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. We demonstrate that, although challenged by large inter-subject anatomical discrepancy, atlas-based segmentation of the thyroid gland in IMRT CT images is feasible by involving multiple atlases. The results show that a weighted combination of segmentations by atlases using the CC as the similarity measure slightly outperforms standard combination methods, e.g. the majority vote rule and STAPLE, as well as methods selecting a single most similar atlas. The results we have obtained suggest that using our contours as initial contours to be edited has clinical value. (paper)

  3. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2011. A total of 1,834 thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I therapy and 1,834 controls (thyroid cancer without 131I therapy) selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score were enrolled. The cumulative 131I dose in each patient was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the effect of radiation from the 131I therapy on the risk of salivary and lacrimal gland impairment as well as second primary malignancies in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients treated with 131I therapy and in controls, the incidence rates of salivary gland dysfunction were 6.76 and 1.01 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 6.81, 95 % CI 0.74 - 55.3), the incidence rates of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) were 13.6 and 16.3 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.41 - 1.73), and the incidence rates of second primary malignancy were 76.7 and 62.4 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.88 - 1.72). The risk of salivary secretion impairment significantly increased with increasing administered doses (HR 14.3, 95 % CI 1.73 - 119.0). However, there was no increase in the incidence of KCS or secondary cancer in patients treated with higher doses. 131I therapy insignificantly increased the risk of salivary gland dysfunction and second primary malignancy. In patients with higher cumulative doses, an increase in the incidence of salivary gland dysfunction was observed. By contrast, we did not find an association between 131I treatment and KCS development. (orig.)

  4. Statistical Data on 2556 Cases of Endocrine Glands Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BAHADORI

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a statistical and analytical review of endocrine glands disorders, seen in the Department of Pathology, Tehran University Medical School, and is based on approximately 40,000 surgical specimens and 2,500 autopsy cases. Of 42,500 combined routine surgical and autopsy cases reviewed, we had 2,556 cases of endocrine disorders of which there: thyroid 1,125 cases, ovary 970, testis 268, adrenal gland 170, pancreas 156, parathyroid 24 and pituitary gland 23. Principal lesions of each gland have been discussed, and in some cases attempt has been made to analyse and compare the clinical symptoms with the pathological findings.

  5. Non-invasive automated 3D thyroid lesion classification in ultrasound: a class of ThyroScan™ systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Vinitha Sree, S; Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Molinari, Filippo; Garberoglio, Roberto; Suri, Jasjit S

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasound-based thyroid nodule characterization into benign and malignant types is limited by subjective interpretations. This paper presents a Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) technique that would present more objective and accurate classification and further would offer the physician a valuable second opinion. In this paradigm, we first extracted the features that quantify the local changes in the texture characteristics of the ultrasound off-line training images from both benign and malignant nodules. These features include: Fractal Dimension (FD), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Fourier Spectrum Descriptor (FS), and Laws Texture Energy (LTE). The resulting feature vectors were used to build seven different classifiers: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree (DT), Sugeno Fuzzy, Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Radial Basis Probabilistic Neural Network (RBPNN), and Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC). Subsequently, the feature vector-classifier combination that results in the maximum classification accuracy was used to predict the class of a new on-line test thyroid ultrasound image. Two data sets with 3D Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) and 3D High Resolution Ultrasound (HRUS) images of 20 nodules (10 benign and 10 malignant) were used. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and histology results were used to confirm malignancy. Our results show that a combination of texture features coupled with SVM or Fuzzy classifiers resulted in 100% accuracy for the HRUS dataset, while GMM classifier resulted in 98.1% accuracy for the CEUS dataset. Finally, for each dataset, we have proposed a novel integrated index called Thyroid Malignancy Index (TMI) using the combination of FD, LBP, LTE texture features, to diagnose benign or malignant nodules. This index can help clinicians to make a more objective differentiation of benign/malignant thyroid lesions. We have compared and benchmarked the system with existing methods. PMID:22154208

  6. Thirty six treatments with radiodine after the administration of TSH recombinant in 26 patients with carcinoma differentiated from thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The released studies that confirm the safety and efficacy the TSH recombinant (rhTSH) led to an increase in the interest for the use in the patients' preparation with thyroid remanents normal or differenced thyroid carcinoma persistent/recurrent, before the administration of therapeutic radioiodine doses in some situations, when it is impossible the suspension of the hormonal therapy thyroid. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of the administration of therapeutic doses of radioiodine after the administration of rhTSH

  7. Factor analysis in thallium-201 chloride thyroid studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factor analysis was applied to thyroid thallium-201 imaging to get separated image of tumor from normal thyroid tissue. Thirty-eight patients with various thyroid tumors which were histologically confirmed were included in this study. Following intravenous injection of 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 201Tl chloride, thyroid images in 64 frames were taken for 30 to 60 minutes using Toshiba gamma camera system and data were analyzed by 2 or 3 factor analysis. In 28 of 38 patients separated images of the lesions from normal thyroid were obtained and time-activity curves of various shapes corresponding to the lesions were also obtained. When the curves were classified into 3 groups according to their shapes, increasing flat and decreasing, follicular carcinoma did not show increasing shape whilst neither of papillary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma showed decreasing shape. The shapes of the curves were thought to be reflected in clearance of the agent from the lesions. Factor analysis in 201Tl chloride thyroid scan provided separated image of tumor from normal thyroid gland automatically and the obtained curves corresponding to the lesions provided information for estimating the characteristics of thyroid tumors. (author)

  8. Lingual thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina ?or?e

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lingual thyroid is a rare congenital malformation that occurs more frequently in the female population. It occurs because of the error in transcriptional factors, the key for the normal differentiation of thyrocyte, so the thyroid gland tissue does not descend normally down the thyroglossal duct to the final position in the neck. Due to that, it can entirely or partially remain at the base of the tongue. This is the most frequent localization of the ectopic tissue while it can remain in the sublingual, suprahyoid and infrahyoid area as well. This disease can be diagnosed in the asymptomatic phase, as well as in the phase of compensatory and manifest hypothyroidism. In the ectopic thyroid gland, all diseases of the thyroid gland can occur as in the usual localization in the neck. The authors show a 6-year old patient, who had a routine medical examination for the inflamed throat, during which a vascular tumefaction was discovered at the base of the tongue. A cyst at the base of the tongue was suspected, but additional examination showed that it was an ectopic thyroid tissue marked as a lingual thyroid gland. Diagnosis of this disease starts with the laboratory analysis of the thyroid status. The next step involves scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with technetium-pertechnetate (99mTc or radioactive iodine (123I. The therapy of the compensatory hypothyroidism is suppressive therapy with levothyroxine and in the manifest hypothyroidism it is hormone substitution therapy with levothyroxine. Although there are recommended age-related daily doses, they should not be accepted as final, but rather prescribed according to the individual thyroid status. .

  9. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  10. Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi Mudanças na glândula tireóide durante o ciclo reprodutivo masculino em um morcego vespertilionídeo Scotophilus heathi

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, A.; Singh, K.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4) concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during bre...

  11. The usefulness of serum thyroglobulin levels and Tl-201 scintigraphy in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid follicular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic capabilities of various serum thyroglobulin levels (Tg) and Tl-201 scintigraphy with regard to thyroid follicular lesions. We examined 80 thyroid follicular lesions (benign: 55, malignant: 25) in patients with nodular goiter for whom a pathological diagnosis was made based on surgical findings. Tg was measured by an I-125 (radioimmunoassay) method. In Tl-201 scintigraphy, 74 MBq of Tl-201 chloride was intravenously injected and imaged after 10 minutes (early image) and after 120 minutes (delayed image), and the scintigrams were evaluated both visually and quantitatively, with special attention paid to the part of the nodule with the highest accumulation of Tl-201 chloride. The cutoff levels of Tg for categorizing the lesions as malignant were set at 40, 100, 300, 500, 1,000 and 2,500 μg/l. In Tl-201 scintigraphy, method 1 involved high uptake on both early and delayed images, method 2 involved high uptake on only the early image, and method 3 involved high uptake on only the early image or the same accumulation in comparison with the normal region on the early image, with no washout being quantitatively judged as indicative of malignancy. A summary index of overall test performance can be calculated as the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Area (Az)). Likelihood ratios for several cutoff levels were also calculated. In the diagnosis, Az of Tl-201 (0.95) was larger than that of Tg (0.65). The sensitivity and accuracy of Tg at each cutoff level (sensitivity: 4.0% to 76.0%, accuracy: 50.0% to 72.5%) were lower than with Tl-201 scintigraphy (methods 1-3, sensitivity: 76.0-100%, accuracy: 77.5-88.8%). The likelihood ratio for the positive results of method 1 for Tl-201 scintigraphy, were greatest in the present study (13.9), and the likelihood ratio for the negative results of method 3 for Tl-201 scintigraphy, (0) was smallest in the present study. Diagnosis based on Tl-201 washout patterns in which quantitative evaluation is combined with visual evaluation appears to be more useful for the differentiation of malignant thyroid follicular lesions than diagnosis by Tg. (author)

  12. A critical re-appraisal of diagnostic pitfalls in salivary gland lesions and analysis of cytokeratin 7/cytokeratin 20 as an adjunct in differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Shamim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the diagnostic pitfalls in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of salivary gland lesions and role of cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and 20 in differentiating various salivary gland neoplasms as an adjunct. Materials and Methods: This study included 230 cases of salivary gland lesions, which underwent FNAC at our hospital, and cyto-histological correlation was possible in 119 cases. False positive and false negative cases were identified taking histology as the gold standard and discrepant results were analyzed. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining for CK7 and 20 was done in 35 representative histological sections (including 33 malignancies and 2 benign lesions. Results: On cytology, benign tumors and nonneoplastic lesions together formed 63% and remaining 37% were malignancies. Cyto-histological correlation showed concordance rate of 80.6% and discordance rate of 19.3% with 14 false negative cases and 9 false positive cases. On immunostaining for CK, 27 of the total 33 malignancies (81.8% exhibited CK7+/CK20 − profile. All the primary malignancies (24/25 except one were CK7+/CK20−, while majority of the secondary malignancies (5/8, 62.5% showed CK7−/CK20 − profile. Conclusion: Although the diagnosis of most salivary gland neoplasms does not pose a problem, attention to subtle cytomorphological features and knowledge of common diagnostic pitfalls are essential to reach the correct diagnosis in a few challenging cases. Additionally, CK expression can serve as a useful adjunct to other investigations in cases of salivary gland neoplasms, to differentiate between certain commonly confused entities like, squamous cell carcinoma and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma; and CK20 positive metastatic malignancy and distant unknown primary.

  13. The peculiarities of formation of circulatory system pathology of evacuated adult population exposed to ionizing radiation on thyroid gland after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustinskaia O.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research - analysis of the structure and dynamics of the morbidity among eva¬cuated population, the peculiarities of pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of circulatory system (CS pathology in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Materials and methods. Three groups of persons evacuated from Chernobyl zone of alienation were researched: persons aged 10-17 (6517 persons, 18-39 (496 persons, 40-60 (458 persons. The data on the individual radiation doses which affected thyroid gland were selected at the State Register of Ukraine on persons affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Morbidity rate was estimated per 103 man-year for 5-years periods of monitoring. The main results: Time from the moment of Chernobyl accident affected the formation of morbidity structure of evacuated population. It was fixed two peaks of morbidity incidence - initial and in 12 years. The most essential changes in CS morbidity of evacuated population were fixed 26 years later mainly in cere¬brovascular diseases. The coronary artery disease takes the first place in the morbidity structure. Significant dif¬ferences were detected at age-specific aspect. The evacuated adult population aged 18-39 years was the most vulnerable for the development of CS diseases. Adverse health effects confirmed the necessity of further research of CS morbidity with the differentiation of doses affected thyroid gland.

  14. Estimation of the risk of secondary cancer in the thyroid gland and the breast outside the treated volume in patients undergoing brain, mediastinum and breast radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to measure the peripheral dose which is the absorbed dose in organs located outside the treatment volume such as the thyroid gland and the breast in patients undergoing radiotherapy, utilising the MOSFET dosemeters, as well as to estimate the probability of secondary cancer. The thyroid gland doses, expressed as a percentage of the prescribed dose (%TD), were measured to be 2.0±0.3 %, in whole brain irradiation, 10.0±8.0 % in mediastinum treatment and 8.0±2.0 and 2.0±0.8 % in breast treatment, with and without the supraclavicular irradiation, respectively, with a corresponding risk of 0.2, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.3 %. The dose to the breast was 7.0±2.0 %, in the mediastinum treatment, and 4.0±1.0 and 2.0±0.8 %, in the breast treatment, with and without supraclavicular irradiation, respectively, with a corresponding risk of 4.0, 2.0 and 1.0 %. Although the results indicate that the risk is not negligible, its significance should be considered in conjunction with the existing pathology and age of the patients. (authors)

  15. Thyroid Incidentaloma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Seema; Singh, Anutosh; Khanna, A K

    2011-01-01

    Because of emerging investigation modalities many of the thyroid lesions are picked up and that poses a big dilemma about management of such lesions. Majority of these lesions especially in iodine-deficient regions, are not significant and may be only followed up without any active treatment but, sometimes the small lesions may be microcarcinoma. This article discusses about the reliability of clinical examination of neck for detection of such lesions, the controversy of such lesion being ben...

  16. Comparison of Thin-Prep and cell block preparation for the evaluation of Thyroid epithelial lesions on fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammoud Jamal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare the utility of Thin-Prep (TP cytologic preparation with that of Cell Block (CB preparation in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, mainly follicular epithelial lesions, by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. Feasibility of using the TP slides for immunocytochemical stains is also discussed. Methods A total of 126 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with TP slides and 128 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with CB slides were reviewed blindly by two cytopathologists. The presence of colloid, follicular cells, macrophages and lymphocytes/plasma cells were recorded and scored 04 on each case based on TP or CB slide review. The cytologic diagnoses were grouped as follows: cyst, colloid nodule, colloid nodule with cystic change, chronic thyroiditis, atypical/neoplastic and non-diagnostic. Results The TP slides had higher diagnostic rate than CB slides. The diagnostic yield was 68% of the TP slides whereas only 24% of the CB slides were diagnostic. Also, only 4 atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the TP slides and the corresponding direct smears, while 5 cases of atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the smears but could not be diagnosed on the corresponding CB slides. Additionally, the TP slides revealed cytologic features that were not observed on the direct traditional smears of the same case. Conclusion In thyroid FNAB cases, TP slide preparation is superior to CB slide preparation and is more likely to have greater cellularity for diagnosis and detect atypical/neoplastic thyroid lesions, particularly those of follicular cell origin. Furthermore, TP slides appear to detect helpful diagnostic cytologic features and should be considered complementary to, rather than replacing, direct smears.

  17. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The "high-turnover" granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. PMID:25177514

  18. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. PMID:25177514

  19. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP, antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA, p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1 e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido.

  20. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the 131 I accumulated in her thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of 131 I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with 131 I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of 131 I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  1. Detection for residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between Tc-99m pertechnetate scan and high dose I-131 therapy scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of nuclear imaging in the detection of residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion, we have compared neck scintigrams with Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m scan) and high dose I-131 iodide (I-131 scan) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. One hundred thirty-five thyroidectomized patients for differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three had a previous history of radioiodine therapy. Planar and pin-hole images of anterior neck with Tc-99m were acquired at 20 minutes after injection, followed by I-131 scan three days after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 7 days interval. Patients were asked to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement more than 4 weeks. All subjects were in hypothyroid state. Seventy out of 135 patients (51.9%) showed concordant findings between Tc-99m and I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan did not show any uptake in thyroid bed in 11 of 112 patients without previous history of radioiodine therapy, but 9 of them showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan showed no bed uptake in all of the 23 patients with previous history of radioiodine therapy, in contrast 14 of them (60.9%) showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. These results suggest that Tc-99m scan has poor detectability for residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesion in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients, compared to high dose I-131 therapy scan. Tc-99m scan could not detect any remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, especially

  2. High-resolution genomic profiling of thyroid lesions uncovers preferential copy number gains affecting mitochondrial biogenesis loci in the oncocytic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurelac, Ivana; de Biase, Dario; Calabrese, Claudia; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Lim, Raymond; MacKay, Alan; Weigelt, Britta; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Tallini, Giovanni; Gasparre, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic change is the result of aberrant mitochondrial hyperplasia, which may occur in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells and is not infrequent in the thyroid. Despite being a well-characterized histologic phenotype, the molecular causes underlying such a distinctive cellular change are poorly understood. To identify potential genetic causes for the oncocytic phenotype in thyroid, we analyzed copy number alterations in a set of oncocytic (n=21) and non-oncocytic (n=20) thyroid lesions by high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Each group comprised lesions of diverse histologic types, including hyperplastic nodules, adenomas and carcinomas. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of categorical aCGH data resulted in two distinct branches, one of which was significantly enriched for samples with the oncocytic phenotype, regardless of histologic type. Analysis of aCGH events showed that the oncocytic group harbored a significantly higher number of genes involved in copy number gains, when compared to that of conventional thyroid lesions. Functional annotation demonstrated an enrichment for copy number gains that affect genes encoding activators of mitochondrial biogenesis in oncocytic cases but not in their non-oncocytic counterparts. Taken together, our data suggest that genomic alterations may represent additional/alternative mechanisms underlying the development of the oncocytic phenotype in the thyroid. PMID:26269756

  3. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Moon Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypot...

  4. Lesion dose in differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases after rhTSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal: {sup 124}I PET/CT dosimetric comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, Lutz Stefan; Jentzen, Walter; Brandau, Wolfgang; Bockisch, Andreas [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Petrich, Thorsten; Knapp, Wolfram H. [Hanover University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hanover (Germany); Froemke, Cornelia [Hanover University School of Medicine, Institute of Biometry, Hanover (Germany); Marlowe, Robert J. [Spencer-Fontayne Corporation, Jersey City, NJ (United States); Heusner, Till [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Renal radioiodine excretion is {proportional_to}50% faster during euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. We therefore sought to assess lesion dose/GBq of administered {sup 131}I activity (LDpA) in iodine-avid metastases (IAM) of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in athyreotic patients after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). We retrospectively compared mean LDpA between groups of consecutive patients (N = 63) receiving {sup 124}I positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 124}I PET/CT) aided by rhTSH (n = 27) or THW (n = 36); we prospectively compared LDpA after these stimulation methods within another individual. Data derived from serial PET scans and one CT scan performed 2-96 h post-{sup 124}I ingestion. A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) calculated the treatment groups' mean LDpAs adjusting for statistically significant baseline intergroup differences: non-IAM were more prevalent, median IAM count/patient lower in cervical lymph nodes and higher in distant sites, median stimulated thyroglobulin higher, mean cumulative radioiodine activity greater and prior diagnostic scintigraphy more frequent in the rhTSH patients. Mean LDpAs were: rhTSH group (n = 71 IAM), 30.6 Gy/GBq; THW group (n = 66 IAM), 51.8 Gy/GBq. The difference in group means (rhTSH less THW), -21.2 Gy/GBq, was statistically non-significant (p = 0.1667). However, the 95% confidence interval of that difference (-51.4 to + 9 Gy/GBq) suggested a trend favouring THW. The within-patient comparison found 2.9- to 10-fold higher LDpAs under THW. We found some suggestions, but no statistically significant evidence, that rhTSH administration results in a lower radiation dose to DTC metastases than does THW. A large, well-controlled, prospective within-patient study should resolve this issue. (orig.)

  5. Exposure of xenopus laevis tadpoles to cadmium reveals concentration-dependent bimodal effects on growth and monotonic effects on development and thyroid gland activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis were exposed to 0-855 ??g cadmium (Cd)/l (measured concentrations) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 47 days postfertilization. Measurements included embryonic survival and, at 47 days, tadpole survival, snout-vent length, tail length, total length, hindlimb length, weight, Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage of development, initiation of metamorphic climax (??? NF 58), and thyroid follicle cell height. Embryonic and larval survival were unaffected by Cd. Relative to control tadpoles, reduced tail and total length were observed at 0.1- 8 and at 855 ??g Cd/l; and reduced snout-vent length, hindlimb length, and weight were observed at 0.1-1 and at 855 ??g Cd/l. Mean stage of development and rate of initiation of climax were unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l; however, none of the tadpoles exposed to 855 ??g Cd/l progressed beyond mid-premetamorphosis (NF 51). Thyroid glands with fully formed follicles were observed in all tadpoles ??? NF 49 examined. Follicle cell height was unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l but it was reduced at 855 ??g/l; in the latter, cell height was reduced even when compared with NF 49-51 tadpoles pooled from the 0 to 84 ??g Cd/l groups. In conclusion, (1) Cd affected tadpole growth in a bimodal pattern with the first and second inhibitory modes at concentrations below and above 84 ??g Cd/l, respectively; (2) exposure to high Cd concentrations (855 ??g/l) reduced thyroid activity and arrested tadpole development at mid-premetamorphosis; and (3) unlike its effect on growth, Cd inhibited tadpole development and thyroid function in a seemingly monotonic pattern.

  6. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice; Avaliacao dos efeitos do laser em baixa intensidade na regiao da glandula tireoide de camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu

    2002-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm{sup 2}, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  7. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in intrathoracic goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokun Radojka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic goiter (more than 80% of tissue in the thoracic cavity represents very rare clinical entity (less than 1% of total number of thyroid gland surgical procedures. Cancer incidence in these goiter is 0-5%. The aim of this article is to present a case report of intrathoracic thyroid papillary carcinoma with multiple compressive syndrome and review of compressive intrathoracic syndrome of thyroid etiology. In our patient we have found: tracheal and oesophageal deviation and compression, superior vena cava syndrome, downhill varices, chylothorax, pericardial effusion, compress of the left a. subclavia, unilateral lesion of recurrent and phrenic nerve, and brachial plexopathy. This was a unique case with multiple compressive syndrome between 3000 patients surgically treated for all kinds of thyroid deceases. Intrathoracic goiter can cause all the known symptoms and syndromes of intrathoracic compression with possibility of rapid deterioration and fatal end.

  8. Role of the thyroid gland in regulation of metabolic rate in an air-breathing siluroid fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B N; Munshi, J S

    1976-06-01

    Studies on cyclic activity of the thyroid and seasonal variations in oxygen consumption (VO2) under experimental conditions in which surfacing was either allowed or prevented were made in H. fossilis to try to establish a relationship between these measures and to ascertain the possible role of the thyroid in the regulation of metabolic rate. A good correlation was found between the activity of the thyroid and VO2 in this species. This finding was further confirmed by the administration of L-thyroxine or thiouracil to this fish. The thyroxine-and thiouracil-treated animals showed significantly higher (P less than 0-05) and lower (P less than 0-01) rates of VO2 respectively, thus indicating the probable role of the thyroid in the regulation of metabolic rate. PMID:950533

  9. Bioinorganic Chemistry in Thyroid Gland: Effect of Antithyroid Drugs on Peroxidase-Catalyzed Oxidation and Iodination Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mugesh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Propylthiouracil (PTU and methimazole (MMI are the most commonly used antithyroid drugs. The available data suggest that these drugs may block the thyroid hormone synthesis by inhibiting the thyroid peroxidase (TPO or diverting oxidized iodides away from thyroglobulin. It is also known that PTU inhibits the selenocysteine-containing enzyme ID-1 by reacting with the selenenyl iodide intermediate (E-SeI. In view of the current interest in antithyroid drugs, we have recently carried out biomimetic studies to understand the mechanism by which the antithyroid drugs inhibit the thyroid hormone synthesis and found that the replacement of sulfur with selenium in MMI leads to an interesting compound that may reversibly block the thyroid hormone synthesis. Our recent results on the inhibition of lactoperoxidase (LPO-catalyzed oxidation and iodination reactions by antithyroid drugs are described.

  10. Galectin-3 immunostaining in thyroid neoplasms Imunomarcação por galectina-3 em neoplasias de tireóide

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Emanuel de Alcântara Segura; Albino Verçosa de Magalhães

    2005-01-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland is the most important presurgical proceeding in defining the malignancy of a nodular lesion, it has limitations such as shared cytological morphology between malignant and benign lesions. Galectin-3, a b-galactoside-binding lectin is expressed mainly by malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fifty-seven specimens, including 14 papillary carcinomas, 22 follicular carcinomas and 21 follicular adenomas were tested for immunohistochemical s...

  11. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting

  12. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla-Dave, A; Lu, Y; Hatzoglou, V; Stambuk, H; Mazaheri, Y [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Banerjee, S; Shankaranarayanan, A [GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, California (United States); Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting.

  13. A Signaling Network of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Renu; Raju, Rajesh; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Sameer Kumar, Ghantasala S.; Ghosh, Krishna; Kumar, Amit; Lakshmi, T. Pragna; Sharma, Jyoti; Sharma, Rakesh; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Pan, Archana; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Christopher, Rita; V. Krishna; Mohan, S. Sujatha

    2011-01-01

    Human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein secreted by the anterior part of the pituitary gland. TSH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis by modulating the release of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. It induces iodine uptake by the thyroid, promotes thyroid epithelial differentiation and growth, and protects thyroid cells from apoptosis. Impairment of TSH signal transduction pathway leads to thyroid disorders...

  14. Lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study over a period of five years in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Anjit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary Thyroid Lymphoma (PTL is uncommon, accounting for only 5% of thyroid neoplasms and less than 2.5 to 7% of extranodal lymphomas. The study aims to analyze the histopathological findings and to correlate it with clinical features. Methods: This study includes cases of PTL received in the department of pathology in a tertiary care center, Kerala, south India over a period of 5 years. Patient details and follow up data were obtained by communication with treating doctors and reviewing the hospital records. All cases had a minimum follow up of 6 months. Results: 15 cases of PTL were diagnosed over the five year period. In total 72 cases of extranodal lymphomas were diagnosed, thus forming 20.83% of extra nodal lymphomas. Lymphocytic thyroiditis was present in 93.3%. Most of the cases were Extranodal Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma (EMZBCL and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL. Conclusion: It is important to consider the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma in patients presenting with an enlarging neck mass especially with the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Random microscopic foci of DLBCL or small areas of MZBL could be overlooked examination or missed with limited sampling. The distinction between MZBL and DLBCL in the thyroid is clinically significant. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 579-582

  15. The prevalence of incidentaloma - asymptomatic thyroid nodules in the Tricity (Gdansk, Sopot, Gdynia) population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The increased sensitivity of imaging devices raised number of incidentally discovered lesions in various organs of the human body. Thyroid gland is one of them. Reported prevalence of ultrasonographically detected thyroid nodules (incidentalomas) in general population ranges from 5.2 to 67.0%. Our study demonstrated occurrence of this clinical problem in the general population of the Tricity. Material and methods: 135 healthy adults (95 women and 40 men) were examined. Neck palpation, ultrasonographic examinations of thyroid gland and serum tyreotropin (TSH) level measurement were made. Results: In 8.9% of examine (12/135) persons nodules were palpable whereas in 14.8% (20/135) they were detectable only in ultrasonographic examination. Altogether thyroid ultrasound and palpation revealed nodules in 23.7% (32/135) of all cases. Multiple nodules were present in 12.0% of the cases. The pathology was more common in the elderly and in women. TSH serum level was within normal range in all cases of incidentaloma with otherwise normal thyroid gland. Conclusions: Prevalence of thyroid gland nodules (palpation - 8.9% plus ultrasonography - 14.8%) in healthy population of Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot is close to data reported in southern Finland (27.0%) and Belgium (19.0%), where iodine deficiency is small, like in the Tricity area. The revealed lesions were over two times more frequent in the female population. Most of the nodules were not palpable. (author)

  16. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  17. Xenotransplantation of a thyroid gland organ culture as the method of hormonal compensation of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reestablishment of the thyroid function in rats with radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The serum total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) values in male Wistar rats, weighing of 100-150 g, fell to low levels by 2 weeks after 2.775 MBq 131-iodine administration. The values of serum TT4 in rats were generally in the euthyroid range by the 17th day after xenotransplantation (XTP) of 3-day old newborn pig thyroid organ culture by injection into the fat tissue of anterior abdominal wall. The serum TT3 values rose rapidly and reached normal levels by the 7th day after XTP. 7 days after XTP, all newborn pig thyroid xenografts showed 131-iodine uptake, and four of five xenografts were still functional bu the 17th day. These results indicate that the xenografted newborn pig thyroid organ culture allows a restoration of the thyroid function in rats with post radioiodine hypothyroidism

  18. Diet and the role of lipoproteins, lipases, and thyroid hormones in coronary lesion growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Jacques D.; Jansen, Hans; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Birkenhager, Jan C.; Kromhout, Daan

    1987-01-01

    The relationships between the coronary lesion growth and the blood contents of lipoprotein fractions, thyroic hormones, and the lipoprotein lipase activity were investigated in male patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis, who participated in a lipid-lowering dietary intervention program. A quantitative computer-assisted image-processing technique was used to assess the severity of coronary obstructions at the beginning of the program and at its termination two years later. Based on absolute coronary scores, patients were divided into a no-lesion growth group (14 patients) and a progression group (21 paients). At the end of the trial, the very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly higher, while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic lipase (HL) were lower in the progression group. Multivariate regression analysis showed HL to be the most important determinant of changes in coronary atherosclerotic lesions.

  19. Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Wakamoto, H; Miyazaki, M.; Tatsumi, K.; Amino, N

    1995-01-01

    The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

  20. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeri H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Warthin tumor- like papillary carcinoma of thyroid is a rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. It is characterized by distinct papillary structures lined by oncocytic tumor cells with nuclear features of papillary carcinoma and marked lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate in the papillary stalks. This tumor derives its name from its resemblance to Warthin tumor of major salivary glands.Case presentation: We report a 54- year- old man presented with bilateral thyroid masses. Histopathological study showed papillary structures lined by cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and ground- glass nuclei with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the stalks.Conclusion: Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma could be mistaken for benign lymphoepithelial lesions such as Hashimoto thyroiditis, Hurthle cell tumors and tall cell variant of papillary carcinoma. Follow- up information on the previously reported cases has suggested that these tumors behave similarly to usual papillary carcinoma.