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Sample records for thyroid gland lesions

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of CD44 in thyroid gland lesions

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    Kiziridou Anastasia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD44 is a polymorphic family of cell surface proteoglycans and glycoproteins implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion interactions and tumor metastasis. Its expression appears to be an indicator of invasive and metastatic behavior in carcinomas. The purpose of our study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CD44 protein in thyroid lesions and its association to other histopathological parameters. METHODS: Samples from thyroid lesions were obtained from 40 patients treated in our hospital. The material consisted of 5 cases of multinodular goiter, 7 cases of thyroiditis (Hashimoto type, 5 cases of follicular adenoma, 4 cases of Hurthle cell tumor, 15 cases of thyroid carcinoma (11 papillary carcinomas, and 4 myeloid tumors, and 4 cases of normal thyroid tissue. Immunostaining was performed using the Ventana ES automated immunostainer. A monoclonal antibody was used and avidin-biotin method was applied to paraffin-embedded samples. A membranous immunostaining pattern was considered positive. RESULTS: CD44 expression was detected in three adenomas (60%, mostly of follicular type, and in eight carcinomas (72%. The CD44 immunostaining was especially apparent in papillary type of carcinomas which showed high expression. In normal thyroid tissue, a reduced CD44 expression was observed. CONCLUSION: The results of our study indicate that deregulated expression of CD44 contributes to the ability of thyroid carcinomas for invasion and metastasis and may constitute a prognostic factor for malignant biological behavior.

  2. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total thyroidectomy - discharge; Partial thyroidectomy - discharge; Thyroidectomy - discharge; Subtotal thyroidectomy - discharge ... of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably spent 1 to 3 days in ...

  3. Pituitary and thyroid gland lesions induced by 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2-MBI) inhalation in male Fischer-344 rats.

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    Norford, D C; Meuten, D J; Cullen, J M; Collins, J J

    1993-01-01

    2-Mercaptobenzimidazole (2-MBI) is a member of the thioureylene compound family known for their potent antithyroid activity. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 3.13, 12.5, and 50.0 mg/m3 of 2-MBI via inhalation for 13 wk. Follicular cell hyperplasia occurred in the thyroid glands of rats from the 3 2-MBI treatment groups. Thyrotrophs in the pituitary glands from rats in these 3 groups were hyperplastic, and they had varying numbers of hypertrophic cells with either eosinophilic stippled cytoplasm or with eosinophilic globules within 1 or more large vacuoles that displaced the nucleus. These cells were compared by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural examination to "thyroidectomy cells" within the anterior pituitary glands of thyroparathyroidectomized rats and were determined to be identical to them. Immunohistochemical staining for the beta-chain of thyroid-stimulating hormone confirmed that the hyperplastic and hypertrophic cells were thyrotrophs. Ultrastructurally, hypertrophic cells in 2-MBI-treated rats and thyroidectomy cells in thyroparathyroidectomized rats had expanded cytoplasm containing either increased profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) or one or more widely dilated cisternae of RER, which displaced other cellular organelles. 2-MBI appears to act comparably to other thioureylene compounds that have been shown to produce low serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, which results in thyrotroph hypertrophy and hyperplasia, resultant thyroid hyperplasia, and subsequent goiter. PMID:8115823

  4. Carcinosarcoma of the Thyroid Gland

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    Ekici, Mehmet Fatih; Kocak, Cengiz; Bayhan, Zülfü; Zeren, Sezgin; Yaylak, Faik; Metineren, Mehmet Hüseyin; Kocak, Fatma Emel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Surgeon has significant role in the management of such rare and controversial clinical entities related to thyroid gland. In this case report we have presented an elderly patient with rapid enlargement in thyroid that was related to carcinosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 60-year-old lady was presented with rapid enlargement of the thyroid gland. A fine needle aspiration of the nodule in right lobe was performed several weeks before presentation to our clinic. End diagnosis was a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with spindle cell component. Thus the nodule was recognized to be a carcinosarcoma. Conclusion. Thyroid surgery merits a multidisciplinary approach. Indeed the surgeon should make a conclusive decision in some controversial and rare clinical entities such as carcinosarcoma. PMID:25705539

  5. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

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    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Anani Aila MAT ZAIN; Irfan MOHAMAD; Balasubramanian, Anusha; Nur Asyilla CHE JALIL

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland either primary or metastatic is extremely rare. However, MEC is the most common malignant tumour of the salivary glands with the majority originating from the parotid gland. We report the case of a 54-year-old Malay lady who presented with recurrent MEC affecting the thyroid gland two years after being treated for primary parotid MEC.

  6. Ectopia of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of ectopic thyroid is presented. The differential diagnosis of this pathology with the tumors in the base of the tongue, including euthyroid patients is related. The most outstanding feature is that the diagnosis is easily made by cintilography with iodine or technetium. The hormonal studies (T3, T4) usually are inefficient to establish the diagnosis. (Author)

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage and ... This shows some of the structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, the nerves to ...

  8. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    B T Turumhambetova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... long? No, because it’s basically replacing the normal hormone that the thyroid was manufacturing. I see. And if only part of the thyroid is removed, is the medication still needed long-term? Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  10. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

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    Stoki? Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  11. Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

  12. Effect of iodine-137 on sex and thyroid hormone binding to blood plasma proteins in children with functional lesions of the thyroid gland as a result of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying characteristics of specific interaction of estradiol-, testosterone- and thyriod-binding blood globulins with the corresponding ligands in children from Gomel region with with endemic swelling of the thyroid gland (degrees 1 and 2) affected by iodine-131 revealed were a reduced cooperativity in estradiol T-3 binding and a halved affinity to androgens and thyroids as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a drastic decline in the binding capacity of estradiol- and testosterone-binding globulins in the blood plasma. The endemic thyroid gland swelling is supposed to be due to sexual malfunction in teenagers

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... explaining some of the technical applications here, and Gene Bashera who is our anesthesia tech. And, doc ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  14. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that not correct? She would have had perhaps lymph nodes removed? Absolutely. Okay. 4 OR Live Bah 3926 ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  15. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ... what does that do? In certain types of cancers if there is concern that there may be ...

  16. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will see every moment of this procedure as it takes place over the course of the next ... picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage ...

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now why was this patient a particularly good candidate for this kind of surgery? The size of ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

  18. Historical review of the thyroid gland surgery

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    Ignjatovi? Mile D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid gland surgery passed through history from the suggestions for prohibition, during middle of XIX century due to unacceptable mortality even for mediaeval conditions, to highest level of surgical art later, as W. Halsted sad. First thyreoidectomy was done by Albucasis (El Zahrawi in 925 A.D, and after him by Roger from Salerno. While Pierre-Joseph Desault in 1791 has done first operation on thyroid gland that can fulfill today’s criteria, Theodor Billroth gave scientific grounds of thyroid surgery. Genius attitude and surgical talent of Theodor Kocher raised thyroid surgery on scientific level, brought surgical skills on the top of surgical art pyramid, and brought him personally to the Nobel Prize in 1909. Very important contribution to development of thyroid surgery gave its giants: Johann von Mikulicz, William Halsted, Charles Mayo, George W. Crile and Frank Lahey. Thomas P. Dunhill, F. A. Coller, A. M. Boyden, and many others did important contribution, too. Development of thyroid surgery was constant to nowadays, with tendention for multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers. Thyroid surgery in Serbia followed this world trends, in spite of great problems in this area during history.

  19. Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing sarcoma of the bone is a highly malignant round-cell tumor that typically presents between 10 to 20 years of age and is more common in boys. It can have an extraosseous origin, although it is rare. We report a case of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the thyroid gland in a 9-year-old girl. (orig.)

  20. Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland

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    Adapa, Pavani [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chung, Tae-Woong [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gwangju (Korea); Popek, Edwina J. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States); Hunter, Jill V. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Pediatric Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Ewing sarcoma of the bone is a highly malignant round-cell tumor that typically presents between 10 to 20 years of age and is more common in boys. It can have an extraosseous origin, although it is rare. We report a case of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the thyroid gland in a 9-year-old girl. (orig.)

  1. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  2. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Squamous metaplasia in thyroid gland as histologic diagnostic pitfall: a case report

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    Haideh Haeri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is rare to find squamous metaplasia in the thyroid gland. Its existence is usually seen in association with a pathological lesion such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In most cases the squamous cells are few in number and squamous metaplasia is focal and small in size. Extensive squamous metaplasia of the thyroid gland is a very rare finding.Case Presentation: We report a case of massive squamous metaplasia in Hashimoto thyroiditis in a 53 year-old- male with a four year history of hypothyroidism. Also seen in the history is impaired thyroid function tests of low T3 and T4 levels with rise in TSH. The patient currently presented with neck discomfort and a somewhat firm nodular neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous nodular enlargement of both thyroid lobes and a calcified nodule of the left lobe. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule was performed which reported findings suspicious for malignancy. Based on these findings the patient underwent total thyroidectomy.Conclusion: In this article we address the causes and sources of massive squamous metaplasia in the thyroid gland. We also discuss the histopathologic differential diagnostic lesions which could be the cause of potential pitfalls encountered in the interpretation of the cytopathology and histopathology of such lesions arising in this gland.

  4. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

  5. The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thyroid Hormones Concentration and Histopathological Changes of Thyroid Gland in Sheep

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    M. Nouri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the thyroid histological and hormonal changes in response to ambient temperature variations, thyroid glands and blood samples were randomly collected from 410 indigenous sheep of either sex and different age groups from municipal Ahvaz slaughter house. The extent of fluctuations in triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, T3 uptake and Free Thyroxin Index (FTI and thyroid histopathological lesions were scrutinized in 2 months in year 2003, viz February (the coldest month and August (the hottest month. A marked decline was discernable in T3, T4 and FTI in August compared to February, but mean value for T3 uptake increased. Out of 410 pairs of thyroid glands, 169 (41.2% had lesions in which histopathological changes were categorized as follicular atrophy (43.6%, ultimobranchial cyst (30.2%, paranchymal cyst (6.4%, lymphocytic thyroiditis (6.2%, hyperemia/hemorrhage (5.5%, follicular cell hyperplasia (4%, C cell hyperplasia (1.4%, colloid goiter (1.1% and adenoma (1.1. Mean of thyroidal parameters for T4 and FTI was higher in lesioned group (p<0.05. The frequency of lesioned thyroid was higher in summer than winter (p<0.05. The result of this study showed that high ambient temperature has profound effect on thyroid function, secretion and pathological changes in sheep.

  6. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

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    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or laboratory examinations. Parathyroid scan is a noninvasive method used in determining parathyroid adenoma, and Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4} subtraction methods are commonly applied. The thyroid gland was not visualized on Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy of suppressed thyroid tissue in a study by Turkolmez et al.. It should be taken into account that sometimes we may not be able to visualize a normal thyroid gland, and in these cases we might encounter suboptimal visualization in T1-201 subtraction method as well. Erdil et al. foun that Tl-201 is superior to Tc-99m MIBI in the visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue with a toxic thyroid nodule. Kiratli et al. mentioned decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the thyroid gland in hemodialysis patients. However, no patient presented an absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in the thyroid gland with secondary hyperthyroidism. In this case, the thyroid was not suppressed and the TcPO{sup -4} scan thyroid gland was normal, but the thyroid gland was not visualized with Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, and Tl-201 accumulation in the thyroid gland was not sufficient. To the best of our knowledge, from a search of the published literature, there has been no case like this previously reported.

  7. Disorders of thyroid gland in India.

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    Desai, M P

    1997-01-01

    The profile of thyroid disorders encountered in pediatric and adolescent age groups in India is similar to that seen in most parts of the world except for the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders in certain endemic regions of this country. Clinical presentation is most commonly for hypothyroidism and goiters and infrequently for hyperthyroidism. Of nearly 800 children referred for thyroid problems, 79% had hypothyroidism (goitrous as well as nongoitrous), 19% had euthyroid goiters and 2% had hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism was due to thyroid dysgenesis in 75% (aplasia/hypoplasia--50% and ectopic thyroid gland 25%), thyroiditis in nearly 5% and dyshormonogenes is in 20%. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in our experience of screening nearly 40,000 newborns is about 1 in 2,640, which is much higher than the worldwide average of 1 in 3,800. Diagnostic delay in hypothyroidism is common and is related to lack of awareness amongst primary healthy care practitioners and family physicians as well as the cost and availability of laboratory investigations. This delay, compounded with inadequate therapeutic surveillance is responsible for the poor outcome in affected children. High incidence of dyshormonogenesis, inherited as autosomal recessive trait also calls for genetic counselling and routine sibling examination. Our results of family studies on first degree relatives of children with thyroiditis revealed presence of antimicrosomal antibodies in 43% and thyroid disease in 26%. Many etiologic factors cause goiters which may be functionally euthyroid or hypothyroid with almost equal frequency in our series. In nearly 200 schools children surveyed for goiter prevalence, 8% in high socioeconomic groups and about 21% in the low income group, had goiters. Female predominance was marked. However, iodine deficiency was not the sole cause as revealed by dietary survey and urinary iodine estimations. Hyperthyroidism is infrequent, less severe and in our experience responded well to long-term administration of antithyroid drugs. A high index of clinical awareness and education of primary health workers will help a great deal in improving the ultimate outcome in children with thyroid disorders/hypothyroidism. PMID:10771808

  8. Sonography of the thyroid gland with high resolution real time apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of sonography of thyroid glands in 131 patients were compared with the findings on palpation and from scintigrams. High resolution sonography is the most accurate method of examination for demonstrating changes in the thyroid. In 40% cases sonography demonstrated lesions additional to the single abnormality found clinically. In 10% cases a suspected thyroid abnormality on palpation proved to be due to extra thyroid disease. Evaluation of the number, size and localisation of space-occupying lesions by means of sonography is superior to all other kinds of investigation. It is, however, not possible to determine whether a lesion is benign. An attempt has been made to define the usefulness of thyroid sonography and its place during routine diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  10. Interactive MR-guided biopsies of the thyroid gland: validation of a new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility and utility of an interactive MR-guidance system to target and biopsy thyroid lesions, and to compare resolution between ultrasound and interventional MR imaging in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Twenty thyroid lesions of 18 patients were interactively biopsied using a 0.5-T superconducting open magnet system. Stereotactic localization of the needle and imaging was accomplished using T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images. Representative cytological material was retrieved in 16 of 20 lesions (benign cystic or colloid goiter: n = 14; one de Quervain's thyroiditis and one follicular neoplasia). Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm detected by ultrasound could not be visualized adequately on GRE images. Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm were successfully biopsied by ultrasound (three colloid and haemorrhagic goiters and one adenoma). Magnetic-resonance-guided interactive biopsies and positioning of non-ferromagnetic needles in the thyroid gland are technically feasible and safe. Compared with high-resolution ultrasound, lesions larger than 1.5 cm can be adequately visualized and biopsied. Magnetic-resonance-guided placement of non-ferromagnetic needles is no substitute for high-resolution ultrasound in clinical work-up of thyroid lesions. (orig.)

  11. Development of a new type thyroid glands dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new dosimeter of 125I in thyroid gland is described. The dosimeter consists of NaI(Tl) detector and intelligent data recorder. Single-chip-microcomputer is used for data handling. The activity of 125I in thyroid glands of human being is measured directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent. The measuring range of 125I in thyroid glands is 10-2 x 106 Bq. The dosimeter has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability

  12. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

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    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  13. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  14. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kova?ev-Zaviši? Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction, is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consequences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

  15. Genetic aspects of etiology and development of thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Yu.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on thyroid gland cancer development and progression have identified new classes of tumor markers, proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressing genes, cell receptor genes, identified genetic tumor-predisposing polymorphism and some other significantly important segments of genome. The identification has been based mainly on revealing of DNA abnormal consequences, specific for occurrence of thyroid gland cancer and its progression.

  16. Morphogenetic aspects of biomineralization in thyroid gland tumor diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Reznik, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of differential diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid proliferative diseases is extremely important and difficult issue. One unexplored morphological phenomena is biomineralization of tissue. This process accompanies most proliferative processes in the thyroid gland. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/33573

  17. Burkitt Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland in an Adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, K.; Gangadharan, A.; R. S. Arora; R. Shukla; Pizer, B.

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt Lymphoma is a highly aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that in nonendemic areas has abdominal primary sites. We report a very rare case of Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid swelling in a 14-year-old white Caucasian British male with no preexisting thyroid or medical problems. The diagnosis was confirmed by an open wedge biopsy following a fine needle aspiration. The patient was treated according to the Children's Cancer and Leukaemia...

  18. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  19. Goiter gland clinical examination using thyroid uptake equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiter Gland Clinical examination using thyroid uptake equipment developed by BATAN has been performed. The clinical examination was performed in the Ario Wirawan Lung Hospital in Salatiga. The gland functionality was determined by measuring the absorption of 131I by the goiter gland, which was performed by placing the detectors in front of the patient's throat. To obtain the diagnosis result rapidly, the thyroid uptake device equipped with a devasys USB interface capable of receiving digital data. The data is processed by computer to obtain uptake curves. The result were then compared with the patient's blood analysis result obtained using standard Radioimmunoassay equipment. (author)

  20. Sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to establish the sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in the first week of life in 107 term neonates. The serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was normal in all neonates. Their gestational age at birth was range from 37 to 41 weeks and birth weight was 3305 ± 457.74 g. Sonography was performed with 7.5 MHz linear array transducer (SA-8800 MT, Medison, Korea) within the first week of postnatal age. Maximal transverse (T), anteroposterior (AP), and longitudinal (L) dimensions of thyroid gland were measured. The volume of each lobe was estimate by using standard geometric formula; volume of a prolate ellipsoid = T X AP X L X ?/6. The total volume of the thyroid gland was calculated as the sum of the each lobe. The correlations with total thyroid volume and weight, height, the body surface area, gestational age of the neonate were estimated by Pearson's coefficient and p volume on Bivariate correlation analysis. Total thyroid volume was 0.68 ± 0.23 cm3, left and right lobe volumes of thyroid gland were 0.32 ± 0.12 cm3 and 0.36 ± 0.14 cm3, respectively. T, AP, and L dimension of right lobe were 0.69 ± 0.14 cm, 0.71 ± 0.13 cm, 1.37 ± 0.22 cm respectively. And those of left lobe were 0.70 ± 0.11 cm, 0.65 ± 0.13 cm, 1.31 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. The Pearson's coefficients for total thyroid volume with the weight, and body surface area of neonate were 0.385, 0.395 (p3 and was significantly correlated with the weight and body surface area.

  1. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  2. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimashkieh Haytham

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (500 cells, cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation, cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin, and background (colloid-like material and macrophages. Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51–500 cells with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma. Immunocytochemical analysis for PHT was performed for 14 cases (6 destained smears and 8 cell blocks which showed distinct cytoplasmic positivity. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland. Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin. Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology. Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ... decide if the symptoms are consistent with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What ...

  4. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-06-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland.

  5. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland

  6. Histopathological Study on Thyroid Gland of Goat in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafour Mousavi; Daryoush Mohajeri; Mehrdad Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland in most animal species has two lobes, one on each lateral surface of the trachea. In pigs, the main lobe of the thyroid gland is on the midline in the ventral cervical region with dorsolateral projections from each side. The thyroid structural changes in gouts were investigated. About 386 pairs of thyroid glands collected from gout at the local municipal abattoir in Tabriz city of East Azerbaijan province. A total of 386 thyroid specimens examined, 8 cases were follicular at...

  7. Metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Mohamed T; Hegazy, Mohamed A; Abd Elwahab, Khaled; Arafa, Mohammad; Abdou, Islam; Refky, Basel

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland is a known but an unusual site for metastatic tumors from various primary sites. Despite the fact that it is one of the largest vascular organs in the body, clinical and surgical cases have given an incidence of 3?% of secondary malignances of the organ. Nevertheless, thyroid metastases are not an exceptional finding at autopsy, they are encountered in 2?% to 24?% of the patients with malignant neoplasm.

  8. Inhibition of Thyroid Hormone Release from Cultured Amphibian Thyroid Glands by Methimazole, 6-Propylthiouracil, and Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis. . . This information can then be used to select chemicals for further evaluation in v...

  9. Malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Noriko; Ozawa, Yasunori

    2005-07-01

    Reported herein is a rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 71-year-old woman with a past history of chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaints were rapidly growing neck mass, weight loss and hoarseness. Presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood, and an increase in anti-microsome antibodies and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were found on preoperative laboratory tests. A diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto's thyroiditis was made, and a total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD4 predominance. Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed. No adjuvant therapy was performed because of the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 25 months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. The present case suggests that Hashimoto's thyroiditis might play an important role in the carcinogenesis of thyroid lymphoma not only of B-cell lineage but also of T-cell lineage. PMID:15982218

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... the thyroid was manufacturing. I see. And if only part of the thyroid is removed, is the ... the vocal cords, to the nerves. If it’s only one nerve then it’s (INAUDIBLE) and there’s treatment ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... someone who has thyroid surgery? Correct. The survival statistics for thyroid cancers, the most common, such as ... home tomorrow. Wow. Now, what is typically the pain level post-surgery? Everyone’s tolerance to pain i s ...

  12. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ?110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The Islet cell hyperplasia was found to be more frequent in male rats at ?110 weeks of age. PMID:26414849

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... 4.1 centimeters. Because of the change the feeling was the patient should go ahead and consider ... it’s a substantial size gland. I’m gently feeling the extent of the gland. It wraps posteriorly ...

  14. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THYROID LESIONS IN WARDHA DISTRICT OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarth Shukla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To establish a significant predominance of thyroid lesions in and around Wardha district, and to establish specific etiological link for the predominance the thyroid lesions. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This was a hospital based analytical prospective study, conducted in Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital (A.V.B.R.H. involving 108 patients. The study was carried over a duration of 1 year January 2010 to December 2010. Patients attending endocrinological clinics and the newly detected cases of thyroid lesions, within set parameters of study, were the subjects of this study. OBSERVATION: Thyroid lesions which we came across in the course of the study were Thyrotoxicosis, Myxoedema, Thyroiditis, Diffuse goitre, Nodular Goitre and Carcinoma Thyroid . These were correlated with epidemiological factors like Age, Sex, Region, Diet and Iodine Intake. Significant relationship between thyroid function, age of patient, diet was seen in comparison to individual thyroid lesions. CONCLUSION : G oitre was the commest pathology encountered . Almost all of the thyroid lesions were of hypothyroid in their function with exception of thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma. Thyroid lesions were found predominantly in females, Age related lesion pathology was significant, and vegetarian and non - vegetarian diets along with low and high iodine salt uptake had obvious pathological effects on thyroid

  16. Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovi? Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT scan showed left lobe thyroid tumor with tracheal deviation on the right site. Extended total thyroidectomy was done. Intraoperative consultation with the pathologist confirmed thyroid cancer. The pathologist diagnosed thyroid paraganglioma on the base of immuohistochemical investigation. This thyroid paraganglioma was positive for neuron-specific enolase, chomogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein highlighted the sustentacular cells. Tumor cells were nega-tive for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic. After the surgery the patient was treated with chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of thyroid hormone and serum neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A level, every 6 months. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest and abdomen CT scan as well as further tests (chest x-ray, ultrasound of the neck, and whole body octreotide scintigraphy were done. No primary neuroendocrine tumor in digestive sistem or in the chest was found. After more than 3 years the patient has no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of thyroid paraganglioma, followed by chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with thyroid gland paraganglioma.

  17. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead ... you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will ...

  18. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... also, during that time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid- ... the “Ask” icon on your screen. You can send in your questions live via the web to ...

  19. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... also, during that time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid- ... the “Ask” icon on your screen. You can send in your questions live via the web to ...

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... anatomic structures. And people at home may be hearing a monitor going off. Can you explain what ... Now, is there some reason that we are hearing about so many thyroid problems, particularly in women ...

  1. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Well outside of a goiter there are other conditions, there are hyper and hypo metabolic states that ... be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ...

  2. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... it’s failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ... body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is there some reason that ...

  3. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... would take place had she been given a diagnosis of a cancerous thyroid? Correct. Although, the procedure ... women as well. So if you have a diagnosis of Hashimoto’s Disease you would be on the ...

  4. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... your vocal cords to be back up to speed maybe a week later. So they should not ... often that an enlarged thyroid presents with cancerous cells? It may, yes. Okay. And, again, I believe ...

  5. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... They can have fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel sluggish, they can be hyperactive, ... thyroid, the symptoms would be what? Fatigue, feeling cold, having no energy, listless. And is surgery usually ...

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... you speak to why the thyroid is so important when it comes to hormone production in the body and how it can affect your overall health if it’s failing to work properly? It regulates ...

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... enlarged thyroid from this female patient. As you can see, we are already in the OR which ... answer as many of those questions as he can get to before the hour is up. Let’s ...

  8. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... caused sometimes by diet, and other times by environment. And what are the symptoms, besides difficulty swallowing, ... them for you. By the way, if your issue is something other than an enlarged thyroid, but ...

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... get started and move over to your surgical team. And if you’d be so kind as ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

  10. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... enlarged thyroid. If you were to take an average-sized walnut and open it and remove the ... to ask you questions coming in from the web. And people at home, thank you for sending ...

  11. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the ... plastic closure. The patients recover very nicely. The robotic surgeries are requiring up to three surgeons. Oh, ...

  12. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters of the way ... re permanent? No, these are permanent, these are silk, and they will stay there. Uh- huh. And ...

  13. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... type of surgery, and it’s critical where this technology has evolved over the last several years. All ... effective, more effective than perhaps laparoscopic or even robotic surgery for thyroid removal. Well I think the ...

  14. Alterations within the rat thyroid gland during vitamin A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands from female rats kept vitamin A deficient for one, two, and three months were examined by electron microscopy. After one month on the diet, no consistent alterations were noted. After two months, the colloid in some follicles displayed a peripheral zone of decreased density. In addition, ultimobranchial follicles within the gland had become keratinized. After two to three months on the diet, cells were seen entering the colloid. Many of these cells were identified as follicular cells. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies indicated that thyroids of vitamin A deficient rats took up less radioiodide than thyroids of control rats. It's possible that the presence of follicular cells in the colloid reflects an accelerated turnover of these cells and could indicate an early pathological sign

  15. [The effect of radiation on thyroid gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golán, T; Dienstbier, Z; Hermanská, Z

    1989-01-13

    In the submitted review the authors discuss briefly the sequelae of irradiation of the thyroid gland. The most frequent postirradiation affection is usually latent hypothyroidism. The risk of the development of carcinoma in the irradiated gland is cca 200-700 cases per 1 million subjects per year per 1 Gy. The latent period is most frequently 15-30 years. Women and children are roughly twice as sensitive. The authors outline also the problem of 131I and its role in disasters of nuclear reactors. It is considered a 10 times weaker cancerogen than external radiation. In the conclusion the authors discuss possibilities of prevention with a more detailed account of the pharmacological block of the thyroid gland. The authors give also recommended doses to be used in the prophylactic administration of potassium iodide. PMID:2720738

  16. Uncertainties in determination of 131I activity in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The absorbed dose due to the iodine 131I uptake is usually calculated from the measurements of the iodine activity in thyroid, under the assumption that the particular thyroid gland is not very different in shape and size from the standard one. Present paper illustrates how the size and the depth of the thyroid in the neck influence the value of the absorbed dose, estimated from the measurements with a Nal scintillation counter. The accuracy of the estimation can be improved by measuring the energy spectrum of the radiation emitted from the thyroid gland. The measurements were performed using a special water phantom of our construction. It was shown that the ratio of the counting rate in the energy peak of 364 keV to the counting rate in the Compton scattering band (between 100-140 keV) can be used for determination of the effective depth of the thyroid. The uncertainties of the method are discussed based on results of calibration measurements and calculations of the emitted photon spectra. The practical usefulness of the method was tested in the Brodno hospital in Warsaw, where 95 patients with different thyroid's disease have been investigated. For 62 of them the results of USG with a size of thyroid's slices were accessible. In the majority of the cases the activity of iodine in thyroid determined without taking into account a thyroid's depth was slightly lower (up to 30 % of the difference) then the activity determined from spectrometric measurement. However, there was a group of about 20 % of the patients for whom the error of standard measurement of iodine uptake was high and in some cases even over 100 % of the measured values. (author)

  17. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ahin Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. Objective. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Methods. Between June 2011 and June 2012, 461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. Results. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (p<0.05. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left in all patients of both sexes. In addition, the study establishes a significant correlation between the thyroid volume and height, weight and body surface area of the subjects of both sexes (p<0.05. In the light of our findings we can provide reference values in order to evaluate patients who have thyroid hyperplasia or who are considered as normal. Conclusion. We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country.

  18. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... patient will go on to receive radioactive iodine treatment. And what does that do? In certain types ... gland. Those patients that are refractory to the treatment or who may be allergic to the medications ...

  19. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Gland Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL February 1, 2012 Hello, I’m Diane Magnum, and welcome ... goiter. Recently there has been substantial growth in one of the nodules, going from 2.8 to ...

  20. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... iodine, ablating the gland. Those patients that are refractory to the treatment or who may be allergic ... to do an emergency thyroidectomy if they were refractory to the medications. 15 OR Live Bah 3926 ...

  1. Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities in western Canadian foals: reexamination of a previously described syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A L; Doige, C E; Fretz, P B; Townsend, H G

    1994-01-01

    A syndrome of neonatal foals characterized by hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities (TH-MSD) has been described in western Canada and may be increasing in incidence. In an attempt to improve recognition and understanding of this syndrome, 2946 records of equine abortuses, stillborns, and dead neonatal foals were examined to determine the laboratory involved, the year and month of submission, the breed and sex of the fetus or foal, the type of perinatal loss, the length of gestation, and whether or not the submission had evidence of a lesion of the thyroid gland, the musculoskeletal system, or other abnormal clinical or postmortem findings. One hundred and fifty-four (5.2%) records indicated the presence of an abnormal thyroid gland. Of these, 79 (2.7%) had additional lesions consistent with the TH-MSD syndrome described in the 1980s, while 75 (2.5%) were without these additional lesions. Comparisons among these two groups and a third group of fetuses and foals without lesions of the thyroids glands are described. The results confirm that the TH-MSD syndrome is a specific and unique disease with no breed or sex predilection. It is argued that there may be an "exposure-related" cause, and based on a review of similar disease syndromes of the horse, it is suggested that an examination of the feed is indicated in outbreaks of the TH-MSD syndrome. PMID:8044756

  2. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland 15 years after nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Fleischer, Jens Geelmuyden

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the thyroid gland is rare and can mimic primary thyroid carcinoma leading to diagnostic difficulties. We present a case of a 55-year-old female with RCC metastasis to the thyroid gland 15 years after nephrectomy. Diagnosis was made after total thyroidectomy. This case emphasizes the importance of considering metastasis in patients with increasing growth of the thyroid gland over a short period of time known with earlier RCC, even decades after nephrectomy.

  3. [Thyroid gland and pregnancy - summary of important findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zde?ka

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid hormones play fundamental role in conception and pregnancy and are essential for normal adult health, fetus and childhood development. Many studies have shown an association between maternal thyroid diseases esp. hypothyroidism with obstetric problems and/or psychomotoric impairment in the offspring. The prevalence of undiagnosed lower thyroid function in pregnancy is present in about 4-8 % of pregnant women, and euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity (6-8 %) are further candidates for thyroid disorders in pregnancy. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50 % more thyroxine in pregnancy to maintain an euthyroid state to keep TSH ideally 2.5 mIU/l in the first trimester of pregnancy and TSH 3.0 mIU/l in the second and third trimester. Consequently, there is a need to start the substitution therapy as soon as diagnosis of subclinical and /or overt hypotyroidism is established, and in majority of euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease there is a need to start therapy as well. Most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant. As maternal thyroid disease is a quite prevalent condition and often asymptomatic, but easily diagnosed and for which an effective, safe and cheap treatment is available, endocrinological societies including ?ES ?LS JEP worldwide are suggesting the need of thyroid dysfunction screening as a simple prevention attitude. Hormone determination of TSH and TPOab antibodies should be performed early during the first trimester, using trimester-specific reference values. Furthermore, adequate iodine supplementation during pregnancy is critical and if feasible it should be initiated before the woman attempts to conceive.Key words: anti TPOab - pregnancy - screening of thyroid dysfunction - thyroid - TSH. PMID:26486478

  4. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NON - NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THYROID: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Purushotham Krishnappa; Dr Sowmya Ramakrishnappa

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are one among the common clinical encounters, which range from congenital disorders to the malignant lesions. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid is accepted globally as the best screening tool to differentiate neoplastic versus non neoplastic lesions. The cytological features of the non-neoplastic disorders of thyroid have a good amount of overlap between them and with a few neoplastic lesions as well, thus leading to wrong interpretation and possible inappropriate mana...

  5. Development of Thyroid Gland Specific Markers of Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid Axis Disruption in the Amphibian Model Species Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis.

  6. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Sure. That is part of the geologist’s important role in this procedure, and I think our patient’s ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

  7. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... Sure. That is part of the geologist’s important role in this procedure, and I think our patient’s ... it’s failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ...

  8. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Weight ... and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your Best Life with Diabetes ... vs Fact Patient Alerts Scientific Statements ...

  9. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

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    Full Text Available ... when it comes to hormone production in the body and how it can affect your overall health if it’s failing to work properly? ... once the thyroid is removed, how does the body continue to function without it? By taking ... are there any side effects – long-term side effects to being on the ...

  10. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschowitz Sharon; Sayre James W; Ju JW; Ragavendra Nagesh; Chopra Inder; Yeh Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In ...

  11. The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

  12. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Rani1, Kamlesh Khatri2, Renu Chauhan1

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate (MSG is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experimental group was given 4mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate intra-peritoneally for seven days. Controls were maintained. After thirty days of the last dose, all the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were dissected out, processed and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and examined for histomorphometry under Zeiss light microscope and Image Pro-Express Analyzer. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in the body weight of the MSG treated animals, although these animals consumed less food than the controls. A significant increase in the size of the follicles ac-companied by an increase in the mean height and area of the folli-cular cells and decreased colloid in some of the follicles was ob-served, pointing towards an increase in thyroid gland activity.

  13. Assessment of Salivary Gland Function Using Salivary Scintigraphy in Pre and Post Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Diagnosed Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badam, Raj Kumar; Suram, Jyotsna; Babu, Dara Balaji Gandhi; Marshal, Rahul; Bontha, Sharath Chandra; Lavanya, Reddy; Kanth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid carcinoma represents less than 1% of all cancers. The first line of treatment for thyroid cancer is partial/total thyroidectomy. High-dose Iodine131 therapy using Iodine radioisotopes is commonly used in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. In this process, the non-thyroidal tissues, such as, salivary gland, stomach and breast tissues also take up radioactive iodine. Salivary gland scintigraphy is widely accepted as a sensitive and valid method for evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction after Radioactive Iodine131 Therapy (RIT). Aim To assess and compare the salivary flow rates, relative uptake and ejection fractions in parotid and submandibular glands just before and one month after Iodine131 therapy. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 24 patients diagnosed with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent partial/total thyroidectomy and were due for radioactive iodine therapy. These patients were divided into two groups based on the lesion based dosimetry (Group A: 60-100Gy; Group B: 100-150Gy). Salivary gland assessment was done by salivary gland scintigraphy before and after RIT. Statistical Analysis The data collected was tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software version16 using paired t-test and individual sample t-test. Results A statistically significant difference in the uptake percent and ejection fraction percent in the parotid and submandibular glands before RIT and one month after RIT was observed in the study. Conclusion We inferred from the study that there was an overall decrease in uptake percent and ejection fraction percent one month post RIT in both parotid and submandibular glands. Also, a statistically significant difference was noted in the uptake and ejection fraction percent between Group A and Group B concluding the fact that the damage is dose related. PMID:26894178

  14. Differential diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We designed this study to determine the potentiality of the conventional CT in the diagnosis of submandibular gland lesions, especially in solving the diagnostic difficulty between neoplasm and inflammation. We performed retrospective study of 35 patients and 2 of them had bilateral lesion of chronic inflammation, hence we analysed 37 cases of submandibular gland lesions. There were 9 cases of tumor (including 1 basal cell carcinoma, and 8 pleomorphic adenomas), 22 cases of chronic inflammation, and 6 cases of acute inflammation. CT scans were evaluated for the degree of enlargement (graded as iso, mild or marked enlargement), pattern of contrast enhancement, contour deformity of the gland, and several other items. Neoplastic masses showed more marked enlargement of the gland (77%) than chronic inflammation (22%). Degree of enhancement showed no difference among the lesions. Enhancement pattern was more inhomogeneous in neoplasm (80%) than in chronic inflammation (5%). Deformity of the natural contour of the gland was more frequent in neoplasm (all of 9 cases) than in chronic inflammation (32%). Acute inflammation showed internal low attenuation probably by abscess formation (3/6 cases) and overlying soft tissue swelling (all of 6 cases), and the age of patients was characteristically younger than other disease (mean, 9 years). Several findings were more specific to disease, such as dystrophic calcifications to pleomorphic adenoma (37%) and calculi with or without ductal dilatation to chronic inflammation (45%). Pre and postcontrast enhanced CT scan can serve as a predictor of pathologic nature of the submandibular gland lesions

  15. TIME AND DOSE-DEPENDENT THYROID HORMONE RELEASE FROM XENOPUS THYROID GLAND CULTURES IN RESPONSE TO THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND INHIBITION BY METHIMAZOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis.

  16. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was unknown) were nearly twenty-times the average background concentration, while the concentration in the person who ingested Ra-226 in a medicinal preparation was about two-hundred times our background concentration. A variety of studies of small cohorts of persons either occupationally exposed to Ra-226, given Ra-224 as part of medical treatments, or among beagle dogs given Ra-226 in long-term health studies, has shown evidence of a small but significant increase in thyroid cancer rates. The findings presented here have implications for improving dosimetry models of Ra-226 in soft tissues and for projecting health risks from natural radium intake. (author)

  17. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with nodular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Ruggeri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT is an autoimmune thyroid disease frequently associated with hyperplastic nodules (HNs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is expressed in benign thyroid nodules and over-expressed in malignant thyroid nodules, particularly in papillary thyroid carcinomas. To elucidate the role of HGF in the development of HNs in association with HT we evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of HGF in both nodular and extranodular tissues, obtained from 30 HTs and 15 goiter samples. Six normal thyroid glands were used as controls.All normal control tissue samples exhibited no evidence of HGF immunoreaction. HNs showed weak to moderate HGF immunoreaction,which was located exclusively in the cytoplasm of stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells. However, the percentage of positive cases was higher in HNs arisen in the context of HT, compared to HNs not associated with HT (30/30 or 100% vs 4/15 or 40%; p<0.001. HGF immunoreactivity was also detected in all extranodular tissues from HT specimens (30/30 or 100%, but we found some significant differences. In fact, while in HNs observed in the context of HT lesions HGF was expressed only in stromal cells, in the extranodular tissues from the same thyroid gland affected by HT it was also detected in the cytoplasm of the epithelial follicular cells. Furthermore, HTs showed a much higher HGF staining grade in the extranodular tissue compared to HNs. Finally, a clear positive correlation was observed in HT between the proportion of HGF expressing follicular cells and the grade of lymphoid aggregates of the thyroid gland. In conclusion, HGF is much more frequently and highly expressed in thyroid tissue with HT, compared to goiter. In HT glands HGF can be detected in both follicular thyroid cells and stromal cells, while in HNs, either from goiters or associated with HT, its expression is restricted only to the stromal cells.These data indicate that HGF may play a role in cell proliferation processes occurring in thyroid glands affected by HT, probably under the regulation of the lymphoid infiltrate.

  18. Diagnostic value of CD-10 marker in differentiating of papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using of CD10 in accordance with clinical and histological features of thyroid lesions could be used as both diagnostic and prognostic tool, which consequently influence the management and their prognosis for survival of patients with thyroid neoplasms especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. The aim of this study was to determine its expression in PTC and different benign thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, paraffin-embedded tissues of patients with definitive pathologic diagnosis of different benign thyroid lesions and PTC were retrieved. Immunostained sections of each slides was performed using immunohistochemistry methods and expression of CD10 was compared in two groups of benign thyroid lesions and PTC. Results: From selected cases 134 sections studied in two groups of PTC (n = 67 and benign thyroid lesions (n = 67. CD10 were immunohistochemically positive in 29.9% of PTC cases, but in none of the thyroid benign lesions (0% (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that due to the higher expression of CD10 in PTC than benign thyroid lesions it might be used for differentiating mentioned lesions. But for using it as a diagnostic tool further studies with larger sample size and determination of its sensitivity, specificity and cut-off point is necessary.

  19. Involvement of the thyroid and the salivary glands in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas at initial diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The clinical spectrum of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is different from that in adults, with frequent extranodal involvement. We searched the incidence and radiological appearance of the secondary involvement of the thyroid and salivary glands by ultrasonography (US) to assess its importance for staging of the disease. Materials and methods: We examined the thyroid, parotid and submandibulary glands of 43 children with NHL, age ranging between 9 months and 17 years, by US. Results: According to US findings, involvement of the parotid gland was very common as detected in 18 of the cases with NHL (41%). It was the most common organ involved in lymphoma. Lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland, with bilateral multiple focal lesions, was detected in two patients and proved by fine needle aspiration biopsy in all cases (5%). Salivary gland and thyroid involvement changed staging in three (6%) of the patients, however, the treatment plan was unchanged. Conclusions: This study shows that anatomic sites, known to be very rarely involved at the initial presentation of the disease is actually more commonly involved in childhood NHL. However, it does not cause any significant change in the treatment planning or in the survival

  20. Iodide transport and its regulation in the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to examine the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide induced suppression of subsequently determined iodide transport activity in the thyroid gland. Two model systems were developed to identify the putative, transport-related, iodine-containing, inhibitory factor responsible for autoregulation. The first system was a maternal and fetal rabbit thyroid tissue slice preparation in which iodide pretreatment inhibited the maternal 125I-T/M ratio by 30% and had no significant effect on fetal iodide transport. In the second system, the role of protein synthesis in the autoregulatory phenomenon was studied. Cat thyroid slices pretreated with0.1 mM cycloheximide for 60 min prior to preexposure to excess iodide demonstrated a significant reduction in the degree of iodide included autoregulation. In both of these systems iodide induced suppression of cAMP accumulation remained intact. These findings suggest (1) fetal rabbit thyroid lacks the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide transport and (2) protein synthesis is involved in the mechanism of thyroid autoregulation of iodide transport

  1. Management of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslano?lu, Seçil; Eren, Erdem; Özkul, Y?lmaz; Ci?er, Ejder; Kopar, Aylin; Önal, Kaz?m; Etit, Demet; Tütüncü, G Yazg?

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma; and the association between clinicopathological parameters and thyroid gland invasion. Medical records of 75 patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent total laryngectomy with thyroidectomy were reviewed, retrospectively. Preoperative computed tomography scans, clinical and operative findings, and histopathological data of the specimens were evaluated. There were 73 male and two female patients with an age range of 41-88 years (mean 60.4 years). Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 62 (82.7 %) and total thyroidectomy was performed in 13 patients (17.3 %). Four patients had histopathologically proven thyroid gland invasion (5.3 %). In three patients, thyroid gland involvement was by means of direct invasion. Thyroid gland invasion was significantly correlated with thyroid cartilage invasion. Therefore, prophylactic thyroidectomy should not be a part of the treatment policy for these tumors. PMID:26547312

  2. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  3. [Sclerotherapy of solid nodules in the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, A N

    2003-01-01

    We have studied long-term effects (3-8 years) of transcutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol in a group of 123 patients at the age from 17 to 87 y.o. The patients had benign solid nodular formations of thyroid gland at volume from 0.7 to 162.8 ml. It was revealed, that a reduction degree of the solid nodular formations don't depend on ingoing sizes. The efficiency of sclerotherapy first of all is up to internal structure of the solid nodular formation and its stroma structure development. PMID:14723146

  4. Digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands of human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands is described. This instrument is used to measure the activity of 125I in thyroid glands of human being directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent

  5. Histopathological Study on Thyroid Gland of Goat in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafour Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland in most animal species has two lobes, one on each lateral surface of the trachea. In pigs, the main lobe of the thyroid gland is on the midline in the ventral cervical region with dorsolateral projections from each side. The thyroid structural changes in gouts were investigated. About 386 pairs of thyroid glands collected from gout at the local municipal abattoir in Tabriz city of East Azerbaijan province. A total of 386 thyroid specimens examined, 8 cases were follicular atrophy, 4 cases were thyroid fibrosis, 71 cases were diffuse hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells, 5 cases were colloid goiter, 10 cases were parenchymal cysts, 3 cases were nodular hyperplasia, 1 case was C-cell adenoma and 1 case was C-cell carcinoma.

  6. ANALYZING THE ‘GRAY ZONE’ IN FOLLICULAR LESIONS OF THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Fine needle aspiration (FNA is used as a gold standard for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. But, diagnostic efficacy of FNA declines sharply when follicular patterned lesions of thyroid are considered. Hence these lesions form a “gray zone” where a definite diagnosis on FNA is difficult. This article discusses the umbrella diagnosis of ‘follicular lesions’ on cy tology, which largely comprises of four entities i . e. , adenomatous goiter, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma . AIMS : To assess the accuracy of FNAC in differentiating benign and malignant fol licular patterned lesions so as to contribute to better patient care. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A retrospective analysis was conducted between 2009 and 2014 at our institution. Sixty two cases with diagnosis of ‘follicular lesion’ and ‘follicular lesion with atypical cells’ on FNA were included in the study. The cytological features were correlated with histopathology and the results tabulated. RESULTS : Sixty two cases with a FNA diagnosis of ‘follicular lesion’ or ‘follicular lesion with atypical cells’ was a nalyzed in the present study. The diagnosis of ‘Follicular lesion’ was noted in 46 cases and ‘follicular lesion with atypical cells’ in 16 cases. The histopathology diagnosis was adenomatous goiter in 35 cases, follicular adenoma in 16 cases, follicular ca rcinoma in four cases, and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC in seven cases. The malignancy rate in follicular pattern lesions (N=62 was 17 . 7% and neoplasia rate was 43 . 5%. In atypical or suspicious cases (N=16 the malignancy rat e was 43 . 7% and the neoplasia rate was 68 . 7%. CONCLUSION : Follicular - patterned thyroid lesions remain a ‘gray zone’ and a challenge for cytopathologist. High malignancy rate in these patients supports the concept of giving an umbrella diagnosis of “follicu lar lesion” and advising excision of the nodule for histopathology to confirm the diagnosis or maintain close follow up.

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology: sensitivity and specificity in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Thyroid enlargement is one of the common problems in patients presenting at outpatients department of ENT particularly in females. Thyroid nodules are common, thyroid cancer is uncommon and the most common way for it to present is as a solitary thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in thyroid diseases. Method: This prospective analytic study was conducted at ENT Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College/Abbasi Shaheed Hospital during year 2004-8. One hundred and five cases were enrolled who underwent thyroid surgery after complete evaluation by history, clinical examination, Thyroid profile, Thyroid Scintigraphy, Ultrasound neck and FNAC. In cases which were revealed malignant by FNAC, CT scan were done to see the extent of disease and neck node status. Surgery was done in all cases and specimens sent for histopathology. Results: Male to female ratio of the patients was 1:8.5. Most common lesion was benign nodule (96). Malignant lesions were 9 in FNAC. In histopathology, the benign nodules were 92, and malignant cases were 13. Sensitivity of FNAC was 61.53% and specificity was 98.9%. Conclusion: FNAC in Thyroid has high sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  8. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 ± SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 ± SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

  9. Ultrasonography-histopathology correlation in major salivary glands lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Cecilia; Nekula, Diana Maria; Mocan, Simona Liliana; Void?zan, Toader Septimiu; Co?arc?, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Major salivary glands display a various and complex pathology, showing different evolution and prognosis, depending on the histopathological form. The choice of an appropriate treatment plan for the best outcome, therefore the proper surgical approach, would imply preoperative knowledge of the histopathological diagnosis. However, any core-biopsy performed prior to surgery presents the risk of a false result and increases the difficulty of latter surgery. Therefore, some complementary examinations are used, among these, ultrasonography. The retrospective study (April 2010-March 2013) conducted in the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Tirgu Mures, Romania, aims to evaluate the relevance of the ultrasonography by itself in leading towards a proper preoperative assessment and diagnosis, and thus, in choosing the proper treatment plan. The study included 33 lesions of the major salivary glands, undergoing first ultrasonography, then curative surgery. Different characteristics (shape, dimension, consistency, vascularization, homogeneity, delimitation) were assessed on ultrasonography as well as on histopathology; finally, the correlation between those two examinations was evaluated, by comparing diagnoses. The results of our study are similar to others, showing that ultrasonography can diagnose preoperatively the majority lesions of major salivary glands. The conclusions of the study sustain the importance of ultrasonography as a routine examination in major salivary glands lesions. PMID:26193218

  10. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  11. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  12. Radiation dose to the ocular lens and thyroid gland during high resolution CT of the teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose to the ocular lens and thyroid gland during high resolution CT of the jaw was measured in a head phantom and in 9 patients. The dose for the lens and thyroid gland resulting from 10 cuts was 0.7 and 0.9 mGy, respectively. By shielding the thyroid gland against scatter a reduction of 20% is possible. Radiation exposure is considerably higher than during conventional dental X-ray examinations. Compared with CT examinations of the head and neck region, radiation exposure of both organs is about the same. (orig.)

  13. The trapping of iodine and pertechnetate by normal, multinodular and dyshormonogenic thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for the trapping rates of 123I and sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and the retention of 123I by normal, multinodular and dyshormonogenic thyroid glands. The method used involved background correction of the raw thyroid using time-activity blood curves. The trapping rates of iodine and pertechnetate by normal glands were similar and comparable to those obtained by other methods. Increased trapping of iodine and pertechnetate and impaired retention of iodine was observed in multinodular and dyshormonogenic thyroid glands. (U.K.)

  14. Modular Measuring System for Assesment of the Thyroid Gland Functional State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rosik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed modular system BioLab for biophysical examinations enabling assessment of the thyroid gland functional state is presented in the paper. The BioLab system is based on a standard notebook or desktop PC connected to an Ethernet-based network of two smart sensors. These sensors are programmed and controlled from PC and enable measurement of selected biosignals of the human cardiovascular and neuromuscular system that are influenced by the production of thyroid gland hormones. Recorded biosignals are processed in a PC and peripheral indicators characterizing thyroid gland functional state are evaluated.

  15. [Mathematical methods in the diagnosis of the thyroid gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshkin, K I; Slesarenko, S S

    1978-01-01

    At present effective diagnosis of deviations from euthyroidism in diseases of the thyroid gland presents certain difficulties. The most rational direction in the solution of this problem is introduction of quantitative methods into the diagnosis. Symptoms encountered in case histories of 1500 patients with goiter transformation were coded for this purpose according to the chosen algorhythm. Only those symptoms which were present in all the case histories were selected for this study. The data obtained were treated on "Ypapi-2" computer. A table in which every sign of the disease had a quantitative expression was drawn on the basis of the results. Diagnosis according to the mentioned mathematical table is more effective, and, besides, there is no subjectivism in the diagnosis. PMID:353790

  16. Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

  17. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45?GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Misa Agustiño, María José; Leiro, José Manuel; Jorge Mora, María Teresa; Rodríguez-González, Juan Antonio; Jorge Barreiro, Francisco Javier; Ares-Pena, Francisco José; López-Martín, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45?GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-fo...

  18. [MORPHOFUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE THYROID GLAND AFTER EXPOSURE TO MELATONIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko, R V

    2015-01-01

    Morphofunctional state of the thyroid gland (TG) of young rats after exposure of exogenous melatonin in the spring and autumn periods was investigated. Exogenous melatonin (Unipharm Inc., USA) was administered to experimental group of animals daily at a dose 5 mg/kg. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. It was shown an increase of the cross-section area of follicles by 31% and colloid by 30% (in spring), reduction of the area of follicle epithelium by 12% (in autumn), an increase in the follicle internal diameter and a decline in the thyroid epithelium height by 12% (in autumn) in TG of experimental groups rats. Also it was shown a decline of follicle-colloid index and growth of colloid accumulation index, reduction amount of interfollicular islets. The introduction of melatonin in the spring period brought down the amount of connecting tissue elements. Melatonin introduction in the autumn period reduced the thickness of connective tissue trabecules in TG. The introduction of melatonin in the spring period resulted in more substantial changes in the structure of TG, as compared to an autumn experiment. Thus, melatonin administered both in the spring and in the autumn periods reduces the functional activity and physiological regeneration of TG. PMID:26845843

  19. Hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C E; Usborne, A L; Starost, M F; Tarara, R P; Hill, L R; Wilkinson, L M; Geisinger, K R; Feiste, E A; Cline, J M

    2006-07-01

    Macaques provide an important animal model for the study of hormonal agents and their effects on risk biomarkers for breast cancer. A common criticism of this model is that spontaneous breast cancer has rarely been described in these animals. In this report, we characterize 35 mammary gland lesions ranging from ductal hyperplasia to carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Based on a retrospective analysis, we estimated the lifetime incidence of mammary gland neoplasia in aged female macaques to be about 6%. Hyperplastic lesions (n = 19) occurred segmentally along ducts and included such features as columnar alteration, micropapillary atypia, and fibroadenomatous change. In situ carcinomas (n = 8) included solid, comedo, cribriform, and micropapillary elements, encompassing 4 of the major architectural patterns seen in human lesions. Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 8) were generally solid, with prominent central necrosis and mineralization, often on a background of micropapillary ductal hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma. Cytologic changes of invasive lesions included increased mitoses, nuclear pleomorphism, extensive microinvasion, and stromal desmoplasia. Axillary lymph-node metastases were confirmed in 5 of the 8 invasive carcinomas. On immunohistochemistry, intraductal and invasive carcinomas had increased Ki67/MIB1 and HER2 expression and selective loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors. These findings suggest that breast cancer is an underreported lesion in macaques and highlight unique morphologic and molecular similarities in breast cancer between human and macaque species. PMID:16846989

  20. Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(?g/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.)

  1. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Junkichi; Ito, Shin; Ohba, Shinichi; Fujimaki, Mitsuhisa; Sato, Eriko; Komatsu, Norio; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Hanaguri, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto's thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently. PMID:22515161

  2. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Junkichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

  3. Effect of vertical angulation to dose of thyroid glands in periapical radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoi, Keitaro; Satoh, Keiji; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-10-01

    Much attention has been given to reducing the dose of radiation in dental radiography in terms of the highest risk for the head and neck. Organ doses in intraoral radiography vary greatly with subtle differences in vertical angulation. Quantitative determination of doses delivered to the thyroid gland is thus necessary in determining adequate doses and risk for dental radiography. A personal computer program, prepared for estimating organ doses under various radiographic conditions, was used to evaluate the effect of vertical angulation on the dose delivered to the thyroid gland in radiography of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Review of the literature revealed that the calculated dose delivered to the thyroid gland is approximately in accordance with the data of the actual determination under the same radiographic conditions. The dose-dependence of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland on vertical angulation of the maxilla was much more than that of the mandible. In the mandible, the dose delivered to the thyroid gland increased about three fold at a field size of 6 cm[phi] and about 1.5 fold at 8 cm[phi] when the vertical angulation changed from -40deg to 0deg. In the maxilla, the delivered dose increased about 480 times at a field size of 6 cm[phi] when vertical angulation changed from 0deg to 50deg and rapidly increased about 280 times at 8 cm[phi] when the angulation changed from 0deg to 40deg. The dose of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland was evaluated as a function of product of the irradiated volume within the primary beam directed at the thyroid gland and the inverse square of the distance between a subject's surface and the thyroid gland. (N.K.).

  4. [Results of percutaneous sclerotherapy of benign nodular affections of the thyroid gland with ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, A N

    2006-01-01

    The results of experimental (150 animals) and clinical (783 patients) studies of percutaneous sclerotherapy of benign nodular affections of the thyroid gland with ethanol are analyzed. Reduction of the cysts depends first of all on ratio of fluid to solid components. Technical features of the method and disputable points of mechanism of action are discussed. High efficacy of sclerotherapy in benign nodular affections of the thyroid gland is demonstrated. PMID:16715982

  5. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  6. Metabolic Pathways of Tetraidothyronine and Triidothyronine Production by Thyroid Gland: A Review of Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mansourian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetraidothyronine (T4 and Triiodothyronine (T3 are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT and diiodothyrosine (DIT on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction , or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO, which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin to show themselves.

  7. Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response

  8. Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, M.C.; Dake, M.D.; Okerlund, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response.

  9. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin, Laurys; Fakhry, Nicolas; Chetaille, Bruno; Perrot, Delphine; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Daidj, Nassima; Guiramand, Jérôme; Sarran, Anthony; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Bertucci, François

    2014-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SVS) of the thyroid gland is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a rapidly growing 7-cm neck mass. Because of suspicion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was planned, without preoperative cytology. During surgery, the tumor ruptured, leading to fragmented and incomplete resection. The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects suggested thyroid SVS, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (SYT gene rearrange...

  10. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = ?/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects

  11. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Michael [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: ormying@polyu.edu.hk; Sin Manhong [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Shuk-fan [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-11-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = {pi}/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects.

  12. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama Junkichi; Ito Shin; Ohba Shinichi; Fujimaki Mitsuhisa; Sato Eriko; Komatsu Norio; Ikeda Katsuhisa; Hanaguri Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody an...

  13. Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko O.O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

  14. Distribution of 129I in soil and in cattle thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depth profile of 129I in surface soil was measured with some long-lived radionuclides. In the organic rich soil 129I remained in the surface. Distribution ratio of radioiodine in surface soil decreased after heated, irradiated by ?-ray, and fumigated with chloroform. So radioiodine were trapped by the effect of living in the surface soil. Iodine and 129I in thyroid gland of cattle and human were measured by neutron activation analysis and compared each other. 129I/127I ratio in Japanese thyroid gland are lower than cattle. And also those data of Japanese human thyroid were lower than European. (author)

  15. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min [College of Medicine, Chungang University, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Seo Hyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall. In summary, the radiofrequency ablation therapy for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules located in anterior aspect (within a 5 mm radius) of the thyroid gland in human suggests this is an effective treatment, though this was an animal study performed on dogs.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of endocrine cells in the rat respiratory tract after thyroid and parathyroid gland removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, B; Kasacka, I; Azzadin, A; Dadan, J; Malla, H; Nowosielski, C; Buczko, W; Nikli?ska, W

    2001-01-01

    The complete thyroid and parathyroid gland removal leads to the abrupt reduction of calcitonin, which can be a factor stimulating growth and intensified activity of APUD system cells in the respiratory tract. Thus, neuroendocrine cells in the lungs and trachea in rats after thyroid and parathyroid removal were evaluated. Paraffin specimens of the examined organs were stained with H+E and impregnated with silver. Calcitonin, synaptophysin, somatostatin, and neuronal-specific enolase were detected immunohistochemically by the use of rabbit specific antibodies. Antibodies used in the study immunostained neuroendocrine cells of the examined organs. Rats with removed thyroid and parathyroid glands presented weakened reaction compared to the control group. PMID:11374821

  17. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 ? 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 ? 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall. In summary, the radiofrequency ablation therapy for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules located in anterior aspect (within a 5 mm radius) of the thyroid gland in human suggests this is an effective treatment, though this was an animal study performed on dogs

  18. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  19. Histological investigations on the thyroid glands of marine mammals (Phoca vitulina, Phocoena phocoena) and the possible implications of marine pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, U.; Zahler, Stefan; Horny, H. -P.; Heidemann, Günter; Skirnisson, K.; Welsch, U.

    1993-01-01

    In 1988 and 1989, thousands of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) died in the North Sea from phocine distemper infection. The morphology of thyroid glands from 40 harbor seals found dead on the North Sea coastlines of Schleswig-Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany, during an epizootic of phocine distemper, was compared with the morphology of thyroid glands from five healthy harbor seals collected in Iceland. Thyroid glands from seven harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) found dead in 1990 on the ...

  20. Melatonin in the thyroid gland: regulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone and role in thyroglobulin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marin, R; Fernandez-Santos, J M; Morillo-Bernal, J; Gordillo-Martinez, F; Vazquez-Roman, V; Utrilla, J C; Carrillo-Vico, A; Guerrero, J M; Martin-Lacave, I

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is an indoleamine with multiple functions in both plant and animal species. In addition to data in literature describing many other important roles for melatonin, such as antioxidant, circadian rhythm controlling, anti-aging, antiproliferative or immunomodulatory activities, our group recently reported that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin and suggested a paracrine role for this molecule in the regulation of thyroid activity. To discern the role played by melatonin at thyroid level and its involvement in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, in the present study we have analyzed the effect of thyrotropin in the regulation of the enzymatic machinery for melatonin biosynthesis in C cells as well as the effect of melatonin in the regulation of thyroid hormone biosynthesis in thyrocytes. Our results show that the key enzymes for melatonin biosynthesis (AANAT and ASMT) are regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, exogenous melatonin increases thyroglobulin expression at mRNA and protein levels on cultured thyrocytes and this effect is not strictly mediated by the upregulation of TTF1 or, noteworthy, PAX8 transcription factors. The present data show that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin under thyroid-stimulating hormone control and, consistently with previous data, support the hypothesis of a paracrine role for C-cell-synthesised melatonin within the thyroid gland. Additionally, in the present study we show evidence for the involvement of melatonin in thyroid function by directly-regulating thyroglobulin gene expression in follicular cells. PMID:26579570

  1. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common finding in Nuclear Medicine in this patient population. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?

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    Gesing Adam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attributed to normal aging. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, as well as thyroid neoplasms, require special attention in elderly subjects. Intriguingly, decreased thyroid function, as well as thyrotropin (TSH levels – progressively shifting to higher values with age – may contribute to the increased lifespan. This short review focuses on recent findings concerning the alterations in thyroid function during aging, including these which may potentially lead to extended longevity, both in humans and animals.

  3. Studying the role of thyroid hormone receptor expression in the lacrimal gland in the autoimmune orbitopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To explore the role of thyroid hormone’ receptors in the development of the autoimmune process in orbita.Methods: The intraoperative biopsy material of the lacrimal gland obtained from orbital decompression in patients with autoimmune orbitopathy (AOP was studied and compared with biopsy material of normal lacrimal gland.Results: The expression of isoforms of thyroid hormone’ receptors in various cellular elements of the lacrimal gland is improved in normal, as well as change their expression when the AOP. This process is associated with change of structure of the lacrimal gland and organ infiltration cells.Conclusion: The findings support the assumption that the lacrimal gland is the target organ, along with orbital and muscles for autoimmune aggression in the AOP.

  4. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs. PMID:22688583

  5. Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients

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    MARÍA ANGÉLICA MATAMALA S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3% se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73% correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27% a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total, 4 (36,3% con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18% con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18% con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9% con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9% con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9% con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología.Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81% had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%. were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36% had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18% had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18% had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

  6. Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores / Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA, MATAMALA S; MIGUEL, GONZÁLEZ P; GONZALO, ROSSEL D; CONSTANZA, NIEME S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósi [...] to de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología. Abstract in english Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical [...] service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of 296 diagnosed cases of thyroid nodules referred to cytology unit, pathology department, NCI, who underwent FNAC for diagnosis. The results were categorized according to the recent Bethesda classification into: insufficient for diagnosis, benign, atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant sampling. The final histologic diagnosis and/or clinico-radiologic follow-up assessment for non-neoplastic lesions were considered the gold standard. Results: The study included 296 cases presented with thyroid nodules who underwent diagnostic thyroid FNAC. Female to male ratio was 5.2:1, and the median age was 44 years. Ninety-eight cases (33.1%) were diagnosed as benign, 40 cases (13.5%) as follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 49 cases (16.5%) as follicular neoplasm, 30 cases (10.1%) as suspicious for malignancy, 58 cases (19.5%) as malignant, and 21 cases (7.1%) as unsatisfactory. Nodular hyperplasia represented the majority of benign cases (89.8%), while papillary carcinoma was the most frequent malignant lesion (72.4%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with their corresponding final histologic ones. FNAC achieved a sensitivity of 92.8, a specificity of 94.2%, a positive predictive value of 94.9%, a negative predictive value of 91.8%, a false positive rate of 7.2%, a false negative rate of 5.8%, and a total accuracy of 93.6%.

  8. Chronic urticaria in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: Significance of severity of thyroid gland inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gulec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a clear association between autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and chronic urticaria/angioedema (CUA. However, not all patients with AT demonstrate urticaria. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate in which patients with AT did CUA become a problem. A sensitive inflammation marker, neopterine (NP was used to confirm whether the severity of inflammation in the thyroid gland was responsible for urticaria or not. Methods: Neopterine levels were assessed in patients with AT with urticaria and without urticaria. Furthermore, levels were compared in relation to pre and post levothyroxine treatment. Twenty-seven patients with urticaria (Group 1 and 28 patients without urticaria (Group 2 were enrolled in the study. A course of levothyroxine treatment was given to all patients, and urine neopterine levels before and after the trial were obtained. Results: All patients completed the trial. Mean age in Group 1 and Group 2 was similar (35.70 ± 10.86 years and 38.36 ± 10.38 years, respectively (P=0.358. Pre-treatment urine neopterine levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P=0.012. Post-treatment levels decreased in each group, as expected. However, the decrease in the neopterine level was insignificant in the patients of Group 2 (P=0.282. In Group 1, a significant decrease in post-treatment neopterine levels (P=0.015 was associated with the remission of urticaria. Conclusion: In patients with CUA and AT, pre-treatment elevated levels of NP, and its decrease with levothyroxine treatment along with symptomatic relief in urticaria, may be evidence of the relationship between the degree of inflammation in thyroid and presence of urticaria.

  9. Morbidity risk for thyroid gland carcinoma after treatment with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long period the radionuclid I-131 was used in the nuclear medicine in connection with diseases of the thyroid gland carcinoma for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university of Homburg/Saar about 25000 persons were treated with I-131 for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes in the years 1960 to 1977. From all those 25000 persons a number of 11775 persons who were living at the time of first treatment in the Saarland and whose diagnosis was not 'thyroid gland carcinoma' at that time are extracted. With the help of the incidence rates of thyroid gland carcinoma of the population of the Saarland - that population is regarded as comparative population - an expectation value of thyroid gland carcinoma is calculated for the regarded patient collektive. A comparison - anonymized with respect to the data of particulars - of the patient collective with that persons registered in the Cancer Registry of the Saarland yields to observed values of thyroid gland carcinoma which can be compared with the expectation values. The observed value is - regarding a latent period of 10 years - by a factor of 4-3,3 in case of men and by a factor of 1,8-1,6 in case of women higher than the expectation value. (orig.)

  10. Effect of furosemide on radioiodine-131 retention in mice thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovic, Milovan D; Jankovic, Slobodan M; Jeremic, Marija; Novakovic, Milan; Milosev, Milorad; Vlajkovic, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Retention of iodine in the thyroid gland is the result of renal excretion and transport of iodine to thyroid cells. Both processes are affected by furosemide. The aim of our study was to test whether furosemide influenced radioiodine-131 ((131)I) retention in the thyroid gland of living mice. Our methods were as follows: After 15 days of low-iodine diet, 19 Swiss mice received an intra-peritoneal injection of 0.37+/-0.03 MBq of (131)I. Thereafter, 11 mice were treated with intraperitoneal injections of furosemide (0.3 mg/kg, every 8 h, for 72 h), Group A and 8 mice served as controls, Group B. Seventy-two hours after (131)I administration, the mice were anaesthetized, their thyroids were carefully extirpated, and their radioactivity was measured by a gamma counter. Our results showed that the mean value of (131)I retention after 72 h was 63.09% in Group A and 82.25% in Group B. The difference between these two groups was significant (T=3.0919, P=0.0033). In conclusion, furosemide after the administration of (131)I, decreases retention of (131)I in the thyroid gland in mice. The well known increase of iodine renal excretion by furosemide and consequently decrease of iodine blood pool may be the reason for this decreased (131)I retention by the thyroid gland. PMID:19675865

  11. Galectin-3 Immunostaining in Cytological and Histopathological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Ga lectin-3 is a human lectin linked to malignant transformation in different organs including thyroid gland. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions in cytological and histological samples. Material and Methods: This study included a total of 79 cases; 19 multi nodular goiter (MNG), 19 follicular adenoma (FA), 13 follicular carcinoma (FTC) and 28 papillary carcinoma (PTC). Galectin-3 immunostaining was applied on histological sections from all the cases (retrospective analysis) as well as for the available preoperative FNAC (28 cases) (prospective analysis). Results: Retrospective analysis: The positivity percentage of galectin-3 was 10.5%, 92.3%, 93% for non-malignant, FTC and PTC respectively. According to H score, glaectin-3 immunostaining was significantly lowered in FA) 1±2.8 as compared to papillary (158.5±88.6) and follicular carcinoma (150±83.9) (p>0.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between FTC and PTC (p=0.56) or between classic and follicular variants of PTC (p='0.51). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for galectin-3 staining were 93%, 89.5%, 90.5% and 92% respectively. Prospective analysis: There were five benign, six malignant and 17 indeterminate cytology cases. Galectin-3 immunostaining was able to detect the benign nature of 11/17 indeterminate cytology. Combination of standard cytological evaluation with galectin-3 immunostaining markedly improved sen¬sitivity (71% versus 85%), specificity (75% versus 94%), positive predictive value (83% versus 92%) negative predictive value (60% versus 87.5%) and diagnostic accuracy (72% versus 90%). Conclusion: We suggest Galectin-3 as a supplementary immunostaining in histological diagnosis of difficult thyroid follicular lesions and in preoperative evaluation of indeterminate thyroid cytology to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical interference in benign lesions.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION ULTRASONOGRAPHIC AND COLOUR DOPPLER EVALUATION OF THYROID LESION

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    Amit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the utility of gray - scale USG and colour doppler to identify patterns of thyroid lesions and to correlate the characteristics of benign and malignant nodules with pathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2013 to September 2014, a total of 100 patients (17 males and 83 females were included in this study. The gray scale and Doppler characteristics of various lesions were determined. The results were then compared with fine needle aspiration (FNA/histopathological diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients examined, 9 (9% were found to be malignant on cytopathology. The malignant nodules demonstrated presence of microcalcification ( S ensitivity 44.5%, specificity 98.5%; irregular or poorly defined margins ( S ensitivity 77.7%, specificity 90%; absent or thick incomplete halo ( S ensitivity 88.8%, specificity 87.3%; RI >0.7(sensitivity 88.8%, specificity 95.7% and type iii and iv flow(sensitivity 77.7%, specificity 59%. CONCLUSION: Gray - scale USG and colour Doppler features of thyroid nodules are useful to distinguish patients with clinically significant thyroid nodules from those with innocuous nodules despite the overlap of findings. From our study, it is apparent that the USG findings of poorly defined margins, absent halo and RI> 0.7 have a high diagnostic accuracy and microcalcifications have high NPV for identifying malignant thyroid nodules.

  13. Interfering factors in in vivo diagnostics of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anamnestic iodine contamination and medication with thyroid drugs were registered in 260 patients of a clinical thyroid care unit and 200 patients of a thyroid doctor's office in the southern German endemic goiter region. We found in the university clinic 54% patients with interfering factors, 30% with iodine contamination and 20% with multiple interferences. In the physician's practice there were 18%, nearly all treated with thyroid hormone. The influence of those factors on thyroidal technetium uptake and the resulting restriction on its diagnostic value is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Age and its influence on effects of iodine-131 in guinea pig thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the differences in age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, we exposed fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs to single graded doses of 131I. Injected quantities ranged from 1 to 100 ?Ci 131I, depending on the age group, and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rad. At approximately 100 days of age (or 100 days after dosing for adults), a single microcurie of 131I was given and animals were killed 1 day later to provide data on thyroid weight and percentage 131I uptake. Analysis of these data and information on pathology suggested that the fetal and weanling guinea pig thyroid glands were more radiosensitive than the adult thyroid; the neonatal thyroid appeared less radiosensitive than that of the adult. The increase in radiosensitivity of the young thyroid glands over the adults, however, did not appear to be greater than twofold. Nevertheless, the demonstration of age-related radiosensitivity requires that it be considered by those who assess radiologic risks to human populations

  15. Focal Lesious of Thyroid Gland: efficacy of individual Iouide Prophylaxis

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    I Martirosiyan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effectiveness of potassium iodide (200 mkg to focal changes there was a clinical study taken. Only the patients with focal changes in thyroid were included. The main group was represented with 29 patients with normal thyroid volume and took potassium iodide. 27 patients were included into the group under control and underwent dynamic examination. The third group was consisted of 13 patients with thyroid goiter and getting potassium iodide (200 mkg. The examination of the patient with focal changes of thyroid was suspected to check thyroid status: thyroid ultrasound study, TSH serum level and antibodies to TPO at the beginning, in six months and in 12 months. Follow-up period for each patient was 12 months. Physiological iodide dose recommended with the aim of prophylaxis was apt to prevent the growth of the existent focal changes in thyroid tissue but not led to their full regression; prevent new focal changes in thyroid tissue; normalize thyroid volume in patients with thyroid goiter; do not influence on TSH levels and antybodies to TPO in patients with focal changes in thyroid tissue.

  16. ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results

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    Ioan Sporea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men: 44 (32.3% without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3% with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD, 37 (27.2% with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests, 4 (2.9% with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2% cases with thyroid pathology induced by amiodarone. In all patients, 10 elastographic measurements were made in the right thyroid lobe and 10 in the left thyroid lobe, using a 1-4.5 MHZ convex probe and a 4-9 MHz linear probe, respectively. Median values were calculated for thyroid stiffness and expressed in meters/second (m/s. RESULTS: Thyroid stiffness (TS assessed by means of ARFI in healthy subjects (2 ± 0.40 m/s was significantly lower than in GD (2.67 ± 0.53 m/s (P < 0.0001 and CAT patients (2.43 ± 0.58 m/s (P = 0.0002, but the differences were not significant between GD vs CAT patients (P = 0.053. The optimal cut-off value for the prediction of diffuse thyroid pathology was 2.36 m/s. For this cut-off value, TS had 62.5% sensitivity, 79.5% specificity, 87.6% predictive positive value, 55.5% negative predictive value and 72.7% accuracy for the presence of diffuse thyroid gland pathology (AUROC = 0.804. There were no significant differences between the TS values obtained with linear vs convex probes and when 5 vs 10 measurements were taken in each lobe (median values. CONCLUSION: ARFI seems to be a useful method for the assessment of diffuse thyroid gland pathology.

  17. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  18. Interrelation specific autoimmune pathologies of a thyroid gland with inorganic autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Paramonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a pathology of a thyroid gland at rheumatic diseases, in particular at rheumatoid arthritis, remains actual and to this day. The work purpose was studying antitelogenesis to thyroid hormones at patients with mixt autoimmune pathology. In whey of blood of patients with RA and autothyroid pathology are found out antibodies (AB to Т3 and Т4, their concentration correlates with activity of pathological process. It is shown, that level AB to Т3 and Т4 authentically differs from the maintenance of the given antibodies in whey of blood of healthy faces. Level of antibodies to thyroid hormones can be considered as the criterion predicting development of pathology of a thyroid gland at patients with RA.

  19. The thyroid gland state in the children after the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the postaccident early examination (May-July 1986), the dose-dependence hypertyroxinemia with the reactive reduction of TTg was determined. The dependence of T4 level in the blood from the age of the children was found out during the three year observation. The thyroid gland of the children having had the contact with the ionizing radiation reacted by increasing the hormone secretion on this situation, it was the most strongly pronounced in the early children. The thyroid-cancer morbidity in the Ukrainian children has been increasing. The determined decrease of the latent period in the thyroid-cancer development of the Ukrainian children is connected with the summation of the effects from the influence of radionuclids, chemical factors (nitrates pesticides, inductry poisons) on the thyroid gland as well as the iodine deficit in the goiter endemic territories. 6 tabs

  20. Determination of isotopic ratio of calcium by gamma activation analysis and free radical oxidation of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemiluminescence and gamma activation analysis was used to determine the isotopic ratio of calcium in normal,non-malignant and cancerous tissues of thyroid gland.This result was used for diagnostics of cancerous thyroid gland morbidity.The high value of isotopic ratio 44Ca/48Ca in paratumor tissues of thyroid gland has allowed concluding about significance of transmembrane circulation calcium

  1. Value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnosis and treatment planning of the lesions of the salivary gland. METHODS: Eight hundred seventy-nine aspiration biopsies of the lesion of the salivary gland over a 10-year period, from...

  2. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Soares Corrêa Silva; Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro Chagas; Maurício Buzelin Nunes; Rodrigo Assis de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial.Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid folli...

  3. Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ohbuchi Toyoaki; Tabata Takahisa; Nguyen Khac-Hung; Ohkubo Jun-ichi; Katoh Akiko; Suzuki Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and ex...

  4. Chronic gamma-radiation impact upon the state of thyroid gland of tundra voles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The histomorphological estimation of the thyroid gland status of tundra voles living in the radiation polluted sites (30-km zone around Chernobyl nuclear plant and the Komi Republic) was given in the experiment. Nature populations of tundra voles have more high variety of the thyroid parenchyma morphological reconstructions in comparison with the experimental animals. Mechanisms of the response to the radiation influence in the nature and in the experiment are different. (author)

  5. Effectiveness of skin absorption of tincture of I in blocking radioiodine from the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topical application of tincture of iodine (I) was found to be effective in blocking the thyroid uptake of orally administered 131I in humans. Abdominal skin application of tincture of I resulted in an approximately 82% reduction in the uptake of 131I by the thyroid gland. The effectiveness varied among individuals and may have depended on the quantity applied and on the application site. In each study group, elevated levels of serum I were observed

  6. Fallout 131I in western Nevada cattle thyroid glands: 1962-early 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been continuing interest in historical fallout data. The authors have previously published data concerning the concentrations of fallout radioactive 131I in the thyroid glands of cattle from the Nevada Test Site and from commercial slaughter cattle. These data showed that bovine thyroid 131I was an effective monitor of both local and worldwide fresh nuclear fallout. This paper extends the data on commercial slaughter cattle from western Nevada through early 1969

  7. Prevention pathways of thyroid gland diseases under the radiation impact and endemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant increase in thyroid gland diseases as a result of radiation, endemic factors and unbalanced nourishment needed for the development of effective prophylactic measures. The scientists of Research Center for Radiation Medicine have realized a complex approach to the solution of microelement deficiency problem, i.e. creation of food substance, medications enriched with both iodine and a complex of microelements, vitamins, polysaccharide and other nutrients for prophylaxis of thyroid, erythroid, immune system diseases and minimization of internal irradiation dose

  8. Postirradiation changes in the thyroid gland and skeletal muscle of rats injected with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional status of rat skeletal muscles was studied at dormancy and during the intensive muscular work under conditions of repeated administration of iodine 131 in doses causing reversible and irreversible damages to thyroid gland (the absorbed doses were from 0.27 to 266 Gy). The biochemical changes in muscles were transient; they correlated with the thyroid gland status and lifetime of animals and were displayed during the first 15 days and 2-12 months after the start of the isotope injection

  9. Histoarchitectonics of a thyroid gland in the conditions of a blastomogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khripkov I.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment has been supplied on 20 white rats-males in mass of 140-160 g to whom under a skin the tumoral strain of a Guerin’s carcinoma has been transplanted. The purpose of the real research was studying distant tumour influences on histotopography structural components of a thyroid gland. Distant influence of a tumour on a thyroid gland calls essential rearrangements of a stroma and a parenchima of an organ which are accompanied bydepression of functional activity thyro-cyties and reduction of quantity of haemocapillars of a stroma of an organ.

  10. A postmortem study on the volume of the human thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurunnabi, A S M; Ara, S; Jahan, M U

    2012-04-01

    The present study was designed to find out the difference in volume of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex and to compare with previous local and foreign studies. It was a Cross-sectional descriptive type of study. The hospital based study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, from January to December 2008. The present study was performed on 60 post mortem human thyroid gland (39 of male and 21 of female) collected from unclaimed dead bodies which were in the morgue under examination in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka. The samples were divided into three age-groups including group A (10-20 years), group B (21-50 years) & group C (>50 years) and the volume of the thyroid glands were measured by fluid displacement method and recorded. No difference was found in mean volume of the thyroid gland between male and female. However, significant difference was found in between age groups. The volume of the gland was found to increase from early childhood and puberty up to 50 years of age and then decreased. PMID:22545343

  11. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by μ-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  12. [On debatable questions of percutaneous sclerosing therapy of benign tumors of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, A N

    2006-01-01

    Certain debatable questions of the mechanism of reducing the thyroid nodules, technical details of the method are discussed on the basis of considerable clinical experiences with percutaneous sclerosing ethanol therapy of benign thyroid nodules (783 patients) and results of experiments in 150 animals and 11 volunteers. A precise preliminary calculation of the amount of ethanol introduced in one session of the sclerosing therapy and during the whole course of treatment was shown to be necessary and possible. A pronounced inflammatory response during the sclerosing therapy was proved to take place but when ethanol got beyond the limits of the thyroid gland. So, the ethanol destruction of the thyroid tissue is possible in the situation of recurrent disease. The degree of a reduction of the thyroid nodules depends not on their initial size but on their inner structure and the development of the fibrous tissue. PMID:16568853

  13. A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T4) and/or triiodothyronine (T3). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism

  14. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Assay as the First Line Biochemical Parameter to Determine Thyroid Gland Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Abayomi Banjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased cellular catabolic activities observed in hyperthyroid state had been established. This is consequent to excessive hormones secreted by the thyroid gland during this condition. A total of 60 subjects comprising of 45 females mean age 43.02±1.90 (range 22-70 years and 15 males mean age 50.40±3.59 (range 25-68 and 60 controls comprising of 45 females mean age 41.18±1.68 (range 22-68 years and 15 males mean age 40.53±2.88 (range 25-65 were recruited for the study. The plasma level of T4, T3 and TSH were determined in both the experiment group and the controls. A significant increase (p<0.05 in plasma T4, T3 and a significant decrease (p<0.05 in plasma TSH were observed in the experiment group in comparison to the controls. Also, an inverse relationship was noted to exist between the plasma T4 and T3; and TSH in primary hyperthyroid state.

  15. Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author)

  16. Radiation-induced head and neck tumours: is the skin as sensitive as the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six hundred and five persons, randomly selected from 2400 patients who had been irradiated 16-46 yr previously for benign diseases in the head and neck region, were recalled and examined for radiation-associated tumours. Three hundred and sixty-seven patients were alive, 179 had died and 66 had emigrated. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients were clinically examined, 87 refused or were unable to participate and 16 could not be contacted. Eighteen of the clinically examined patients had been or were being treated for 20 skin carcinomas with a mean latency of 37 yr. In this group only 7 carcinomas of the thyroid gland were observed, with a mean latency of 38 yr. Eleven carcinomas of the skin and 3 of the thyroid gland were reported in the group which was examined by questionnaires. The observed number of carcinomas of the skin is higher than expected according to the dose-effect relationship of UNSCEAR, whereas the number of carcinomas of the thyroid gland is lower. It is concluded that there might be less difference in susceptibility for the induction of tumours by ionizing radiation between the skin and the thyroid gland than is commonly assumed. (author)

  17. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the...

  18. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

  19. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  20. The thyroid gland function assessment in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy during breast cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: For many years much attention has been focused on an interaction between the breast disease and the thyroid gland function in the literature. In those studies the question whether disease changes in the thyroid gland can induces the breast disease was addressed. On the other hand there are a few works concerning the inverted question whether the breast cancer therapy, in particular after mastectomy and chemotherapy, can disturb the thyroid gland function. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the mastectomy and chemotherapy on the thyroid gland function in women after breast cancer therapy. Material and methods: 173 patients aged 30 - 80 (average 56) were included in this study. The studied group comprised 97 women after breast cancer therapy (average age 60). The control group consisted of 76 patients (average age 55). 75 patients after mastectomy of the studied group were additionally treated with chemotherapy, but in 22 women chemotherapy was not applied. The following methods were used to carry out the research: the USG method was applied to evaluate thyroid morphological condition in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy; the color Doppler technique was used for dynamic presentation and fine- needle aspiration biopsy: examination of the thyroid functional state by measuring the TSH, fT3, fT4 hormone concentration and the level of antithyroid antibodies. Results: An average concentration of antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and anti-Tg was found significantly higher in the studied group of women after chemotherapy, comparing with the control group. The level of fT3 hormone concentration was comparable in all investigated groups. Nevertheless, the average concentration of TSH was found higher in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy and as a consequence leading to hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the high level of the concentration of antithyroid antibodies: (anti-TPO and anti- Tg), which lead to destruction of the thyroid gland tissue, the thyroid gland function of the women after mastectomy and chemotherapy should be monitored morphologically as well as functionally. (author)

  1. Uncertainties in determination of 131I activity in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The values of the iodine 131I uptake determined from the measurements with a NaI scintillation counter might be significantly influenced by the thyroid position in the human neck. It is shown that the ratio of the counting rate in the energy peak of 364 keV to the counting rate in the Compton scattering band can be used for the determination of the effective depth of the thyroid. The uncertainties of the standard method are discussed basing on results of calibration measurements. The investigations of 95 patients with different thyroid diseases showed that the measured iodine spectrum was considerably different from the standard for about 20% of them, indicating possible high uncertainties of the standard measurements, which assume a fixed thyroid depth of 20 mm. (authors)

  2. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso / Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Soares Corrêa, Silva; Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro, Chagas; Maurício Buzelin, Nunes; Rodrigo Assis de, Paula.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idad [...] e, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial. Abstract in english Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its cl [...] inical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

  3. Efficiency of a lead-containing tie for radiation protection of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fluoroscopy the examiner is usually protected by a radiation-reducing body shield, leaving the thyroid unprotected. The fact that the thyroid is located in a region of the neck usually covered by the shirt collar led to the idea of designing a tie with lead core, providing easy and ''decorative'' reduction of the radiation dose. Sonographic examinations were carried out in 20 volunteers (10 men, 10 women) to determine the size of the gland and its coverage by such a tie. The reduction of the surface and organ dose was assessed using film dosimetry with scattered radiation, the body of the examiner being simulated by an Alderson phantom. On average 88% of the thyroid gland surface area was covered. Surface dose was reduced to 1%, and organ dose to 10% of the value without the protection tie. (Author)

  4. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Kandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions. TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave?s disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto?s thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.

  5. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  6. Scintigraphic study of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of scintigraphic salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine. Patients were divided in two groups: null or mild dysfunction (grade I-II), moderate-severe dysfunction (grade III-IV) and statistical Mann-Whitney U test was applied. The radioiodine dose ranged between 80 and 200 mCi. Nineteen patients were found to be less affected (group 1), corresponding to grades I and II, and 11 patients were more affected (group 2), with grade III involvement. The severity of involvement of the salivary glands was not related with the dose of radioiodine used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and the sex of the patients had no clear influence either. Other factors are possibly related to the severity of salivary gland involvement

  7. Effect of 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ after surgery on the function of parathyroid gland in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, ZHI-HUA; LI, FENG-QI; HAN, JIAN-KUI; LI, XIAN-JUN

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignant tumor of the endocrine glands. Although surgery is the optimal treatment utilized, the disease is characterized by recurrence and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of iodine-131 (131I) ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ following surgery on the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and its effect on the function of the parathyroid gland. A total of 160 patients diagnosed with DTC, who were consecutively admitted to our Hospital between June 2012 and June 2014 and underwent total thyroidectomy or subtotal resection, were included in the present study. After three months, the patients were administered 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment and underwent a whole body scan after 1 week to determine whether ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment was successful or not. The treatment was repeated within 3 months if not successful. Of the 160 patients, 24 patients had cancer metastasis (15.0%). The average dose of 131I used for the first time was 6.4+1.2 GBq and the treatment was successful in 66 cases (41.3%). The average treatment time was 2.8±0.6 therapy sessions. The results showed that, prior to and following the first treatment and at the end of the follow up, levels of the parathyroid hormone, serum calcium and phosphorus were compared, and no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) was observed. There were 5 patients with persistent hypothyroidism and 8 patients with transient hypothyroidism. The levels of thyroglobulin were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). A total of 48 patients (30%) with hypothyroidism were identified. In conclusion, the results have shown that DTC resection and 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment did not significantly impair the parathyroid function, thereby improving the treatment effect. PMID:26668598

  8. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45?GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misa Agustiño, María José; Leiro, José Manuel; Jorge Mora, María Teresa; Rodríguez-González, Juan Antonio; Jorge Barreiro, Francisco Javier; Ares-Pena, Francisco José; López-Martín, Elena

    2012-09-15

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45?GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30?min to 2.45?GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR), which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01) after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10?W/Kg or 0.104±5.10(-3)?W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45?GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:23213477

  9. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Ga Ram [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.

  10. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.

  11. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-03

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  12. Clinical Significance of Diffuse 18F FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent 18F FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse 18F FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2±1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0±664.6 vs. 57.3±46.4, P18F FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The 18F FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  13. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  14. Thyroid lesions in children and adolescents after the Chernobyl disaster: Implications for the study of radiation tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the most obvious effect is manifested by an increase in the prevalence of thyroid gland diseases in the exposed children and adolescents. In this study, we describe a comparative analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and morphological features of 92 malignant and 59 benign thyroid lesions from patients 5-18 yr of age exposed to radiation in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. All of them were operated at the same institution during the period from September 1991 through December 1992. The highest number of patients that subsequently developed thyroid carcinomas was in the group that was less that 1 yr of age at the time of Chernobyl, and this number decreased progressively through age 12 yr. Conversely, none of the patients with benign lesions only was less than 2 yr old at the time of the accident, and an exposure age of 5-6 yr was a threshold separating significant prevalence of malignant tumors in younger children from the more frequently benign lesions in older patients (P ? 0.001). Fifty-two percent of the children with carcinomas and only 24% with benign lesions (P ? 0.005) were residents of the Gomel region, which is the most contaminated in Belarus. The morphology of thyroid tissue adjacent to carcinomas showed a high prevalence of multinodular and diffuse changes, but not of adenomas or solitary adenomatoid nodules. There was a high prevalence of focal micropapillary hyperplasia with graded degrees of severity, which we hypothesize may correspond to precursors for papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl radiation-associated tumors. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Clinical evaluation of diffuse hyperperfusion in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate radionuclide angiography of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with bilateral diffuse hyperperfusion (BDH) on sup(99m) Tc-pertechnetate (sup(99m) TcO4-) radionuclide angiography of the thyroid gland were compared with other clinical informations (i.e. type of goiter, thyroid function, static image findings and final diagnosis) and evaluated its clinical significance. Out of 143 patients studied with radionuclide angiography of the thyroid gland, 1 patient showed marked and inhomogenous BDH. Former had multinodular goiter which showed multiple cold nodules on static image, and was euthyroid adenomatous goiter. Among the 42 patients with homogenous BDH, no correlation was found between the grade of BDH and type of goiter (p > 0.05) or thyroid function (p > 0.01). Homogenous BDH was found among patients with chronic thyroiditis, adenoma, differentiated adenocarcinoma, thyroid surgery, Graves' disease or normal thyroid. Among the patients with nodular goiter, BDH was noted in the patients with chronic thyroiditis (74%), adenoma (13%), differentiated adenocarcinoma (7%) and thyroid surgery (7%). In the case of nodular goiter with BDH and homogenous radionuclide accumulation on static image, the diagnosis of chronic thyroiditis was most likely, whereas nodular goiter with BDH and cold nodule, the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms was most likely. Although sensitivity and accuracy were low, both hypothyroid state with BDH and marked BDH regardless of thyroid function were specific for chronic thyroiditis (specificity; 100% and 94%, respectively). (author)

  16. Ocular surface and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Pelinsari Lana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Many reports have indicated an association between thyroid dieases and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of the tests used for dry eye diagnosis and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods: Forty-two patients (group 1 with autoimmune thyroid disease and 30 controls (group 2 were selected. Tear film break up time, Schirmer I test, Schirmer II test, ocular staining with 1% rose Bengal and salivary gland cintilography were performed in both groups. Results: Regarding the ocular surface damage observed by Rose Bengal test there was no difference between groups (p=0.77. For tear film break up time the groups did not differ statistically (p=0.46. There was no statistical difference between groups 1 and control in scintigraphy of the salivary gland (p=0.99. A statistical difference between the patients with thyroid disease and the control group was seem only in the Schirmer II test (p=0.0009. Conclusions: No patients fulfilled all criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. It is possible that it could be underestimated.

  17. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  18. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  19. Automated segmentation of thyroid gland on CT images with multi-atlas label fusion and random classification forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Chang, Kevin; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    The thyroid gland plays an important role in clinical practice, especially for radiation therapy treatment planning. For patients with head and neck cancer, radiation therapy requires a precise delineation of the thyroid gland to be spared on the pre-treatment planning CT images to avoid thyroid dysfunction. In the current clinical workflow, the thyroid gland is normally manually delineated by radiologists or radiation oncologists, which is time consuming and error prone. Therefore, a system for automated segmentation of the thyroid is desirable. However, automated segmentation of the thyroid is challenging because the thyroid is inhomogeneous and surrounded by structures that have similar intensities. In this work, the thyroid gland segmentation is initially estimated by multi-atlas label fusion algorithm. The segmentation is refined by supervised statistical learning based voxel labeling with a random forest algorithm. Multiatlas label fusion (MALF) transfers expert-labeled thyroids from atlases to a target image using deformable registration. Errors produced by label transfer are reduced by label fusion that combines the results produced by all atlases into a consensus solution. Then, random forest (RF) employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled thyroids to recognize features. The trained forest classifier is then applied to the thyroid estimated from the MALF by voxel scanning to assign the class-conditional probability. Voxels from the expert-labeled thyroids in CT volumes are treated as positive classes; background non-thyroid voxels as negatives. We applied this automated thyroid segmentation system to CT scans of 20 patients. The results showed that the MALF achieved an overall 0.75 Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the RF classification further improved the DSC to 0.81.

  20. Use of 131-I metaiodinebenzylgunidine (131-I MIBG) in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most common problems of modern oncology practice and nuclear medicine is the treatment of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), which is considered to be the tumor of the APUD system. The neoplasm originates from C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland. The tumor is hormone-active and can produce calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland constitutes 3-13% of all malignant thyroid tumors. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes, mediastinum, lungs, liver, bones are frequent. The purpose of our work was to review the efficacy of MCT treatment done in our centre. Since 1999 131I-MIBG (Amersham-Nycomed) has been used in the treatment of MCT at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology. During 1999-2002, 131I-MIBG was administered in various doses (100 to 300 mCi) to 12 patients with different stages of MCT. Four non-radically operated patients with local dissemination of the tumor were cured following 131I-MIBG therapy (total activity 200-300 mCi, follow up period - 2 years). In four patients reduction in the tumor volume and/or disappearance of metastases in the cervical nodes (follow-up period 1.5 years, total activity of 131I-MIBG 100 - 200 mCi) was noticed. Three patients are still on follow up since 1.5 years (total activity of 131I-MIBG 100-200 mCi). One patient died due to the progression of disease. Myelosuppression was not observed in any of the treated patients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promising radiopharmaceutical for treatment medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  1. Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

  2. Impact of TNM classification categories on thyroid gland carcinoma.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, P.; Vl?ek, P.; Jirsa, Ladislav; Personová, K.

    Glasgow : BioScientifica, 2006. s. 938-938. ISSN 1470-3947. [European Congress of Endocrinology incorporating the British Endocrine Societies /8./. 01.04.2006-05.04.2006, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100750404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : TNM * thyroid carcinoma * tumor size * misclassification Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  3. Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

  4. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7-week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3–72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids. (author)

  5. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  6. Effect of bone-marrow protection on the development of radiation reaction in the thyroid gland in chronic X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexually mature mice were irradiated every day totally (whole body) or partially (subtotally) /with lead shielding of the lower extremities/ with a dose of 100 rad. Histological preparations of the thyroid gland were prepared on the first day after achievement of different total doses from 800 to 3200 rad. The morphological and functional state of the gland was evaluated by the height of the epithelian cells, the percentage of the gland components: epithelia, colloids and connective tissue and the percentage of follicules with colloid resorption zones. Once a total dose of 800 rad has been achieved in totally and subtotally exposed mice, a heterogeneous morphological pattern was observed - a manifestation of transition in the functional state of the gland from excitation to total inhibition. Identical morphological inhibition pattern was observed in totally and subtotally irradiated animals with 1600 rad. After total irradiation with 2400 rad an activation was more pronounced in shielded mice. After irradiation with the maximal total dose of 3200 rad, all totally irradiated animals were killed. In survived animals - subtotally irradiated with the same dose - parallel with areas of severe destructive lesions, areas of strumogenesis were observed as well. Thirty days after irradiation (with a total dose of 1600 rad) the restoration processes in the gland of subtotally irradiated mice were more complete and active. After a functional load - administration of the antithyroid preparation 6-methyl thiouracyl - the changes in the thyroid of totally irradiated animals were more serious than in subtotally irradiated ones. The results of this investigation indicate that bone marrow protection by shielding of sections of the bone marrow exerts beneficial influence on the radiation reaction in the thyroid gland, in the sense of a more rapid and complete course of the restoration processes in it. (A.B.)

  7. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34?E-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34?E-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions

  8. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34?E-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34?E-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  9. Differentiation of thyroid lesion detected by FDG PET/CT using SUV ratio

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    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the usefulness of SUV ratio to discriminate focal thyroid lesion incidentally detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET) in patients with malignant disease. A total of 2167 subjects with malignant tumor underwent PET/CT for staging. Forty-five of 2167 subjects (2.1%) showed hypermetabolic thyroid lesions on FDG PET. Of 45, 21 lesions were confirmed by pathology (n = 16) or follow up exam (n=5). Seventeen patients had focal FDG uptakes, while 4 patients had diffuse thyroid uptakes. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured by drawing region of interest (ROI) on bilateral thyroid lobes and liver. From 21 patients, 12 thyroid lesions were confirmed as malignant lesions and 9 lesions as benign lesions. All of bilateral thyroid FDG uptakes were determined as benign disease such as thyroiditis. From seventeen focal thyroid incidentaloma, FDG PET had 100 % (12/12) of sensitivity and 60 % (3/5) of specificity, retrospectively. Malignant nodules had a significantly higher lesion to liver ratio than those of benign nodules (2.10.9 vs. 1.20.6, p=0.029). With ROC curve, the best cut-off value of lesion to liver was 1.0 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 60 % (area under the curve=0.783). The SUV ratio of lesion to contralateral lobe do not have statistical significance to determine malignancy (3.72.1 vs. 2.61.7, p=0.079). This study showed that focal thyroidal FDG uptake detected by FDG PET could be differentiated with best performance by SUV ratio of lesion to liver.

  10. Differentiation of thyroid lesion detected by FDG PET/CT using SUV ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the usefulness of SUV ratio to discriminate focal thyroid lesion incidentally detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET) in patients with malignant disease. A total of 2167 subjects with malignant tumor underwent PET/CT for staging. Forty-five of 2167 subjects (2.1%) showed hypermetabolic thyroid lesions on FDG PET. Of 45, 21 lesions were confirmed by pathology (n = 16) or follow up exam (n=5). Seventeen patients had focal FDG uptakes, while 4 patients had diffuse thyroid uptakes. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured by drawing region of interest (ROI) on bilateral thyroid lobes and liver. From 21 patients, 12 thyroid lesions were confirmed as malignant lesions and 9 lesions as benign lesions. All of bilateral thyroid FDG uptakes were determined as benign disease such as thyroiditis. From seventeen focal thyroid incidentaloma, FDG PET had 100 % (12/12) of sensitivity and 60 % (3/5) of specificity, retrospectively. Malignant nodules had a significantly higher lesion to liver ratio than those of benign nodules (2.10.9 vs. 1.20.6, p=0.029). With ROC curve, the best cut-off value of lesion to liver was 1.0 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 60 % (area under the curve=0.783). The SUV ratio of lesion to contralateral lobe do not have statistical significance to determine malignancy (3.72.1 vs. 2.61.7, p=0.079). This study showed that focal thyroidal FDG uptake detected by FDG PET could be differentiated with best performance by SUV ratio of lesion to liver

  11. Follicular lesion of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walts, Ann E; Mirocha, James; Bose, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the validity of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), an indeterminate diagnostic category of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). According to BSRTC, FLUS carries a 5-15% risk of cancer. This study was designed to determine if cytomorphology could stratify FLUS into subgroups with different risks of malignancy. Reports of 127 consecutive FNAs reported as FLUS with subsequent tissue diagnoses were evaluated for the presence of various cytologic features and the results were correlated with histological diagnoses. FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia (nuclear overlap/crowding, nuclear grooves/membrane irregularities, nuclear enlargement, and/or nuclear pseudoinclusions) were more frequently malignant on excision whereas those with architectural atypia (microfollicles) were more often benign on excision (P architectural atypia were adenomas or hyperplastic nodules on histological evaluation. BSRTC recommends that thyroid aspirates containing follicular cell nuclear and/or architectural atypia insufficient for a diagnosis of suspicious for follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy or malignant be classified as FLUS. Our findings indicate that FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia carry a risk for malignancy that is substantially higher than that assigned to FLUS and are best classified as suspicious. FLUS cases lacking these atypical nuclear features have a risk for malignancy that approximates the risk BSRTC has assigned to FLUS. PMID:23894017

  12. The effect of MR contrast medium dose on pituitary gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and pituitary gland-to-lesion contrast conspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in gland enhancement, microlesion enhancement and gland-lesion contrast ratio in patient groups in which half-dose (HD), standard-dose (SD) and double-dose (DD) contrast medium was used in pituitary MR imaging. Pituitary gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement were measured and gland-lesion contrast ratios were calculated in 18 patients receiving HD (0.05 mmol/kg), 9 receiving SD (0.1 mmol/kg) and 13 receiving DD (0.2 mmol/kg) contrast medium. Gland enhancement and microlesion enhancement over baseline were determined employing DICOM region of interest measurements and compared after normalization to temporal lobe white matter. Contrast ratios and differences were also calculated and compared. Gland enhancement and lesion enhancement were greater with larger contrast medium doses (gland: HD 50%, SD 99%, DD 132%; microlesion: HD 19%, SD 54%, DD 86%). The gland-lesion contrast ratios were similar with the three doses (25.6%), reflecting expected similar fractional contrast medium distributions in spite of different doses. The signal difference between gland and microlesion, therefore, was a fixed percentage of gland enhancement (?S approximately 26%) with greater signal differences with larger contrast medium doses. Greater gland-to-lesion signal differences with larger contrast medium doses would likely improve pituitary microlesion visualization and margin characterization aiding in microlesion detection as well as preoperative planning. (orig.)

  13. Morbidity of the thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area after the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of accident on the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPP all the territory of Bryansk area underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. The density of losses has made from 1-5 up to 30 and more Ci/km2 on different areas. Besides in the territory of Bryansk area the deficiency of iodine is registered from easy weight up to an average degree. Among the problems of modern thyroidology the thyroid gland cancer takes a special place in connection with progressing increase of its frequency in zones of ecological trouble and iodic deficiency. The purpose of the given work consisted in estimation of dynamics of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area before and after accident on the Chernobyl NPP. For the period from 1975 to 1985 on the territory of Bryansk area 308 cases of thyroid gland cancer, including 2 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children (in 1975 and 1984) have been revealed. These years morbidity in Bryansk area has changed from 0,78 on 100000 population in 1975 up to 2,6 in 1981-1982. Since 1986 up to 2004 on territory of Bryansk area 2638 cases of thyroid gland cancer have been revealed. Morbidity of the given pathology has increased from 3,3 on 100 thousand population in 1986 up to 23,6 on 100 thousand in 2004. The highest all-Russian parameter of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer was in 2003 - 5,4. Thus, morbidity of thyroid gland cancer in our area since 1989 up to 1999 was on the average 2 times more, than across the Russian Federation, and in 1999-2004 - more than 3 times. Thus rates of the increase of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer at inhabitants of southwest territories (density of radioactive pollution of Cs 137 over 5 Ci/km2, more than at inhabitants of Bryansk area. The highest parameter on these territories is noted in 2004 (27,3), more than in 5 times more, than in the Russian Federation. The parity of men and women among inhabitants of Bryansk area, who fell ill with thyroid gland cancer before accident on the Chernobyl NPP changed from 1:4 up to 1:8. Laws of the parity of quantity of thyroid gland cancers revealed at men and women before accident in comparison with data after accident are not noted. For the after accident period (1986-2004) 57 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children of Bryansk area have been revealed, among them 49 underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. Since 1986 for 1990 it is the 5-4 years period after accident on the Chernobyl NPP, during this period the thyroid gland cancer has not been revealed at a single child. The basic peak of morbidity of children of Bryansk area by thyroid gland cancer has fallen to 1992-1999 when parameters of morbidity were at 10-20 time more, than across the Russian Federation. Thus parameters of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer among children of southwest territories exceeded the data on Bryansk area in several times. Possibly, growth of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer, both at children, and at adult inhabitants of Bryansk area is possible to consider as the phenomenon of oncoepidemiological character, connected with influence of radiation factors after the Chernobyl NPP accident

  14. Assessment of the role of cone beam computed sialography in diagnosing salivary gland lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess cone-beam computed (CBCT) sialography imaging in the detection of different changes associated with lesions of salivary glands. This study consisted of 8 cases with signs and symptoms from salivary gland lesions. Conventional sialography using digital panoramic and lateral oblique radiographs and CBCT sialography were performed for each subject. The radiographs were evaluated by 3 radiologists independently of each other. The results were compared between conventional sialography and CBCT sialography in the evaluation of various lesions associated with the salivary glands. There was an agreement between the radiologists in interpreting the lesions that affected salivary glands with both techniques. The detection of the presence of stones or filling defects, stenosis, ductal evagination, dilatation, and space occupying lesions was 83% for conventional sialography compared with CBCT sialography. CBCT sialography was superior to conventional sialography in revealing stones, stenosis, and strictures, especially in the second and third order branches. It would be advisable to perform CBCT sialography in cases of obstructive salivary gland diseases for better demonstration of the ductal system of the gland.

  15. Thyroid gland volume estimated by use of ultrasound in addition to scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of estimating the mass of the thyroid gland from the area of the scintigraphic image has been compared with a method combining ultrasonic wtih scintigraphic images. The results for both methods were compared with surgical findings, and the scintiscan method alone was found to produce estimates which were on an average 79.5% of the surgical results. The corresponding estimates for the combined method were, on average, 100.4%. (Auth.)

  16. Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide / Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Augusto T., Bertelli; Luiz Cláudio Bosco, Massarollo; Erivelto Martinho, Volpi; Rubens Yassuzo Ykko, Ueda; Elci, Barreto.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e [...] podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento. Abstract in english Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may [...] be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

  17. [Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and the APUD system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neradilová, M

    1992-08-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma, MTC, accounts for 8-10% of all thyroid malignancies. It occurs in the sporadic form (70-75%) and the familial variant (25-30%). In familial MTC the autosomal dominant type of heredity is involved. This variant is found frequently in association with other endocrine hyperplasias or tumours within the framework of the APUD system and is thus an indispensible condition of the MEN 2 syndrome, either MEN 2A (MTC and pheochromocytoma and/or hyperparathyroidism) or MEN 2B with the frequent concurrent presence of pheochromocytoma and a typical phenotype, in particular multiple neurofibromas on the lips and tongue. The type of MTC determines also to a certain extent the prognosis of the disease. MTC in the framework of MEN 2A are usually most benign, while the prognosis is poorest for MEN 2B. The sporadic variant has a poorer prognosis, as compared with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The only effective and rational treatment of MTC is radical surgery. In all instances where we confirm the diagnosis before surgery we indicate bilateral total thyroidectomy. In the familial variant where the tumour is usually multifocal and in both lobes this indication is absolute, in sporadic forms with possible early intrathyroid dissemination of the primary tumour also to the other side, bilateral surgery is also indicated. Moreover we know that a certain ratio of assumed sporadic forms are genetically conditioned tumours and thus are familial. The histological finding of hyperplasia of the C-cells suggests the familial variant even when tumourous transformation did not occur yet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1356639

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ≤ 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

  19. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  20. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: A puzzling entity on fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nasit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT is a rare unique but controversial thyroid neoplasm, characterized by prominent trabecular growth pattern and stromal hyalinization. Whether HTT is a benign tumor or a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is still unclear. Cytology findings of HTT have been described in few reports. Cytological features of HTT frequently overlap with those of PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma, which can lead to frequent misdiagnosis. In order to avoid overtreatment like total thyroidectomy, pathologist should be aware of cytological features of HTT. We present a case of 35-year-old female with a right-side thyroid swelling for three years. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed. According to The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, cytological diagnosis of benign thyroid neoplasm was made. Histopathology of the right thyroidectomy specimen showed HTT. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of HTT requires a very meticulous and cautious approach in the evaluation of cytological features. Trabecular pattern of cells, vague curved nuclear palisading, radiating arrangement of cells around hyaline material, spindled to elongated cells, filamentous cytoplasmic processes with ill-defined cell border and yellow bodies are important diagnostic features of HTT. Nuclear features alone are insufficient for the diagnosis of HTT. Any suspicious cytology of thyroid lesion should follow hemithyroidectomy and histopathological evaluation.

  1. Action of different doses of 131I on thyroid gland, its tissue distribution and elimination in adult male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult male Wistar rats were administered 4, 37, 74 or 185 MBq/kg 131I i.p. Activities were measured in the thyroid gland or region, blood plasma (total and protein bound), salivary glands, cerebral cortex, skin, liver, spleen, small intestine, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle after 1-30 (36) days. Beginning 8 days after radiothyroidectomy the remaining or possibly regenerated thyroid function was tested with a test dose of 185 kBq/kg i.p. After administration of 4 MBq/kg 131I the thyroid gland showed a regeneration within 30 days, but not after treatment with higher doses. The time course of tissue distribution of activity is dose dependent: after 4 MBq/kg 131I increasing activities after the 3rd-8th day are observed in skin, brain, salivary glands, intestine, spleen, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle. After 37 MBq/kg 131I only in skin, brain, liver and intestine increasing activities between the 8th and 30th day have been observed. After 185 MBq/kg 131I only in skin, spleen and intestine increasing activities after the 15th day were measured. Thyroid gland activity 24 hs after administration of 185 kBq/kg 131I showed during the experimental period of 50 days considerable variation with a factor of 4 for thyroid gland, 8 for protein-bound and about 10 for total plasma 131I activity. (author)

  2. Morphometric characteristic of rats cardiomiocytes with thyroid gland activated by magnetic field in condition of radiation immobilized stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiment with 30 white male rats the morphometric characteristics of cardiomiocytes at combined radiation immobilized stress and their correction by means of activation of thyroid gland by magnetic field were studied. At the stress the average value of mitochondria, crists in one mitochondria, total quantity of crists in one electronogram, area correlation of mitochondria and myofibrils, energetic coefficient of mitochondria were decreased. Previous magnetic activation of thyroid function limited a reduce of parameters caused by combined stress. Magnetic field effect on thyroid gland without the stress increases average value of crists in one mitochondria. These data confirm the protective role of magnetic activation of thyroid gland in condition of combined stress. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Estereología de la Glándula Tiroides Humana Stereology of the Human Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Salgado A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La glándula tiroides es una glándula endocrina voluminosa, impar, mediana y simétrica, que ocupa la parte anterior del cuello, en la unión del tercio inferior con los dos tercios superiores. La unidad funcional y estructural de la glándula tiroides es el folículo tiroideo. Los folículos están separados unos de otros por escaso tejido conectivo interfolicular. Se ha observado en modelos experimentales animales, diversos valores estereológicos de células foliculares, parafoliculares y coloide. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si existe un patrón estereológico en la glándula tiroides humana en un grupo etáreo y sexo definidos. Para ello, se ocupó una muestra de 6 glándulas tiroides humanas extraidas de cadáveres no fijados, de individuos adultos de sexo masculino, sin antecedentes de patología o alteración tiroídea.Se procesaron histológicamente con H-E para su estudio estereológico. Los resultados mostraron valores promedio para la densidad de volumen del tejido glandular (33,8% y del coloide (63,17%, densidad de superficie del folículo tiroídeo (21,09 mm2/mm3, densidad de número de células foliculares (10,81 x 105 células/mm3 y parafoliculares (1,81 x 105 células/mm3. Conocido el volumen promedio de la glándula (21,3 mm3, se determinó el número total de células foliculares (230,22 x 105 y parafoliculares (38,33 x 105. Además, se determinó el número de folículos por mm2 (46,18 folículos/mm2. El conocimiento previo de los valores numéricos y proporciones normales estereólogicos permite establecer parámetros que determinen la alteración hiper o hipotrófica de origen endémico o exógeno que lleven a estratificar ciertas alteraciones, hecho observado en modelos experimentales donde las diferencias son significativas.The thyroid gland is a an extensive, medium and symmetrical endocrine gland situated on the anterior side of the neck at the lower third and the upper third junction. The thyroid follicle is the functional and structural unit of the thyroid gland. Follicles are separated from each other by narrow interfollicular connective tissue. Stereological values of follicular, parafollicular and colloid containing follicles have been observed in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of a stereological pattern in the human thyroid gland defined by age and sex. A sample of six human thyroid glands of adult males with no history of thyroid disease or disorder obtained from non fixed human cadavers; of these cadavers the gland was removed and processed for thyroid follicle density (21.09 mm 2/mm 3, follicular cell number density (10.81 x10 5 cells/mm3 and parafollicular (1.81 x 10 cells/mm 3. With the average gland volume (21.3 mm 3 we determined the total number of follicular cells (230.22 x 10 5 and parafollicular (38.33 x 105. The number of follicles per mm 2 (46.18 follicles/mm2 was also determined. Prior information and knowledge of numerical values and normal stereological proportions provides excellent parameters for determining hyper or hypotrophic endemic or exogenous alterations leading to stratification of certain disorders which was already observed in experimental models where differences amongst models were significant.

  4. Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study, study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants, exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid, language (German and English. The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive, work experience (junior and senior surgeons,distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation, more in-depth studies are required on the variations of radiation dose in orthopaedic staff, at different anatomical locations and situations.

  5. Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

  6. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

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    Georgios Kyriakos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid metastases are rarely seen in clinical practice but should be considered particularly in patients with a history of non-thyroidal malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common tumor to metastasize to the thyroid gland and may present many years after a nephrectomy. Thus, patients require a long-term follow-up and, physicians should have a high index of suspicion particularly in patients with benign disorders of the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and thyroglobulin immunohistochemical staining are considered the most effective methods for diagnosis. Surgical treatment of solitary thyroid metastases is recommended and prolongs survival. Adjuvant medical treatment may also be useful in specific situations. We present the unusual case of a relative young patient with goiter who presented with an intrathyroidal metastasis of RCC. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 58-60

  7. Determination of the iodine concentration of the thyroid gland in an endemic goiter area by computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the CT density of the thyroid gland in 60 patients with normal thyroids and 176 patients with various thyroid disorders. The density was 75±6.2 H.U. in normal thyroids, which was markedly higher than in goiters (66±6.0 H.U.), while there was a considerable further decrease in patients with immunogenic hyperthyrodism, the density being 48.5±7.9 H.U. The thyroids of patients with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism differed from these by virtue of a significantly greater density, 79.8±12.5 H.U. The clinical importance of CT investigation of the thyroid is its ability to distinguish rapidly between immunogenic hyperthyroidism without ocular symptoms and the (mostly iodine induced) nonimmunogenic form. There is a linear correlation between CT density and iodine concentration in the thyroid tissue; this was determined in surgical specimens from 17 patients. Iodine concentration in the thyroid, as well as the iodine content of the whole gland, can thus be calculated from the measured CT density at any time by estimating the volume of the gland with ultrasound and combining this value with the measured iodine concentration. The results correlate well with those found using the X-ray fluorescence method. (orig.)

  8. Experimental investigation with 198Au colloid as to lymph communications between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of a direct connection of lymph drainage between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland was examined using the lymphotropic radioactive tracer 198Au colloid. Twelve rabbits were examined. Six animals were injected with 50 ?Ci198Au colloid into the right thyroid lobe and six animals into the right retrobulbar space. Distribution and total bodyradioactivity was measured in vivo using a scintillation camera with a computer. After 6 hrs tissue specimens of different organs were measured in a well-counter. The discharge of activity from the thyroid after 6hrs was significantly higher than that from the retrobulbar space (63% versus 33.5%). This was probably due to a higher vascularisation and to a higher degree of lymph drainage of the thyroid. The lymph drainage of the thyroid gland as well as of the retrobulbar space occured mainly via the lymphonodi cerv.proff. No significant activity was found in the retrobulbar space after thyroid injection or in the thyroid after retrobulbar injection. It may be concluded from these results that there are not direct lymph connections between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland. However, indirect communications via the deep cervical lymph nodes cannot be excluded in the event of reverse lymph flow. (orig.)

  9. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADRIANA P.S., OTERO; RICARDO V., RODRIGUES; LUÍS A., SAMPAIO; LUIS A., ROMANO; MARCELO B., TESSER.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ontogenia dos folículos da tireóide em Rachycentron canadum. Larvas foram coletadas diariamente (n= 15 – 20) desde a eclosão até 15 dae (dias após eclosão). Posteriormente foram coletadas a cada dois dias até o 28 dae; uma nova amostragem ocorreu aos 53 dae. A [...] s larvas foram desidratadas e emblocadas em Paraplast e secções de 3 µm foram desparafinadas, reidratas e coradas com HE e PAS. Um folículo estava presente ao 1 dae e três foram encontrados aos 8 dae. O número de folículos aumentou até 19 aos 53 dae. O diâmetro dos folículos e a altura das células foliculares foram menores ao 1dae (68,3 ± 1,00 e 4,6 ± 0,01 µm), mas aumentou a partir do 8 dae (24,03 ± 0,46 µm e 6,43 ± 0,46 µm). A partir do 8 dae a presença de vesículas de reabsorção foi observada no colóide e a partir de 19 dae alguns folículos não apresentaram colóide. O surgimento precoce do folículo da tireóide no bijupirá assim como a grande quantidade de folículos sem colóide e/ou com a presença de vesículas mesmo após a metamorfose podem ser a explicação do rápido crescimento da espécie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were d [...] ehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  10. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  11. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohbuchi Toyoaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an extremely rare case of a migratory fish bone penetrating through the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and extending nearly to the anterior cervical skin. A migratory fish bone was suspected, and the foreign body was removed under general anesthetic, combined with a hemithyroidectomy. The injured esophageal mucosa was sutured and closed. Our patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and she was allowed oral food intake seven days after the surgery. No evidence of recurrence was seen over the postoperative follow-up period of 42?weeks. Conclusion We should be aware that fish bone foreign bodies may migrate out of the upper digestive tract and lodge in the thyroid gland.

  13. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinical and pathologic study of twenty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasbach, D A; Mondschein, M S; Harris, N L; Kaufman, D S; Wang, C A

    1985-12-01

    Among 20 patients with malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland, the mean age at diagnosis was 63 years and the male to female ratio was 1:6. All patients had a firm, rapidly enlarging neck mass. In 90% of the patients the mass had been present for less than 1 year; in 40%, for less than 1 month. Approximately half of the patients tested had hypothyroidism; three fourths had elevated antithyroid antibodies. There was one nodular lymphoma. The remaining 17 cases available for review were diffuse. Thyroid lobectomy was performed in seven patients, limited excision in eight, and needle biopsy alone in five. External irradiation was administered in 11 cases (55%). Chemotherapy was used alone in one patient (5%) and in combination with radiotherapy in eight (40%). Six patients (30%) were alive without evidence of recurrent disease at follow-up ranging from 1 to 12 years. Eleven patients had died of lymphoma, all but one dying within 1 year. One patient died of other causes and two were lost to follow-up study. There was no appreciable effect of patient age or sex, lymphoma histology, or extent of surgical resection on survival. Treatment of choice for primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland appears to be external irradiation or chemotherapy, alone or in combination. The role of surgery is limited to making a tissue diagnosis of lymphoma, unless the tumor is completely intrathyroidal. PMID:3906977

  14. Pathologic Significance of a Recurrent Nodular Goiter After the Operations on the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menkov A.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to determine the pathologic significance of a recurrent nodular goiter on the basis of the follow-up results analysis after the operations on the thyroid gland. Materials and Methods. 64 patients (58 females and 6 males aged 32—63 years (46.4±8.3 years with a recurrent nodular goiter after the operations on the thyroid gland have been included into the study. The follow-up period was 5 years. Results. The absolute reoperation indications were revealed only in 9 patients (14.1%. They underwent thyroidectomy. A transitory unilateral laryngoparesis developed in 2 patients in a postoperative period. During the follow-up period euthyroidism persisted in patients with a recurrent nodular goiter required no operative intervention. Only 4 of 13 patients needed to take levothyroxine sodium required a substitution therapy correction. No significant increase of the node size was observed according to the ultrasonoscopy data. The average indicator of life quality corresponded to a good result (10.1±0.4 points. Conclusion. A recurrent nodular goiter after thyroid tissue preserving operations has no clinical manifestations in the majority of patients.

  15. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid nodules are growths of cells in the thyroid gland. These growths can be: Not cancer (benign) or thyroid cancer Fluid-filled (cysts) One nodule or a group of small nodules Producing thyroid hormones (hot) or not ...

  16. Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter. Initial feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine (RI) such as 131I or 124I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with ?-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of 124I. Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) or ?-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies. (author)

  17. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-16

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  18. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  19. Rapid measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland using a portable Ge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid yet accurate measurement of the 131I activity in the thyroid gland as well as in the air, water and vegetation may have an important role in obtaining quantitative information on internal doses for the people living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities shortly after an accidental release of radionuclides. Whole body counting technique is still the standard method for measuring radionuclides in the body while necessity for in situ measurement techniques has considerably increased especially after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. For measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland in emergency situations, NaI (Tl) detectors, as in a scintillation survey meter as in the simplest case, are most often used while measurement of urinary excretions for members of the public may also effective. The scintillation survey meter method, being easily implemented, may not have enough selectivity for radioiodine and even be liable to an elevated background radiation spectrum. This would possibly lead to higher detection limits and lower accuracy. A use of a laboratory Ge (Li) detector system in the thyroidal radioiodine measurement was suggested to overcome the problem. A real measurement with a similar instrument was reported for the residents in U.K. after the Chernobyl accident. A use of a scintillation spectro-survey meter with a NaI (Tl) probe with lead collimation to thyroidal radioiodine measurement was also reported to give satisfactorily accurate evaluation of the thyroidal 131I burden. In this paper, a movable Ge system was developed for the above purpose and preliminarily evaluated particularly for counting efficiency. It is consisted of a portable high-purity Ge detector and a battery-operated MCA. It employs a laboratory made thin Pb shield with a collimation window and an elevator for the detector platform. The elevator was designed to adjust the height of the thyroid radioiodine probe in relation to the height and position of the neck of a subject sitting in a chair. Gamma spectra were analyzed and stored by the portable MCA. The acquired spectral information, sent to a notebook computer on line, was processed for determination of the 131I activity. In the preliminary measurement, the system was checked for its counting efficiency for 131I radioactivity by using neck-thyroid phantoms for the adult and some different ages that were previously prepared. The absolute counting efficiency was observed to be satisfactory, i.e. 0.20 to 0.28%. However, it was suggested that certain modification in the shield part of the probe might improve counting efficiency. (author)

  20. Effects of Menopause and Diabetes on the Rat Thyroid Gland: A Histopathological and Stereological Examining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Yetim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Menopause is described as the arrest of the menstruation cycle and ending of reproductive potential. Diabetes mellitus (DM occurs with Type 1 diabetes that is originated from the absence of insulin and Type 2 diabetes depending on insulin resistance. It is one of the most common endocrine disorders encountered in clinical practice that can cause serious health complications. Therefore, the objective of the present thesis was to investigate the effects of menopause and diabetes upon the thyroid using a rat model. Materials and Methods: 24, 12 weeks old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into; non-diabetic healthy control group (Group I, n = 6, diabetic group (Group II, n = 6, ovariectomy group (Group III, n = 6, and ovariectomy plus diabetic group (Group IV, n = 6, respectively. Results: In histopathological examinations, the thyroid gland of the diabetic group had large follicles with cuboidal or almost squamous epithelial lining surrounding wide lumen. There were areas of disorganized follicles with decreased colloid. In the ovariectomized (OVX rats, there was hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and disorganized follicles with complete obstruction of their lumina. Mitotic cells were available. Some parafollicular cells had lack of cytoplasm. Post ovariectomy diabetes-induced group (Group IV, there were some species between follicles and remarkable reduction of colloid. Hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles, solid cell nests, and mitotic cells were also seen increasingly in this group. Follicular lumen area of ovariectomy group is closer to the control group. The increase of the lumen area in the DM group was the largest, diabetes+ovariectomy group also had an increase in the follicular lumen area. Conclusion: Finally; postmenopausal aging and diabetes in rats, may cause thyroid degeneration. DM and menopause both cause oxidative stress. But their damages on thyroid tissue are different. It means they cause oxidative stress via different ways. DM + OVX group compared to other groups has the greatest damage. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(2.000: 49-53

  1. [Character of the changes in the thyroid gland of animals maintained on a vegetable oil diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, Iu N; Kalinina, N I

    1977-01-01

    The effect produced by different quantities of sunflower seed oil on some iodine metabolic rates was studied in experiments on 44 albino male-rats. Rations containing 27 and 54 per cent (in terms of calorific value) of sunflower seed oil were found to have an adverse effect on the condition of the thyroid gland. Rations with the said quantities of vegetable oil inhibit the mechanisms governing the transformation of inorganic and hormonally inactive organic compounds of iodine in its hormonally active forms. With the iodine content in the diet in an amount of 40-80 microgram this circumstance, however, does not have any essential effect on the level of the iodine binding by the thyroid tissue proteins and blood serum. PMID:602104

  2. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Kwon, Kye Won; Kim, Sang Wook [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Youn, In Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT) is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

  3. Effects of Imbalance in Trace Element on Thyroid Gland from Moroccan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadeli, Sana; Bouhouch, Sabir; Skalny, Anatoly V; Barkouch, Yassir; Pineau, Alain; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Sedki, Azeddine

    2016-04-01

    The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status. However, other trace elements like selenium and zinc can influence the thyroid function. Hair samples (n = 68) were collected from goitrous and non-goitrous children aged 8-12 years living in the area of Al Haouz Marrakech-(Morocco). Trace element concentrations (Cr, Fe, Mg, Zn, Se, I) in hair were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Difference in the mean concentration of each trace element between groups was determined by ANOVA test. The mean concentration levels of I, Se, and Zn for goitrous children were lower and were similar to the mean concentrations reported in the literature for subjects with goiter. The regression results gave us a better model that revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Zn contents and significant negative relation with I and Se. The overall findings of the present study revealed that the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increase are I and Se deficiency. This work could shed some light on the effects of trace elements-other than iodine-on the thyroid disorders. PMID:26315305

  4. The contribution of different ways of an iodine-131 intake to a general radiation dose of a thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident on the Chernobyl NPP an iodine-131 intake in a thyroid gland, caused by an inhalation and a peroral intake with a foods, was the main source of a formation of a thyroid dose. On the basis of an estimation of the thyroid doses of the cohort subjects of the Belarus-US scientific project aimed to study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in Belarus following the Chernobyl accident (1997 - 2002) a study of a relative contribution of the iodine-131 intake with inhalation and the iodine-131 peroral intake with a milk, a green leaf vegetables and a milk products was conducted. The research has shown, that, on the average, the iodine-131 intake with inhalation contributes 5 % to a general thyroid dose, the iodine-131 peroral intake: (1) with milk - 62 %; (2) with green leaf vegetables - 20 %; (3) with milk products - 13 %. (Authors)

  5. Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of radiation dose to the radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues - ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands - during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty (DCP). Method: Radiation dose was determined in an Alderson Rando phantom and in 13 patients. Radiation dose was measured directly using Ca-F2-thermoluminescent dosimetry crystals (TLD) which were placed on each eyelid, parotid gland and thyroid gland. Results: The mean radiation dose to the lens placed next to the path of radiation was 6.58 mGy in the Alderson-Rando phantom and 5.43 mGy in patients during DCP. The mean radiation dose to the contralateral lens was 1.37 mGy and 1.7 mGy to the parotid gland placed next to the X-ray tube. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland was max. 0.4 mGy during DCP. Conclusion: Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid gland and throid gland during fluoroscopy-guided DCP was 25 times higher than during diagnostic dacryocystography. The radiation dose to radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues during fluoroscopy-guided DCP is much below the threshold dose for ocular lens cataract. (orig.)

  6. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in AIDS patients: CT characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast agent-enhanced CT scans in nine male patients with histologically proved benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the perotid gland were reviewed. All scans showed cystic-appearing masses with peripheral rim enhancement corresponding to the macroscopic appearance of the lesion. Five patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or had infections seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Three patients were members of high-risk groups. Only one patient had symptoms of the SICCA syndrome. Once a rare cause of parotid gland enlargement, benign lymphoepithelial lesions have recently been seen with increasing frequency in patients with HIV infection. Although the CT appearance is not pathognomic, correlation results of aspiration cytology and with clinical history can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion

  7. Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

  8. [Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, less common disorder of the thyroid gland complicating the pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajka, L; Binder, T

    2016-12-01

    The case report focuses on the case of heavy Graves - Basedow thyreotoxicosis in 33 years old secundipara who was transferred to our departement from regional hospital for decompensation of gestational hypertension, oligohydramnios and the suspition on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In our clinical praxis the problems of thyroid gland in terms of its reduced function in pregnant women are getting more frequent. The goal of this article is to describe the less often situation, the hyperthyroidism in the third trimestr of the pregnancy. Thyretoxicosis in pregnancy is associated with higher risk of preterm labour, preeclampsia, IUGR, heart failure and stillbirth. Some of these complications confirmes our case report. PMID:26741159

  9. Incidence of malignant neoplasm in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligerman, J.; Braz, J.M.; Cabas Neto, J. (Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1982-12-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultrasound results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients.

  10. Distribution and binding of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic studies on the distribution and binding of 131I in the thyroid gland of the buffalo were undertaken after 12 and 48 hours of uptake. The majority of the follicles showed localization of radioiodine in the colloid which appeared as rings at the colloidcell junction, with about 30% of all follicles showing complete blackening of the lumen with an increase in uptake period upto 48 hours. The activity was consistently higher in the follicular epithelial cells than in the connective tissue between the follicles. Smaller follicles had a greater accumulation of the isotope than the larger follicles. (author)

  11. Carboxylic ester hydrolases in the thyroid gland of the guinea-pig. A light microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S

    1976-01-01

    The location of cholinesterase and non-specific esterase in the thyroid gland of the guniea-pig was studied with the light microscope. It was found that the idoxyl method for non-specific esterase activity under special conditions is superior to the cholinesterase method in a number of respects for the demonstration of the intra-, inter- and parafollicular cells. When using the indoxyl method the incubation period can be reduced from 2.5-3 hr to 40-50 min. Further, the reaction can be followed d...

  12. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  13. Radio-in-vitro investigation of the thyroid gland situation of fullterm newborn babies immediately post partum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    145 cord sera from fullterm, vital eutrophic newborn babies of uncomplicated pregnancies have been tested for the thyroid gland parameters RT3-U, ST3-U, T4, T3, T4/T3-ratio, total balance of free iodine-hormone indices and TSH to answer the questions of the thyroid gland situation. In the fullterm newborn baby an euthyroid metabolic balance was found on comparison with the simultaneously determined thyroid specific situation of the adult. The T3-situation is identical with that of the euthyroid adult. Thyroid levels, the conversion of T4 to T3 as well as the values of the total balance are slightly elevated, like in women under contraceptive hormone therapy. The basal TSH secretion immediately post partum is similar to the one on day 5 post partum. (orig.)

  14. HIGH RESOLUTION SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF PALPABLE THYROID LESIONS WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION- A PROSP ECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Thyroid lesions are found in 3-7% of population wor ldwide. The overwhelming majority of thyroid nodules are benign in nature. Thyroid ca ncers are rare; however thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy involving the endocrine glan ds and is responsible for approximately 1.5% of new cancer cases annually. The clinical challeng e is to distinguish the few clinically significant malignant nodules from the many benign nodules beca use malignant thyroid lesions shows good long term prognosis after surgical excision. Aims : To Assess the sensitivity and specificity of sonographic findings in differentiation of benign a nd malignant thyroid lesion. Method: A hospital based prospective study was done on 100 patients wi th palpable thyroid nodules using high resolution ultrasonography and findings correlated with fine needle aspiration cytology. Result: Sensitivity and Specificity of sonography to differ entiate benign and malignant thyroid lesions (FNAC correlation was 70.59 % & 96.39 % respectively. Pr esence of non shadowing echogenic cholesterol crystals showed high sensitivity of 58.70 % and spe cificity of 83.33 % for benign thyroid nodules. Sensitivity and Specificity of absence of thin peri pheral halo around malignant lesions were 70.4 % & 65.8% respectively. Sensitivity and Specificity of hypoechogenicity for malignant lesions were 64.71 % and 98.80 %.Presence of fine calcification was sh owing high Sensitivity & Specificity of 64.71 % and 93.98 % respectively in malignant lesions. Pred ominant intra-nodular colour flow pattern in solid nodules was predictive of malignancy with Sensitivi ty 82.35 and Specificity 84.34 %. Higher RI value (greater than 0.77 were significantly found in mal ignant lesions with sensitivity of 78.57 % and specificity of 92.31%. Solid and predominantly soli d lesions show high Sensitivity, Specificity for being a malignant lesion 70.59 % & 55.42 respective ly but less Positive Predictive Value of24.49 %. Conclusion: Sonographic characteristics of marked hypoechoic ec hotexture, solid and predominantly solid nature, absence of peripheral halo, presence of cholesterol crystals, fine calcification, and internal vascularity with high resistive index show high diagnostic accuracy to differentiate benign and malignant lesions.

  15. Ionizing radiation effects on thyroid gland state and peroxidation of lipids in adult and old rats with a hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the results of studies of peculiarities of thyroid gland (TG) state and antioxidant/prooxidant balance in the organism of adult and old (4 and 22 months) rats with hyperthyroidism after a single X-ray irradiating at the dose of 4.3 Gy. On the data on the levels of thyroid hormones in blood, body and TG mass, the indices of specific secretion of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were calculated

  16. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY IS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN THE THYROID LESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules the main indication for FNAC, and the goal of this diagnostic procedure is to detect thyroid neoplasm for surgical resection and to identify non-neoplastic lesions that may be managed conservatively. MATERIAL AND METHOD Three hundred and fourteen patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed on physical examination underwent fine-needle aspiration with 23-gauge needle and 10ml syringe. FNAC results were classified into non-neoplastic lesion and neoplastic lesion for diagnosis. RESULT AND ANALYSIS We included 314 cases; 37 were male and 277 were female with female-to-male ratio of 7.48:1. The age ranged from 8 to 87 years with a median age of 47.5 years. Maximum number of patients were found in age group of 41-50 years. In the present study we found 285(90.76% non-neoplastic lesion and 29(9.23% neoplastic lesions. Out of 285 non-neoplastic lesion, most commonly encountered were colloid goiter 178(56.68% and second most common thyroiditis 100(31.84%. Out of 314,29(9.23% neoplastic lesions, most commonly encountered neoplasm were papillary carcinoma 14(4.45% followed by 9(2.86% follicular neoplasm, Hurthle cell neoplasm 2(0.63%, medullary carcinoma 4(1.27%. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ? To study the distribution of various thyroid lesions among the age and sex groups. ? To study the cytomorphological, clinical and biochemical correlation. CONCLUSION Clinical features and serum findings when used alone to diagnose thyroid lesion, diagnosis will be missed in many cases.

  17. Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are abundant experimental and clinical data to associate radiation exposure and thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer increases with increasing doses of thyroidal radiation from 6.5 rads to 1,500 rads, but higher doses tend to destroy the gland and are associated with hypothyroidism rather than cancer. The peak occurrence of thyroid tumors is between five and 30 years after exposure, but a person may develop thyroid tumors as long as 50 years after irradiation. Multiple thyroidal lesions or disorders, including adenomas, thyroiditis, and hypothyroidism as well as malignant neoplasms, can occur after radiation exposure. It is imperative, therefore, to study carefully all patients with a history of radiation exposure to the gland and to observe them carefully for life. Suggestions are made for the management of thyroid disease in these patients

  18. The effect of HeNe laser radiation on the thyroid gland of the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Lerma, E.; Hevia, A.; Rodrigo, P.; Gonzalez-Campora, R.; Armas, J. R.; Galera, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although laser irradiation is becoming common practice in medicine, there is not always a clear understanding of the possible side-effects. The present report is a light and electron microscopic study of the effects of fixed low intensity doses of soft HeNe laser on the thyroid of Wistar rats. The immediate effects are mild multifocal degenerative changes; these lesions recover in less than 3 months. Long-term lesions are identified only by electron microscopy; they consist of an increased nu...

  19. Comparison of skin absorbed radiation dose in thyroid gland area during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Akhlaghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid gland is one of the critical organs during radiation in the head and neck region. The aim of this study was to compare absorbed radiation dose by skin in the thyroid area during spiral tomography and panoramic radiography by means of thermoluminance dosimetry (TLD.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six LiF (TLD-100 thermoluminescence dosimetry chips were utilized in this experimental in vitro study. One TLD chip was placed on the tube side and another was placed on the opposite side of the thyroid gland of a sliced anatomic Alderson head and neck phantom during panoramic radiography and spiral tomography. The dosimeters were read by a SOLARO 2A TLD reader twice followed by calculation of the absorbed dose. The results were analyzed by Wilcoxon’s test at a confidence interval of 95%.Results: The mean dose for screen-film panoramic radiographs was 34 µGy in the left thyroid and 39 on the right side. With spiral tomography the thyroid gland received a mean dose of 30?71 µGy. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean thyroid doses between anterior and posterior spiral tomography and panoramic examination (p value > 0.05.Conclusion: Skin absorbed radiation dose of a tomographic examination, which includes four sections with a specific thickness, are almost comparable to that with a panoramic radiographic technique. Key words: Absorbed dose, Spiral tomography, Panoramic radiography.

  20. The usefulness of Al face block fabrication for reducing exposure dose of thyroid glands in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there are many studies being conducted around the world to reduce exposure dose to radiation for patients to receive medical treatments in a safe environment. We developed and fabricated of this shield that the patients are protected from the radiation and are need of safety control during breast imaging. In this study, for breast imaging, GE Senography 2000D were used and set at SID 65 cm, 28 kVp, and 63 mAs. The measuring instrument was Flukes Victoreen 6000-529. And we performed Face Block on with 30 patients. The chamber on the actual thyroid glands to take CC and MLO and measure the dosage before and after wearing the Face Block. For the results, after wearing the Face Block, exposure was decreased by 53.8%-100% and 65.8% in average in CC View and by 50%-100% and 60.7% in average in MLO View. The development of the Face Block that practically decreased the exposure dose of thyroid glands, crystalline eyes during breast imaging and reduced the patients anxiety during breast imaging. The Face Block is expected to improve patients satisfaction and contribute to reducing patients exposure dose, but more efforts should be made to reduce exposure dose to medical radiation

  1. The usefulness of Al face block fabrication for reducing exposure dose of thyroid glands in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Eun Ae [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Currently, there are many studies being conducted around the world to reduce exposure dose to radiation for patients to receive medical treatments in a safe environment. We developed and fabricated of this shield that the patients are protected from the radiation and are need of safety control during breast imaging. In this study, for breast imaging, GE Senography 2000D were used and set at SID 65 cm, 28 kVp, and 63 mAs. The measuring instrument was Flukes Victoreen 6000-529. And we performed Face Block on with 30 patients. The chamber on the actual thyroid glands to take CC and MLO and measure the dosage before and after wearing the Face Block. For the results, after wearing the Face Block, exposure was decreased by 53.8%-100% and 65.8% in average in CC View and by 50%-100% and 60.7% in average in MLO View. The development of the Face Block that practically decreased the exposure dose of thyroid glands, crystalline eyes during breast imaging and reduced the patients anxiety during breast imaging. The Face Block is expected to improve patients satisfaction and contribute to reducing patients exposure dose, but more efforts should be made to reduce exposure dose to medical radiation.

  2. Thyroid system morphofunctional state in children from Chernigiv Region after thyroid gland irradiation after the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    510 children from Chernigiv Region aged 6 - 14 were examined. The program of the examination included investigation of the thyroid system morphofunctional state when compared with the doses of thyroid gland irradiation with iodine-131 during the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station (CAPS). Relative hyperthyroxinemia and hyperthyroglobulinemia which did not depend on the dose have been revealed. The results of the investigation showed that 5 - 6 years after the accident at CAPS, deviations from the norm in the hormones level without marked clinical features of the disease were observed in the majority of cases. Due to this fact the children living in the contaminated with radionuclides areas should be included to the risk-group of appearance of radiation induced morphological and functional changes of the thyroid gland

  3. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

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    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  4. SALIVARY GLAND LESIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 100 CASES OF SALIVARY SWELLING PRESENTING FOR FNAC AT CYTOPATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT, CIMS, BILASPUR

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    Ganguly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine - needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the salivary gland is a time tested, cost effective, reliable and safe technique in the diagnosis of both neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions of the salivary gland. It also helps to eliminate confusion with lymphadenopathies as there is a lot of overlap in the clinical presentation of both saliv ary gland and lymph node swellings. Here we aim to study the incidence of common salivary gland pathologies in our set up and also attempt to analyze the role of FNAC in differentiating between sialadenopathies and lymphadenopathies. METHODS: A retrospecti ve study of 100 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with salivary gland pathologies and referred to Cytopathology Section, Department of Pathology, CIMS, Bilaspur for FNAC was conducted from 01.04.2004 to 07.05.2010. Clinically diagnosed lymph node s wellings which subsequently evinced salivary gland cytopathology were also included in this study. The lesions were classified based on cytomorphological diagnostic criteria and different incidental parameters like age, sex, location, presenting symptoms, duration of complaints etc were calculated. RESULTS: The lesions were broadly categorized cytomorphologically into non - neoplastic salivary gland lesions (42.5%, benign neoplastic salivary gland lesions (46.25% and malignant salivary gland lesions (11.25 % after excluding the negative results (aspiration failure, inadequate material, non salivary cytopathology. M : F Ratio was 1.56:1 (61:39. Parotid was the most common salivary gland involved (47.5%. The most common benign salivary neoplasm was pleomorph ic adenoma (38.75% and the most common malignant neoplasm was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (7.5% . CONCLUSION: FNAC is a reliable, safe and simple outpatient procedure in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, and is also of some value in distinguishing sal ivary lesions from clinically indistinguishable non salivary swellings occurring in the same locations

  5. The uptake of 125I by the thyroid gland and its morphological maturity in newly hatched duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histological observations revealed that in two-day-old ducklings the thyroids were very differentiated. In some birds they were very poorly developed, i.e. the tissue was not organized into follicles, whereas in others there was a structure almost typical of this gland. The thyroids of ducklings nine days old presented an almost normal histological picture and only small islands of the tissue not organized into follicles were visible. The less developed were the thyroids the higher was their 125I uptake. (author)

  6. A THYROID GLAND SHOWING PYRAMIDAL LOBE WITH LEVATO R GLANDULAE THYROIDEA .

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    Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Literature is replete with wide range of common and rare variations of thyroid gland. The presence of pyramidal lobe (accessory lo be – a rostral directed stalk that results from the retention and growth of the caudal end of thyroglossal duct and fibrous or fibromuscular levator glandulae thyroidea (LGT ari sing from its apex are commonly occurring variations . A 50 yrs Old Male Cadaver showed leva tor glandulae thyroidea with cranio caudal extension from the body of the hyoid bone to the ap ex of pyramidal lobe which was projecting upwards from the left ¾ th of isthmus without any encroachment on the left lo be of the thyroid gland. In the groove clearly demarcating pyramidal lobe from the left lobe, a glandular branch of anterior branch of left superior thyroid artery w as seen. It entered the pyramidal lobe inferiorly, just above the lower border of the isth mus. Just adjacent to the right lobe a small portion of isthmus with prominent and free upper border and lower border is seen. Due its frequent presence it may not be fascinating to the Anatomists but can definitely challenge the skill o f operating neck surgeons performing thyroidectomies, lobectomies and isthmusectomies an d Otolaryngologists performing tracheostomies ,tracheotomies and laryngotomies. T he wide range of variations in the number, size, extent and consistency of the levator glandul ae thyroidea (LGT and pyramidal lobe necessitate the pre operative ultrasonographic examina tion or scintigraphical images or intense contrast enhancement on CT/MRI scan for total anato mical details enabling relatively a safer surgery.

  7. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland evaluations in patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic examinations during tuberculosis therapy: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary abnormalities was determined in 91 women who received an average of 112 fluoroscopic chest examinations during pneumothorax treatment for tuberculosis more than 40 yr previously and in 72 women treated for tuberculosis by other modalities. Thyroid abnormalities were determined by physical examination, scintiscans, and measurements of serum free T4 index, TSH, and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Thyroid nodules were diagnosed in 7.7% of the exposed and 4.2% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 1.8; 90% confidence interval 0.6-5.7). Autoimmune thyroid disease was diagnosed in 15.2% of the exposed and 6.9% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-6.2). No salivary tumors were detected. Two exposed women and 1 comparison woman had primary hyperparathyroidism. Although absorbed dose to the thyroid could not be precisely determined, approximately 60 rads would be expected to yield the observed excess of thyroid nodules. While the prevalence ratios were not significantly increased in the exposed group, the results suggest that susceptibility of the thyroid to nodules from cumulative radiation doses of this magnitude could be increased even when the doses are accumulated over years and that such x-ray exposure of the thyroid gland may predispose the patient to the development of autoimmune disease

  8. Investigations of the 131-iodine accumulation in the white male rats thyroid gland during chronic parathion intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 131-iodine accumulating ability of the white male rats thyroid gland during chronic parathion intoxication was investigated. The investigation was carred out through dermal application scheduled as follows: a first series of laboratory animals treated twice a week with 1 or 2 mg/kg water solution of parathion for 45 days and a second series of laboratory animals treated thrice a week with 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg for 150 days. Investigation of the 131-iodine accumulating capacity of the thyroid gland after intraperitoneal application of 1 or 2 μCi was carried out at the 30th, the 45th, the 90th and the 150th day. The thyroid gland weight and the protein-binding 131-iodine in the plasma was checked. The results show that the 131-iodine accumulation during prolonged parathion application undergoes phase-changes: at the beginning increased 131-iodine accumulation existed (after the first month), later a tendency toward decreasing in the iodine accumulating capacity of the thyroid gland was established. Only dosage of 1 mg/kg provoke an enhancement of the 131-iodine accumulation after the first as well after the fifth month of the course of parathion treatment. (author)

  9. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens

  10. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens.

  11. The value of calcification in CT differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the diagnostic value of calcification in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: CT images of 318 consecutive patients with pathologically proven thyroid lesions were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The following characteristics of calcification on CT images were evaluated: (1) size (? 2 mm indicating microcalcification and >2 mm or shelly and irregular shape indicating macrocalcification, and both features indicating mixed calcification), (2) number (single or multiple) and (3) location (internal or edge). X2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results Of the 318 cases, 48 were diagnosed as malignant (papillary carcinoma 26, follicular carcinoma 7, medullary carcinoma 3 and microcarcinoma 12) and 270 were benign (nodular goiter 36, adenoma 170, nodular goiter with adenoma 38 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 26). Calcification was found in 60 cases (18.9%). Among them 21 (papillary carcinoma 12, microcarcinoma 6, follicular carcinoma 2 and medullary carcinoma 1) were malignant (43.8%) and 39 (nodular goiter 6, adenoma 13, nodular goiter with adenoma 19 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1) were benign (14.4%) (P0.05). Internal calcification was found in 15 cases of malignant lesions (71.4%) and 12 of benign lesions (30.8%); Edge calcification was found in 6 cases of malignant and 27 of benign, (P<0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of internal calcification for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma were 71.4% (15/21) and 69.2% (27/39), respectively. Conclusion: Internal calcification or (and) macrocalcification of t he thyroid lesions may strongly suspect thyroid carcinoma and fine-needle aspiration or surgery should be further performed. (authors)

  12. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

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    Gustavo Soares Corrêa Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial.Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its clinical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

  13. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  14. Patterns of Benign and Malignant Lesions of the Thyroid in Two Wilayahs of Northeastern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoum, Mona; Kherfi-Kadi, Hind; Benharkat-Boughaba, Ouahiba; Djemaa-Bendjazia, Aicha; Keghouche, Sihem; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Azzouz, Amina; Kadi, Yacine; Hainaut, Pierre; Bouslama, Zihad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare histological patterns and to estimate the burden of thyroid cancers in the two Wilayahs (departments) of El-Taref and Guelma in northeast of Algeria (total population 0.9 million), locally reputed as having different rates of endemic thyroid diseases and cancer. A retrospective analysis of central pathology registers and clinical records of patients with thyroid diseases, covering the period 2008–2012, was conducted. A total of 145 cases of thyroid cancers with histological confirmation were registered in the two Wilayahs during the period, with a female to male ratio of 5.9?:?1. Estimates of crude incidence rates suggested that thyroid cancers were twice as frequent in the Wilayah of Guelma compared to El-Taref (p < 0.05) with a tendency to occur at a younger age in resident of the Wilayah of El-Taref. Diagnoses of thyroid adenoma were more frequent in the Wilayah of Guelma, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid lesions, including goitre, was similar in the two Wilayahs. This first descriptive study on geographic variations in thyroid cancer in Northern Africa suggests that significant differences may occur in relation with environmental and lifestyle exposures. PMID:26681943

  15. Reliability of fine needle aspiration and ex tempore biopsy in the diagnosis of salivary glands lesions

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    Gajanin Radoslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Interpretation of cytological material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA of salivary glands is one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. FNA is performed easily, it is minimally invasive, inexpensive, fast, reliable and provides valuable information to clinicians about the nature of the lesion and therapeutic modalities. Ex tempore diagnosis, frozen section (FS is a diagnostic tool that is essential in determining the modalities of surgical treatment of lesions of the salivary glands. Today this method is used in determining the status of resection margins and infiltration of adjacent anatomical structures. The aim of this study was to present our experiences in the application of FNA and FS in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and diagnostic reliability of these methods. Methods. The study included 36 patients. In all the patients, cytological analysis was done before surgery and histological analysis of the surgical material. In 23 of the patients the FS diagnostics was done. Then we compared FNA and FS findings with histopathological findings. Results. Correlation of cytological and histological diagnosis showed sensitivity of 83.3%, specificity 96.67%, positive predictive value 83.3%, negative predictive value of 96.77% and diagnostic accuracy of 97.2%. Based on the relationship between FS diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 96.67%, while positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 100% each. Conclusion. The study confirmed that FNA is a sensitive, reliable diagnostic method for differentiation of lesions of the salivary glands. In cases with no posibility to definite differentiation in FNA samples, and with the need to assess the resection margins and invasion of anatomical structures, it is recommended to use FS diagnostics.

  16. Infection of the thyroid gland caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goegebuer, T; Verhaeghe, J P; Verlinde, A; De Laere, E; Surmont, I

    2007-01-01

    We report what we consider to be the first case of an abscess of the thyroid gland due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (C. fetus) in a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. C. fetus is known as a rare and opportunistic pathogen in humans, causing a broad variety of systemic infections. Acquisition by humans is thought to occur through contact with animals or animal products and to start as a gastro-intestinal colonization. The detection of C. fetus in stool is challenging, since culture efforts are generally directed in order to fulfil growth requirements of C.jejuni, a much more common enteric pathogen. Detection of C. fetus in non-stool samples is even more challenging since routine culture doesn't imply prolonged incubation (>72h), selective media and microaerophilic conditions. It is therefore not unlikely that human infections caused by C. fetus occur more often than generally assumed. PMID:17547296

  17. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a common thyroid gland disorder. It can occur at any age, but is most often seen in ...

  18. Effects of radiation on parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While radiation has well-recognized effects on follicular cells of the thyroid gland, those on parafollicular C cells are not yet established. Low-dose radiation that has been proved to be nonablative and carcinogenic to follicular cells was administered to 8-week-old Long-Evans rats to study the changes in C cell number and function. Circulating calcitonin levels were significantly reduced in animals that had undergone radiation at age 24 months. Mean calcitonin values were 0.66 (+/- 0.20) ng/ml and 1.64 (+/- 0.59) ng/ml for control males and females compared with 0.14 (+/- 0.06) ng/ml and 0.11 (+/- 0.01) ng/ml for males (P less than 0.05) and females (P less than 0.001) that had undergone radiation, respectively. These levels correlated well with C cell population density in thyroid glands in the control group and in the group that had undergone radiation as evidenced by light microscopy. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed C cell hyperplasia in 77% of control animals of both sexes compared with 4% in animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.005). Immunoperoxidase staining with an anticalcitonin antibody showed virtual absence of C cells in most animals that had undergone radiation compared with diffusely scattered cells in animals in the control group. Medullary carcinomas occurred in 14% of animals in the control group compared with 3% of animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that the radiation dosage that is carcinogenic to the follicular epithelium causes lethal injury to C cells and thus suggest that C cells are more sensitive to radiation than are follicular cells. This increased sensitivity could explain the virtual absence of C cells, decrease in calcitonin levels, and reduced numbers of medullary carcinomas in the animals that had undergone radiation

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule verses biopsy in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FNA biopsy of thyroid is a rapid, minimally invasive, and cost effective first line procedure in the evaluation of thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytological accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration (FNA) of solitary thyroid nodules in correlation with post-surgical histological findings. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Department of Pathology, Abbottabad International Medical College, Abbottabad from January 2009 to December 2010. A total of 81 patients with clinically palpable solitary thyroid nodule were included in the study. Thyroid function tests were initially performed followed by FNA of thyroid nodules later operated and histopathological examination was conducted on the excised nodules. FNA diagnoses were correlated with the histological findings. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the procedure were determined. Results: Out of 81 cases, 5 (6.2%) were unsatisfactory and 76 cases were satisfactory for cytological evaluation. Cyto-histopathological correlation was carried out for these cases. The study showed a diagnostic accuracy of 93% with sensitivity and specificity rates of 75% and 96% respectively. Positive predictive value is 81% and negative predictive value is 95%. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has evolved as an accurate and sensitive diagnostic tool for the initial screening of patients with thyroid nodules, and has reduced the need for unnecessary surgery. (author)

  20. The Dysfunction of the Thyroid Gland and Opportunities for the Homeopathic Treatment of Dogs

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    M. Fialkovi ova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The low levels of T4 (thyroxine and T3 (triiodothyronine can be observed in the dogs with hypothyroidism, but it could also reflect some other illness, in which the function of the thyroid gland is not disturbed. This phenomenon is called "sick euthyroid syndrom" (SES and it is mainly associated with the existence of the other endocrinopathies (Cushing`s syndrome, hyperestrogenism. The other endocrinopathies could be clinically manifest by very similar chronic changes in the skin and hair as those manifested in hypothyroidism. There are two cases of German shepherd dogs which were manifested by obesity, lethargy, infertility and chronic dermal findings. The level of T4 in the blood serum was very low in the first bitch T4 = 4.53 n mol l-1 and in the second bitch T4 = 12.84 n mol l-1. Diagnostic biochemical blood examination revealed results indicating the possibility of hypothyroidism, but at the same time also the possibility of another non- thyroid disease. Homeopathy can help to solve the problem of theraphy in such complicated cases. After homeopathic therapy the results of the biochemical and endocrinological examinations repeatedly showed the restored conditions of the patient. The level of the T4 in the blood serum was in the first bitch T4 = 27.31 n mol l-1 and in the second bitch T4 = 26.28 n mol l-1. This study presents the possibility to use homeopathic treatment in chronic dermatologic cases.

  1. Radioactivity-induced modifications in the weight of the thyroid gland of the New Zealand adult rabbit

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    Alcaraz, M.; Genoves, J.L.; Berna, J.D.; Meseguer, J.; Garcia-Ayala, A.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactivity-induced modifications in the weight of the thyroid gland of the New Zealand adult rabbit, as well as the radioactivity-induced ultrastructural changes underwent by these glands were studied. In order to achieve this, three groups, each of 36 animals, were established: One group regarded as erythroid, another of animal treated with propylthiouracil (PTU), and a third group treated with protirelin (TRH). The animals belonging to each group were distributed in six lots according to the total dose of radiation administered to their thyroid glands: 0 Gy (non-radiated group), 4 Gy, 8 Gy, 12 Gy, 12 Gy, 16 Gy and 20 Gy. The results obtained showed that the isolated use of thyroid gland weight as a biological parameter is not a specific indicator of the degree of radiosensitivity, nor of the status of functional glandular activity. The structural changes induced by radioactivity occurred earlier and were more intense in the group treated with protirelin (TRH) which was considered as hyperfunctioning.

  2. Radioactivity-induced, modifications in the weight of the thyroid gland of the New Zeland adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity-induced modifications in the weight of the thyroid gland of the New Zealand adult rabbit, as well as the radioactivity-induced ultrastructural changes underwent by these glands were studied. In order to achieve this, three groups, each of 36 animals, were established: One group regarded as euthyroid, another of animal treated with propylthiouracil (PTU), and a thrid group treated with protirelin (TRH). The animals belonging to each group were distributed in six lots according to the total dosis of radiation administered to their thyroid glands: 0 Gy (non-radiated group), 4 Gy, 8 Gy, 12 Gy, 16 Gy and 20 Gy. The results obtained showed that the isolated use of thyroid gland weight as a biological parameters is not a specific indicator of the dregee of radiosensitivity, nor of the status of functional glandular activity. The structural changes induced by radioactivity occurred earlier and were more intense in the group treated with protirelin (TRH) which was considered as hyperfunctioning. (Author)

  3. Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice

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    Iwata Tomoyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS. Methods We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and total thyroxine (TT4 levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Results TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area. Conclusions An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.

  4. Evaluation of the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques

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    Hamid Badrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The use of sophisticated radiographic techniques is absolutely necessary in dentistry. The use of these techniques exposes the sensitive organs of head and neck to x-rays. The aim of the present study was to investigate the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 TLD GR-200 circular dosimeters (Thermoluminans Detector were used in male RANDO-like phantom (head and neck segment, i.e. the first 10 segments in order to determine the radiation dose absorbed by the thyroid gland. Then spiral computed tomographies were provided from the anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible along with a lateral Scout view as a guide. Conventional spiral tomographies were prepared from the maxilla, mandible and both jaws with a panoramic radiograph as a guide. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS 11.5 (a = 0.05. Results: The highest and lowest thyroid gland absorbed doses were observed with computed tomography of both jaws and conventional spiral tomography of the anterior maxilla, respectively (5.92 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ± 0.01 mSiv. The mean amount of the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland was lower in the conventional spiral tomography compared to computed tomography. The two techniques revealed significant differences in the absorbed doses except for conventional spiral tomography in the posterior and anterior regions of the mandible (p value = 0.276.Conclusion: According to results of the present study, the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in the conventional spiral tomography in different regions of the jaws was less than CT scan techniques. As a result, it appears the use of conventional spiral tomography is preferred over CT scans in limited regions where three-dimensional and cross-sectional views are required.Key words: Thyroid gland, Film dosimetry, Spiral Computed Tomography.

  5. Clinical diagnostic study by means of magnetic resonance imaging for lesions of the major salivary gland region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lesions situated in the major salivary glands was clinically discussed in this study. A total of 46 patients with salivary gland disorders treated in our department over the past five years were assessed by mean of MRI, and in 11 patients the findings were compared with the histopathological features of lesions sectioned at the same level postoperatively. In addition, preliminary investigations to introduce a new qualitative diagnostic procedure for estimation of salivary gland function in geriatric patients were attempted. In this investigation, T1 and T2 values, and signal intensity ratios of the submandibular gland were measured in elderly patients complaining of dry mouth and in healthy controls. Likewise, salivary gland function was examined by taste stimulation induced by applying citric acid to the tongue surface just before starting MRI. MRI clearly demonstrated lesions in the salivary glands. The histopathological diagnosis could not be accurately predicted by signal intensity. However, benign tumors showed higher intensity signals than did malignant tumors on T2-weighted images. Cystic lesions could be differentiated from tumors by signal intensity. Histopathological features of salivary gland tumors corresponded to the MRI signal intensity. Relaxation times of T1 and T2 values and signal intensity in each major salivary gland were diminished in elderly patients in a resting condition. Only T1 values in healthy subjects remarkably responded to taste stimulation. These results suggest that MRI is useful and beneficial not only in the qualitative diagnosis of tumors arising from salivary glands but also in the estimation of salivary gland function. MRI should therefore be included in routine diagnostic examinations for salivary gland disorders. (author)

  6. RET rearrangement: toward a molecular genetic definition of tumor-inducing radiation effects in the thyroid gland after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetic analyses of thyroid carcinomas in children exposed to radioactive fallout after Chernobyl revealed a complete lack of mutational activation of H-, K- or N-RAS or of a mutational inactivation of P53. However, a high prevalence of RET rearrangements was found. ELE/RET rearrangements of the RET/PTC3 type were preferentially observed suggesting that this paracentric inversion at chromosome 10 represents a typical form of genetic lesion in thyroid tumors of children after Chernobyl. (orig.)

  7. The Role of Immunohistochemistry in Differential Diagnosis of Follicular Patterned Lesions of Thyroid

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    Gülçin YE?EN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study we aimed to assess the role of galectin- 3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular lesions.Material and Method: Fifty-four malignant and 50 benign lesions were evaluated and classified according to World Health Organization 2004 histological classification. Galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 were performed immunohistochemically and the slides were evaluated by two independent investigators. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed for each antibody tested.Results: Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were as follows respectively: Galectin-3: 59,25%, 84% and 71,15%; Cytokeratin 19: 70%, 82% and 75,4%; Thyroid peroxidase: 61%, 70% and 65,4%; CD44v6: 20,4%, 88% and 52,9%.Conclusion: The negativity for Galectin-3 and Cytokeratin 19 can not exclude malignancy but positivity can be thought as a sign of malignant feature or potential for lesions in which there is strong suspect of malignancy. Thyroid peroxidase immunostaining failed to differantiate benign from malignant oxyphilic tumors but decreased expression can be used as a malignancy marker together with Galectin-3 and/or Cytokeratin19 positivity in suspicious cases. CD44v6 does not seem to be reliable in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular patterned thyroid lesions.In conclusion, our approach is to take as much new samples or serial sections as possible in cases without clear-cut evidence of malignancy but with histological and immunohistochemical suspicion. Follicular variant papillary carcinoma has different criteria for malignancy and it should be always kept in mind while evaluating a benign-looking lesion with immunohistochemical signs that favor malignancy.

  8. The Role of Elastosonography in the Differentiation of Parotid Gland Lesions: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parotid gland is the mostly affected site among major salivary gland tumors in up to 85% of cases. Preoperative knowledge of the tumour nature is crucial since it influences the surgical procedure and patient’s morbidity, especially the risk of facial nerve palsy. Ultrasonography is commonly used as the first line imaging modality for the salivary gland lesions. A pitfall is that the histologic pleomorphism often reflects an imaging pleomorphism. Herein we aimed to present the role of elastosonography in three parotid lesions: a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma, a Wharthin’s tumour and a malignant parotid tumour. Our findings show that malignant parotid lesion was the stiffest lesion according to elastosonography. Wharthin’s tumour demonstrated soft elastosonographic features. The pleomorphic adenoma was also interpreted as stiff by elastosonography suggesting that the elastosonographic features of pleomorphic adenoma may resemble those of malignant lesions limiting the utility of the technique

  9. Atypical imaging features of adrenal gland lesions in children – report of three cases and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential diagnosis of adrenal pathology depends on the child’s age and imaging findings. Three children without clinical symptoms of neoplasm, with an adrenal lesion discovered on diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Laboratory tests for neoplasm were negative. The final diagnosis was based on histopathological examinations after surgical resection. 1. The value of diagnostic imaging and laboratory tests in differential diagnosis of adrenal gland lesions is limited. 2. Malignant tumors of adrenal glands should be taken into account in children. 3. Surgical resection should be considered in diagnostic algorithm of adrenal gland masses. 4. The final diagnosis is always based on histopathological examination

  10. Lack of Preemptive Analgesia by Intravenous Flurbiprofen in Thyroid Gland Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

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    Zhaodi Zhang, Haifang Zhao, Changsong Wang, Fei Han, Guonian Wang

    2011-01-01

    Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on postoperative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consumption and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery.Methods Ninety patients undergoing elective thyroid gland surgery were ra...

  11. Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate with the intensity of the administered activity of radioiodine, the previous condition of dental integrity and in patients living in the interior of our country in zones of 'bad' water containing tracers of arsenic and fluorine. In 13 patients submitted to intense treatment of dental problems posterior WBS showed a decrease of the positive maxilla areas or they were not found. The presence of metastasis in the active maxilla area was in all cases negative. Our observations confirm that radioiodine is deposited in maxillary bone in relation of dental lesions and that this 131-I move in a very slow place. This mechanism of fixation has to be determined. We fully recommended taking into account the existence of dental illness or incomplete dental treatments when the administration of higher activities than 3.7 GBq (150 mCi). (author)

  12. Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis

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    de Matos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19, galectin-3 (Gal-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1. However, current results remain controversial. The aim of the present article was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CK-19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 markers, as well as their associations, in the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Methods A systematic review of published articles on MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library was performed. After establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 articles were selected. The technique of meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was employed and global values of sensitivity, specificity, area under the summary ROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (dOR were calculated. Results For the immunohistochemistry technique, the positivity of CK-19 for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions demonstrated global sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 73%; for Gal-3, sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 81%; and for HBME-1, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 83%. The association of the three markers determined sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 97%, and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.1. Similar results were also found for the immunocytochemistry assay. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that the three immunomarkers studied are accurate in pre- and postoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Nevertheless, the search for other molecular markers must continue in order to enhance this diagnostic accuracy since the results found still show a persistency of false-negative and false-positive tests. Virtual slides Http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3436263067345159

  13. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt Towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and The Histology of Thyroid Gland of Goitrogenic Rat

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    Risman Heli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic substances can inhibit of iodine taking by the thyroid gland. Thus iodine concentration in thyroid gland will be low, and this phenomena is indicated by inflammation in the thyroid gland. Moreover, it can cause releaseing of an excessive amount of free radicals. This radicals, in the body, causes oxidative stress and also increase the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. This is also as an indicator for lipid peroxidation and the decreasing of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treatment with KIO3 and KI salt was intended to study the level of supplementation of iodine (I2 toward level of MDA in serum and histological description of rat’s thyroid gland. The MDA levels was determined through TBA test (Thio Barbituric Acid, meanwhile the histological pattern of rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results indicated both of KIO3 and KI salt significantly (p<0.01 reduced MDA level in the serum. Treatment with KIO3 salt gave 33.62% while KI salt slightly higher (37,02%. In addition, both of treaments displayed an recovering effect in thyroid gland.

  14. Analysis of the behavior and characteristics of thyroid lesions identified by biopsy fine needle aspiration and gammagraphic diagnosis: Hospital Calderon Guardia: period 2004-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid lesions have meant one of the most important pathological entities in the Costa Rican population for many years, which have been increased by new diagnostic examinations and early detection and timely thanks to the preventive medicine that is exerted on the security of the country. After the nuclear accident Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union for several decades ago has shown an increase in neoplastic lesions as well as was appreciated after the implementation of the first atomic bomb in World War II, this behavior is the interest to see how thyroid pathology develops in the environment and what have been the Costa Rican experiences in correlation with the expected time to the global statistics. The behavior pattern observed of the lessons of the thyroid gland and based on clinical findings and in some cases together with scintigraphy have allowed to study the development seen through the ultrasound and cytopathological result. The behavior of the patients was similar to global statistics, being most frequent the benign lesions than malignant, and the scintigraphy correlation with lesions were found to be cold was significant for determination of malignant or suspicious for malignancy. Some of these lesions that were suspicious for malignancy scintigraphy and ultrasound were benign have been found to fall within the expected rate for this type of injury. The study consisted of sampling in 2023 noted that the prevalence was 9:1 in women compared with men, which agrees as thyroid diseases are more common in women than in men as well as the expected results in malignant lesions that remained the same behavior. As expected in the age ranges of suffering from thyroid lesions remained between the fifth and sixth decade of life, which has allowed to observe the frequency of different benign and malignant lesions that occurred during this study in the decades and periods covered. While before the study of thyroid lesions was occupied by scintigraphy and endocrinological management has been viewed that incidentalomas appreciated by the teams high-resolution ultrasound bring a benefit in the care of the patient early and fast like its minimally invasive intervention to characterize the thyroid lesions that are suspicious of malignancy or indeterminate by clinical and other diagnostic methods, a fact that increases in the routine study of thyroid pathology. In fact in the cost benefit study of FNA for early patient care is relatively cheap with a great evaluation of lesions and is important for determination of injury, because if there were suspected, sonographically, it is easier to seek the consent from patient and treating physician to take the sample and lead to better clinical guidance, histological and radiological, fact that will allow the patient a concise definition of your case. (author)

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of NPY, VIP and 5-HT in the thyroid gland of the lizard, Podarcis sicula

    OpenAIRE

    L Varano; A Cavagnuolo; R Longobardi; F Virgilio; V Laforgia; Sciarrillo, R

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid gland of the lizard Podarcis sicula was immunohistochemically studied in adult male specimens using specific antibodies against NPY, VIP and 5-HT and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) procedure to localize the three peptides. Fine beaded VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers ran between the follicles, and VIP-immunoreactivity was evenly distributed in the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were found around the follicles, and, in the cells, immunore...

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy and Pitfalls of Preoperative Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Salivary Gland Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in salivary gland lesions. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 82 patients presented at NCI, Cairo University with salivary gland lesion who underwent preoperative FNAC diagnosis with subsequent excision and histopathologic assessment. Cytology results were classified as negative, positive, suspicious for cancer and inadequate. The definitive histopathologic report according to WHO Histological typing was the gold standard diagnosis against which FNAC was compared. Results: Our study included 82 patients who underwent preoperative FNAC of major salivary glands with subsequent surgical excision. Male to female ratio was 1.4: 1. The median age was 42 years. Parotid gland was involved in (68.3%), submandibular in (28%) and sub mental gland in (3.7%). Forty cases (48.8%) were cytologically diagnosed as benign lesions, 26 (31.7%) were malignant and 10 (12.2%) were suspicious. Cytological findings were non diagnostic in 6 (7.3%). The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma; 16 out of 40 cases (40%), while the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma; 22 out of 26 cases (84.6%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones and were true-negative in 37 (92.5%), true-positive in 33 (91.6%), false-negative in 3 (8.3%) and false-positive in 3 (7.5%) cases regarding detection of malignant tumors. The cytologic diagnosis achieved a sensitivity of 91.7%; a specificity of 92.5%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 92.5% and diagnostic accuracy 92%. The rates of agreement of histopathologic type for benign and malignant tumors were 89.2% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC were 91.7%, 92.5% and 92%, respectively. Attention to subtle morphologic changes, pitfalls and limitations are important to increase diagnostic accuracy. Multidirectional aspiration is preferred to avoid selective sampling. Re-aspiration of solid portion after cyst fluid aspiration is necessary to decrease the rate of inadequacy

  17. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of atrophic orthotopic thyroid gland in a patient with acquired hypothyroidism: Evaluation with hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately one per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in one in 4,000 to 8,000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. Multiple ectopia in the presence of orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a 13-year-old boy with stunted growth and developmental delay caused due to acquired hypothyroidism. Technetium scan performed as per management protocol identified dual ectopia of thyroid. The role of hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted

  18. Radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during digital subtraction angiography of arteries supplying the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To find out the individual level of radiation exposure of the ocular lens and thyroid gland during DSA of arteries supplying the brain, considering the indication. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 72 patients during aortic arch and cerebral artery angiographies using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Results: During 20 aortic arch angiographies the measured values were within non-critical limits, whereas during carotid, vertebral or cerebral fourvessel angiography of the left ocular lens exposure values of more than 500 mGy (max. 782 mGy) were stated in two of 52 cases. The highest measured exposure relating to the right ocular lens was 126 mGy, to the thyroid gland 88 mGy. However, in 51 of 52 cases thyroid gland doses of below 51 mGy were measured. In 71 of 72 cases there was a lateral difference between right and left lens exposure up to twice the measured dose for the right ocular lens during aortic arch angiographies and up to sixteenfold in respect of the left lens during cerebral angiographies. (orig./AJ)

  19. Does amifostine have radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer

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    Ma, Chao; Wang, Guoming; Zuo, Shuyao [Qingdao University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Xie, Jiawei [Qingdao University, Medical College, Qingdao (China); Jiang, Zhongxin [Qingdao University, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao (China)

    2010-09-15

    To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled clinical trials which compared the effects of amifostine with those of placebo or acid-stimulating agents. Two randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 130 patients were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of amifostine and acid-stimulating agents on the incidence of xerostomia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01 to 9.52), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of {sup 99m}Tc by the parotid (RR 0.30, 95% CI -2.28 to 2.88) or submandibular glands (RR 1.90, 95% CI -1.46 to 5.26) at 12 months, or the reduction in blood pressure (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16). Neither of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. The results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The use of acid-stimulating agents to increase salivation should remain the first choice during radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients should also be well informed of the importance of hydration and acid stimulation. (orig.)

  20. Primary squamous cell carcinomas in the thyroid gland: an individual participant data meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas arising from the thyroid gland (SCCTh) is extremely rare diseases, which have never been fully studied. Thus, we performed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of published SCCTh cases, to understand the clinical characteristics and to identify the prognostic factors of primary SCCTh. A literature search was conducted within Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases and KoreaMed using the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: “primary,” “squamous,” “carcinoma,” “cancer,” and “thyroid.” Eighty-four patients' individual data from 39 articles and five patients' data in our institute were selected for analysis (N = 89). The mean age at diagnosis was 63.0 years (range, 24–90) and female preponderance (M:F = 1:2) was noted. The commonest complaint was the anterior neck mass, followed by dyspnea or dysphagia, and extension to the adjacent structure was found in 72%. The median survival was 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.0–23.0) and 3-year survival rate (3YSR) was 37.6% by Kaplan–Meier method, but only 20.1% by a shared frailty model for adjusting heterogeneity. Complete resection (R0) of tumors was the only significant prognostic factor in multivariable analysis, and the benefit of adjuvant treatment was not proved. The prognosis of patients with SCCTh is very poor (20% in 3YSR), but complete resection of disease is correlated with improved survival. To achieve complete surgical eradication of tumors, early detection and accurate diagnosis should be emphasized

  1. Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands from turtles (Chrysemys dorbigni) pretreated with potassium iodide were incubated with 125I-insulin in the presence or absence of unlabeled insulin, in order to study its specific uptake. At 24 degrees, the specific uptake reached a plateau at 180 min of incubation. The dose of bovine insulin that inhibited 50% of the 125I-insulin uptake was 2 micrograms/ml of incubation medium. Most of the radioactive material (71%) extracted from the gland, after 30 min incubation with 125I-insulin, eluted in the same position as labeled insulin on Sephadex G-50. Only 24% eluted in the salt position. After 240 min incubation, increased amount of radioactivity appeared in the Na125I position. When bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone, a substantial reduction of radioactivity was observed in the insulin and Na125I elution positions. Dissociation studies were performed at 6 degrees in glands preincubated with 125I-insulin either at 24 or 6 degrees. The percentage of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble radioactive material in the dissociation medium increased with incubation time at both temperatures. However, the degradation activity was lower at 6 than at 24 degrees. The addition of bovine insulin to the incubation buffer containing 125I-insulin reduced the radioactive degradation products in the dissociated medium. Chloroquine or bacitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125I-hGH or 125I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

  2. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions-A pilot study

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    Knopf, Andreas, E-mail: a.knopf@lrz.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Stock, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Nephrologie der II. Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue{sup Registered-Sign} perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  3. FUNCIONAMIENTO NORMAL Y AUMENTADO DE LA GLÁNDULA TIROIDES EN EQUINOS / NORMAL AND INCREASED FUNCTIONING OF THYROID GLAND IN EQUINES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JÓSE HENRY, OSORIO; FELIPE, RAMÍREZ ECHEVERRY.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir y analizar el funcionamiento normal de la glándula tiroides en equinos y los factores que aumentan en ellos los niveles de hormonas tiroideas. Materiales y métodos: Mediante la revisión de la literatura disponible de los últimos 50 años en las bases de datos BBCS-LILACS, fuente a [...] cadémica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus y Scirus, al igual que artículos históricos, textos y referencias citadas en trabajos publicados. Resultados: la información obtenida relacionada con los objetivos propuestos en la presente revisión, permite clasificar en 4 secciones a saber: síntesis y secreción de hormonas tiroideas; transporte y metabolismo; funciones; hipertiroidismo en los equinos. Conclusión: La glándula tiroides juega un papel importante, como productora de hormonas tiroideas, las cuales son necesarias para la diferenciación celular y crecimiento del organismo. El buen funcionamiento de las vías metabólicas depende de estas hormonas, las que tienen efectos específicos sobre diferentes órganos, manteniendo la homeostasis en todos los tejidos. Abstract in english Objective: to describe and analyze the normal functioning of the thyroid gland in equines and the factors which increase the thyroid hormone levels. Materials and methods: information from the last 50 years included in the BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Sc [...] irus, data bases as well as historical articles, texts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results: important information related to the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into two sections as follow: synthesis, liberation and metabolism of thyroid hormones; factors that modify the thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: the thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends on these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all the tissues.

  4. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovi? Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 ?g/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 ?g/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  5. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  6. Clinical Significance of Diffuse {sup 18F} FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sung; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jandee; Soh, Euy Young; An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou Univ. School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2{+-}1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0{+-}664.6 vs. 57.3{+-}46.4, P<0.0001). Mean attenuation values in the diffuse uptake group were significantly lower (72.2{+-}15. vs. 97.0{+-}16.0, P<0.0001). An inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and mean attenuation values of residual thyroid in all patients (r=-0.57, P<0.0001) and subgroup with diffuse uptake (r=-0.31, P<0.05). In this study, diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The {sup 18F} FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of tumoral thyroid tissues of thyroid glands of people from Gomel region as against Brest one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis in vivo of histologically normal and tumoral thyroid tissues has shown that in organism of examined patients with thyroid cancer mutation process taken place not only in tumor but in histologically normal tissue. As a result of investigations pursued a significant increase in the level of aberrant cells in thyroid cell populations was revealed in people from Gomel regions as against Brest one

  8. Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the migraine history in five (4 woman) surprisingly and 131I-avid skull metastasis in another patient (2 eyes). Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high-dose radio-iodine therapy, which seems to be severe in the majority of patients; however these patients complain of dry eye symptoms no more than unexposed population. Conditions such as migraine may be unknown causes of impaired tear secretion and need further investigation

  9. Monitoring intervals for measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129I in thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the monitoring interval, which can be implemented in the Laboratorio de Contaminacion Interna del Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, for direct measurement in the thyroid gland of radionuclides 125I and 129I . Were used two measuring systems, one employing a scintillating detector and the other detector Phoswich. Both detectors were placed inside a depth camera, 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5m of dimension covered with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm lead, 1.8 mm tin and 1.5 mm of copper. Was calculated for each system, the minimum detectable activity, and based on this, the monitoring interval is determined. Was obtained, for 125, all tested intervals, 120, 90,60,30 , 14, and 7 days may be implemented with both systems. In the case of the radionuclide 129 I, with the installation of scintillating detector can only be implemented the intervals 120, 90, and 60 days , and for installation with Phoswich, all evaluated

  10. Thyroid lesions incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT ? a two centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamsek Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid on PET-CT examinations represents a diagnostic challenge. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax is one possible parameter that can help in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid PET lesions.

  11. Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pujani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult. Thus, additional diagnostic features that can assist in this distinction would have great clinical usefulness. Aims: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Settings and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Ki-67 immunostaining was performed by peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and compared with mitotic counts. Results: Ki-67 labeling index (LI showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms. A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05 and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05. The correlation between mitotic counts and Ki-67 LI was found to be significant. Conclusions: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

  12. Usefulness of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT in the metastatic lesions of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-MIBI is widely used as a tumor-seeking agent for parathyroid tumor, lung cancer, etc. We tried to detect the metastatic lesions of thyroid cancer by 99mTc-MIBI SPECT and evaluated 131I-uptake in the region of 99mTc-MIBI accumulation. Twenty-seven cases of thyroid cancer (23 papillary adenocarcinoma, 3 follicular adenocarcinoma, 1 unknown) were examined by 99mTc-MIBI. All cases were confirmed by surgery. Thyroglobulin was measured in all cases before 99mTc-MIBI SPECT 131I-therapy (4.5-5.5 GBq) was performed on 24 patients and whole body scintigram was taken 7-10 days after. Thirty minutes after an injection of 99mTc-MIBI (740 MBq), SPECT with a three-head gamma camera was performed. Abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-MIBI was noted in 14 patients, all cases detected on CT or MRI. In 11 of the 13 cases in which accumulation was not visualized, no metastasis was detected. Most cases of abnormal accumulation on 99mTc-MIBI showed a high level of thyroglobulin. Metastatic lesions of follicular adenocarcinoma in three patients (right humerus, axillary region and sternum) showed strong accumulation of 99mTc-MIBI, and 131I was strongly taken up in these lesions. 131I was also taken up in the metastatic lesions of papillary adenocarcinoma with marked accumulation of 99mTc-MIBI. 99mTc-MIBI did not accumulate in a case with diffuse pulmonary uptake of 131I. 99mTc-MIBI SPECT could detect occult metastatic lesions in the soft tissue more clearly than CT or MRI. In conclusion, 99mTc-MIBI study might be useful as a follow-up study of patients after surgery for thyroid cancer. (author)

  13. Thinking About Your Thyroid: Get to Know This Small But Mighty Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Thinking About Your Thyroid Get to Know This Small ... September 2015 search Features Better Nutrition Every Day Thinking About Your Thyroid Wise Choices Links Symptoms of ...

  14. MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 ± 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 ± 25 ml, with 2.1 ± 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high. (orig.)

  15. MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Ivanova, T.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 {+-} 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 {+-} 25 ml, with 2.1 {+-} 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high. (orig.)

  16. Towards high performance cell segmentation in multispectral fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Edgar; Venkatesan, Vishwanath; Shah, Shishir

    2010-06-01

    Thyroid nodule is a common cancer of the thyroid gland that affects up to 20% of the world population and approximately 50% of 60-year-old persons. Early detection and screening of the disease, especially analysis by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), has led to improved diagnosis and management of the disease. Simultaneously, advances in imaging technology has enabled the rapid digitization of large volumes of FNAC specimen leading to increased interest in computer assisted diagnosis (CAD). This has led to development of a variety of algorithms for automated analysis of FNAC images, but due to the large scale memory and computing resource requirements, has had limited success in clinical use. In this paper, we present our experiences with two parallel versions of a code used for texture-based segmentation of thyroid FNAC images, a critical first step in realizing a fully automated CAD solution. An MPI version of the code is developed to exploit distributed memory compute resources such as PC clusters. An OpenMP version is developed for the currently emerging multi-core CPU architectures, which allow for parallel execution on every desktop system. Experiments are performed with image sizes ranging from 1024 x 1024 pixels up to 12288 x 12288 pixels with 21 spectral channels. Both versions are evaluated for performance and scalability. PMID:19720425

  17. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients undergoing radiation therapy to neck where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland.

  18. Low dose radiation in the treatment of HIV related benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the effectiveness of Radiation Therapy (RT) in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related benign lymphoepithelial (BLL) of the parotid gland. Materials and Methods: The records of 16 patients treated between 1991 to 1995 with BLL were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had bilateral disease, thus 19 parotid glands were radiated. Only (2(16)) had AIDS. Virtually all patients were on antiretroviral therapy. There were 11 males and 5 females. The median age was 38 years (range 31 to 58 years). The median duration of parotid enlargement was 1.5 years (range 1 month to 6 years). All patients had biopsy prior to treatment. Histopathology revealed two patterns: solid or cystic. Patient were treated using electron beam RT. The beam energy was determined by computed transaxial tomography. The median dose delivered was 1000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days (range 600 cGy to 2160 cGy in daily fractions ranging from 180 cGy to 200 cGy). Results: Six parotid glands achieved a complete response (CR), 5 a partial response (PR), while 8 were non-responders (NR). Our overall response rate was therefore 58% Of the NR's, 3 patients were re-treated. Two achieved a PR, one was an NR. Toxicity was minimal and limited to mild xerostomia. Conclusion: RT in patients with HIV related BLL is well tolerated. Our preliminary results show that while this modality of treatment has marked activity in the solid pattern. Higher doses may be required for large lesions or cystic in nature

  19. ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Sporea; Roxana Sirli; Simona Bota; Mihaela Vlad; Alina Popescu; Ioana Zosin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men): 44 (32.3%) without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3%) with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD), 37 (27.2%) with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests), 4 (2.9%) with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2%) cases with thyroid pathology induced by am...

  20. Monosomy and ring chromosome 13 in a thyroid nodular goiter-do we underestimate its relevance in benign thyroid lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendt, Wolfgang; Rippe, Volkhard; Flor, Inga; Drieschner, Norbert; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2012-03-01

    Classical cytogenetic examination of a thyroid nodular goiter revealed the existence of two different cytogenetically aberrant cell clones. They were characterized by monosomy 13 as the sole abnormality in one clone, and loss of one chromosome 13 and a ring chromosome that was found to consist of chromosome 13 material by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the other clone. We have concluded that during the course of karyotypic evolution, the instability of the ring chromosome has led to its loss and subsequent monosomy 13. In the literature, two cases of partial monosomy 13 have been reported in adenomatous goiters, suggesting that this abnormality characterizes a rare but distinct subgroup of benign thyroid lesions histologically presenting as adenomatous goiters. Possible target genes of these deletions are the retinoblastoma (RB1) gene locus and the MIR16-1/15A cluster. Based on similar changes in other tumors, it seems reasonable to also analyze a large number of adenomatous goiters for submicroscopic deletions of the long arm of chromosome 13. PMID:22469512

  1. Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyablov Е. V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

  2. Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland and the thyroglossal duct remnant: a study using human fetal sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Honkura, Yohei; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the thyroglossal duct, we observed serial sagittal sections of eight embryos (crown-rump length (CRL) 6-12 mm; approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) as well as serial horizontal or cross-sections of 70 embryos and fetuses (CRL 15-110 mm; 6-15 weeks). In the sagittal sections, the thyroglossal duct was identified as a small sheet or mass of relatively large cells with vacuolization anterior, superior or inferior to the fourth pharyngeal arch artery. However, we found no continuous duct-like structure that reached the thyroid gland. Thus, previous classical schemes might have overestimated the continuity of the duct. Among cross-sections of 70 specimens, we found the thyroglossal duct remnant in only two specimens (CRL 15 mm and 100 mm), in contrast to the pyramidal lobe, which was seen in one-third of the specimens. The duct remnant ran downward along the lateral edge of the hyoid body to reach the anterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage. However, the connection between the pyramidal lobe and the duct remnant was interrupted by the anterior cervical muscles. Therefore, it was unlikely that the thyroglossal duct remnant would more frequently be evident in fetuses than in adults. The highly tortuous course of the duct along the lingual aspect of the hyoid body, which has been reported previously, appeared to become established near term. Descent of the thyroid gland was not evident after the CRL 20 mm stage (6 weeks): the gland appeared to retain its position at the level of the third-sixth cervical vertebrae. PMID:25458181

  3. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions / Imaginologia das lesões das glândulas adrenais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Keith, Herr; Valdair F., Muglia; Walter José, Koff; Antonio Carlos, Westphalen.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O crescente uso da tomografia computadorizada e da ressonância magnética levou a um aumento na identificação de nódulos adrenais incidentais, também chamados de incidentalomas, gerando um impasse diagnóstico para o radiologista, bem como um número significativo de pesquisas a fim de caracterizar ess [...] as lesões como benignas ou malignas. Apesar de a maioria dos incidentalomas representar um processo benigno, geralmente um adenoma, a possibilidade de a lesão ser maligna requer suficiente acurácia dos métodos de imagem para que esses possam auxiliar no manejo dos pacientes. Neste artigo nós apresentamos uma revisão da literatura dedicada à investigação radiológica das lesões adrenais, com ênfase na tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética e tomografia por emissão de prótons, e discutimos como os achados de imagem relacionam-se com a prática clínica. Tecnologias recentes, como a ultrassonografia com uso de contraste, a tomografia computadorizada com dupla fonte de energia e a espectroscopia de prótons por ressonância magnética são brevemente discutidas. Abstract in english With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indet [...] erminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  4. Effect of Exogenous Thyroxine on Mophology and Development of Thyroid Gland in Marble Goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus Bleeker Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    M. Awang Soh; A.M.W. Effendy; Asmanelli; B. Abol-Munafi

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine effect of the exogenous thyroxine (T ) on ontogeny of thyroid 4 gland in marble goby larvae and to found out whether the exogenous T can alter the follicle structure and the 4 level of T in marble goby. The larvae were exposed for 1 h in T solution at 0.1 ppm. Untreated larvae (control) 4 4 were not immersed in T hormone. It was found that T levels in treated larvae were higher than control, but the 44 development patterns in both treated larvae and control...

  5. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinosarcoma and Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: PET CT Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a patient who was diagnosed with a concurrent primary tumor by 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET imaging performed for staging of an endometrial cancer. FDG uptake was detected in the uterus, where the primary cancer was located, and in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. The biopsy sample from the hypermetabolic nodular lesion in thyroid gland revealed intermediate cytology according to Bethesda Classification. The patient underwent hysterectomy and thyroidectomy. An endometrial carcinoma in the uterus and a multicentric thyroid papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland were diagnosed.

  6. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  7. Coexisting iodine avid and iodine nonconcentrating lesions with multiple distant soft tissue metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distant soft tissue metastasis and the simultaneous presence of iodine concentrating and nonconcentrating lesions in papillary thyroid cancer are extremely rare. The concerned patient, a histopathologically proven case of papillary thyroid cancer with nodal metastases treated with total thyroidectomy, bilateral cervical nodal dissection, and radioablation, subsequently developed lung, muscle, and liver metastasis. Triggered by increased thyroglobulin, the iodine-131 whole body scan and 200 mci iodine-131 post-therapy scan showed a left gluteus maximus lesion and a liver lesion. Fludeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan intended to find additional lesions revealed iodine and FDG nonconcentrating bilateral pulmonary nodules and a single FDG avid hepatic and two muscle metastases. Although FDG concentration in metastatic pulmonary nodules is generally low, the CT characteristics were classical for metastatic lesion. A follow-up FDG PET-CT study six months after 200 mci iodine-131 radioablation showed treatment response in muscle and liver lesions but not lungs

  8. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  9. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Diego Mendonça Uchôa; Vanessa Yépez

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellul...

  10. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer; Rekonstruktion der Schilddruesendosis fuer Kinder mit Schilddruesenkrebs in Weissrussland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robl, R.; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1997-10-01

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope {sup 131}I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of {sup 1}31 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I. The inferred {sup 131}I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs-deposition density and a few {sup 131}I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of {sup 131}I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the {sup 129}I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the {sup 129}I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  11. Malignant glomus tumor of the thyroid gland where is heretofore an unreported organ: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Na Rae; Kim, Taeeun; Ahn, Jungsuk; Lee, Sangho; Lee, Young Don; Cho, Hyun Yee

    2015-03-01

    Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon clinically benign tumors. Malignant glomus tumors are rare, and only a small number develop metastatic foci. The usual location is deep dermis or subcutis, but it has been reported in various locations. A 55-year-old man presented with an incidentally found thyroid mass. Neck ultrasound showed a mass with a heterogeneous hypoechoic calcific mass in the right lobe. Right lobectomy specimen showed the 3.6-cm-sized calcified mass composed of sheets of uniform round to polygonal cells and intervening staghorn-shaped vessels. Occasional cellular atypism and necrosis with increased mitotic activity (up to 7 per 10 high-power fields) were found. Infiltration to the residual thyroid parenchyma, vessel, thyroidal capsule, and strap muscle was found. These tumor cells were strongly positive for smooth muscle actin, collagen type IV, and vimentin with pericellular reticulin-cuffing. Ultrastructurally, closely packed oval-shaped tumor cells having cytoplasmic mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulums with pinocytotic vesicles along the plasmalemmal surface and thin filaments of 6 nm in diameter were surrounded by thick basal lamina. That mass was diagnosed as a malignant glomus tumor. Incidentally, a 0.5-cm-sized papillary carcinoma was found through entire embedding. Complete thyroidectomy with chemotherapy was done. Thirty months later, multiple metastases developed in the brain and lung, and he expired. To our knowledge, neither benign nor malignant thyroid glomus tumor has been previously described. Here, we describe the first case of a malignant glomus tumor in the thyroid gland. PMID:25544269

  12. Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi Mudanças na glândula tireóide durante o ciclo reprodutivo masculino em um morcego vespertilionídeo Scotophilus heathi

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, A; SINGH, K.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4) concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during bre...

  13. 31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands. Clinic results and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prospective study, 15 normals and 20 patients with space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands were examined by MRT images and by in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy. The spectra of malignant tumours showed a significant increase in concentration of phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters and inorganic phosphates when compared with normals. In addition there was an enormous reduction in creatine phosphates. Increased pH values and marked increase in concentration of inorganic phosphates correlated with poorly vascularised necrotic tumour segments. Concentrations of ATP and PCr were similar to normal muscle tissue. High concentrations of PME and PDE correlated directly with the proliferation of tumour cells and were an important marker for the bioenergy and phospholipid metabolism of the growing tumour. Standardised in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands provides noninvasive prognostic information on the type and behaviour of the lesion and is complementary to clinical and histological findings. (orig.)

  14. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tolia, Maria; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kyrgias, George; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n = 43) and malignant (n = 44) lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells' proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005, resp.). Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0097 and p = 0.0110, resp.). In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0301). Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p = 0.1165), lymphatic (p = 0.1989), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0555), as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.1165), at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia. PMID:26539529

  15. The Contributions of Gamma Probe to Lesion Detectability and Surgical Safety in Recurrent Thyroid Cancer at Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Sinan Gültekin; Güleser Saylam; Tuncay Deliba??; Hakan Korkmaz

    2013-01-01

    In patients, who underwent thyroid surgery or treated with I-131 radioiodine previously for differentiated thyroid cancer, a second surgical intervention carries higher risks due to distortion of the natural anatomy and development of fibrotic/cicatricial tissue. In addition, accurate assessment of current status about extent of the disease is important in terms of success of the surgery. In this case report, we present the positive contribution of intraoperative gamma probe used for lesion d...

  16. Kinetics of radioiodine released from prelabelled thyroid gland in vivo: Influence of propylthiouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of free and hormone bound blood iodine after stimulation with endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are not satisfatorily characterized. We studied these kinetics in mice injected with 125I and thyroxine. In control mice the injected 125I is organified within the thyroid and incorporated into thyroid hormones, whereas in mice treated with the thyreostatic drug propylthiouracil (PTU), most 125I remains inorganic, since the thyroperoxidase activity is inhibited by PTU. We found that during blockade of TSH secretion by means of thyroxine, blood 125I activity was significantly higher in PTU-treated animals than in controls, indicating that PTU impaired thyroidal uptake of 125I. On the fourth day after the thyroxine load, the blockade of TSH secretion vanished. This caused the blood 125I activity to increase markedly. The increase of blood 125I was as high in PTU-treated animals as in controls. After the peak, blood 125I was cleared according to first order kinetics, with a half-time of 0.72 days (= 17.3 hours) in PTU-treated animals and of 6.3 days in controls (P<0.001). It is suggested (1) that PTU impairs thyroidal uptake of iodide, (2) that endogenous TSH stimulates release from the thyroid of inorganic iodide as well as of thyroid hormones, and (3) that inorganic iodide released by the thyroid has a much shorter biological half-life than hormone-bound iodine. (author)

  17. Analysis of thyroid hormones in gland and serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (THs), which are critical for growth and development in all vertebrates, can be impacted through chemical perturbation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Amphibian and mammalian models are being used to address this research priority within US EPA...

  18. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas an...

  19. Automated benign & malignant thyroid lesion characterization and classification in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vinitha Sree; Molinari, Filippo; Garberoglio, Roberto; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) based technique for automatic classification of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images. The images were obtained from 20 patients. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and histology confirmed malignancy. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and texture based features were extracted from the thyroid images. The resulting feature vectors were used to train and test three different classifiers: K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), and Decision Tree (DeTr) using ten-fold cross validation technique. Our results show that combination of DWT and texture features in the K-NN classifier resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.9%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 99.8%. Thus, the preliminary results of the proposed technique show that it could be adapted as an adjunct tool that can give valuable second opinions to the doctors regarding the nature of the thyroid nodule. The technique is cost-effective, non-invasive, fast, completely automated and gives more objective and reproducible results compared to manual analysis of the ultrasound images. We however intend to establish the clinical applicability of this technique by evaluating it with more data in the future. PMID:23365926

  20. Comparison between ultrasonography and computed tomography for detecting the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland: A prospective multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Na [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, busan (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jin Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To compare the detection rates of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland (TPL) using ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in a prospective multi-center study. We enrolled 582 patients who underwent neck CT at six institutions. Each radiologist prospectively evaluated the presence and features of TPLs on thyroid US. Radiologists were divided into two groups according to their previous experience in detecting TPL on US or CT. The same radiologist also retrospectively assessed CT findings, blinded to the corresponding US findings. The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid glands were detected in 230 cases (39.5%) on US and in 276 cases (47.6%) on CT. The TPL detection rate at the six institutions ranged from 22.0% to 59% for US and from 34.1% to 59% using CT. There were significant differences between US and CT in the detection rate, length, anteroposterior diameter, volume, and superior extent of TPL (p < or = 0.027). The TPL detection rates on both US and CT (p < 0.001) differed significantly according to the experience level of the radiologists. When the CT result was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, as well as the accuracy of US for TPL detection were 72.6%, 91.5%, 89.3%, 77.3%, and 82.1%, respectively. Our prospective multicenter study revealed that US could detect TPL with relatively high diagnostic accuracy compared to CT. Because the detection rate of TPL varied significantly according to the radiologists' level of experience, careful inspection is necessary to avoid imaging pitfalls and ensure appropriate evaluation of TPL on both US and CT.

  1. Effect of Exogenous Thyroxine on Mophology and Development of Thyroid Gland in Marble Goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus Bleeker Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Awang Soh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine effect of the exogenous thyroxine (T on ontogeny of thyroid 4 gland in marble goby larvae and to found out whether the exogenous T can alter the follicle structure and the 4 level of T in marble goby. The larvae were exposed for 1 h in T solution at 0.1 ppm. Untreated larvae (control 4 4 were not immersed in T hormone. It was found that T levels in treated larvae were higher than control, but the 44 development patterns in both treated larvae and control were similar in which occurred a decreasing of T levels 4 from 3-7 days after hatching (dAH, and then increased again from 10 dAH onwards. The histological evidences that the follicles structure in treated larvae were difference than control, in which suggested abundance of thyroid hormone. These findings suggested that thyroid hormones (THs may play an important role during early larvals life and metamorphosis period. High total T levels in the treated larvae suggested that exogenous 4T has a predictable role to increase T level, especially in early larval stage of marble goby.

  2. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis pf Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Il; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Jin [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Jin Ho [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    A 69 year old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed,and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  3. Lack of Preemptive Analgesia by Intravenous Flurbiprofen in Thyroid Gland Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhaodi; Zhao, Haifang; Wang, Changsong; Han, Fei; Wang, Guonian

    2011-01-01

    Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on postoperative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consumption and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery.

  4. Metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland: report of 3 cases and brief review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastases to the thyroid are encountered rarely in clinical practice, but the number of cases seems to have increased in recent years. The reason of this increase may be a more frequent use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and the use of more sophisticated, complicated imaging techniques in patients with thyroid masses. Also, in addition to these reasons, the use of more organo-specific immunohistochemical antibodies in the examination of surgical specimens may affect the differential diagnosis of malignant tumours. Three metastatic tumours to thyroid were found in the retrospective review of malignant thyroid tumours diagnosed between January 1993 and December 2007. The primary tumours were clear cell carcinoma of the kidney, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and breast carcinoma-ductal type. A detailed clinical history, careful histological examination and essential immunohistochemistry helped in attaining the correct diagnosis

  5. [A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, J; Zarzycki, W; Kinalska, I

    1992-06-01

    A case is reported of centrocytic-centroblastic malignant lymphoma situated in the thyroid and simulating goitre. Attention is called to difficulties in establishing of correct diagnosis. PMID:1441535

  6. Modification of the activity of lymphocytes by xenotransplantation of thyroid gland tissue and by the transfer factor of immune reactivity in the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of a thyroid tissue is one of the possible methods for the curing of functional disorders of thyroid gland that appear due to the influence of insufficient environmental conditions on organism. By the micro method of lymphocyte blast transformation reaction, the functional activity of Wistar rat's splenocytes is studied. In the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis before and after xenotransplantation of the organic cell culture of thyroid gland of newborn pigs, the opportunities for correction of immunological disorders with the help of transfer factor preparations are investigated. The transfer factor is a low-molecular weight leukocyte extract (? 10kD) with immuno modulating activities. The reducing of self and PHA-stimulated proliferation of rat's splenocytes with [J131]-induced hypothyrosis is found. Bovine and human transfer factor preparations activate the proliferation of splenocytes from animals with hypothyrosis and animals with xenotransplantation

  7. Variation of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) estimates of radiation-induced hypothyroidism in relation to changes in delineation of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RØnjom, Marianne Feen; Brink, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background. To examine the variations of risk-estimates of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (HT) from our previously developed normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in relation to variability of delineation of the thyroid gland. Patients and methods. In a previous study for development of an NTCP model for HT, the thyroid gland was delineated in 246 treatment plans of patients with HNSCC. Fifty of these plans were randomly chosen for re-delineation for a study of the intra- and inter-observer variability of thyroid volume, Dmean and estimated risk of HT. Bland-Altman plots were used for assessment of the systematic (mean) and random [standard deviation (SD)] variability of the three parameters, and a method for displaying the spatial variation in delineation differences was developed. Results. Intra-observer variability resulted in a mean difference in thyroid volume and Dmean of 0.4 cm(3) (SD ± 1.6) and -0.5 Gy (SD ± 1.0), respectively, and 0.3 cm(3) (SD ± 1.8) and 0.0 Gy (SD ± 1.3) for inter-observer variability. The corresponding mean differences of NTCP values for radiation-induced HT due to intra- and inter-observer variations were insignificantly small, -0.4% (SD ± 6.0) and -0.7% (SD ± 4.8), respectively, but as the SDs show, for some patients the difference in estimated NTCP was large. Conclusion. For the entire study population, the variation in predicted risk of radiation-induced HT in head and neck cancer was small and our NTCP model was robust against observer variations in delineation of the thyroid gland. However, for the individual patient, there may be large differences in estimated risk which calls for precise delineation of the thyroid gland to obtain correct dose and NTCP estimates for optimized treatment planning in the individual patient.

  8. Lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid is caused by an alteration in the embryological migration of the gland. Its most common location is the base of the tongue, and it is generally discovered by chance. We present a case of lingual ectopic thyroid gland diagnosed by computerized tomography (CT) and confirmed by isotopic study

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  10. Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on the Morphology of Thyroid Gland in Male Wistar Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Onu*, B. O. Oke1, P. C. Ozegbe1 and J. O. Oyewale2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted to document the effect of alcohol on the morphology of thyroid gland of male rat offspring whose dams consumed alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. Seventy-five female rats divided into three groups, 1, 2, and 3, of 25 each and their offspring were used. Group 1 served as control (C, group 2 was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and lactation (APL while group 3 was exposed to alcohol during lactation only (AL. At day 35 and 49 postpartum 5 male rat offspring were randomly selected from the three groups and sacrificed. After the sacrifice, the thyroids were dissected out and their absolute and relative weights determined. Thereafter, the thyroid tissues were prepared for routine histological examination. The results of the investigation showed significant reduction (P<0.05 in the weights of the thyroid and thyroid follicles. There was also disorganization and desquamation of follicular cells. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake during pregnancy and/or lactation could be injurious to the thyroid glands of the offspring.

  11. Fine needle aspiration of secondary synovial sarcoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murro, Diana; Slade, Jamie Macagba; Syed, Sahr; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Synovial sarcomas (SS) of the head and neck region are extremely rare and arise in only 5% of cases. We present a case of secondary SS of the thyroid originally diagnosed as medullary carcinoma on fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 41-year-old man presented with several weeks of dysphonia and a left thyroid mass. FNA of the thyroid nodule showed a cellular smear composed of loosely cohesive oval to spindle-shaped cells with irregular nuclear borders, finely granular chromatin, and inconspicuous nucleoli. The patient was diagnosed with medullary carcinoma and underwent a total thyroidectomy. Intro-operatively, the mass was found to arise from the tracheoesophageal groove with spread to the left thyroid. Microscopic examination of the thyroid tumor revealed a dense spindle cell proliferation with abundant mitoses, scant cords and nests of epithelial cells and foci of necrosis. The spindle cells were positive for bcl2 and vimentin and the epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratin 8/18 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Both spindle and epithelial cells were negative for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, synaptophysin and chromogranin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated translocation (X;18)(p11;q11), confirming the diagnosis of SS. The patient underwent a total laryngopharyngoesophagectomy with subsequent adjuvant therapy and is currently disease free. Only 6 cases of histologically confirmed primary SS of the thyroid have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of FISH-confirmed secondary SS of the thyroid and also the first case of SS arising from the tracheoesophageal groove. PMID:26304470

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of NPY, VIP and 5-HT in the thyroid gland of the lizard, Podarcis sicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sciarrillo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland of the lizard Podarcis sicula was immunohistochemically studied in adult male specimens using specific antibodies against NPY, VIP and 5-HT and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC procedure to localize the three peptides. Fine beaded VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers ran between the follicles, and VIP-immunoreactivity was evenly distributed in the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were found around the follicles, and, in the cells, immunoreactivity was localizated only in the cellular apices. Immunoreactivity to 5-HT was observed in the colloid, with a concentration in the follicular lumen exceeding that in the follicular cells. In fact, most follicles showed immunoreactivity in the cytoplasmic bridges formed between the apical portion of the follicular cells and the colloid.

  13. Conduta conservadora no carcinoma papilífero da glândula tireóide Partial resection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josias de Andrade Sobrinho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento do carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo da glândula tireóide, através de tireoidectomia parcial com seguimento superior a cinco anos. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 105 prontuários de pacientes portadores de carcinoma diferenciado da glândula tireóidea operados no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo de 1977 a 1997 e selecionados 31 casos que apresentavam nódulos limitados a um lobo da glândula com seguimento superior a cinco anos e submetidos à lobectomia total mais istmectomia. RESULTADOS: Observamos somente um caso (3% de disfonia transitória com paresia de prega vocal unilateral que regrediu espontaneamente. Não houve casos de hipoparatireoidismo transitório ou definitivo. O seguimento médio foi de 12,6 anos, sendo todos com seguimento superior a cinco anos; 10 casos (32% com seguimento entre 10 e 15 anos e 10 casos (32% com seguimento além de 15 anos. Não foram observados casos com recorrência loco-regional ou metástase à distância, estando todos eles assintomáticos e sem doença. CONCLUSÃO: Nesta série, a tireoidectomia parcial para carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo, mostrou-se eficaz.BACKGROUND: To analyse the survival rate after partial resection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland. METHODS: After a retrospective study of 105 files of patients operated on at Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo from 1977 to 1997, 31 patients with a single node were selected. They were submitted to partial resection (total lobectomy plus istmectomy, and evaluated for five years or more postoperatively. RESULTS: It was observed one case of transitory disphony (3% with spontaneous regression.There were no cases of hypoparathyroidism. Medium follow up was of 12,6 years, with 10 (32% with follow up between 10 and 15 years and 10(32% with more than 15 years. No regional or distant recurrences were observed , and all patients are doing well. CONCLUSION: In this series, partial thyroidectomy was efficient as radical therapy for papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland.

  14. Evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology as a screening tool in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Methods: The retrospective study comprised data of all patients who presented for fine needle aspiration cytology at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, between January 2009 and April 2011. The data was retrieved from the departmental records and the results were recorded. All cases who underwent subsequent surgery were also retrieved and histopathology results were compared with the cytology results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Results: Of the 327 patients, the results were inconclusive in 18 (5.5%), benign in 230 (70.3%), suspicious in 64 (19.6%) and malignant in 15 (4.6%) cases. Besides, 59 (18%) of these patients underwent subsequent surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology was calculated to be 85.7%, 73.3%, 50% , 94.2% and 76.2% respectively. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a reasonably sensitive, specific and accurate initial diagnostic test for pre-operative evaluation of patients with thyroid swellings. The clinicians should be encouraged to use the procedure as it is minimally invasive and easily performed in an outpatient setting. (author)

  15. Comparative sonographic and scintigraphic investigations in autonomous adenomas of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of active thyroid tissue can be detected on scintigraphic images and consequently the diagnosis of an autonomous thyroid adenoma is established on the basis of scintigraphic examinations. The sonographic examination is considerably supplemented by scintigraphic information. Domain of sonography is the determination of size and structure of adenomas and of the extranodular tissue. In the primary diagnosis of a decompensated autonomous a adenoma, sonography permits the fast differential diagnostical delineation of a shape anomaly or an aplasia of the thyroid lobes and the detection of the contralateral lobe (for example due to a tumor, a focal inflammation, a cyst). When the diagnosis has been confirmed, besides in-vitro tests sonography is the preferential non-invasive follow-up technique which can be repeated at choice. One disadvantage of this method is that retrosternal parts of larger struma and adenomas cannot be imaged and detected sonographically. (orig./MG)

  16. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  17. Thyroid abscess.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohondia O

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid abscess arising from Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis (AST is a rare clinical disorder. The ability of the thyroid gland to resist infection is well known and infection in the thyroid gland is rare, particularly so with the advent of widespread usage of antibiotics. An internal pharyngeal fistula (Pyriform sinus fistula is the most common underlying abnormality in patients with AST. We report a case of an adult male who presented with a thyroid abscess. The causal organism was found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Intravenous antibiotics and, incision and drainage of the abscess led to an uncomplicated recovery.

  18. Output parameters of the 131I bi-phasic vs. monoexponential biokinetics model in thyroid gland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, F.; Jirsa, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 107, ?. 4 (2006), s. 177-177. [Days of Medical Biophysics /29./. 16.05.2006-18.05.2006, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1ET100750404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thyroid activity * model of activity * effective half-life * residence time * radiation dose Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  19. Effects of metamorphosis and captivity on the in vitro sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was tested in vitro. Thyroids were taken from subjects representing metamorphic stages I (premetamorphic larvae), II (onset of climax), and VII (completion of gill resorption), as well as from captivity control larvae. Exogenous TSH reduced the cumulative uptake of 125I in vitro by thyroids from stage I larvae after 24 and 48 hr. The capacity of thyroids to release thyroxine (T4) in vitro was used subsequently as a measure of their responsiveness to TSH. Baseline levels of T4 release in vitro were variable but did not differ significantly among developmental stages. A low dose of bTSH (5 X 10(-6) IU/ml) did not increase in vitro T4 release compared with that of controls. A larger dose (5 X 10(-4) IU/ml) caused greater increases in T4 release from thyroids of stage II and VII subjects than from those of controls. This dose produced only a small response by thyroids from captivity-control subjects. The results suggest that the thyroids of Ambystoma increase in their capacity to respond to TSH during the process of metamorphosis

  20. Thyroid gland hormones in newborn calves treated with clinoptilolite receiving different amounts of colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoji? Velibor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the natural mineral adsorber clinoptilolite on serum levels of thyroid hormones in newborn calves in the first 48 hours postpartum. A total number of 68 newborn Holstein calves divided in four groups were used in the present study. Calves were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1 0.75 L of colostrum in 12h intervals, with 5 g/L of clinoptilolite immediately after birth (Oh at 12h and 24h after birth (0.75+; 2 0.75L of colostrum in 12h intervals (0.75-, which represents the first control group; 3 1.5L of colostrum in 12h intervals, with 5 g/L of clinoptilolite immediately after birth (Oh, at 12h and 24h after birth (1.5+, and 4 1.5 L of colostrum in 12h intervals (1.5-, which represents the second control group. The calves were born with high blood serum thyroid hormones concentrations (9.7-13.5 nmol/L for T3 and 201-235 nmol/L for T^. At 6. hours after birth serum thyroid hormone levels increased in all groups, but become significantly lower at 48. hours after birth. Clinoptilolite treatment could influence the rise in blood serum thyroid hormones concentration during the early postnatal period. This was most evident in the treated group of calves that received 1.5 L of colostrum (T3, 6h, 11.7±3.4:19.4±7.4, p<0.01; 1.5+ vs. 1.5-. Results indicate that there is a possible effect of clinoptilolite treatment on blood serum thyroid hormones concentration in newborn calves during the first 48 hours of life.

  1. Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of NIS gene transcripts was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland. PMID:25448256

  2. Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis. Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers. We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years. The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma. The papillary carcinoma was continuous with the anaplastic carcinoma. The findings were supported by immunohistochemistry. The patient was managed by a total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection followed by chemotherapy. However, she died two months after surgery. The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers. This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.

  3. Giant sternal metastasis secondary to follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Sotirios; Perelas, Apostolos; Toufektzian, Levon; Mazarakis, Nikolaos; Pechlivanides, Georgios

    2012-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our department for investigation and treatment of a progressively enlarging multinodular goiter and a fast growing mass infiltrating the sternum. The patient was euthyroid, but computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography showed a mass in the anterior mediastinum infiltrating the sternum, with a dominant nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Fine needle aspiration biopsy results from both the cervical and the mediastinal masses were suggestive of follicular thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, thymectomy, and total removal of the mass, along with parts of the sternum, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and attached ribs. The thoracic wall was reconstructed with gortex dual mesh covered by muscle flaps from both pectoralis major muscles. Pathological analysis of both masses confirmed the fine needle aspiration findings and the patient received three cycles of radioactive iodine treatment. She had an uneventful postoperative course, but died of a stroke 8 years later. PMID:22576227

  4. No evidence of radiation risk for thyroid gland among schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess thyroid status among the schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan, and to evaluate the current status of iodine deficiency in this area, we performed medical screening of schoolchildren in two villages, Kaynar and Karaul villages, East Kazakhstan Region, Republic of Kazakhstan, located within 100 km of SNTS. A total of 196 schoolchildren were chosen at random. Control groups comprised 250 schoolchildren from Nagasaki, an iodine-rich area, and 100 schoolchildren from Gomel, an iodine-deficient area contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Ultrasound screening of thyroid revealed three cases of benign thyroid disease (two cases of goiter and one single cyst), but no cases suspicious of malignancy. The urinary iodine (UI) concentrations of subjects in Kaynar and Karaul ranged from 21.8 to 735.8 ?g/L, 4.3% of whom showed low UI concentrations (<50 ?g/L), compared with 0% in the Nagasaki group and 52% in the Gomel group. The median UI concentration in Kaynar and Karaul was 153.2 ?g/L, which was significantly lower than that in Nagasaki (366.3 ?g/L, p<0.0001) but higher than that in Gomel (47.3 ?g/L, p<0.0001). In conclusion, there was a low incidence of morphological abnormalities in the thyroid, and no evidence for severe iodine deficiency among the Kazakhstan children studied. These results suggest that there is no transgenerational risk for schoolchildren born from parents irradiated as a result of tests carried out in SNTS. (author)

  5. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen Hadj-Kacem; Rihab Kallel; Salima Belguith-Maalej; Mouna Mnif; Ilhem Charfeddine; Abdelmounem Ghorbel; Mohamed Abid; Hammadi Ayadi; Saber Masmoudi

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS), an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA), and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL). However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21) of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junc...

  6. Paraplegia in a puerperal woman due to spinal metastasis from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an unusual case of paraplegia which occurred on the second postnatal day. Investigations revealed a spinal mass at D-7 level. Histopathology of the tumor showed it to be a spinal metastasis from a solitary thyroid malignant nodule. The patient had laminotomy and biopsy, followed later by total thyroidectomy. She also had radiotherapy and radio-iodine ablation. We discuss the therapeutic modalities of such a condition. (author)

  7. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplowitz PaulB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10?mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  8. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for about 4% of thyroid cancers. It develops from the C cells of the thyroid gland, which normally make calcitonin, ... discussed in our separate document, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . Thyroid ... cancers start in the supporting cells of the thyroid. They are often aggressive and ...

  9. The influence of low-level radiation and gangliosides on adenylate cyclase activity in thymus and thyroid glands of chicks in ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate cyclase (AC) activity was studied in thymus and thyroid gland of intact chick embryos and those irradiated with a dose of 0.029 Gy prior to incubation, and newly hatched chocks in the presence of total ganglioside fractions extracted from the same organs. Gangliosides were shown to increase the enzyme activity of thymocytes and thyreocytes during the postnatal development. It is suggested that small radiation doses potentiate the stimulatory effect of ganglioside fractions on AC

  10. Population of antithyroid autoantibodies as a source of antibodies of various levels of specificity and functionality: the clinical importance of a phenomenon of combination theory at monitoring of patients with autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Andreeva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature is dedicated to comparative analysis of pathogenetic and clinicodiagnostic significance of antithyroid autoantibodies (autoAB differing in their specificity (?B to thyroglobulin (anti-TG and ?B to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, anti-TGPO, and functionality TG- and TPO-antibodies, namely antibodies-proteases in pathogenesis autoimmune diseases thyroid gland and possibility of their use in modern diagnostics of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  11. The Rate of Metabolism and Performance of Broiler Who Gets Skin Treatment Rations Containing Cassava Flour and Injection Solution Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Windusari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research was to find out the effect of the thyroid gland flour given by injection and skin cassava flour given in the diet on metabolic rate and performance of broiler chickens. Feeds were arranged with protein content (18% and metabolism energy (2900 kcal/kg in accordance with recommendations of Nutrition Research Council (NRC. As many as 35 were one week old chicks used in this study. Completely random design was used in this research, with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. Each of these repeats was placed 3 ducks and kept for 3 months. The treatment consisted of P1 (control diet, P2 (70% basal diet + 30% cassava peel without steam, P3 (100% basal ration with treatment of the thyroid gland injection of starch solution as much as 10 mg per day in subcutaneous, P4 (100% basal ration with treatment of the thyroid gland flour solution injection of 20 mg per day in subcutaneous. The results showed that metabolic activity of broilers increased concurrently with the increasing age characterized by increased oxygen consumption, body heat production and basal metabolic rate

  12. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  13. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauro, Ceccanti; Sara, De Nicolò; Rosanna, Mancinelli; George, Chaldakov; Valentina, Carito; Marco, Ceccanti; Giovanni, Laviola; Paola, Tirassa; Marco, Fiore.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to inve [...] stigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  14. Profile of salivary gland flow dysfunctions in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma submitted to radioiodine therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Clara Fontes, Vieira; Aline Sampaio Lima, Rodrigues; Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira da, Cruz; Fernanda Ferreira, Lopes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effects of radioiodine therapy on salivary flow in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: A sample comprising 88 patients submitted to ablation with iodine 131 was included in the study. The patients were submitted to sialometry and evaluation of the presence of x [...] erostomia before, 10 days and 3 months after radioiodine therapy. RESULTS: Xerostomia was observed in 36.4% of the patients before radioiodine therapy, 59.15% at 10 days after therapy, and 25% at 3 months after therapy. Significant differences were observed in non-stimulated salivary flow rates between the second and third evaluations (p

  15. An assessment of the potential role of routine radionuclide thyroid scanning in the differentiation between solid and cystic lesions in the solitary thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of the conventional sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan, to differentiate cystic from solid solitary or dominant non-functioning nodules in the thyroid was investigated in 104 patients. Although these nodules are thought to be non-functioning, a low level of radioactivity can be detected in some of the nodules. The assessment was based on the level of radioactivity in the nodules. The nodules with higher activity were considered to have a higher probability of being solid. This diagnosis was confirmed either by ultrasound, or by histological examination, or both, and sensitivity and specificity evaluated with ROC curve analysis which reached 81% sensitivity with a specificity of 44%. The method was more reliable for larger than for smaller nodules reaching a sensitivity of 81% with a specificity of 84%. The results indicate that sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scanning can provide a useful procedure to distinguish between cystic and solid lesions in the thyroid. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of surface radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the gonads during routine full-mouth intraoral periapical and maxillary occlusal radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyl Sheikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The quantitative aspects of radiation doses to critical organs can help the dental professionals to take the necessary radiation protective measures as deemed necessary and can help the general public to allay radiation exposure fear in dental radiography, if any. Our study determines the surface radiation dose to thyroid and gonads in full-mouth intraoral periapical (IOPA and maxillary occlusal radiography.Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 subjects participated in the study. The surface radiation dose was estimated to the thyroid gland and the gonads in full-mouth IOPA radiography using 10 IOPA (E speed films and in maxillary occlusal radiography. The measurements were calculated using a digital pocket dosimeter (PD-4507.Results: The average dose at the thyroid gland level during full-mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 10.93 mRads (1.093 ? 10 -2 mGy and 0.4 mRads (4.0 ? 10 -2 mGy, respectively. The average surface radiation dose at the gonadal region during a full mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 1.5 mRads (1.5 ? 10 -2 mGy and 0.15 mRads (1.5 ? 10 -3 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that although the radiation exposure doses to critical organs namely thyroid and gonads is within the safe limits still precautionary measures for these organs are advocated.

  17. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  18. Should We Apply Suction During Fine Needle Cytology of Thyroid Lesions? A Prospective Study of 200 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Chowhan, Amit kumar; Babu, K V Sreedhar; Sachan, Alok; Rukmangdha, N; Patnayak, Rashmi; K. Radhika; Phaneendra, B V; Reddy, M Kumaraswamy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established first line diagnostic tool in evaluating palpable thyroid lesions. However, the technique depends on suction and thus is at times painful, sometimes traumatic and yield haemorrhagic material for cytological study. In more recent times, a modified technique called fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) has come into vogue which obviates the use of suction and therefore is more patient friendly.

  19. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid in Treating Patients With Metastatic and/or Locally Advanced or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  20. A Study on the Effects of the X-Ray Irradiation and Thyroid Gland on the Erythropoietic System in Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of X-ray irradiation and the thyroid gland on the erythropoietic system were studied in the white male rabbits. The total body irradiation was done in doses of 250r and 500r to each of 5 rabbits for 10 days. The factors were 220 KV, 10 mA, FLI/4 Cu+1 mmAl (HVL:2.0 mmCu) 50 cm F.S.D. The thyroid dysfunction was experimentally induced by giving 2 mg of thyroid tablets per kg body weight for 15 days in 5 rabbits for hyperthyroidism and by giving 1.5 mC of 131I per kg body weight in another 5 rabbits for hypothyroidism. Fourteen healthy rabbits were used as control. The hematologic changes and ferrokinetic data obtained from 59Fe and apparent half survival of the red blood cells obtained from 51Cr were compared. Following were the results: A. X-ray irradiated group; 1) There were no significant changes in hematologic findings except for leucopenia. A slight decrease of red blood cells was observed in 500r irradiated animals. 2) The decrease in the iron turnover rates of the plasma and red blood cells as well as in the red cell renewal rate were found in both groups. A significant decrease of the red cell iron utilization rate was observed in the 500r irradiated animals. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were slightly, in the 250r (12.1±0.80 days), and markedly shortened in the 500r irradiated animals (9.8±1.38 days), the normal being 14.0±1.6 days. 4) It appears, therefore, that the anemia caused by X-ray irradiation is due to the inhibition of hemopoietic function and the excess destruction of the red blood cells. B. 1) The slight increase of the red blood cell count and circulating blood volume with the normal serum iron level were observed in the hyperthyoid group, while the decrease of the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values with a marked decrease of the serum iron level in the hypothyroid group. 2) A marked decrease of the plasma iron disappearance rate with increase of plasma iron turnover, red cell iron utilization and red cell iron turnover were observed in the hyperthyroid group, while the marked delay and decrease in the hypothyroid group. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were almost the same with the control in the hyperthyroid group, (14.0±1.58 days) while a marked shortening in the hypothyroid group (10.6±0.30 days). 4) It was reconfirmed that the thyroid hormones bear a close relationship with the erythropoietic system, namely, the latter is stimulated by the former. The lack of the thyroid hormones thus induces the bone marrow depression leading to anemia the major cause of which, therefore, is not hemolysis.

  1. Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto T. Bertelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento.Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

  2. Diagnosing diseases of the thyroid gland by means of scintiscanning and puncture cytology taking into consideration the nodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains the results of scintigraphical and puncture-cytological examinations carried out during an observation period of appr. 3 years on 548 patients with goiters from the Upper-Bavarien endemis region. In total, we had 484 thyroid gland scintigrams which showed 335 uninodular, 71 multinodular, and 78 diffuse goiters. The 335 solitary nodular goiters were allocated 278 cold, 36 warm, and 18 hot nodes; in three cases, the scintigram could not be assessed due to exogenous iodine contamination. In the 71 multinodular goiters, we found 118 cold, 28 warm, and 9 hot nodes. Cytological findings were established in 548 patients. In 484 cases, the findings were negative, in 19 cases suspicious, and in 17 cases positive. The efficiency of cytological diagnosis of malignant tumours can be stated to be 87.5%. The rate of falsely negative smears was 12.5%; cytologically, in 10.9% of the preparations falsely suspicious diagnoses were established, and in 1.6% the diagnoses were falsely positive. (orig./MG)

  3. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis

  4. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis.

  5. Development of an iodine captor for the study of the performance of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detection-measurement system (DETEC - PC) to be used in those studies of iodine reception in thyroid. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind module of measurement and the application software. The measurement module, communicates through an interface RS-232 series with the Personal Computer where the application software resides (DETEC). The software was designed chord with the principles from the Guided Programming to Objects and it was programmed in C++. The software besides the measurement of the patients, carries out the statistical processing of the lot of samples to use, fixed automatically the spectrometric parameters for the measurement, it possesses a database where it is stored the information of the studied patients and a help with the options of the system. (Author)

  6. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using 124I PET(/CT) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after 131I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and ?96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq 124I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered 131I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The 124I PET(/CT) salivary gland dosimetry indicated that lemon juice stimulation shortly after 131I administration in radioiodine therapy increases the absorbed doses to the salivary glands. (orig.)

  7. [Effect of thyroid hormones on the histotopography of lectin receptors in the rat salivary gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsik, A D; Iashchenko, A M; Detiuk, E S

    1987-04-01

    Using lectin-peroxidase technique, the influence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on histotopography of glycoconjugates has been investigated in rat submandibular gland. The following lectins were used: peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Laburnum anagyroides lectin (LAL) and concanavalin A (con A). It has been demonstrated that hyperthyroidism is accompanied by the loss of con A, WGA and LAL receptor sites. Hypothyrodism enhanced con A binding to granular duct cells with a parallel reduction in WGA and LAL binding to these or other duct cells. Hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism markedly enhanced PNA binding to duct epitheliocytes with redistribution of these lectin binding sites from the luminal surface of salivary ducts into the cytoplasm of duct cells. Possible interpretations of the observed phenomena are discussed. PMID:3567350

  8. Thyroid cancers and benign thyroid pathologies among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work is to detect the frequency and the character of thyroid diseases manly with thyroid cancer diagnosed among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia. Conclusions: Usually, in Latvia every year there are 2-3 thyroid cancer cases per 100 thousand inhabitants, but there are 3 cases per 5 thousands Chernobyl clean-up workers - that mean 20 times more than in general population. The first case of thyroid follicular and papillary carcinoma in the Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia was diagnosed after a latent period of 10 years. Among benign thyroid lesions, cystic colloid goiter and nodular colloid goiter seem to be commonly associated with radiation exposure to the thyroid gland

  9. Correlação entre níveis de iodo na urina e alterações anatomopatológicas em tireoide / Correlation between iodine urinary levels and pathological changes in thyroid glands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo César Ribeiro, Boasquevisque; Robson Dettman, Jarske; Cleia Coelho, Dias; Isabela Passos Pereira, Quintaes; Maria Carmen Lopes Ferreira Silva, Santos; Carlos, Musso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o aporte nutricional de iodo na população estudada e correlacionar os níveis de iodo encontrados em amostras casuais de urina (iodúria) com alterações anatomopatológicas observadas nas tireoides dessa população. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Determinou-se a iodúria em 30 amostras casuai [...] s de urina e realizou-se o estudo anatomopatológico de 55 tireoides colhidas de cadáveres que deram entrada no Departamento Médico Legal de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil, no período de maio a agosto de 2011. RESULTADOS: Em 29 amostras de urina (96,7%) encontrou-se iodúria acima do limite máximo preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) de 300 µg/L. Em 14 tireoides (25,5%) foi identificada a presença de quadros histológicos compatíveis com tireoidite. Níveis mais elevados de iodo na urina foram observados no sexo feminino e nos casos de tireoides com presença de achados inflamatórios (tireoidites). CONCLUSÕES: Podemos concluir que na população estudada houve um excesso de iodo em seu aporte nutricional e uma maior incidência de quadros inflamatórios tireoidianos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To determine iodine nutrition in the population and to correlate levels of iodine found in random samples of urine with pathological changes observed in thyroids collected in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urinary iodine was determined in 30 random samples of urine and the patho [...] logical study was carried out in 55 thyroid glands from corpses received by the Department of Forensic Medicine of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil from May to August 2011. RESULTS: In 29 urine samples (96.7%) urinary iodine was above the maximum limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), of 300 mg/L. Fourteen thyroids (25.5%) showed the presence of histological changes compatible with thyroiditis. Higher levels of iodine in urine were observed in females and in of thyroid that showed inflammation (thyroiditis). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, in this population, there is excess iodine intake, and greater incidence of inflammatory thyroid disease.

  10. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm / Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti, Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Karla Lais, Pêgas.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas [...] de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP), antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA), p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1) e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consi [...] sted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.

  11. Comparison of various methods relating to radionuclide examination of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the medical images obtained using as a scintillation detector device either a gamma camera with pinhole collimator, a gamma camera with parallel hole collimator or a scanner equipped with a focussing collimator was compared on the basis of visual evaluation of 140 scintigrams of the thyroid, prepared following administration of 99 mTc pertechnetate. The following conclusions could be drawn: Decisive advantages of the scanner were colour contrast, non-distorted organ visualisation and uncomplicated localisation of palpatory findings. The images provided by the gamma camera and parallel hole collimator turned out to be unsatisfactory despite the use of such processing techniques as smoothing and contrast enhancement. The scintigrams obtained using the camera with pinhole collimator were characterized by the highest resolution capacity and thus permitted any details to be ascertained with a high degree of accuracy. Information in excess of the findings revealed by the scintiscanner and parallel hole collimator was provided in 40% and 55% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Galectin-3 immunostaining in thyroid neoplasms Imunomarcação por galectina-3 em neoplasias de tireóide

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Emanuel de Alcântara Segura; Albino Verçosa de Magalhães

    2005-01-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland is the most important presurgical proceeding in defining the malignancy of a nodular lesion, it has limitations such as shared cytological morphology between malignant and benign lesions. Galectin-3, a b-galactoside-binding lectin is expressed mainly by malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fifty-seven specimens, including 14 papillary carcinomas, 22 follicular carcinomas and 21 follicular adenomas were tested for immunohistochemical s...

  13. Image fusion analysis of 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide scintigraphy and CT/MRI in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy: the importance of the lacrimal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical structures that show uptake of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). The study population comprised a series of 20 TAO patients attending the out-patient thyroid clinic and 12 patients presenting head or neck tumours. Scintigraphy was carried out with our newly developed tracer, technetium-99m labelled EDDA-HYNIC-TOC (99mTc-TOC). Morphological imaging was done with either magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray computed tomography without contrast medium. Both imaging procedures were done within an interval of 3-4 weeks. For the image fusion procedure, specific external reference markers were used for each imaging modality. The markers were screwed onto a reference frame, which was held in place via a vacuum-fixed mouthpiece. The anatomical structure showing tracer uptake that was most frequently recognised was the lacrimal gland, followed by the retronasal area, cervical lymph structures, salivary glands, the anterior insertion points of the extra-ocular muscles and discrete areas of the neck extensor muscles. The lacrimal gland and the retronasal area showed the highest and most frequent uptake of 99mTc-TOC in TAO patients, whereas such uptake did not occur in the retrobulbar space. In spite of knowledge of these results of image fusion, no changes in the involved structures could be detected on morphological imaging. It is concluded that binding of 99mTc-TOC is more frequently localised to the anterior compartment of the eye and to the neck. The previously used term ''orbital'' uptake should be abandoned and replaced by a descriptive term relating to the anatomically recognised structure showing tracer accumulation, i.e. the lacrimal gland. The uptake of octreotide by lymphoid and salivary glands opens a new field of investigation related to the physiology of somatostatin. (orig.)

  14. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave’s disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of ...

  15. Stereotoracic skin biopsy in non-palpable woman mammary glands lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy stereotactic breast biopsies in non palpable lesions were performed in asintomatic patients, studied with mammography, physical examination and high-resolution ultrasonography. A 14-gauge cutting needle was used with excursion of 2 and 20 mm. in high likelihood probably benign lesions and low likelihood probably malignant lesions, not snographical evident and not less than 4 mm. in diameter. Long term follow-up or surgical correlation is available in only 46 biopsies, with 35 negative results and 11 positive results for cancer. Follow-up mammography was recommended in 34 of 35 negative results and one case showed mammographic lesion progression, a false negative result, with sensitivity 90.9% and NPV 97%. Needle wire localization and open surgery was recommended in 11 positive results, with total agreement between stereotactic core biopsy and open surgery, with specificity 100% and PPV 100%. The indication of stereotactic biopsy in non palpable lesions as an alternative to surgical biopsy in order to decrease the number of surgical biopsies with negative results and in consequence lowering costs of diagnosis of asintomatic malignant lesions, with error of 2.1% and 2.8% minor complications

  16. The thyroid hormone receptor gene (c-erbA alpha) is expressed in advance of thyroid gland maturation during the early embryonic development of Xenopus laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Banker, D E; Bigler, J.; Eisenman, R N

    1991-01-01

    The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptor, a ligand-dependent transcription factor which plays an important role in vertebrate growth and development. To define the role of the thyroid hormone receptor in developmental processes, we have begun studying c-erbA gene expression during the ontogeny of Xenopus laevis, an organism in which thyroid hormone has well-documented effects on morphogenesis. Using polymerase chain reactions (PCR) as a sensitive assay of specific gene e...

  17. Cirugía mayor ambulatoria de tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Manuel Luzardo Silveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo sobre la ejecución de cirugía mayor ambulatoria para eliminar tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides, lo cual fue realizado en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany" de Santiago de Cuba durante los años 1996-2008, ambos incluidos, previa valoración clínica de 74 pacientes en la consulta especializada de endocrinología, donde se decidió que podían ser operados con carácter definitivo. En la casuística predominaron el sexo femenino, los grupos etarios de 31-45 años, la hemitiroidectomía como técnica quirúrgica, la acupuntura como procedimiento analgésico y el adenoma folicular como resultado citohistológico. Se produjeron complicaciones leves en 5 integrantes de la muestra, pero la recuperación fue absoluta en todos, de manera que incluso 72 de ellos egresaron antes de las 24 horas. Este método operatorio, por la buena aceptación, es beneficioso para pacientes e instituciones hospitalarias.A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of "Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany" Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.

  18. Cirugía mayor ambulatoria de tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides / Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto Manuel, Luzardo Silveira; Juana Elisa, Eirin Arañó.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo sobre la ejecución de cirugía mayor ambulatoria para eliminar tumores benignos de la glándula tiroides, lo cual fue realizado en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany" de Santiago de Cuba dura [...] nte los años 1996-2008, ambos incluidos, previa valoración clínica de 74 pacientes en la consulta especializada de endocrinología, donde se decidió que podían ser operados con carácter definitivo. En la casuística predominaron el sexo femenino, los grupos etarios de 31-45 años, la hemitiroidectomía como técnica quirúrgica, la acupuntura como procedimiento analgésico y el adenoma folicular como resultado citohistológico. Se produjeron complicaciones leves en 5 integrantes de la muestra, pero la recuperación fue absoluta en todos, de manera que incluso 72 de ellos egresaron antes de las 24 horas. Este método operatorio, por la buena aceptación, es beneficioso para pacientes e instituciones hospitalarias. Abstract in english A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of "Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany" Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both in [...] cluded, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.

  19. Studies on the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland through foods contaminated by gaseous radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that iodine-131 released in the air is taken in the body through skin, inhalation and foods. Among them it is supposed that the path through foods such as milk and leaf vegetables must be critical. Because of the comparatively less consumption of milk in Japan, however, the leaf vegetables may be the most suspicious food followed by milk. This paper concerns the parameters used for the estimation of the oral intake of the nuclide discharged into the air. A specially designed exposure chamber was developed for the measurement of so-called velocity of deposition. The experiment was done by use of two chemical forms of stable iodine. The velocity of deposition obtained was 2.6 x 10-3 cm/sec for methyl iodine and 1.8 x 10-1 cm/sec for elemental iodine, respectively. The elemental iodine deposited easily onto inner wall of the chamber. And therefore space was allowed for the discussion how to identify the concentration of the elemental iodine circulating in the chamber. The yield of commercially available leaves of spinach was 1.7 to 2.0 kg/m2 of the field. Consumption of milk and leaf vegetables was surveyed in Tokai-mura. Infants of 6 months after birth ingested about 1000 ml of mother milk or powdered milk. Children upto 2 years old took about 500 ml of market milk and 15 g of leaf vegetables. Those of 2 to 5 years old had about 300 ml of market milk and 50 to 80 g of leaf vegetables. Estimation was done on the stable iodine intake which was one of the factors relating to the transfer rate of radioactive iodine to thyroid gland. It was conjected that at least more than 800 ?g of stable iodine could be ingested everyday by an adult inhabited there. As to infants, the work is now in progress. (author)

  20. Value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    1997 to 2006, were reviewed with special reference to its value in the clinical treatment of patients. RESULTS: Cytologic as well as histologic diagnoses of 382 patients were available. In these diagnoses, the sensitivity of malignancy was 83% and specificity was 99%. The positive predictive value was...... 98%, and the negative predictive value was 97%. The overall accuracy was 93%. The correct subtyping of the benign lesions was 97%, and the exact type-specific concordance of the malignant lesions was 71%. CONCLUSION: Considerable benefit to the patient may result from the cautious use of FNAB of...

  1. Prevalence of salivary glands lesions from histopathologic diagnosis of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of PUCPR in the period of 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre BETTIO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesions that affect salivary glands are a group of clinic entities ranging from local pathological alterations to the manifestation of systemic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of cases of lesions regarding salivary glands in patients of dental clinic of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR. Material and methods: A total of 1990 histopathologic reports was analyzed in data of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, in the period of 1999 to 2008. Seventy-three cases of salivary glands diseases were analyzed, according to sex, age and histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Mucocele was the most prevalent lesion, with 58 cases (2.9%. Others diseases were diagnosed, such as: pleomorphic adenoma (0.3%, cystic adenoid carcinoma (0.1%, sialoadenitis (0.1%, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (0.05%, Sjögren’s syndrome (0.05%, ranula (0.05% and adenomatoid hyperplasia (0.05%. No predilection for sex was observed, but the majority of diseases occurred principally during the three first life decades. Conclusion: These findings reinforce that the occurrence oflesions associated to the salivary glands is low when compared to others oral diseases. The more common pathological entities that affect salivary glands are associated to traumatic agents and affect adult male young patients.

  2. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Presenting as a Focal Uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Tae Seok; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Diffuse increased uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F FDG PET) is a well-known finding of the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Nevertheless, a pathologic confirmation is needed in cases of a focal 18F FDG uptake in the thyroid gland. This article reports a rare case of a focal 18F FDG uptake lesion by PET, which was revealed pathologically to be lymphocytic thyroiditis

  3. Metastasis in the pancreas of a primary carcinoma of the thyroid gland diagnosed by F18-FDG-PET - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present a patient, who was sent to F 18-FDG-PET because of oncological follow-up examination. The 79-year-old woman - had a hemithyroidectomy of her left thyroid lobe because of a C-cell-carcinoma twelve years ago and a heminephrectomy because of a hypemephrome 17 years ago. F18-FDG-PET (370 MBq) examination was done. Acquisition started 70 minutes after injection on a full ring PET scanner (ECAT HR+, Siemens). The blood glucose level was 105 mg/dl. The woman showed a pathological FDG-uptake in the left lateral tail of the pancreas, the right liver lobe and multiple pathological lymph nodes in the lower abdomen. There was no pathological FDG-uptake in the remaining thyroid gland. Histology of the pancreas showed a metastasis of the thyroid c-cell carcinoma in the pancreas. Metastases in the pancreas are very rare, especially metastases of a thyroid carcinoma. Therefore we wanted to demonstrate that F18-FDG PET is a sensitive and reliable method to identify such metastases. (author)

  4. Spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in the rat accelerated by thymectomy and low doses of irradiation: mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors involved in the production of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and sublethally irradiated rats were investigated. The study suggested that a gene linked to RTl of the rat major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a selective depletion of suppressor T cells and high radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland were required in varying degrees to initiate the autoimmune thyroiditis in these rats. K cells in the spleen markedly increased at the initial stage and subsequently decreased at the appearance of the thyroid lesion, suggesting the consumption of K cells by thyroid antigen-antibody complexes formed in situ and in the circulation. The data generally support the three genes concept that at least three genetically determined defects participate in triggering the production of autoimmune thyroiditis - namely, Ir genes within the MHC of the species, diminished ability of T cells to suppress autoimmune responses and a genetic defect in the thyroid gland. (author)

  5. Clustering of sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast cancer in a woman as a new cancer susceptibility disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple distinct tumors arising in a single individual or within members of a family raise the suspicion of a genetic susceptibility disorder. Case presentation We present the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid, followed several years later with subsequent diagnoses of breast cancer and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Although the patient was also exposed to radiation from a pipe used in the oil field industry, the constellation of neoplasms in this patient suggests the manifestation of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome. However, testing for the most likely candidates such as Muir-Torre and Cowden syndrome proved negative. Conclusion We propose that our patient's clustering of neoplasms either represents a novel cancer susceptibility disorder, of which sebaceous gland carcinoma is a characteristic feature, or is a variant of the Muir-Torre syndrome.

  6. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland : is the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 or galectin-3 in primary tumour an indicator of metastatic disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow an indolent course with an excellent prognosis. However, a more aggressive behaviour with regional and distant metastases does occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the immunohistochemical markers cyclin D1 or galectin-3 might indicate the presence of metastatic disease in patients with PMC at the time of diagnosis.

  7. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland: is the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 or galectin-3 in primary tumour an indicator of metastatic disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow an indolent course with an excellent prognosis. However, a more aggressive behaviour with regional and distant metastases does occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the immunohistochemical markers cyclin D1 or galectin-3 might indicate the presence of metastatic disease in patients with PMC at the time of diagnosis.

  8. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  9. Evaluation of multiple-atlas-based strategies for segmentation of the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segmenting the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images is of vital clinical significance in designing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. In this work, we evaluate and compare several multiple-atlas-based methods to segment this structure. Using the most robust method, we generate automatic segmentations for the thyroid gland and study their clinical applicability. The various methods we evaluate range from selecting a single atlas based on one of three similarity measures, to combining the segmentation results obtained with several atlases and weighting their contribution using techniques including a simple majority vote rule, a technique called STAPLE that is widely used in the medical imaging literature, and the similarity between the atlas and the volume to be segmented. We show that the best results are obtained when several atlases are combined and their contributions are weighted with a measure of similarity between each atlas and the volume to be segmented. We also show that with our data set, STAPLE does not always lead to the best results. Automatic segmentations generated by the combination method using the correlation coefficient (CC) between the deformed atlas and the patient volume, which is the most accurate and robust method we evaluated, are presented to a physician as 2D contours and modified to meet clinical requirements. It is shown that about 40% of the contours of the left thyroid and about 42% of the right thyroid can be used directly. An additional 21% on the left and 24% on the right require only minimal modification. The amount and the location of the modifications are qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. We demonstrate that, although challenged by large inter-subject anatomical discrepancy, atlas-based segmentation of the thyroid gland in IMRT CT images is feasible by involving multiple atlases. The results show that a weighted combination of segmentations by atlases using the CC as the similarity measure slightly outperforms standard combination methods, e.g. the majority vote rule and STAPLE, as well as methods selecting a single most similar atlas. The results we have obtained suggest that using our contours as initial contours to be edited has clinical value. (paper)

  10. Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Parenchymal impairment of salivary glands following high-dose radioiodine treatment is a well-known side effect in general caused by free radicals. Therefore, the radioprotective effect of the radical scavenger amifostine was evaluated prospectively in patients receiving high-dose radioiodine treatment. Patients and methods: Parenchymal function was assessed by quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy performed in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment with either 3 GBq 131I (n=21) or 6 BGq 131I (n=29) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-five patients treated with 500 mg/m2 amifostine intravenously prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment were compared to 25 control patients receiving physiological saline solution. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO-criteria. Results: In 25 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced parenchymal function of parotid and submandibular glands by 40.2±14.1% and 39.9±15.3%, respectively. Nine out of these 25 patients developed Grade I and 2 Grade II xerostomia. In contrast, in 25 amifostine-treated patients there was no significant (p=0.691) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage of salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.)

  11. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2011. A total of 1,834 thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I therapy and 1,834 controls (thyroid cancer without 131I therapy) selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score were enrolled. The cumulative 131I dose in each patient was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the effect of radiation from the 131I therapy on the risk of salivary and lacrimal gland impairment as well as second primary malignancies in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients treated with 131I therapy and in controls, the incidence rates of salivary gland dysfunction were 6.76 and 1.01 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 6.81, 95 % CI 0.74 - 55.3), the incidence rates of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) were 13.6 and 16.3 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.41 - 1.73), and the incidence rates of second primary malignancy were 76.7 and 62.4 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.88 - 1.72). The risk of salivary secretion impairment significantly increased with increasing administered doses (HR 14.3, 95 % CI 1.73 - 119.0). However, there was no increase in the incidence of KCS or secondary cancer in patients treated with higher doses. 131I therapy insignificantly increased the risk of salivary gland dysfunction and second primary malignancy. In patients with higher cumulative doses, an increase in the incidence of salivary gland dysfunction was observed. By contrast, we did not find an association between 131I treatment and KCS development. (orig.)

  12. Lesion dose in differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases after rhTSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal: 124I PET/CT dosimetric comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal radioiodine excretion is ∝50% faster during euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. We therefore sought to assess lesion dose/GBq of administered 131I activity (LDpA) in iodine-avid metastases (IAM) of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in athyreotic patients after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). We retrospectively compared mean LDpA between groups of consecutive patients (N = 63) receiving 124I positron emission tomography/computed tomography (124I PET/CT) aided by rhTSH (n = 27) or THW (n = 36); we prospectively compared LDpA after these stimulation methods within another individual. Data derived from serial PET scans and one CT scan performed 2-96 h post-124I ingestion. A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) calculated the treatment groups' mean LDpAs adjusting for statistically significant baseline intergroup differences: non-IAM were more prevalent, median IAM count/patient lower in cervical lymph nodes and higher in distant sites, median stimulated thyroglobulin higher, mean cumulative radioiodine activity greater and prior diagnostic scintigraphy more frequent in the rhTSH patients. Mean LDpAs were: rhTSH group (n = 71 IAM), 30.6 Gy/GBq; THW group (n = 66 IAM), 51.8 Gy/GBq. The difference in group means (rhTSH less THW), -21.2 Gy/GBq, was statistically non-significant (p = 0.1667). However, the 95% confidence interval of that difference (-51.4 to + 9 Gy/GBq) suggested a trend favouring THW. The within-patient comparison found 2.9- to 10-fold higher LDpAs under THW. We found some suggestions, but no statistically significant evidence, that rhTSH administration results in a lower radiation dose to DTC metastases than does THW. A large, well-controlled, prospective within-patient study should resolve this issue. (orig.)

  13. Statistical Data on 2556 Cases of Endocrine Glands Disorders in Iran

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    M. BAHADORI

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a statistical and analytical review of endocrine glands disorders, seen in the Department of Pathology, Tehran University Medical School, and is based on approximately 40,000 surgical specimens and 2,500 autopsy cases. Of 42,500 combined routine surgical and autopsy cases reviewed, we had 2,556 cases of endocrine disorders of which there: thyroid 1,125 cases, ovary 970, testis 268, adrenal gland 170, pancreas 156, parathyroid 24 and pituitary gland 23. Principal lesions of each gland have been discussed, and in some cases attempt has been made to analyse and compare the clinical symptoms with the pathological findings.

  14. DNA measurements after radiation-induced tissue structure of thyroid gland of rats Análise do conteúdo de DNA (ploidia) em tecidos de glândula tireóide de ratos após indução por radiação

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto de Souza Camargo; Neuza Kasumi Shirata; Eliana Ogassavara Setani; Eduardo Anselmo Garcia; Eduardo Pompeu; Eduardo Martella; Celso di Loreto; Adhemar Longatto Filho

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid gland exposures to radiation induce nuclear chromosomal alteration. Objective: To evaluate the DNA content of thyroid gland submitted to radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We radiated 75 rats while 25 were not radiated to be used as control group. Exposure was conducted by the use of Cobalt-60 radioactive source in the right anterior cervical region in a field of 3-30cm, comprising the second and the sixth tracheal rings with 600-centigray (cGY) doses. The DNA content (pl...

  15. Lingual thyroid

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    Marina ?or?e

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lingual thyroid is a rare congenital malformation that occurs more frequently in the female population. It occurs because of the error in transcriptional factors, the key for the normal differentiation of thyrocyte, so the thyroid gland tissue does not descend normally down the thyroglossal duct to the final position in the neck. Due to that, it can entirely or partially remain at the base of the tongue. This is the most frequent localization of the ectopic tissue while it can remain in the sublingual, suprahyoid and infrahyoid area as well. This disease can be diagnosed in the asymptomatic phase, as well as in the phase of compensatory and manifest hypothyroidism. In the ectopic thyroid gland, all diseases of the thyroid gland can occur as in the usual localization in the neck. The authors show a 6-year old patient, who had a routine medical examination for the inflamed throat, during which a vascular tumefaction was discovered at the base of the tongue. A cyst at the base of the tongue was suspected, but additional examination showed that it was an ectopic thyroid tissue marked as a lingual thyroid gland. Diagnosis of this disease starts with the laboratory analysis of the thyroid status. The next step involves scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with technetium-pertechnetate (99mTc or radioactive iodine (123I. The therapy of the compensatory hypothyroidism is suppressive therapy with levothyroxine and in the manifest hypothyroidism it is hormone substitution therapy with levothyroxine. Although there are recommended age-related daily doses, they should not be accepted as final, but rather prescribed according to the individual thyroid status. .

  16. Estimation of the risk of secondary cancer in the thyroid gland and the breast outside the treated volume in patients undergoing brain, mediastinum and breast radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to measure the peripheral dose which is the absorbed dose in organs located outside the treatment volume such as the thyroid gland and the breast in patients undergoing radiotherapy, utilising the MOSFET dosemeters, as well as to estimate the probability of secondary cancer. The thyroid gland doses, expressed as a percentage of the prescribed dose (%TD), were measured to be 2.0±0.3 %, in whole brain irradiation, 10.0±8.0 % in mediastinum treatment and 8.0±2.0 and 2.0±0.8 % in breast treatment, with and without the supraclavicular irradiation, respectively, with a corresponding risk of 0.2, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.3 %. The dose to the breast was 7.0±2.0 %, in the mediastinum treatment, and 4.0±1.0 and 2.0±0.8 %, in the breast treatment, with and without supraclavicular irradiation, respectively, with a corresponding risk of 4.0, 2.0 and 1.0 %. Although the results indicate that the risk is not negligible, its significance should be considered in conjunction with the existing pathology and age of the patients. (authors)

  17. Ocular surface and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease / Superfície ocular e envolvimento da glândula salivar em pacientes com tireoidite autoimune

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavia Pelinsari, Lana; Carolina Ramos, Mosena; Maria Emilia Xavier dos Santos, Araújo.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Muitos trabalhos mostraram uma associação entre doenças da tireoide e síndrome de Sjögren primária (pSS) . O objetivo do nosso estudo foi avaliar os resultados dos testes utilizados para o diagnóstico de olho seco e envolvimento das glândulas salivares em pacientes com tireoidite autoimun [...] e. Métodos: Quarenta e dois pacientes (grupo 1) com doença autoimune da tireoide e 30 controles (grupo 2 ) foram selecionados. Nos dois grupos foi realizada a mesma sequência de exames: tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, teste de Schimer I, teste de Schirmer II, avaliação da córnea e conjuntiva com corante de Rosa Bengala. Também foi realizado cintilografia da glândula salivar para avaliar seu envolvimento. Resultados: Em relação aos danos na superfície ocular observado pelo teste rosa bengala não houve diferença entre os grupos (p=0,77), o mesmo ocorrendo no tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal (p=0,46) e na cintilografia da glândula salivar (p=0,99). Apenas no teste de Schirmer II houve diferença estatística significante (p=0,0009). Conclusão: Nenhum paciente cumpriu todos os critérios para a síndrome de Sjögren. É possível que este resultado esteja subestimado. Abstract in english Purpose: Many reports have indicated an association between thyroid dieases and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of the tests used for dry eye diagnosis and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods: Forty-two pati [...] ents (group 1) with autoimmune thyroid disease and 30 controls (group 2) were selected. Tear film break up time, Schirmer I test, Schirmer II test, ocular staining with 1% rose Bengal and salivary gland cintilography were performed in both groups. Results: Regarding the ocular surface damage observed by Rose Bengal test there was no difference between groups (p=0.77). For tear film break up time the groups did not differ statistically (p=0.46). There was no statistical difference between groups 1 and control in scintigraphy of the salivary gland (p=0.99). A statistical difference between the patients with thyroid disease and the control group was seem only in the Schirmer II test (p=0.0009). Conclusions: No patients fulfilled all criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. It is possible that it could be underestimated.

  18. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

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    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP, antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA, p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1 e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido.

  19. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the 131 I accumulated in her thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of 131 I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with 131 I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of 131 I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  20. Comparison of Thin-Prep and cell block preparation for the evaluation of Thyroid epithelial lesions on fine needle aspiration biopsy

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    Hammoud Jamal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare the utility of Thin-Prep (TP cytologic preparation with that of Cell Block (CB preparation in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, mainly follicular epithelial lesions, by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. Feasibility of using the TP slides for immunocytochemical stains is also discussed. Methods A total of 126 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with TP slides and 128 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with CB slides were reviewed blindly by two cytopathologists. The presence of colloid, follicular cells, macrophages and lymphocytes/plasma cells were recorded and scored 0–4 on each case based on TP or CB slide review. The cytologic diagnoses were grouped as follows: cyst, colloid nodule, colloid nodule with cystic change, chronic thyroiditis, atypical/neoplastic and non-diagnostic. Results The TP slides had higher diagnostic rate than CB slides. The diagnostic yield was 68% of the TP slides whereas only 24% of the CB slides were diagnostic. Also, only 4 atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the TP slides and the corresponding direct smears, while 5 cases of atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the smears but could not be diagnosed on the corresponding CB slides. Additionally, the TP slides revealed cytologic features that were not observed on the direct traditional smears of the same case. Conclusion In thyroid FNAB cases, TP slide preparation is superior to CB slide preparation and is more likely to have greater cellularity for diagnosis and detect atypical/neoplastic thyroid lesions, particularly those of follicular cell origin. Furthermore, TP slides appear to detect helpful diagnostic cytologic features and should be considered complementary to, rather than replacing, direct smears.

  1. Detection for residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between Tc-99m pertechnetate scan and high dose I-131 therapy scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of nuclear imaging in the detection of residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion, we have compared neck scintigrams with Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m scan) and high dose I-131 iodide (I-131 scan) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. One hundred thirty-five thyroidectomized patients for differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three had a previous history of radioiodine therapy. Planar and pin-hole images of anterior neck with Tc-99m were acquired at 20 minutes after injection, followed by I-131 scan three days after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 7 days interval. Patients were asked to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement more than 4 weeks. All subjects were in hypothyroid state. Seventy out of 135 patients (51.9%) showed concordant findings between Tc-99m and I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan did not show any uptake in thyroid bed in 11 of 112 patients without previous history of radioiodine therapy, but 9 of them showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan showed no bed uptake in all of the 23 patients with previous history of radioiodine therapy, in contrast 14 of them (60.9%) showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. These results suggest that Tc-99m scan has poor detectability for residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesion in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients, compared to high dose I-131 therapy scan. Tc-99m scan could not detect any remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, especially

  2. High-resolution genomic profiling of thyroid lesions uncovers preferential copy number gains affecting mitochondrial biogenesis loci in the oncocytic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurelac, Ivana; de Biase, Dario; Calabrese, Claudia; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Lim, Raymond; MacKay, Alan; Weigelt, Britta; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Tallini, Giovanni; Gasparre, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic change is the result of aberrant mitochondrial hyperplasia, which may occur in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells and is not infrequent in the thyroid. Despite being a well-characterized histologic phenotype, the molecular causes underlying such a distinctive cellular change are poorly understood. To identify potential genetic causes for the oncocytic phenotype in thyroid, we analyzed copy number alterations in a set of oncocytic (n=21) and non-oncocytic (n=20) thyroid lesions by high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Each group comprised lesions of diverse histologic types, including hyperplastic nodules, adenomas and carcinomas. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of categorical aCGH data resulted in two distinct branches, one of which was significantly enriched for samples with the oncocytic phenotype, regardless of histologic type. Analysis of aCGH events showed that the oncocytic group harbored a significantly higher number of genes involved in copy number gains, when compared to that of conventional thyroid lesions. Functional annotation demonstrated an enrichment for copy number gains that affect genes encoding activators of mitochondrial biogenesis in oncocytic cases but not in their non-oncocytic counterparts. Taken together, our data suggest that genomic alterations may represent additional/alternative mechanisms underlying the development of the oncocytic phenotype in the thyroid. PMID:26269756

  3. The ability to identify the intraparotid facial nerve for locating parotid gland lesions in comparison to other indirect landmark methods: evaluation by 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to know whether a parotid gland lesion is in the superficial or deep lobe for preoperative planning. We aimed to investigate the ability of 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with surface coils to identify the intraparotid facial nerve and locate parotid gland lesions, in comparison to other indirect landmark methods. We retrospectively evaluated 50 consecutive patients with primary parotid gland lesions. The position of the facial nerve was determined by tracing the nerve in the stylomastoid foramen and then following it on sequential MR sections through the parotid gland. The retromandibular vein and the facial nerve line (FN line) were also identified. For each radiologist and each method, we determined the diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions and superficial lobe lesions, as well as accuracy. These abilities were compared among the three methods using the Chi-square test with Yates' correction. Mean diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions, the diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions, and accuracy were 92%, 86%, 87%, respectively, for the direct identification method; 67%, 89%, 86%, respectively, for the retromandibular vein method; and 25%, 99%, 90%, respectively, for the FN line method. The direct identification method had significantly higher diagnostic ability for deep lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01), but significantly lower diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01). Direct identification of the intraparotid facial nerve enables parotid gland lesions to be correctly located, particularly those in the deep lobes. (orig.)

  4. Exposure of xenopus laevis tadpoles to cadmium reveals concentration-dependent bimodal effects on growth and monotonic effects on development and thyroid gland activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis were exposed to 0-855 ??g cadmium (Cd)/l (measured concentrations) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 47 days postfertilization. Measurements included embryonic survival and, at 47 days, tadpole survival, snout-vent length, tail length, total length, hindlimb length, weight, Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage of development, initiation of metamorphic climax (??? NF 58), and thyroid follicle cell height. Embryonic and larval survival were unaffected by Cd. Relative to control tadpoles, reduced tail and total length were observed at 0.1- 8 and at 855 ??g Cd/l; and reduced snout-vent length, hindlimb length, and weight were observed at 0.1-1 and at 855 ??g Cd/l. Mean stage of development and rate of initiation of climax were unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l; however, none of the tadpoles exposed to 855 ??g Cd/l progressed beyond mid-premetamorphosis (NF 51). Thyroid glands with fully formed follicles were observed in all tadpoles ??? NF 49 examined. Follicle cell height was unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l but it was reduced at 855 ??g/l; in the latter, cell height was reduced even when compared with NF 49-51 tadpoles pooled from the 0 to 84 ??g Cd/l groups. In conclusion, (1) Cd affected tadpole growth in a bimodal pattern with the first and second inhibitory modes at concentrations below and above 84 ??g Cd/l, respectively; (2) exposure to high Cd concentrations (855 ??g/l) reduced thyroid activity and arrested tadpole development at mid-premetamorphosis; and (3) unlike its effect on growth, Cd inhibited tadpole development and thyroid function in a seemingly monotonic pattern.

  5. Factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides en mujeres: Risk Factors Associated With Thyroid Cancer Gland in Women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabio Eduardo, Bosso; Vinícius, de Oliveira Boldrini.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: El cáncer como factor de estudio en el escenario mundial, la transición epidemiológica y la incidencia de la enfermedad en países emergentes. Objetivo: hacer un levantamiento bibliográfico sobre los factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de tiroides en mujeres. Material e Métodos: Fue real [...] izada una búsqueda en el primer semestre del 2011 en la base de datos virtual Embase utilizando tres escritores en ingles thyroid cáncer, risk factors y women. La búsqueda fue reducida para artículos publicados en los años 2010 y 2011 y estudios controlados. Fueron seleccionados trece artículos y fueron incluidos diez. Resultados: Fue posible agrupar los factores de riesgo presentados en los estudios incluidos en tres grupos: factor ambiental (n = 4), fármaco o tratamiento utilizado (n = 3) y, por fin, características de los individuos y sus hábitos cotidianos (n = 3). Conclusión: Mujeres, bajo IMC, edad de inicio del cáncer, obesidad, tiroiditis de Hashimoto y hábito de alimentarse con un consumo excesivo de vegetales crucíferos, son factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides Abstract in english Background: The cancer study as a factor in the global scenario, the epidemiological transition and the incidence of disease in developing countries. Objective: To review the literature on risk factors associated with thyroid cancer in women. Methods: We performed a search in the first half of 2011 [...] in virtual database EMBASE using three key-words in English: thyroid cancer, risk factors and women. The search was refined to articles published in the years 2010 and 2011 and controlled studies. We selected thirteen articles and ten were included. Results: Is possible cluster the risk factors presented in included studies into three groups: environmental factors (n=4), drug use or treatment (n = 3) and, finally, characteristics of individuals and their daily habits (n = 3). Conclusion: Women, low BMI, age at onset of cancer, obesity, Hashimoto’s thyroidits and eating habits with excessive consumption of cruciferous plants, are risk factors associated with thyroid cancer gland

  6. Factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides en mujeres: Risk Factors Associated With Thyroid Cancer Gland in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Eduardo Bosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: El cáncer como factor de estudio en el escenario mundial, la transición epidemiológica y la incidencia de la enfermedad en países emergentes. Objetivo: hacer un levantamiento bibliográfico sobre los factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de tiroides en mujeres. Material e Métodos: Fue realizada una búsqueda en el primer semestre del 2011 en la base de datos virtual Embase utilizando tres escritores en ingles thyroid cáncer, risk factors y women. La búsqueda fue reducida para artículos publicados en los años 2010 y 2011 y estudios controlados. Fueron seleccionados trece artículos y fueron incluidos diez. Resultados: Fue posible agrupar los factores de riesgo presentados en los estudios incluidos en tres grupos: factor ambiental (n = 4, fármaco o tratamiento utilizado (n = 3 y, por fin, características de los individuos y sus hábitos cotidianos (n = 3. Conclusión: Mujeres, bajo IMC, edad de inicio del cáncer, obesidad, tiroiditis de Hashimoto y hábito de alimentarse con un consumo excesivo de vegetales crucíferos, son factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroidesBackground: The cancer study as a factor in the global scenario, the epidemiological transition and the incidence of disease in developing countries. Objective: To review the literature on risk factors associated with thyroid cancer in women. Methods: We performed a search in the first half of 2011 in virtual database EMBASE using three key-words in English: thyroid cancer, risk factors and women. The search was refined to articles published in the years 2010 and 2011 and controlled studies. We selected thirteen articles and ten were included. Results: Is possible cluster the risk factors presented in included studies into three groups: environmental factors (n=4, drug use or treatment (n = 3 and, finally, characteristics of individuals and their daily habits (n = 3. Conclusion: Women, low BMI, age at onset of cancer, obesity, Hashimoto’s thyroidits and eating habits with excessive consumption of cruciferous plants, are risk factors associated with thyroid cancer gland

  7. Lesion dose in differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases after rhTSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal: {sup 124}I PET/CT dosimetric comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, Lutz Stefan; Jentzen, Walter; Brandau, Wolfgang; Bockisch, Andreas [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Petrich, Thorsten; Knapp, Wolfram H. [Hanover University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hanover (Germany); Froemke, Cornelia [Hanover University School of Medicine, Institute of Biometry, Hanover (Germany); Marlowe, Robert J. [Spencer-Fontayne Corporation, Jersey City, NJ (United States); Heusner, Till [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Renal radioiodine excretion is {proportional_to}50% faster during euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. We therefore sought to assess lesion dose/GBq of administered {sup 131}I activity (LDpA) in iodine-avid metastases (IAM) of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in athyreotic patients after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). We retrospectively compared mean LDpA between groups of consecutive patients (N = 63) receiving {sup 124}I positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 124}I PET/CT) aided by rhTSH (n = 27) or THW (n = 36); we prospectively compared LDpA after these stimulation methods within another individual. Data derived from serial PET scans and one CT scan performed 2-96 h post-{sup 124}I ingestion. A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) calculated the treatment groups' mean LDpAs adjusting for statistically significant baseline intergroup differences: non-IAM were more prevalent, median IAM count/patient lower in cervical lymph nodes and higher in distant sites, median stimulated thyroglobulin higher, mean cumulative radioiodine activity greater and prior diagnostic scintigraphy more frequent in the rhTSH patients. Mean LDpAs were: rhTSH group (n = 71 IAM), 30.6 Gy/GBq; THW group (n = 66 IAM), 51.8 Gy/GBq. The difference in group means (rhTSH less THW), -21.2 Gy/GBq, was statistically non-significant (p = 0.1667). However, the 95% confidence interval of that difference (-51.4 to + 9 Gy/GBq) suggested a trend favouring THW. The within-patient comparison found 2.9- to 10-fold higher LDpAs under THW. We found some suggestions, but no statistically significant evidence, that rhTSH administration results in a lower radiation dose to DTC metastases than does THW. A large, well-controlled, prospective within-patient study should resolve this issue. (orig.)

  8. Two-orthogonal-view method for quantification of rad dose to neck lesions in thyroid cancer therapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique is described for the determination of the dose in rad to metastatic lesions in the neck following administration of 131I for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. The technique utilizes a high-energy pinhole collimator mounted on an Anger camera which can be rotated to record lateral and anterior views from known positions relative to the patient. A new algorithm is derivedfor the determination of lesion location in three dimensions, utilizing the distance of closest approach between back-projected rays from the two views. In addition, a new derivation is presented for the estimation of ellipsoid volume from two pinhole projections. The method makes use of a computer edge detection program to delineate the projected lesion boundaries. The output is either a mean estimate from one view or a more definitive upper bound derived from both views. The uptake in counts is determined from daily anterior images which are corrected for pinhole efficiency falloff with distance. This uptake is converted into microcuries by use of an in- air calibration curve. An attenuation correction is applied using the calculated lesion depth and an assumed attenuation coefficient. The dose rate is calculated using standard assumptions and is integrated graphically over the first few days when the rate peaks and by utilizing a single- decaying-exponential fit to the data over the remaining days. Illustrative patient data are presented in which doses are calculated for three neck lesions after an administration of 175 mCi of 131I. These doses include a lower bound of 2400 rad and estimates of 5300 and 9500 rad

  9. Bioinorganic Chemistry in Thyroid Gland: Effect of Antithyroid Drugs on Peroxidase-Catalyzed Oxidation and Iodination Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mugesh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Propylthiouracil (PTU and methimazole (MMI are the most commonly used antithyroid drugs. The available data suggest that these drugs may block the thyroid hormone synthesis by inhibiting the thyroid peroxidase (TPO or diverting oxidized iodides away from thyroglobulin. It is also known that PTU inhibits the selenocysteine-containing enzyme ID-1 by reacting with the selenenyl iodide intermediate (E-SeI. In view of the current interest in antithyroid drugs, we have recently carried out biomimetic studies to understand the mechanism by which the antithyroid drugs inhibit the thyroid hormone synthesis and found that the replacement of sulfur with selenium in MMI leads to an interesting compound that may reversibly block the thyroid hormone synthesis. Our recent results on the inhibition of lactoperoxidase (LPO-catalyzed oxidation and iodination reactions by antithyroid drugs are described.

  10. Role of the thyroid gland in regulation of metabolic rate in an air-breathing siluroid fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B N; Munshi, J S

    1976-06-01

    Studies on cyclic activity of the thyroid and seasonal variations in oxygen consumption (VO2) under experimental conditions in which surfacing was either allowed or prevented were made in H. fossilis to try to establish a relationship between these measures and to ascertain the possible role of the thyroid in the regulation of metabolic rate. A good correlation was found between the activity of the thyroid and VO2 in this species. This finding was further confirmed by the administration of L-thyroxine or thiouracil to this fish. The thyroxine-and thiouracil-treated animals showed significantly higher (P less than 0-05) and lower (P less than 0-01) rates of VO2 respectively, thus indicating the probable role of the thyroid in the regulation of metabolic rate. PMID:950533

  11. Tumor trabecular hialinizante de glándula tiroides: un reto diagnóstico, a propósito de un caso / Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of thyroid gland: diagnostic challenge, case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio Cesar, Díaz Acosta; Pedro Luis, Forero Porras; Diego Andrés, Guarín Supelano; Martha Liliana, Alarcón Tarazona; Diego, Rangel Cantillo.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El tumor trabecular hialinizante de tiroides es una condición clínica incidental, infrecuente, de comportamiento incierto, representa un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico debido a que es difícil diferenciarlo de otros tumores tiroideos como el carcinoma papilar y medular por sus similitud [...] es histológicas. Reporte de caso: Paciente de 53 años quien acudió a consulta por crecimiento de la glándula tiroidea y disfagia. Se realizaron estudios diagnósticos previos los cuales orientaron hacia una condición benigna sin embargo por progresión de síntomas se decidió realizar tiroidectomía total. La histopatología de la masa reportó carcinoma medular y en la inmunohistoquímica como hallazgo incidental se realiza diagnóstico final de adenoma trabecular hialinizante de tiroides. Discusión: El tumor trabecular hialinizante de tiroides presenta un desafío continuo, por lo cual es necesario realizar pruebas inmunohistoquímicas que permitan realizar la diferenciación. El abordaje quirúrgico no es claro debido a su comportamiento incierto y a que las publicaciones que existen no son claras acerca del pronóstico y manejo. Conclusiones: El tumor trabecular hialinizante de tiroides es una enfermedad con bajas tasas de incidencia, frecuentemente mal diagnosticado y sobre el cual no existe información clara acerca de su manejo. El seguimiento clínico de estos pacientes y futuros estudios observacionales nos permitirá obtener conclusiones a futuro sobre su comportamiento y pronóstico. Abstract in english Introduction: The hyalinized trabecular tumor of thyroids is a clinical condition, rarely frequent of uncertain behavior and difficult diagnosis due to the fact that is hard to differentiate it from other thyroid tumors such as the papillary and medullar carcinoma due to its histological similaritie [...] s. Case report: 53 year old patient who attended medical consult because of an irregular growth in the thyroids gland and the dysphagia, previous diagnose studies were made and led to a benign pathology, but for symptomatology it was decided to make a total thyroidectomy. The histopathology of the mass reported a medullar carcinoma and in the immune-histo-chemistry as an incidental finding a final diagnose was made, showing a hyalinized trabecular adenoma of thyroids. Discussion: The hyalinized trabecular tumor of thyroids presented diagnosis and therapeutic challenges. Duo to is necessary necessary to make immune-histo-chemistry tests. The surgical approach is not clear because of its uncertain behavior and the lack of studies that report its forecast and treatment. Conclusions: The hyalinized trabecular tumor of thyroids is a disease with low rates of incidence, usually badly diagnosed, over which there is no clear existing information for its treatment. The clinical surveillance of these patients and future observational studies will allow us to make some conclusions in the future regarding its behavior and forecast.

  12. A Pilot Comparison of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT, Ultrasonography and 123I/99mTc-sestaMIBI Dual-Phase Dual-Isotope Scintigraphy in the Preoperative Localization of Hyperfunctioning Parathyroid Glands in Primary or Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: Influence of Thyroid Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Laure; Balogova, Sona; Burgess, Alice; Ohnona, Jessica; Huchet, Virginie; Kerrou, Khaldoun; Lefèvre, Marine; Tassart, Marc; Montravers, Françoise; Périé, Sophie; Talbot, Jean-Noël

    2015-10-01

    We compared F-fluorocholine hybrid positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT) with ultrasonography (US) and scintigraphy in patients with hyperparathyroidism and discordant, or equivocal results of US and I/Tc-sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestaMIBI) dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy. FCH-PET/CT was performed in 17 patients with primary (n?=?11) lithium induced (n?=?1) or secondary hyperparathyroidism (1 dialyzed, 4 renal-transplanted).The reference standard was based on results of surgical exploration and histopathological examination. The results of imaging modalities were evaluated, on site and by masked reading, on per-patient and per-lesion bases.In a first approach, equivocal images/foci were considered as negative. On a per-patient level, the sensitivity was for US 38%, for scintigraphy 69% by open and 94% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 94% by masked reading. On a per-lesion level, sensitivity was for US 42%, for scintigraphy 58% by open and 83% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 96% by masked reading. One ectopic adenoma was missed by the 3 imaging modalities. Considering equivocal images/foci as positive increased the accuracy of the open reading of scintigraphy or of FCH-PET/CT, but not of US. FCH-PET/CT was significantly superior to US in all approaches, whereas it was more sensitive than scintigraphy only for open reading considering equivocal images/foci as negative (P?=?0.04). FCH uptake was more intense in adenomas than in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. Thyroid lesions were suspected in 9 patients. They may induce false-positive results as in one case of oncocytic thyroid adenoma, or false-negative results as in one case of intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid cancer (4 cases) can be visualized with FCH as with Tc-sestaMIBI, but the intensity of uptake was moderate, similar to that of parathyroid hyperplasia.This pilot study confirmed that FCH-PET/CT is an adequate imaging tool in patients with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism, since both adenomas and hyperplastic parathyroid glands can be detected. The sensitivity of FCH-PET/CT was better than that of US and was not inferior to that of dual-phase dual-isotope I/Tc-scintigraphy. Further studies should evaluate whether FCH could replace Tc-sestaMIBI as the functional agent for parathyroid imaging, but US would still be useful to identify thyroid lesions. PMID:26469908

  13. Lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study over a period of five years in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Anjit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary Thyroid Lymphoma (PTL is uncommon, accounting for only 5% of thyroid neoplasms and less than 2.5 to 7% of extranodal lymphomas. The study aims to analyze the histopathological findings and to correlate it with clinical features. Methods: This study includes cases of PTL received in the department of pathology in a tertiary care center, Kerala, south India over a period of 5 years. Patient details and follow up data were obtained by communication with treating doctors and reviewing the hospital records. All cases had a minimum follow up of 6 months. Results: 15 cases of PTL were diagnosed over the five year period. In total 72 cases of extranodal lymphomas were diagnosed, thus forming 20.83% of extra nodal lymphomas. Lymphocytic thyroiditis was present in 93.3%. Most of the cases were Extranodal Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma (EMZBCL and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL. Conclusion: It is important to consider the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma in patients presenting with an enlarging neck mass especially with the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Random microscopic foci of DLBCL or small areas of MZBL could be overlooked examination or missed with limited sampling. The distinction between MZBL and DLBCL in the thyroid is clinically significant. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 579-582

  14. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting

  15. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla-Dave, A; Lu, Y; Hatzoglou, V; Stambuk, H; Mazaheri, Y [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Banerjee, S; Shankaranarayanan, A [GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, California (United States); Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting.

  16. Xenotransplantation of a thyroid gland organ culture as the method of hormonal compensation of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reestablishment of the thyroid function in rats with radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The serum total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) values in male Wistar rats, weighing of 100-150 g, fell to low levels by 2 weeks after 2.775 MBq 131-iodine administration. The values of serum TT4 in rats were generally in the euthyroid range by the 17th day after xenotransplantation (XTP) of 3-day old newborn pig thyroid organ culture by injection into the fat tissue of anterior abdominal wall. The serum TT3 values rose rapidly and reached normal levels by the 7th day after XTP. 7 days after XTP, all newborn pig thyroid xenografts showed 131-iodine uptake, and four of five xenografts were still functional bu the 17th day. These results indicate that the xenografted newborn pig thyroid organ culture allows a restoration of the thyroid function in rats with post radioiodine hypothyroidism

  17. Lack of Preemptive Analgesia by Intravenous Flurbiprofen in Thyroid Gland Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaodi Zhang, Haifang Zhao, Changsong Wang, Fei Han, Guonian Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on postoperative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consumption and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery.Methods Ninety patients undergoing elective thyroid gland surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A (Control was administered Intralipid® 2 ml as a placebo 15 min before the cervical plexus block and at the end of the surgery; Group B (Routine analgesia was administered a placebo 15 min before the cervical plexus block and flurbiprofen 50 mg at the end of the surgery; Group C (Preemptive analgesia was administered intravenous flurbiprofen 50 mg 15 min before the cervical plexus block and a placebo at the end of the surgery. Sufentanil administration during the surgery and the 24 h satisfaction score on analgesic therapy were both recorded. The analgesic efficacy was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the surgery, based on visual analog scales.Results Ninety patients were involved in the study. One patient from Group B did not have their scheduled surgery; eighty-nine patients completed the study. There were no significant differences in the patient demographics between the three groups. Visual analog scales: 1, 2, 4 h for Group A was significantly higher than Groups B and C (P<0.05; Sufentanil administration during surgery: Group C was obviously lower compared to Groups A and B (P<0.05; 24 h satisfaction score: Groups B and C were higher than Group A (P<0.05.Conclusion Preoperative administration of intravenous Flurbiprofen axetil reduced analgesic consumption during surgery, but not postoperative pain scores.

  18. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia / Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Diego Mendonça, Uchôa; Vanessa, Yépez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP) são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfa [...] gia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME), cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1). O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination [...] and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME), kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1). The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.

  19. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeri H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Warthin tumor- like papillary carcinoma of thyroid is a rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. It is characterized by distinct papillary structures lined by oncocytic tumor cells with nuclear features of papillary carcinoma and marked lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate in the papillary stalks. This tumor derives its name from its resemblance to Warthin tumor of major salivary glands.Case presentation: We report a 54- year- old man presented with bilateral thyroid masses. Histopathological study showed papillary structures lined by cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and ground- glass nuclei with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the stalks.Conclusion: Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma could be mistaken for benign lymphoepithelial lesions such as Hashimoto thyroiditis, Hurthle cell tumors and tall cell variant of papillary carcinoma. Follow- up information on the previously reported cases has suggested that these tumors behave similarly to usual papillary carcinoma.

  20. Diet and the role of lipoproteins, lipases, and thyroid hormones in coronary lesion growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Jacques D.; Jansen, Hans; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Birkenhager, Jan C.; Kromhout, Daan

    1987-01-01

    The relationships between the coronary lesion growth and the blood contents of lipoprotein fractions, thyroic hormones, and the lipoprotein lipase activity were investigated in male patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis, who participated in a lipid-lowering dietary intervention program. A quantitative computer-assisted image-processing technique was used to assess the severity of coronary obstructions at the beginning of the program and at its termination two years later. Based on absolute coronary scores, patients were divided into a no-lesion growth group (14 patients) and a progression group (21 paients). At the end of the trial, the very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly higher, while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic lipase (HL) were lower in the progression group. Multivariate regression analysis showed HL to be the most important determinant of changes in coronary atherosclerotic lesions.

  1. Dual thyroid ectopia-role of thyroid scintigraphy and neck ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid tissue where the thyroid gland is not located in its usual position. Dual thyroid ectopia is far rarer. This case of a 5-year-old euthyroid girl with thyroglossal cyst was planned for surgery. Presurgical ultrasonography (USG) of the neck followed by thyroid scintigraphy was performed. There was absent normal thyroid gland with single ETT in neck swelling on USG. However, thyroid scintigraphy revealed two ectopic foci of thyroid tissue; one was corresponding to neck swelling, and other was superior to it at the base of the tongue along with absent eutopic thyroid gland. The repeat neck USG could demonstrate the same. The present case emphasizes that, if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG; ETT should be evaluated with thyroid scintigraphy in case of thyroid dysgenesis

  2. Dual thyroid ectopia-role of thyroid scintigraphy and neck ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Meena, Ram Singh; Bhatia, Anmol; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid tissue where the thyroid gland is not located in its usual position. Dual thyroid ectopia is far rarer. This case of a 5-year-old euthyroid girl with thyroglossal cyst was planned for surgery. Presurgical ultrasonography (USG) of the neck followed by thyroid scintigraphy was performed. There was absent normal thyroid gland with single ETT in neck swelling on USG. However, thyroid scintigraphy revealed two ectopic foci of thyroid tissue; one was corresponding to neck swelling, and other was superior to it at the base of the tongue along with absent eutopic thyroid gland. The repeat neck USG could demonstrate the same. The present case emphasizes that, if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG; ETT should be evaluated with thyroid scintigraphy in case of thyroid dysgenesis. PMID:26430320

  3. Radioimmunoassay for 3,3',5'-L-triiodothyronine (reverse T3): assessment of thyroid gland content and serum measurements in conditions of normal and altered thyroidal economy and following administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the development of a radioimmunoassay for 3,3',5'-L-triiodothyronine (reverse T3) which is performed on unextracted serum. Utilizing this radioimmunoassay, 21 normal subjects had a mean (+-SD) serum reverse T3 level of 60 +- 12 ng/100 ml, 17 of 19 hyperthyroid patients had elevated serum reverse T3 levels, and 10 of 11 hypothyroid subjects had decreased serum reverse T3 concentrations. Thyroidal secretion of reverse T3 was assessed by measurements in samples obtained from the internal carotid artery and jugular vein of sheep following the administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) or bovine thyrotropin (TSH). Reverse T3 levels were increased 45-60 min after TRH administration, but TSH administration produced inconsistent alterations in reverse T3, although 18 of 27 samples obtained after TSH injection were higher than their average respective baseline concentration and the mean peak reverse T3 level was 14 percent higher than baseline. Following TRH administration to 10 normal human subjects, mean serum reverse T3 levels significantly increased from 53.6 ng/100 ml to 56.3 ng/100 ml (P less than .05). The thyroid gland content of reverse T3 in human autopsy material was 6.5 +- 1.5 ?g/g tissue. Both pregnancy and estrogen administration were associated with increases in serum reverse T3 concentrations presumably because of their ability to augment thyroxine binding globulin synthesis

  4. F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and MALT lymphoma recurrence of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the case of a 86-year-old male patient with a rapidly growing nodule within the right lobe of the thyroid gland, which after hemithyroidectomy, turned out to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland. In addition, Hashimoto's thyroiditis was reported in the thyroid tissue adjacent to the MALT lymphoma. During follow-up a second nodule emerged within the left lobe and, because of evidence of MALT lymphoma recurrence, F-18-FDG-PET was performed. F-18-FDG-PET imaged a clearly in-creased accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus. Thus, no differences in the degree of hypermetabolism could be imaged between the nodule and the adjacent thyroid tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report about F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with MALT lymphoma of the thyroid. Literature search revealed only a few cases of MALT lymphomas in locations other than the thyroid gland that were studied with F-18-FDG-PET. In no case was F-18 FDG accumulation seen in the MALT lesions. However, clear F-18 FDG accumulation was reported in some patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is concluded that the intensive F-18-FDG accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus of the presented case was due to the coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Consequently, F-18-FDG-PET imaging does not seem to be indicated in a patient with MALT lymphoma and known Hashimoto's thyroiditis in order to evaluate the status of the MALT lymphoma. (author)

  5. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Iksan (Korea); See-Sung, Choi [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Iksan (Korea); Kim, Jong Duck [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Iksan (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  6. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  7. Thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress made in ultrasonography and improved in vitro tests has changed the field of application for scintigraphy of the thyroid. Thyroid scanning itself has been improved by the use of isotopes with better imaging properties and less radiation burden (99mTc, 123I) and by gamma cameras for imaging. Scintigraphy yields real topographic and functional information on the gland, in addition to which ultrasonography gives morphological data only. This holds true especially for autonomous nodular goiter with iodine deficiency. The goal of thyroid imaging is always to match the appropiate diagnostic procedure with all the clinical data available. When optimized techniques (gamma camera, on-line processor) are used thyroid scintigraphy is useful for the diagnosis, adequate therapy and follow-up of various thyroid disorders. (orig.)

  8. Diagnostic Criteria on 18F-FDG PET/CT for Differentiating Benign from Malignant Focal Hypermetabolic Lesions of Parotid Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated PET/CT diagnostic criteria for differentiating benign from malignant parotid lesions with focal 18F-FDG uptake. The subjects of the study were 272 patients who exhibited focal 18F-FDG uptake of the parotid gland. Sixty-eight pathologically confirmed parotid lesions from 67 patients were included. The maximum SUV (SUVmax), uptake patterns (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous), size measured by CT, maximum Housfield units (HUmax) and margins on CT (well vs. ill defined) of each parotid lesion on PET/CT images were compared with final diagnoses. Thirty- two parotid lesions were histologically proven to be malignant. There were significant differences in uptake patterns (cancer incidence, heterogeneous:homogeneous=79.2%:29.5%, p<0.0001) and margins on CT (cancer incidence, ill:well defined=84.4%:13.3%, p<0.0001) between benign and malignant lesions. The cancer risks of parotid lesions were 89.5% with heterogeneous uptake and ill-defined margins, 70.6% with heterogeneous uptake or ill-defined margins (no overlap in subjects) and 9.3% with homogeneous uptake and well-defined margins (p<0.0001). When any lesion with heterogeneous uptake or ill-defined margins was regarded as malignant, the sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 90.6% (29/32) and 85.6% (58/68), respectively. For predicting malignancy, combined PET/CT criteria showed better sensitivity, NPV and accuracy than PET-only criteria, and had a tendency to have more accurate results than CT-only criteria, and had a tendency to have more accurate results than CT-only criteria. There were no significant differences in SUVmax, size or HUmax between benign and malignant lesions. Uptake patterns and margins on CT are useful PET/CT diagnostic criteria for differentiating benign from malignant lesions

  9. Diagnostic Criteria on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for Differentiating Benign from Malignant Focal Hypermetabolic Lesions of Parotid Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Bin; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Eun Jeong; Yoo, Jang; Cheon, Miju; Cho, Suk Kyong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    We investigated PET/CT diagnostic criteria for differentiating benign from malignant parotid lesions with focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. The subjects of the study were 272 patients who exhibited focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of the parotid gland. Sixty-eight pathologically confirmed parotid lesions from 67 patients were included. The maximum SUV (SUVmax), uptake patterns (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous), size measured by CT, maximum Housfield units (HUmax) and margins on CT (well vs. ill defined) of each parotid lesion on PET/CT images were compared with final diagnoses. Thirty- two parotid lesions were histologically proven to be malignant. There were significant differences in uptake patterns (cancer incidence, heterogeneous:homogeneous=79.2%:29.5%, p<0.0001) and margins on CT (cancer incidence, ill:well defined=84.4%:13.3%, p<0.0001) between benign and malignant lesions. The cancer risks of parotid lesions were 89.5% with heterogeneous uptake and ill-defined margins, 70.6% with heterogeneous uptake or ill-defined margins (no overlap in subjects) and 9.3% with homogeneous uptake and well-defined margins (p<0.0001). When any lesion with heterogeneous uptake or ill-defined margins was regarded as malignant, the sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 90.6% (29/32) and 85.6% (58/68), respectively. For predicting malignancy, combined PET/CT criteria showed better sensitivity, NPV and accuracy than PET-only criteria, and had a tendency to have more accurate results than CT-only criteria, and had a tendency to have more accurate results than CT-only criteria. There were no significant differences in SUVmax, size or HUmax between benign and malignant lesions. Uptake patterns and margins on CT are useful PET/CT diagnostic criteria for differentiating benign from malignant lesions.

  10. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient\\'s age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with \\'red flag\\' symptoms.

  11. [The inclusion of Theodor Kocher in the work of the Trieste surgeon Gustavo Usiglio on thyroid gland tumors (1894)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuda, L

    1992-01-01

    Gustavo Usiglio (1855-1933), a pupil of Billroth, was a surgeon of high qualities. The present author analyzes his main scientific work "On the tumours of the thyroid and their cure"; the book, which deals essentially with goitre, was published in 1894 at Milan and, in a 2nd edition, in 1895 at Trieste. Especially in the final chapter on therapeutics, Usiglio reveals himself as a fervent follower of Kocher. PMID:1398158

  12. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of thyroid gland: Report of two cases with follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Azizun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE is a rare malignant thyroid tumor showing thymic or related branchial pouch differentiation. The tumors are composed predominantly of spindle cells along with focal epithelial component and ductular formations. SETTLE occurs in young patients, with indolent growth and a tendency to develop delayed blood-borne metastases. We herein report two cases of SETTLE with a follow-up period of 64 months and 30 months, respectively.

  13. Functional exploration of the thyroid gland on the rat at the third day after a spinal section at high level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied on animals having two different diets, the one with iodine, the other without iodine, the influence of a spinal section at high level on the thyroid fixation, this latter being measured after an injection of iodine 131 carried out 72 h after the section. In this case, and for all animals, our results show an increase of the thyroid fixation with regard to the control animals. However this increase is not significant; only is significant the difference between the rates of fixation for the injections carried out 15 mn and 24 h after section and these measured 48 h and 72 h after section. Concerning the hormonal discharge, it is always significantly decreased with regard to the controls, as we had found it for the animals treated 15 mn, 24 h and 48 h after section. We have also entered upon a study of the thyroid fixation and of the hormonal discharge on rats subjected to a simple laminectomy at level where are effected the spinal sections. Yet the results obtained have not permitted us to display significant differences between the control animals and the animals subjected to such an operation. (authors)

  14. Effect of conjugated equine estrogens and tamoxifen administration on thyroid gland histomorphology of the rat Os efeitos dos estrogênios conjugados equinos e do tamoxifeno na histomorfologia da glândula tireóide de ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Felipe Bittencourt de Araujo; José Maria Soares Jr.; Ricardo Santos Simões; Pedro Luiz Calió; Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho; Manuel Jesus Simões; Mauro Abi Haidar; EDMUND C BARACAT

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of the conjugated equine estrogens and tamoxifen on the morphology of thyroid gland in ovariectomized (OVx) rats. METHODS: Conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), clinically used as estrogen therapy, is a complex formulation containing multiple estrogens that decrease menopausal symptoms. Thirty ovariectomized rats were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups: GI, vehicle (propylene glycol); GII, CEE 200 µg/kg per day; and GIII, ta...

  15. Evaluation of expression and function of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, platelet derived growth factor receptors-alpha and -beta, KIT, and RET in canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma and thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Urie Bridget K; Russell Duncan S; Kisseberth William C; London Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Toceranib phosphate (Palladia) has a reported objective response rate of 25% in both canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) and thyroid carcinoma (TC), with stable disease occurring in an additional 50-60% of dogs. The basis for the observed responses to toceranib is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate AGASACA and TC samples for the expression and activation of VEGFR2, PDGFR?, PDGFR?, KIT and RET to assess whether dysregulation of these re...

  16. The analysis of morbidity by a cancer of a thyroid gland of children on the moment of an exposure I131 owing to Chernobyl accident, registered in the Uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of cohort of the observation generated by indicated criteria: number 65575 person, including in the Gomel area 25215, in Bryansk - 40360, number of the registered cases of disease 226, including 132 in the Gomel area and 94 in Bryansk area, number of person-years of observation 1021229, including in the Gomel area 391363 of observation, in Bryansk - 629866, average exposure dose of a thyroid gland by radioisotopes of 131I in cohort 0,71 Gy, in the Gomel area 1,5 Gy, in Bryansk area - 0,2 Gy. Estimated a role of radiation and various not radiation risk factors, such as a sex, age on the moment of an exposure. The analysis of not radiation risk factors is spent separately for the Gomel area, Bryansk area and joined cohort. Among the persons irradiated in children's age in the Gomel area, the risk of disease by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the boys and girls was identical (RR=1,02, 95 % CI 0,72-1,44), in too time in Bryansk area the risk of disease of the girls in 3,4 times was higher (95 % CI 2,0-5,6), than among the boys. In joined cohort the girl in 1,5 times more often were sick of a cancer of a thyroid gland (95 % CI 1,16-2,0) in comparison with the boys. The analysis dose of dependence of a case rate by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the persons irradiated in children's age, has shown presence of a linear relation dose - effect, and in joined cohort this dependence most statistically is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, R2=0,99). The value of exuberant relative risk on a dose 1 Gy has made 4,54 (95 % CI 2,43-9,78). (author)

  17. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy

  18. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seek Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy.

  19. Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Kroeger, S.; Buchert, R.; Bleckmann, C.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Brenner, W.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-11-01

    Background and purpose: Parenchymal impairment of salivary glands following high-dose radioiodine treatment is a well-known side effect in general caused by free radicals. Therefore, the radioprotective effect of the radical scavenger amifostine was evaluated prospectively in patients receiving high-dose radioiodine treatment. Patients and methods: Parenchymal function was assessed by quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy performed in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment with either 3 GBq {sup 131}I (n=21) or 6 BGq {sup 131}I (n=29) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-five patients treated with 500 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine intravenously prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment were compared to 25 control patients receiving physiological saline solution. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO-criteria. Results: In 25 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced parenchymal function of parotid and submandibular glands by 40.2{+-}14.1% and 39.9{+-}15.3%, respectively. Nine out of these 25 patients developed Grade I and 2 Grade II xerostomia. In contrast, in 25 amifostine-treated patients there was no significant (p=0.691) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage of salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund und Ziel: Eine Schaedigung der Speicheldruesen mit konsekutiver Xerostomie ist eine bekannte, durch freie Radikale verursachte Nebenwirkung der ablativen Radioiodtherapie bei Patienten mit differenziertem Schilddruesenkarzinom. Daher wurde der Effekt des Radikalfaengers Amifostin bei ablativer Radioiodtherapie geprueft. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden insgesamt 50 Patienten mit differenziertem Schilddruesenkarzinom in diese prospektiv angelegte, plazebokontrollierte Doppelblindstudie eingeschlossen. Die Speicheldruesenfunktion wurde vor und drei Monate nach Gabe von 3 GBq {sup 131}I (n=21) oder 6 GBq {sup 131}I (n=29) mit einer Sialoszintigraphie quantifiziert. Je die Haelfte der Patienten erhielt vor Radioiodtherapie 500 mg/m{sup 2} Amifostin oder physiologische Kochsalzloesung als Plazebo intravenoes infundiert. Eine Speicheldruesenschaedigung wurde nach WHO-Kriterien klassifiziert. Ergebnisse: Die Patienten der Kontrollgruppe wiesen in den Glandulae parotides bzw. in den Glandulae submandibulares eine signifikante (p<0,001) Verminderung der Parenchymfunktion um 40,2{+-}14,1% bzw. 39,9{+-}15,3% auf. Bei neun dieser 25 Patienten fand sich eine Xerostomie Grad I, bei zwei Patienten eine Xerostomie Grad II. Im Gegensatz dazu war bei den mit Amifostin behandelten Patienten keine signifikante Verminderung der Parenchymfunktion messbar (p=0,691). Dementsprechend wies keiner dieser Patienten eine Xerostomie auf. Schlussfolgerung: Bei Patienten mit differenziertem Schilddruesenkarzinom kann die durch hochdosierte Radioiodtherapien regelhaft verursachte Parenchymschaedigung der Speicheldruesen durch Amifostin weitgehend vermieden werden. Dies koennte die Lebensqualitaet dieser Patienten wesentlich verbessern. (orig.)

  20. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME, kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1. The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfagia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME, cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1. O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido.

  1. Accuracy of intraoperative consultation in lesions of the salivary glands: analysis of 748 cases / Acurácia da consulta intraoperatória em lesões das glândulas salivares: análise de 748 casos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Theresinha C., Fonseca; Ana Lúcia A., Eisenberg.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As lesões das glândulas salivares são incomuns, representando de 2% a 6,5% de todas as neoplasias da região da cabeça e do pescoço. Devido à diferença de tratamento entre elas, é fundamental um diagnóstico preciso. O estudo citológico por meio de punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF) [...] é um método com alta acurácia utilizado para o diagnóstico das lesões das glândulas salivares; já a consulta intraoperatória (CIO) é um exame que oferece o diagnóstico no decorrer da cirurgia, tendo como objetivo diferenciar as lesões malignas das benignas e possibilitar a conduta cirúrgica mais adequada. Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia da CIO nas lesões das glândulas salivares realizadas em uma instituição. Material e métodos: Realizou-se uma pesquisa sobre as CIOs realizadas para diagnóstico nas lesões das glândulas salivares no Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Inca) no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2012, sendo encontrados 748 casos. Os diagnósticos de CIO foram comparados com o diagnóstico histopatológico (DHP), considerado padrão-ouro, e classificados em: 1) concordantes, 2) discordantes e 3) indeterminados. A partir desses dados, foram calculadas sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia. Resultados: Das 748 CIOs realizadas, os resultados foram concordantes em 656 casos (88%), discordantes em 56 (7%) e indeterminados em 36 (5%). A sensibilidade foi de 78%; a especificidade, de 99%; e a acurácia, de 92%. Conclusão: Nossos resultados indicam que a CIO em lesões das glândulas salivares tem alta acurácia, podendo contribuir para a conduta cirúrgica. Abstract in english Introduction: Lesions of the salivary glands are uncommon, representing 2% to 6.5% of all neoplasms of head and neck, and because of the difference in treatment between them, an accurate diagnosis is essential. The cytological study by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is a highly accurate method [...] used to diagnose lesions of the salivary glands. Intraoperative consultation (IOC), in its turn, is a test that provides diagnosis during surgery, aiming to differentiate malignant from benign lesions and to enable the most appropriate surgical approach. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of IOC in salivary gland lesions. Material and methods: A survey was conducted in the database of Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Inca) into IOC for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions from January 2001 to December 2012, and found 748 cases. Diagnosis made at IOC (IOCD) was compared with the gold standard histopathological diagnosis and classified into: 1) consenting; 2) discordant; and 3) indeterminate. From these data, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. Results: Among the 748 IOCs, results were concordant in 656 cases (88%), discordant in 56 (7%), and indeterminate in 36 (5%). Sensitivity was 78%, specificity 99% and accuracy 92%. Conclusion: Our results indicate that IOC in salivary gland lesions is highly accurate and can contribute to the surgical approach.

  2. Subcellular structure of bovine thyroid gland. VII. A study on the distribution of bovine thyroid plasma membranes by density gradient centrifugation in zonal rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, M J; Hilderson, H J; Lagrou, A R; Dierick, W S

    1978-02-01

    In order to obtain plasma membrane-rich fractions two methods were tried. Approach A was based on differential pelleting followed by discontinous gradient centrifugation in a B-XIV zonal rotor. In approach B homogeneization was performed in buffered water (NaHCO3, pH 7.4). The 73 300 X g pellet from this homogenate was subjected to buoyant density equilibrium in a HS zonal rotor (continuous sucrose gradient). Using approach A, the highest relative specific activity for plasma membrane markers was found at the 30-37% sucrose interphase. However, an increase for glucose 6-phosphatase (endoplasmic reticulum marker) was also found at that interphase. Using approach B marker profiles different from approach A were found. Approach B results in a subdivision of membrane material in four distinct regions. These regions do not contain completely pure membrane species, although region I seems to be essentially derived from plasma membranes. It is also concluded from approach A that plasma membranes from bovine thyroid tissue are heterogeneous. PMID:80197

  3. Fijación de radioyodo en huesos maxilares simulando metástasis en pacientes con Carcinoma Diferenciado de Tiroides (CDT): False- Positive images in patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma. (DTC) / Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O. J., Degrossi; S., Gutiérrez; A., Fadel; E. B., Degrossi; M. C., Valdivieso; R. L., Balbuena; M. del C., Alak; M., de Cabrejas.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En estudios centellográficos con 131I (CCT) para seguimiento, postablación o tratamiento de pacientes portadores de carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides (CDT) se observan frecuentemente en tiempos precoces áreas de captación del radiotrazador en macizo facial. Estas áreas corresponden, generalmente, a [...] glándulas salivares y extremo anterior de mucosa nasal y se mantienen durante las primeras 48 horas y no son observadas generalmente a las 72 horas. Pero con menor frecuencia se presentan otras que persisten durante varias semanas; estas áreas fueron consideradas como posibles retención en glándulas salivares, en tejido tiroideo ectópico en piso de boca, o proteínas yodas entre otras causas. En 1996 Valdivieso y col. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, Mar del Plata) y Gutiérrez y col. (SLAT, Chile) consideraron además de las mencionadas posibilidades, que la fijación se podría realizar en hueso maxilar en relación con procesos dentales y esta idea se vio favorecida por dos presentaciones sobre pocos casos que coincidían con la idea sobre el lugar de fijación del radioelemento con producción de imágenes falsas-positivas de enfermedad metastática. Con el propósito de determinar la frecuencia de observación de estas imágenes se procedió a la revisión de 636 CCT efectuados entre el 1 de enero de 2002 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007 en 502 pacientes. En el 31,5 % de los pacientes se observaron áreas activas en maxilares que persistían por varias semanas; la intensidad de concentración fue del 0,3 al 1,2 % de la actividad administrada. En 10 pacientes se efectuaron áreas de interés sobre las zonas activas que se controlaron durante 3 semanas, determinándose el T ½ efectivo registrándose valores promedio de 6,87 ± 0,94 días muy próximos al T ½ físico del 131I, indicando fuerte unión del compuesto radiactivo formado. La intensidad de concentración del radioyodo es variable dependiendo de la intensidad de la lesión dental, (caries, prótesis, pulpitis, granulomas periapicales) y en especial se incrementa en pacientes provenientes del interior que habitaban en zonas con aguas con contenido de flúor o arsénico. Seis pacientes tratados con actividades altas de radioyodo de entre 5,55 y 11,1 MBQ (150 a 300 mCi) mostraron lesiones actínicas en mucosa bucal y lingual. En 5 pacientes se efectuaron inmediatamente después del CCT con radioyodo, estudios panorámicos de Rx maxilar y de centellograma óseo coincidiendo las imágenes maxilares positivas de ambos estudios con las áreas positivas con radioyodo, confirmándose la localización de las mismas. En 13 pacientes que se sometieron a intensos tratamientos odontológicos, en estudios de CCT posteriores se apreció la disminución de intensidad de las imágenes o su desaparición. Ninguno de los pacientes presentó metástasis de CDA en las áreas activas maxilares. Estos hallazgos confirman la concentración del radioyodo en hueso maxilar en relación con alteraciones, dentales debiendo efectuarse investigaciones más profundas sobre la naturaleza de la molécula formada y los mecanismo de fijación de la misma. Deberá tenerse en cuenta el estado de salud dentario del pacientes antes de someterlo a tratamiento de metástasis o ablaciones, en especial cuando las actividades de radioyodo a utilizar sean mayores de 3,7 GBq (100 mCi) y aún indicar tratamiento de las lesiones dentales en forma previa. Abstract in english In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but othe [...] rs are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutiérrez et al (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered

  4. [Lectin binding by structures of the submandibular gland of the rat during postnatal ontogenesis in the presence of thyroid pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsik, A D; Iashchenko, A M; Detiuk, E S

    1987-02-01

    Redistribution of lectin receptor sites in rat submandibular gland under hypo- and hyperthyroidism has been investigated using lectin-peroxidase technique. Lectin preparation include con A, peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and fucose-specific lectin from Laburnum anagyroides bark (LAB). Submandibular gland is excised on the 1st, 10th, 20th and 40th days of postnatal life and in adult rats. Hyperthyroidism, as well as hypothyroidism cause a considerable decrease of con A, WGA and LAB binding with simultaneous enhancement of PNA binding in all investigated groups of the animals. The only exception from this regularity is noted for con A: hypothyroidism in adult rats and on the 40th day of postnatal development causes enhancement of this lectin binding to granular duct epitheliocytes. Selective staining of mast cells with PNA and of separate neurocytes with con A is also demonstrated; these cells staining is affected neither by hyperthyroidism, nor by hypothyroidism. Possible interpretation of the observed phenomena is discussed. PMID:3579619

  5. Coexistence of Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Carcinoma and Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba?ak Karbek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant lesion of a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC is an extremely rare entity. Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. Diagnosis is commonly made after pathological examination of the surgical specimen. A 41-year-old male patient with a midline neck mass was initially diagnosed with a thyroglossal duct cyst and underwent a Sistrunks procedure. Histopathologic examination revealed a papillary thyroid car¬cinoma within the thyroglossal duct cyst. Ultrasound elastography of the thyroid gland was performed. We have detected a hypoechoic hypervascular thyroid nodule measuring 3 mm in diameter that appeared completely blue in B-mode ultrasonography, and hard tissue was visualized by elastosonography (ES. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The final pathological finding showed papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland without cervical lymph node metastasis. When a thyroglossal duct cyst is excised using Sistrunk’s procedure and when the definitive hystological analysis depicts malignancy, the thyroid gland must be studied carefully with radiological examinations. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 127-8

  6. Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid gland and immunohistochemical analysis of expression of p53 protein in papillary microcarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal Ali R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPM is defined according to WHO criteria as a thyroid tumor smaller than 1–1.5 cm. TPMs are encountered in 0.5–35.6 % of autopsies or surgical specimens where carcinoma had been unsuspected. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients who had TPMs in terms of clinical findings, histopathological features and immunohistochemical evidence of expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Methods A total of 44 patients with TPMs less than 1.0 cm in diameter were included in the study. The patients were evaluated clinically and the tumors were evaluated in terms of their histopathological and immunohistochemical features, including expression of p53. Results The female/male ratio was 2.8/1, and the median age at time of diagnosis was 49 years (range 20–71 years. The maximum diameter of the smallest focus was 0.1 mm, and that of the largest was 10 mm microscopically. The mean diameter of all tumors was 5.7 mm. There was no correlation between tumor size and age or gender. Of the TPMs, 72 % were found in the right lobe, 24 % in the left lobe and 4 % in the isthmus. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 43.2 % of the patients. All patients were treated with surgery, with 20 undergoing conservative surgery, i.e. lobectomy or isthmusectomy, and 24 undergoing total thyroidectomy. Frozen section provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 56.8 % of the patients. We found lymphocytic thyroiditis in 13.6% of patients, follicular variants in 11.9%, capsular invasion in 26.8%, lymph node involvement in 11.9%, soft tissue metastases in the neck in 12.1% and multifocality in 31.7 %, and none of these were related to age or gender (p > 0.05. No distant metastases were observed during approximately 10 years of follow up. We found p53 positivity in 34.5 % of TPM tumors. However, p53 expression was not statistically related to age or gender. Conclusion Our findings imply that TPMs may not be entirely innocent since they are associated with signs of poor prognosis such as capsular invasion, multifocal presentation, lymph node involvement and p53 positivity. Therefore, TPMs should be evaluated and followed like classical papillary cancers.

  7. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study. PMID:24306355

  8. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR); Diagnostico de lesoes da tireoide pela espectroscopia de absorcao no infravermelho por transformada de Fourier - FTIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albero, Felipe Guimaraes

    2009-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by {mu}-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm{sup -1}), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm{sup -1} and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm{sup -1}, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm{sup -1}) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm{sup -1}. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm{sup -1} were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  9. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I PET(/CT) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentzen, Walter; Schmitz, Jochen; Freudenberg, Lutz; Eising, Ernst; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Balschuweit, Dorothee; Hilbel, Thomas [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, Fachbereich Physikalische Technik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after {sup 131}I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) {sup 124}I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and {>=}96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq {sup 124}I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered {sup 131}I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The {sup 124}I PET(/CT) salivary gland dosimetry indicated that lemon juice stimulation shortly after {sup 131}I administration in radioiodine therapy increases the absorbed doses to the salivary glands. (orig.)

  10. Dual Ectopic Thyroid with Normally Located Thyroid: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Santanu Barua; Sarojini Dutta Choudhury; Mihir Saikia; Dipti Sarma; Uma Kaimal Saikia; Bipul Kumar Choudhury; Swapna Dewri

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary h...

  11. Chromosomal rearrangements and the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K.G. Grebe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of thyroid cancers arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, which yield a wide variety of distinct morphotypes, ranging from relatively indolent lesions to the most malignant forms of cancer known. The remaining primary thyroid cancers arise from C cells within the gland and result primarily from mutations of the RET protooncogene, germ line mutations of which give rise to the various forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The most common of the follicular cell-derived cancers are papillary carcinomas, (PTC, followed by follicular carcinomas (FTC and its Hurthle cell variant (HCC and finally anaplastic carcinomas (ATC. The pathogenesis of many thyroid cancers, of both PTC and FTC morphotype, involves chromosomal translocations. Rearrangements of the RET protoconcogene are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of ca. 50% of PTC. A similar proportion of FTC have been associated with a t(2;3(q13;p25 translocation, fusing the thyroid-specific transcription factor PAX8 with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR? nuclear receptor, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor. These rearrangements have analogy with translocations in erythropoetic cells, which form the only other known group of human malignancies that are largely the result of chromosomal translocation events. In this review we compare and contrast the oncogenic properties of thyroid and erythroid chromosomal transformations and speculate on mechanisms leading to their formation.

  12. Utilidad de la citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glándula tiroides en la E.S.E Hospital Universitario del Caribe: un estudio retrospectivo / Utility of the fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland at Hospital Universitario del Caribe, Cartagena, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco, Herrera; Katherine, Redondo; Carlos, Osorio; Juan, Grice; Alberto, Fernández.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En este estudio se evaluó en forma retrospectiva la utilidad de la citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina, en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glándula tiroides. Metodología. Se llevó a cabo una revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de los pa [...] cientes con impresión diagnóstica de nódulo tiroideo, durante un periodo de 7 años, de 2007 a 2013, durante los cuales se practicó citología mediante aspiración con aguja fina antes del abordaje quirúrgico. El diagnóstico citológico se comparó con el estudio anatomopatológico, con el objetivo de determinar los parámetros de rendimiento. Resultados. La población de estudio fue de 149 pacientes. Para la citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina, se calcularon los siguientes parámetros de rendimiento en el diagnóstico de neoplasias foliculares: sensibilidad, 54,5 %; especificidad, 92,9 %; valor diagnóstico positivo, 57,1 %; valor diagnóstico negativo, 92,2 %; precisión diagnóstica, 87,2 %; falsos negativos, 6,9 % y falsos positivos, 6,1 %. Conclusión. La citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina posee una sensibilidad baja en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glándula tiroides, comportamiento atribuible a la similitud citológica de este grupo de lesiones con los bocios con cambios adenomatosos. Abstract in english Introduction: This study evaluates retrospectively the performance of cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland. Methods: A review of medical records of patients with diagnostic impression of thyroid nodule over a period of seven years [...] from 2007 to 2013 was completed, in those patients in which a fine needle aspiration cytology prior to a surgical approach was performed. The cytological diagnosis was compared with pathologic study to determine the performance parameters. Results:The study population included 149 patients. The following performance parameters of the fine needle aspiration cytology were determined in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms: sensitivity, 54.5%; specificity, 92.9%; positive predictive value, 57.1%; negative predictive value, 92.2%; accurately diagnosed, 87.2%; false negatives and false positives 6.9%, 6.1% Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology has a low sensitivity in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland due to the cytologically similarity presented by this group of lesions with goiters with adenomatous changes.

  13. Dual ectopic thyroid with normally located thyroid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Choudhury, Bipul; Kaimal Saikia, Uma; Sarma, Dipti; Saikia, Mihir; Dutta Choudhury, Sarojini; Barua, Santanu; Dewri, Swapna

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary hypothyroidism. Ultrasonography of the neck showed hypoplastic thyroid in its normal location. A thyroid scan with Technetium-99?m pertechnate showed two intensely hyperfunctioning foci of ectopic thyroid tissue at a higher level in the midline consistent with dual ectopic thyroid, one at the base of tongue and the other in submental region. No uptake was seen in the normal bed. PMID:21765986

  14. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  15. [Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma with technetium and thallium double-labeling scintigraphy. Difficulties related to associated thyroid lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensi, P; Bedig, G; Paycha, F; Tellier, P; Sarfati, E; Attali, J R; Dubost, C; Sebaoun, J; Vulpillat, M

    1989-01-01

    Technetium and thallium double-labeling scintigraphy with image subtraction was carried out on 63 patients suspected of having primary hyperparathyroidism, with or without thyroid involvement. Forty-four patients had a normal thyroid image with technetium. The positive foci located by double-labeling in patients who were to undergo surgery always coincided with parathyroid adenoma. In the 16 cases where the initial diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism was not substantiated, the double-labeling test was normal. Thus for these 44 patients, scintigraphy sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 100%. Nineteen patients had an abnormal thyroid image with technetium. In 7 cases, image subtraction following double-labeling yielded uninterpretable data. In 12 other patients, the positive foci located outside the thyroid by double-labeling coincided with a parathyroid adenoma, whereas this was true for only one patient whose positive foci were located inside the thyroid; a parathyroid adenoma was not detected preoperatively in 4 patients. This double-labeling test is thus useful in locating parathyroid adenomas when technetium scintigraphy of the thyroid is normal; when it is abnormal, double-labeling is advantageous only in cases of extra-thyroid foci. PMID:2675716

  16. Clinical significance of patterns of incidental thyroid uptake at 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidental uptake of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) in the thyroid gland is not uncommonly encountered in day-to-day practice of oncological 18F-FDG positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). These are often felt to be “nuisance lesions” by referring clinicians and radiologists alike. However, recognition of the importance of different patterns of FDG uptake in the thyroid gland and knowledge of the possible underlying aetiologies are crucial in ensuring that patients are managed appropriately in the clinical context of their primary diagnosis, as the underlying pathological condition may be clinically important in a significant minority of such cases. This review describes the various patterns of 18F-FDG uptake within the thyroid and discusses the clinical significance and possible impact on patient management. Incidental low-grade homogeneous diffuse increased thyroid 18F-FDG uptake is usually seen in the patients with chronic thyroiditis, Grave's disease, and hypothyroidism. Thyroid function tests and antibody profiling are advised in these patients. Incidental focal 18F-FDG thyroid uptake should raise the possibility of underlying malignancy. Ultrasound with or without fine-needle aspiration cytology is usually recommended for the evaluation of these lesions. Heterogeneous uptake with prominent focal uptake in the thyroid should be further evaluated to exclude malignancy

  17. {sup 18}F-FDG PET versus {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for Adrenal Gland Lesion Characterization: a Comparison of Diagnostic Efficacy in Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Byung Tae; Choi, Joon Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Shim, Young Mog; Yi, Chin A.; Kim, Tae Sung [Seoul National Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of integrated PET/CT using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the differentiation of benign and metastatic adrenal gland lesions in patients with lung cancer and to compare the diagnostic efficacy with the use of PET alone. Sixty-one adrenal lesions (size range, 5 104 mm; mean size, 16 mm) were evaluated retrospectively in 42 lung cancer patients. Both PET images alone and integrated PET/CT images were assessed, respectively, at two-month intervals. PET findings were interpreted as positive if the FDG uptake of adrenal lesions was greater than or equal to that of the liver, and the PET/CT findings were interpreted as positive if an adrenal lesion show attenuation > 10 HU and showed increased FDG uptake. Final diagnoses of adrenal gland lesions were made at clinical follow-up (n 52) or by a biopsy (n = 9) when available. The diagnostic accuracies of PET and PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal lesions were compared using the McNemar test. Thirty-five (57%) of the 61 adrenal lesions were metastatic and the remaining 26 lesions were benign. For the depiction of adrenal gland metastasis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET were 74%, 73%, and 74%, respectively, whereas those of integrated PET/CT were 80%, 89%, and 84%, respectively (p values; 0.5, 0.125, and 0.031, respectively). The use of integrated PET/CT is more accurate than the use of PET alone for differentiating benign and metastatic adrenal gland lesions in lung cancer patients.

  18. Cirugía mínimamente invasiva de la glándula tiroides: Estudio experimental en el perro / Minimally invasive surgery of the thyroid gland: Experimental study in the dog

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge R, Lucena; Paúl, Coronel; César, Useche.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar  si la lobectomía tiroidea video-asistida, realizada en el modelo canino, reduce el tiempo operatorio, el sangramiento, lesiones de las estructuras nerviosas, y mejora los resultados cosméticos de la cicatriz cervical, en comparación con la lobectomía conve [...] ncional. Se intervinieron 36 perros adultos mestizos sanos, desparasitados, de ambos sexos, procedentes del bioterio del Instituto de Cirugía Experimental de la Universidad Central de Venezuela. Los animales fueron  asignados al azar simple, a dos grupos de estudio: lobectomía tiroidea convencional (LTC) y lobectomía video - asistida (LTVA), sin insuflación de gas. Los resultados estéticos fueron evaluados por los cirujanos de acuerdo a una escala (excelentes, buenos, regulares y malos), observándose los mejores resultados (P Abstract in english A study was conducted to determine if the video-assisted lobectomy performed on a canine model, reduces surgical time, bleeding volume, nerve structures injuries; and improves the cosmetic results of the cervical scar, when compared to conventional lobectomy. Thirty-six adult crossbred dogs of eithe [...] r sex from the animal facility of the Institute of Experimental Surgery, Universidad Central de Venezuela were used. The animals were randomly allocated into two experimental groups: Group A: Eighteen dogs who underwent conventional thyroid lobectomy (CTL); Group B: Eighteen dogs who underwent video-assisted thyroid lobectomy (VATL) without gas insulation. Cosmetic results were assessed by surgeons according to a scale, as follows: excellent, good, average, and bad. The results of the experiment show that dogs operated with the VATL technique exhibited significantly (P

  19. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 is a natural chemopreventive agent against carcinogen induced precancerous lesions in mouse mammary gland organ culture

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xinjian; Hawthorne, Michael; Vaishnav, Avani; St-Arnaud, René; Mehta, Rajendra G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the role of vitamin D3 endocrine system in prevention of mammary gland transformation in animal models, use of 1,25(OH)2D3 in clinical settings is precluded due to its toxicity in vivo. Therefore much effort has been placed in developing relatively non-toxic vitamin D analogs. Recently, with the discovery of the expression of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in multiple extrarenal organs, the functional role of prohormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], has been redefi...

  20. Avaliação do perfil clínico e laboratorial de gatos hipertireoideos com ou sem lobo tireoidiano aumentado a palpação cervical / Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of hyperthyroid domestic cats with or without palpable thyroid gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa P. de, Faria; Katia B., Corgozinho; Lio, Moreira; Ana M.R., Ferreira; Heloisa J.M. de, Souza.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O hipertireoidismo é a endocrinopatia mais comum em gatos idosos. Devido à natureza progressiva da doença, a identificação de um estágio subclínico se torna essencial para melhor controle da doença. O presente estudo compreendeu um levantamento da frequência de gatos hipertireoideos durante o períod [...] o de março de 2007 a abril de 2008, no estado do Rio de Janeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos em uma população de gatos domésticos com hipertireoidismo naturalmente adquirido, com ou sem lobo tireoidiano palpável. A seleção dos animais foi realizada através da detecção do valor de tiroxina (T4) total acima dos valores de referência com a técnica de radioimunoensaio. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos com base na identificação do aumento da tireoide à palpação: Grupo I (tireoide não palpável) e Grupo II (tireoide palpável). Avaliações clínica e laboratoriais completas foram realizadas em todos os gatos do estudo. A avaliação clínica incluiu avaliação comportamental, peso, escore de condição corporal, pele e pelagem, auscultação cardiopulmonar, palpação tireoidiana e aferição da pressão arterial sistólica. Além do T4 total, os seguintes exames laboratoriais foram realizados: hemograma, ureia, creatinina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (FA) e glicose. Trinta e um animais foram submetidos à avaliação cardíaca, através de ecocardiograma. Dos 178 animais avaliados, 51 foram incluídos nesse estudo por apresentarem aumento sérico da T4. Vinte e seis animais foram inclusos no Grupo I e vinte e cinco no Grupo II. Os parâmetros clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos foram muito semelhantes entre os dois grupos. No entanto, os níveis séricos de T4 total foram significativamente menores nos gatos com tireoide não palpável. Todo gato acima de sete anos deve ser avaliado para presença de hipertireoidismo através da palpação tireoidiana e avaliação sérica de tiroxina total, pois muitos gatos sem sinais clínicos apresentam hipertireoidismo e o diagnóstico precoce permite diminuir os efeitos sistêmicos da doença em órgãos como fígado, rins e coração. Abstract in english Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder of older cats. Due to the progressive nature of the disease, the identification of a subclinical stage is essential in order to have a better control of the disease. The present study was a survey of the frequency of feline hyperthyroidism in Rio [...] de Janeiro, from March, 2007 to April, 2008. The purpose of this study was to perform an evaluation of the clinical, laboratorial and echocardiographic aspects in a feline population of naturally acquired hyperthyroidism, with or without palpable thyroid gland. The selection of the cats was done by the documentation of an elevation of total thyroxine (TT4) levels by radioimmunoassay. The animals were divided in two groups according to the thyroid palpation: group I (non-palpable thyroid lobe) and group II (palpable thyroid lobe). Laboratorial and complete clinical evaluations were performed in all cats. The clinical evaluation included behavioral evaluation, body weight, body condition, dermatologic, cardiopulmonary auscultation, thyroid palpation and systolic blood pressure reading. Besides the TT4, the following exams were performed: urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. Thirty one cats had an echocardiogram performed. On the basis of TT4 concentrations, 51 of the 178 cats were classified as hyperthyroid. One or more enlarged thyroid glands were palpated in 25 of the 51 hyperthyroid cats and were included at Group II. Twenty six cats didn't palpable thyroid gland and were included at Group I. Clinical, laboratorial and echocardiographic parameters were similar between the two groups. However, the TT4 levels were significantly lower in the non-palpable thyroid group. All geriatric cats must be thyroid gland palpable on clini

  1. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  2. Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Bastan Hagh

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute suppurative Thyroiditis is rarely seen during childhood. Fever, a tender swollen mass over the thyroid gland and neck pain are the main clinical features of the illness. The diagnosis of acute suppurative Thyroiditis in this 2-year old boy was not difficult because of the presence of fever and toxicity. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was soon begun after hospitalization and the pus drained. The recovery was complete after one week.

  3. Etiology of thyroid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellabarba, D. (Sherbrooke Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1983-12-01

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors.

  4. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  5. Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas by technetium and thallium double-labeling scintigraphy. Difficulties linked to associated thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium and thallium double-labeling scintigraphy with image subtraction was carried out on 63 patients suspected of having primary hyperparathyroidism, with or without thyroid involvement. Forty-four patients had a normal thyroid image with technetium. The positive foci located by double-labeling in patients who were to undergo surgery always coincided with parathyroid adenoma. In the 16 cases where the initial diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism was not substantiated, the double-labeling test was normal. Thus for these 44 patients, scintigraphy sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 100%. Nineteen patients had an abnormal thyroid image with technetium. In 7 cases, image subtraction following double-labeling yielded uninterpretable data. In 12 other patients, the positive foci located outside the thyroid by double-labeling coincided with a parathyroid adenoma, whereas this was true for only one patient whose positive foci were located inside the thyroid; a parathyroid adenoma was not detected preoperatively in 4 patients. This double-labeling test is thus useful in locating parathyroid adenomas when technetium scintigraphy of the thyroid is normal; when it is abnormal, double-labeling is advantageous only in cases of extrathyroid foci

  6. Sweet's syndrome and subacute thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmus, Y.; Kovatz, S.; Shilo, L.; Ganem, G.; Shenkman, L.

    2000-01-01

    A 63 year old woman developed biopsy documented lesions of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet's syndrome) one week after the onset of subacute thyroiditis. This is only the second reported case of such an association. The role of cytokines in the development of both subacute thyroiditis and Sweet's syndrome may be the link between these two conditions.???Keywords: Sweet's syndrome; thyroiditis; cytokines; thyroid

  7. A rare case of triple thyroid ectopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukund Rahalkar; Anand Rahalkar; Shrikant Solav

    2014-01-01

    Various anomalies of thyro-glossal duct have been described, in which the duct may form a cyst or may present as a solid nodule to form an ectopic gland. The ectopic gland can develop along the tract of the duct to give rise to ectopic lingual, sublingual (pre-hyoid) or sub-hyoid (pyramidal) gland, with or without normal pre-tracheal thyroid gland.There are a few reports of double ectopia of thyroid but triple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. We have come across a case of triple thyroid ...

  8. Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi Mudanças na glândula tireóide durante o ciclo reprodutivo masculino em um morcego vespertilionídeo Scotophilus heathi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KRISHNA

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4 concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during breeding and post-breeding and low concentration during quiescence. However, the T4 concentration increased from breeding to post-breeding phase, when the testes weight was declining. It is suggested that in S. heathi the positive correlation between thyroid and testicular cycles occurs only during the phases of the reproductive cycle when the body weight and testicular activity are also closely correlated.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as mudanças na glândula tireóide com o ciclo reprodutivo de S. heathi. A tireóide mostrou variação sazonal marcada em peso, quantidade de colóide e altura do epitélio folicular, sugerindo que esta glândula está inativa durante a quiescência e o torpor de inverno e ativa durante o tempo de recrudescência e acasalamento, similarmente ao ciclo testicular. A concentração de tiroxina (T4 do plasma mostrou significantes mudanças sazonais com alta concentração durante o acasalamento e pós-acasalamento e baixa concentração durante a quiescência. Entretanto, a concentração plasmática de T4 aumentou da fase reprodutiva à pós-reprodutiva, quando o peso dos testículos estava se reduzindo. Sugere-se que, em S. heathi, a estreita correlação entre os ciclos testicular e tireóideo durante algumas fases do ciclo reprodutivo esteja relacionada à sensibilidade aumentada no período reprodutivo e à atividade metabólica.

  9. Clinical Concepts on Thyroid Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    AlfredoPontecorvi; GiampaoloPapi; SalvatoreMariaCorsello

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including ther...

  10. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kuan-Yin [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Lin, Cheng-Li [China Medical University Hospital, Management Office for Health Data, Taichung (China); China Medical University, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Huang, Wen-Sheng [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Yen, Ruoh-Fang [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based