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1

Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available Thyrolipoma or adenolipoma of the thyroid gland is defined as a thyroid adenoma containing mature fat tissue. It is a rare encapsulated lesion. A case of a 35-year-old female presenting with swelling in the neck that was diagnosed as adenolipoma is described because of its extreme rarity.

Gupta Anshu

2008-10-01

2

Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland  

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Thyrolipoma or adenolipoma of the thyroid gland is defined as a thyroid adenoma containing mature fat tissue. It is a rare encapsulated lesion. A case of a 35-year-old female presenting with swelling in the neck that was diagnosed as adenolipoma is described because of its extreme rarity.

2008-01-01

3

A Comparative Study of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and Fine Needle Non-aspiration Cytology (FNNAC) Technique in Lesions of Thyroid Gland  

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The present study was done to compare diagnostic yield by fine needle non aspiration technique (FNNAC) with Fine Needle Aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lesions in thyroid gland. FNNAC and FNAC both were performed on 69 patients presenting with thyroid lesions, except those suffering from thyrotoxicosis. Smears were then cytologically interpreted by a single pathologist as unsuitable, diagnostically adequate or diagnostically superior for opinion, without the knowledge of sampling method employe...

Ramachandra, L.; Kudva, Ranjini; Rao, B. H. Anand; Agrawal, Saurabh

2011-01-01

4

Radioiodine and thyroid gland  

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Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I ac...

Takavar A

1994-01-01

5

[Thyroid gland and parathyroid gland changes in ultrasound (real time B image)].  

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Using a high-resolution real-time B-imager, examinations of the thyroid and parathyroid glands of 112 patients revealed small focal lesions (more than 3 mm diameter: thyroid gland, parathyroid gland) as well as diffuse alterations (thyroid gland). The following focal lesions were found: Adenomas of the parathyroid gland (n = 9), haemangiomas of thyroid gland (n = 3), adenomas of thyroid gland (n = 2), metastases into the thyroid gland (n = 7), primary cancer of the thyroid gland or its recurrence (n = 3) and metastases of different cancers in soft tissue of the neck regions (n = 8). A struma nodosa was diagnosed in 15 patients. With regard to diffuse alterations of the thyroid gland, atrophies (n = 6), aplasieas of 1 lobe (n = 2), thyreoiditides (n = 3), and struma diffuse (n = 5). In 49 of 52 cases morphological alterations of the thyroid gland could be excluded, while for the other 3 patients, who had been operated on in the region of the neck, no final evaluation was possible. On comparing these findings with the results of computed tomography and scintigraphy, ultrasound as a screening method showed the highest sensitivity while its specificity could be enlarged by considering the results of scintigraphy. Decision by ultrasound only as to whether a focal lesion was benign or malignant was only possible under certain circumstances. However, a histological diagnosis could not be made by ultrasound. PMID:3887564

Brockmann, W P; Crone-Münzebrock, W; Steinhagen, E; Spengler, D

1985-02-01

6

Primary cavernous hemangioma of the thyroid gland.  

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A 78-year-old euthyroid patient presented for evaluation of a symptomatic, slowly growing neck mass. Ultrasound scan revealed a multinodular goiter and a hypoechoic nodule of the right thyroid lobe. Total thyroidectomy was performed and the lesion was completely excised. Definite diagnosis was obtained after histological examination of the surgical specimen. Cavernous hemangiomas of the thyroid gland are infrequent lesions which may escape diagnosis preoperatively. An effort should be made not to rupture these lesions in order to ensure a bloodless procedure. PMID:20531063

Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Markogiannakis, Haridimos; Kekis, Panagiotis B; Papadima, Artemisia; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Manouras, Andreas

2010-07-01

7

Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.  

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Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography. PMID:24504764

Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

2014-08-01

8

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will offer ... than an enlarged thyroid, but your question has any connection to the thyroid gland, Dr. T will ...

9

Submandibular ectopic thyroid with normally located thyroid gland.  

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Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland which is defined as the presence of thyroid tissue at a site other than the pretracheal area. Nearly 1 to 3% of all ectopic thyroids are located in the lateral neck. Simultaneous submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. In this article, we report a 37-year-old female case admitted to our clinic with a complaint of swollen neck in whom ultrasonography revealed submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with an orthotopic thyroid gland. PMID:24798441

Y?lmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Aytürk, Semra; Güven, Mehmet; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye

2014-01-01

10

Ectopia of thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of ectopic thyroid is presented. The differential diagnosis of this pathology with the tumors in the base of the tongue, including euthyroid patients is related. The most outstanding feature is that the diagnosis is easily made by cintilography with iodine or technetium. The hormonal studies (T3, T4) usually are inefficient to establish the diagnosis. (Author)

1984-01-01

11

Hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland: report of three cases.  

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Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic infestation that is distributed world-wide. It may be found in nearly any part of the body, most often in the liver and the lungs, but occasionally in other structures such as the thyroid gland. The present study reports three cases of hydatid cysts of the thyroid gland, in patient ranging from 18 to 25 years of age. Two patients had concomitant hydatid disease involving organs other than the thyroid gland (secondary disease), and one had, sole, involvement of the thyroid gland itself (primary disease). Moreover, an occult papillary thyroid carcinoma was detected incidentally in one case, involving the unilateral thyroid lobe as the hydatid cyst. While several surgical procedures including left lobectomy and isthmectomy were undertaken in one patient, two patients underwent total thyroidectomy. No disease recurrence was observed in any of the three patients during the postoperative follow-up period. No study reporting the concomitance of hydatid cyst and neoplasia of the thyroid gland has been previously published. This concomitance indicates the importance of the differential diagnosis of lesions characterized by calcifications in the thyroid gland, especially in endemic regions. PMID:22836546

Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbulut, Sami; Sogutlu, Gokhan; Arabaci, Ebru; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

2013-08-01

12

Metastasis to the Thyroid Gland; Unusual Site of Metastasis  

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Background: The incidence of metastasis to the thyroid gland in autopsy series varies from 1.25% to 24%. Metastasis to the thyroid gland is usually considered as a terminal event, and the effectiveness of conventional treatment has been questioned. Methods: Seven patients with metastasis to the thyroid gland were studied retrospectively. Primary tumor origin was identified in all of them. Metastasis to the thyroid gland was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology or histology. Data were analyzed for the type of malignant lesions, the clinical course of the disease, and the prognosis after thyroid involvement. Results: Two patients had lung as a primary tumor site. Breast. iris, kidney, parotid and soft tissue sarcoma were the involved primary sites in the other cases. The time from the diagnosis of primary tumor to metastasis to the thyroid gland was considerable (ranged from 13135 months, median 60 months). Fine needle aspiration cytology detected metastasis in five of seven patients. Treatment was surgery alone or surgery with adjuvant therapy. One patient didn't receive any treatment. Conclusions: In any patient with a previous history of malignancy, no matter how old that history is, a new thyroid mass should be considered as recurrence until proved otherwise. Although detection of metastasis to the thyroid gland often indicates poor prognosis, aggressive surgical and medical therapy may be effective in a small percentage of patients

2006-03-01

13

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage and ... This shows some of the structures and their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, the nerves to ...

14

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... the thyroid functions in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship ... also be explaining some of the technical applications here, and Gene Bashera who is our anesthesia tech. ...

15

Thyroid Gland Hematoma After Blunt Neck Trauma  

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Hemorrhage of a previously normal thyroid gland as a result of blunt trauma is a very rare condition. We report a case of blunt trauma that caused acute hemorrhage into the thyroid gland and presented with hoarseness. The diagnosis of thyroid gland hematoma was made with a combination of fiberoptic laryngoscopy, cervical computed tomography, and carotid angiography. The patient was treated conservatively, had a favorable course without further complications, and was discharged four days after...

2009-01-01

16

Cystic parotid gland lesion evaluation  

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We evaluated differential diagnoses of cystic parotid gland lesions and the efficacy of preoperative diagnosis. Of 191 parotid gland nodules resected between January 2003 and October 2008, 167 (87%) were benign and 24 (13%) malignant. Thirty-five parotid gland nodules whose components were almost cystic were enrolled in this study. All cystic lesions were retrospectively evaluated with respect to preoperative diagnostic examinations and histopathological confirmed diagnosis. Cystic components in surgical specimens were also evaluated histopathologically. The relationships with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological confirmed diagnosis were studied. Of 35 cystic lesions, 11 were complete cystic masses and had no mural nodules, while remaining 24 were incomplete and had mural nodules. Histopathological examinations showed that 5 were nonneoplastic, 27 were cystic degenerations of benign tumors, and 3 were cystic degenerations of malignant tumors. In the 11 complete cysts, preoperative diagnosis could not be made using any modality, whether with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), salivary scintigraphy, or 67-gallium citrate scintigraphy. Of 24 incomplete cysts, only 9 cystic Warthin tumors were diagnosed correctly before surgery. Studies of cystic components in MRI and histopathology suggested that hemorrhagic degeneration of malignant tumors should be kept in mind for cystic lesions showing hemorrhagic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly before surgery, but the evaluation of cystic components by MRI and FNAC is helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

2010-05-01

17

Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.  

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Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds. PMID:21120907

Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

2011-01-01

18

Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

1983-01-01

19

[Primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland].  

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Malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease generally occurring women in the 6(th) or 7(th) decade of life. The principal clinical sign is giant goiter rapidly leading to sings of compression, raising the question of differential diagnosis with anaplastic cancer. The radiological findings in our patient were suggestive of malignancy due to the locoregional invasion. Immunohistochemistry study of the surgical specimen was required to reach the definitive diagnosis of thyroid gland primary lymphoma. Diagnosis of malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland made at the stage of extensive locoregional extension compromises prognosis. Our patient died after one session of chemotherapy. PMID:12193880

Ibnou Soufyane, N; Chadli, A; El Ghomari, H; Essodegui, F; Marouan, F; El Farouqi, A; Ababou, M R; Kafih, M

2002-06-01

20

Imaging diagnosis of thyroid gland congenital anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical and radiological findings in 25 patients presenting diverse thyroid gland anomalies are described, as follows: thyroid aplasia - 2, thyroid hemiagenesis - 9, lingual thyroid gland - 3, median cervical cysts - 8, lateral cervical aberrant tissue - 2, distant aberrant thyroid tissue - 1 case. In all patients the following methods are applied: echography, computer tomography and radionuclide examination with 99mTc. Conclusions are made that: 1) To make definite diagnosis of thyroid ectopia the complex application of imaging methods is mandatory. 2) Ultrasound examination is sufficient to establish agenesis, hypo- or hemiaplasia of the thyroidea without need to resort to other imaging modalities. 3) Ectopic thyroid tissue eventually discovered should be carefully monitored by echography and cytologically because of susceptibility of malignant degeneration

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Effect of iodine-137 on sex and thyroid hormone binding to blood plasma proteins in children with functional lesions of the thyroid gland as a result of Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In studying characteristics of specific interaction of estradiol-, testosterone- and thyriod-binding blood globulins with the corresponding ligands in children from Gomel region with with endemic swelling of the thyroid gland (degrees 1 and 2) affected by iodine-131 revealed were a reduced cooperativity in estradiol T-3 binding and a halved affinity to androgens and thyroids as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a drastic decline in the binding capacity of estradiol- and testosterone-binding globulins in the blood plasma. The endemic thyroid gland swelling is supposed to be due to sexual malfunction in teenagers

1992-01-01

22

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... in bodies. Sure. This picture here shows a normal thyroid gland and its relationship to the trachea ... to show you is the difference between a normal endotracheal tube, which is something like this. It’s ...

23

Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland can be defined as a lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland. Lymphomas of the thyroid gland represent less than 5% of primary thyroid neoplasms and are two to three times more common in women than in men, whereas the median age is usually close to 60 years. Majority of thyroid lymphomas are diffuse, large-cell lymphomas. The incidence of thyroid lymphomas in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis has markedly increased and this phenomenon is probably related to their pathogenesis. Clinical presentation Unlike most other thyroid neoplasms, lymphomas are usually rapidly enlarging masses and local symptoms are common: pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea or stridor. Diagnosis To evaluate the extent of disease, a chest x-ray and CT scans of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are necessary. An excisional or large-needle biopsy may also be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. Occasionally, these tumors can be confused with anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which can lead to serious mistakes in management. A gallium scan or a positron emission tomography (PET scan can help later to establish whether any residual abnormality, observed on x-ray studies after treatment, contains active lymphoma or scar tissue. After diagnosis, patients are clinically staged (without surgery using appropriate computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy Assessment of the extent of thyroid lymphomas is crucial for prognosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy may improve the prognosis in patients with intrathyroidal disease only. It is very important to identify patients with favorable prognostic factors and to treat them with standard chemotherapy (CHOP and radiotherapy protocols. Patients with diffuse large-cell primary thyroid lymphomas should not be treated with radiation therapy alone. Conclusion The best treatment results for malignant lymphomas of the thyroid gland are achieved using a combined-modality therapy.

?aparevi? Zorica

2002-01-01

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Ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma in the mediastinum without any tumoral involvement in the thyroid gland. A Case report  

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Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid tissue results from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the thyroid gland. True malignant transformation in ectopic thyroid tissue is extremely rare and is always diagnosed after surgical excision of the lesion by pathology examinations. There are well-documented cases of ectopic thyroid cancer while primary tumoral lesion occurs in the orthotopic thyroid, but only rare cases of ectopic PTC without any evidence of occult thyroid cancer in the orthotopic thyroid or cervical lymph nodes have been reported. We report on a 39 year old woman who was operated for a mediastinal mass. The initial diagnosis was a malignant thymic lesion, which was later confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Consequently, total thyroidectomy was performed and pathology report showed normal thyroid tissue with no evidence of any neoplastic involvement. Until now, only one similar case has been reported.

Susan Shafiee

2013-04-01

25

Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland.  

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Solitary fibrous tumor is a spindle cell neoplasm rarely arising in the thyroid gland. We present a 78-year-old man with the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland resected by subtotal thyroidectomy. Fine needle aspiration cytology via ultrasound guidance demonstrated a hypocellular aspirate that revealed follicular epithelial cells with mild nuclear atypia and scattered spindle cells with bland nuclei. Histologically, the patternless proliferation of spindle cells was seen among collagenous bundles, accompanied by hemangiopericytomatous vessels, and variously dilated follicles with mild atypical cells having slightly enlarged nuclei, indicating adenomatous goiter. The neoplastic spindle cells showed diffuse immunoreactivity to CD34, bcl-2, CD99 and vimentin, but were negative for cytokeratins, calcitonin, TTF-1 and CD5. Although solitary fibrous tumor arising in thyroid gland is rare, this tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of thyroid spindle cell tumors and also that of adenomatous. PMID:24013381

Mizuuchi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsuya; Shirahane, Kengo; Souzaki, Masae; Tanaka, Masao; Oda, Yoshinao

2014-06-01

26

Hydatid disease of the thyroid gland--(a case report.  

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Full Text Available Hydatid disease of the thyroid gland, presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, is being reported below. Pre-operative investigations, including thyroid isotope scanning and aspiration of the nodule, did not help in establishing the diagnosis which was later confirmed by histological examination. Post-operative investigations revealed it to be an isolated involvement of the thyroid gland.

Arunabha

1989-10-01

27

Deposition in the human thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131I concentration in cattle milk was 437pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

1979-11-29

28

Historical review of the thyroid gland surgery  

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Full Text Available Thyroid gland surgery passed through history from the suggestions for prohibition, during middle of XIX century due to unacceptable mortality even for mediaeval conditions, to highest level of surgical art later, as W. Halsted sad. First thyreoidectomy was done by Albucasis (El Zahrawi in 925 A.D, and after him by Roger from Salerno. While Pierre-Joseph Desault in 1791 has done first operation on thyroid gland that can fulfill today’s criteria, Theodor Billroth gave scientific grounds of thyroid surgery. Genius attitude and surgical talent of Theodor Kocher raised thyroid surgery on scientific level, brought surgical skills on the top of surgical art pyramid, and brought him personally to the Nobel Prize in 1909. Very important contribution to development of thyroid surgery gave its giants: Johann von Mikulicz, William Halsted, Charles Mayo, George W. Crile and Frank Lahey. Thomas P. Dunhill, F. A. Coller, A. M. Boyden, and many others did important contribution, too. Development of thyroid surgery was constant to nowadays, with tendention for multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers. Thyroid surgery in Serbia followed this world trends, in spite of great problems in this area during history.

Ignjatovi? Mile D.

2003-01-01

29

Clinical application of gamma camera scintigraphy with 201Tl chloride in patients with nodular formations of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 201Tl chloride scanning extends considerably the diagnostic possibilities in cases with nodular formations of the thyroid gland. The positive Thallium scan should draw attention to the malignant character of the lesion. If it is not taken up by cold nodules would suggest benignant formations of the thyroid gland. Thallium chloride shows a high degree of selectivity for the primary carcinoma of the thyroid (82%). It is taken up both by differentiated and undifferentiated metastases of the cancer of the thyroid

1982-09-02

30

Fibromatosis of thyroid gland (a case report.  

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Full Text Available Fibromatosis of thyroid gland is a rare condition encountered in surgical practice. Clinically presenting as goitre, it is treated with near total thyroidectomy with good results. We had one such case under our care at the K.E.M. Hospital, Bombay. Rarity of this condition prompted us to publish the data, the literature is briefly reviewed.

Samsi A

1992-01-01

31

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... doing that? Do you try to use the natural folds in the neck? We try to look at the symmetry of the natural creases in the neck, and then try to ... Usually not. Usually not. Now if there is cancer found in the thyroid, obviously the entire gland ...

32

Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ewing sarcoma of the bone is a highly malignant round-cell tumor that typically presents between 10 to 20 years of age and is more common in boys. It can have an extraosseous origin, although it is rare. We report a case of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the thyroid gland in a 9-year-old girl. (orig.)

2009-12-01

33

Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland  

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Ewing sarcoma of the bone is a highly malignant round-cell tumor that typically presents between 10 to 20 years of age and is more common in boys. It can have an extraosseous origin, although it is rare. We report a case of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the thyroid gland in a 9-year-old girl. (orig.)

Adapa, Pavani [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chung, Tae-Woong [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gwangju (Korea); Popek, Edwina J. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States); Hunter, Jill V. [Texas Children' s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Pediatric Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, E.B. Singleton Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

2009-12-15

34

Semi-automatic elastic registration on thyroid gland ultrasonic image  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. However, the shape of thyroid gland is irregular and difficult to calculate. For precise estimation of thyroid volume by ultrasound imaging, this paper presents a novel semiautomatic minutiae matching method in thyroid gland ultrasonic image by means of thin-plate spline model. Registration consists of four basic steps: feature detection, feature matching, mapping function design, and image transformation and resampling. Due to the connectivity of thyroid gland boundary, we choose active contour model as feature detector, and radials from centric points for feature matching. The proposed approach has been used in thyroid gland ultrasound images registration. Registration results of 18 healthy adults' thyroid gland ultrasound images show this method consumes less time and energy with good objectivity than algorithms selecting landmarks manually.

Xu, Xia; Zhong, Yue; Luo, Yan; Li, Deyu; Lin, Jiangli; Wang, Tianfu

2007-11-01

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Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

2007-12-01

36

Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

1986-01-01

37

SCHWANNOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND – A CASE REPORT  

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The thyroid gland is an infrequent site for the occurrence of a Schwannoma. These tumours most often mimic a thyroid nodule. A case of Schwannoma of the thyroid gland which was diagnosed on histopathological examination after a hemithyroidectomy is reported here.

2010-01-01

38

SCHWANNOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND – A CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an infrequent site for the occurrence of a Schwannoma. These tumours most often mimic a thyroid nodule. A case of Schwannoma of the thyroid gland which was diagnosed on histopathological examination after a hemithyroidectomy is reported here.

V. Subramaniam

2010-11-01

39

Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

1980-01-01

40

The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thyroid Hormones Concentration and Histopathological Changes of Thyroid Gland in Sheep  

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Full Text Available To identify the thyroid histological and hormonal changes in response to ambient temperature variations, thyroid glands and blood samples were randomly collected from 410 indigenous sheep of either sex and different age groups from municipal Ahvaz slaughter house. The extent of fluctuations in triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, T3 uptake and Free Thyroxin Index (FTI and thyroid histopathological lesions were scrutinized in 2 months in year 2003, viz February (the coldest month and August (the hottest month. A marked decline was discernable in T3, T4 and FTI in August compared to February, but mean value for T3 uptake increased. Out of 410 pairs of thyroid glands, 169 (41.2% had lesions in which histopathological changes were categorized as follicular atrophy (43.6%, ultimobranchial cyst (30.2%, paranchymal cyst (6.4%, lymphocytic thyroiditis (6.2%, hyperemia/hemorrhage (5.5%, follicular cell hyperplasia (4%, C cell hyperplasia (1.4%, colloid goiter (1.1% and adenoma (1.1. Mean of thyroidal parameters for T4 and FTI was higher in lesioned group (p<0.05. The frequency of lesioned thyroid was higher in summer than winter (p<0.05. The result of this study showed that high ambient temperature has profound effect on thyroid function, secretion and pathological changes in sheep.

M. Nouri

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 false Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue... § 310.15 Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue...

2009-01-01

42

Neuropeptide Y in the human thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autonomic nerve fibers immunoreactive to Neuropeptide Y (ir-NPY) were counted in tissue samples from human thyroid glands. Samples were taken from the non-pathological parts of gland material removed surgically from nine female patients suffering from struma nodosa or solitary adenoma. The ir-NPY fiber population was subdivided into fibers associated with blood vessels (perivascular innervation) and fibers either attached to the wall epithelium of the follicles or coursing within the gland's connective tissue (extravascular innervation). Most perivascular fibers were found in arterioles (20-40 microns diam.). Capillaries (< 10 microns diam.) were not innervated. These fibers surrounded the vessels. They formed a characteristic reticular or coil-like pattern close to the tunica adventitia. Sometimes a second, smaller fiber layer was found between the tunica adventitia and media. Ir-NPY fibers were unmyelinated and less than 2 microns in diameter. Based on counts of the gland's arterial supply, it was calculated that about 23% of all arterial vessels (< 80 microns diameter) were innervated. On average, one innervated arteriole was found per 0.2 mm2 of thyroid tissue. Extravascular fibers were less frequent. In ca. 3 mm2 of thyroid tissue at least two ir-NPY fibers were found outside the vessels close to the follicular epithelium or within the connective tissue. No follicles with a dense ir-NPY innervation were found. Extravascular fibers were less arborized. They appear to be either smaller or less intensively stained than perivascular fibers, although some extravascular fibers were collaterals of the perivascular fibers. PMID:9442264

Münz, H; Claas, B

1997-12-01

43

Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

1976-01-01

44

Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter. PMID:24662646

Markovi?, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterovi?, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

2014-06-01

45

The theoretical and palomporphological aspects of cancerogenesis and anticancerogenesis in the thyroid gland.  

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Full Text Available A number of theoretic and pathomorphologic postulates are offered for creation of the integrated concept of morphological mechanisms of cancero- and anticarcinogenesis in the thyroid gland. These postulates developed on the basis of long-term researches of this organ. The problems of system formation with new properties (neosystemogenesis which are the important philosophical and theoretical problem of oncology are introduced in the article.The new view of sight on a function – morphogenetic and morphodynamic- of hemocapillars in the thyroid gland is offered. These mechanisms provide the coordina-tive change of the spatial-time ratio, by which adaptive change of a qualitative condition of thyroid gland is reached without change of quantitative characteristics, and also realize morphogenetic processes - formation of new follicles by their fragmen-tation by hemocapillars. We insist, that the failure of morphogenetic and morphodynamic function of hemocapillars of a thy-roid gland bases a pathogenesis of the majority diseases of this organ, including tumors. The conception about pretumoral and intratumoral dysplasia, mechanism of their formation and role in formation of blastomas are offered. An experimental model of carcinogenesis from C-cells by long-term lesion of structural homeostasis of thyroid gland by hypercalcemia is developed. The problem of existence of anticarcinogenesis is analyzed in the article. The phenomenon of elimination of follicles of a central zone of the thyroid gland is determined as a specific mechanism of the thyroid gland during long-term stimulation of prolifera-tive activity of C-cells. This phenomenon can be explained as the mechanism of anticarcinogenesis in the thyroid gland. It is necessary to search for similar phenomenon in other organs for creation of a new trend in medicine - therapeutic surgery, which is extirpation of pathological neoplasms on early stages of their formation without a classic surgical intervention.

Fedchenko M.P.

2007-01-01

46

Study of histopathological changes in thyroid gland in buffaloes  

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Full Text Available Present Study is observarionf Histopathological changes of Thyroid Gland In Buffaloes. Tissue samples i.e.thyroid glands were collected from the 300 buffaloes slaughtered at Municipal Slaughter House, Balapur Akola. Thyroid glands were cut in to small pieces for further histopathological processing. They were dehydrated in ascending (50%, 70, 95, 100% order of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin and sections of 4-6 micro diameter were obtained and stained with haematoxylin and eosin stain. The animals slaughtered were certified as non-productive. During present study mean, standard deviation and standard error were calculated as per the standard procedure. Microscopically 76.96% glands were normal, incidence of colloid goitre was recorded in 11.72% thyroid, parenchymatous goitre in 1.89% thyroid, increased interfollicular spaces and fibrotic condition in 9.66% glands. Haemorrhages and congestion was observed in 2.75% thyroid glands. Conclusion of this study is colloid goitre due to distention and enlargement of number of follicles, congestion in the thyroid gland occurs as the part of more general syndrome and Interfollicular hemorrhages occurs due to distribution of RBCs, escaped from blood vessels. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 387-389

V. M. shelke

47

Diagnostic imaging of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ability of US, CT, and RI for differentiating malignant tumors from benign ones was compared on 36 patients with thyroid gland diseases which were confirmed histologically by surgical operation. In 6 cases of diffuse goiter, there was very slight difference in the accuracy among the three methods; in 30 cases of nodular goiter, the accuracy of US, CT, and RI was 70%, 63% and 83% respectively. US is superior to CT in handiness, time of examination, exposure, and cost. Neverheless CT is of value in observing changes in tumors which have already grown to a certain size (intrathoracic infiltration, etc.), whether of it involves the tracheas, blood vessels, or muscles, and the state of regional lymph nodes. On the other hand, RI scintigraphy which utilizes various nuclides is very useful for functional diagnosis and morphological diagnosis. (Ueda, J.)

1981-01-01

48

Papillary carcinoma arising in median ectopic thyroid tissue: management of the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid tissue in an ectopic location is rare, 1 in 100,000 to 300,000 persons, and usually in the lateral neck. Median ectopic thyroid tissue is even more unusual, with the vast majority of cases being lingual thyroid tissue. We present a case of carcinoma arising in median, nonlingual ectopic thyroid tissue along with an analysis of the literature to determine the most appropriate management of the orthotopic thyroid gland. PMID:20461674

Cordes, Susan; Nelson, Jeffrey J

2010-05-01

49

Agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland in adult human cadavers: a case series  

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The thyroid gland, a highly vascular endocrine gland, is composed of two lateral lobes connected by a narrow median isthmus thus giving an 'H' shaped appearance to the gland. A wide range of morphological variations and developmental anomalies of the thyroid gland have been reported in the literature. In our study, on the morphometric features of the thyroid gland it was found that, 6 out of 41 thyroid glands that were dissected, showed an absence of the isthmus. The respective lateral lobes ...

2009-01-01

50

Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction, is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consequences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

Kova?ev-Zaviši? Branka

2012-01-01

51

Prenatal sonographic measurement of the fetal thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate whether the fetal thyroid gland could be examined by prenatal ultrasonography and to established the normal range of fetal thyroid width according to the gestational age. The width of the fetal thyroid was determined by prenatal ultrasonography from 118 pregnant women. Three of the mothers had current or previous thyroid disease and the widths of the fetal thyroid were determined from 115 normal subjects. The width of the fetal thyroid was defined by a maximum transverse distance of the thyroid gland between two carotid arteries on transverse scan of the fetal neck. We analyzed the cause of non-measurable cases. The width of the fetal thyroid and Neo-TSH were compared in 19 subjects, including 3 subjects will current or previous thyroid disease. We could measure the fetal thyroid widths in 95 cases (80%). The fetal thyroid widths of mothers without current or previous thyroid disease was 0.9-2.36 cm,which showed linear correlation with gestational age (Y=0.0506 X + 0.0439, r2=0.5661). Causes of non-measurable cases were neck flexion (65%), prone position (22%), and overlapped fetal neck by arm or shoulder (13%). Of the 19 neonates with Neo-TSH level, one case had a mother with a thyroid disease and showed increased width of the fetal and high Neo-TSH. The fetal thyroid was measured in 80% of prenatal ultrasonography and the width of the fetal thyroid showed linear correlated with gestational age. We assumed that the width of the thyroid could be useful for diagnosing fetal thyroid disorder when maternal thyroid disease exists.

2001-03-01

52

Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in submandibular ectopic thyroid with no orthotopic thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic thyroid tissue with no orthotopic gland is extremely rare; malign transformation of ectopic thyroid is also an uncommon event, and rarer is the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. In this clinical report, a case with submandibular ectopic thyroid without orthotropic thyroid gland is presented. Treatment was a complete resection of tumor, and histologic findings reveal follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery, and a substitution treatment with thyroxine was maintained. Physicians should be aware of the possibility that a lingual, submandibular, or lateral neck swelling could be an ectopic thyroid gland. This entity poses specific diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties, and definitive diagnosis is histologic. Computed tomographic scan, radioactive scan, and ultrasonography are necessary in revealing the presence of normal thyroid gland. Recommended treatment is primarily surgical, sometimes associated with radioiodine I 131 therapy and a substitution treatment with thyroxine. PMID:22337391

Guerrissi, Jorge O

2012-01-01

53

Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital ? camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na+, K+-ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na+, K+-ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na+, K+-ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na+, K+-ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na+, K+-ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na+, K+-ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

1987-01-01

54

Genetic aspects of etiology and development of thyroid gland cancer  

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Full Text Available Recent studies on thyroid gland cancer development and progression have identified new classes of tumor markers, proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressing genes, cell receptor genes, identified genetic tumor-predisposing polymorphism and some other significantly important segments of genome. The identification has been based mainly on revealing of DNA abnormal consequences, specific for occurrence of thyroid gland cancer and its progression.

Kovalenko Yu.V.

2012-09-01

55

NORMAL AND INCREASED FUNCTIONING OF THYROID GLAND IN EQUINES  

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Full Text Available Objective: to describe and analyze the normal functioning of the thyroid gland in equines and the factors which increase the thyroid hormone levels. Materials and methods: information from the last 50 years included in the BBCS-LILACS, Fuente Académica, IB-PsycINFO, IB-SSCI, IB-SciELO, Scopus and Scirus, data bases as well as historical articles, texts and references cited in work published to date were analyzed. Results: important information related to the objectives proposed in the present review was found and analyzed. It was then divided into two sections as follow: synthesis, liberation and metabolism of thyroid hormones; factors that modify the thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: the thyroid gland plays an important role producing thyroid hormones which are necessary for cellular differentiation and organic growth. The adequate functioning of metabolic ways depends on these hormones, which have specific effects on different organs maintaining homeostasis between all the tissues.

JÓSE HENRY OSORIO

2012-12-01

56

Imaging of huge lingual thyroid gland with goitre  

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We present the CT and MRI findings in a 75-year-old woman with a huge pathologically proven lingual thyroid which underwent goitrous degeneration. CT and MRI showed a midline, tongue-based, exophytic mass with areas of necrosis and heterogeneous contrast enhancement, as seen in large goitres in the normal thyroid gland. (orig.) With 1 fig., 7 refs.

Lee, C.C.; Chen, C.Y.; Chen, F.H.; Lee, G.W.; Hsiao, H.S. [Nat. Defense Medical Centre, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiol.; Zimmermann, R.A. [Department of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th St. and Civic Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19014 (United States)

1998-05-01

57

Imaging of huge lingual thyroid gland with goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the CT and MRI findings in a 75-year-old woman with a huge pathologically proven lingual thyroid which underwent goitrous degeneration. CT and MRI showed a midline, tongue-based, exophytic mass with areas of necrosis and heterogeneous contrast enhancement, as seen in large goitres in the normal thyroid gland. (orig.)

1998-05-01

58

Morphologic Changes in the Thyroid Gland After Radioiodine Administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, considerable success has been achieved in the treatment of goiter and tumors of the thyroid gland with 131I. The use of methods of histologic analysis has yielded many important findings as to the morphologic changes in the thyroid parenc...

A. P. Kalinin V. A. Odinokova V. V. Talantov

1971-01-01

59

Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have shown that cigarette smoking exerts multiple effects on the thyroid gland. Smoking seems to induce changes in thyroid function tests, like decrease in TSH and increase in thyroid hormones. However, these alterations are usually mild. In addition, tobacco smoking may also play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Many studies have confirmed a significant influence of smoking on Graves' hyperthyroidism and particularly on Graves' orbitopathy. Here, smoking may increase the risk of disease development, may reduce the effectiveness of treatment, and eventually induce relapse. The role of smoking in Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not as well established as in Graves' disease. Nonetheless, lower prevalence of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroperoxidase antibodies and hypothyroidism were found in smokers. These findings contrast with a study that reported increased risk of hypothyroidism in smokers with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases the incidence of multinodular goitre, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Some studies have examined cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer. Interestingly, many of them have shown that smoking may reduce the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Furthermore, both active and passive smoking during pregnancy might modify maternal and foetal thyroid function. This review evaluates the current data concerning the influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland, including hormonal changes, autoimmunity and selected diseases. These findings, however, in our opinion, should be carefully evaluated and some of them are not totally evidence-based. Further studies are required to explain the effects of smoking upon thyroid pathophysiology. PMID:24549603

Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Gutaj, Pawe?; Sowi?ski, Jerzy; Wender-O?egowska, Ewa; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Br?zert, Jacek; Rucha?a, Marek

2014-01-01

60

Preoperative physical assessment of thyroid glands in previously irradiated patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Evanston Hospital maintains an Irradiated Thyroid Evaluation Clinic that has evaluated 695 patients since 1975. One hundred fourteen patients were retrospectively analyzed, and an attempt was made to correlate the preoperative physical examination with the pathologic specimen after thyroidectomy. There was no statistically significant difference between the incidence of carcinoma in glands containing a single nodule (23 per cent) and in multinodular glands. Postirradiation thyroiditis complicated the physical description of glands preoperatively. The overall incidence of carcinoma in the 114 available cases was 34 per cent, with nodal metastases in 18 per cent of the patients with carcinoma

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland: case report with review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary mucinous thyroid carcinoma (PMTC) are extremely rare lesions that are histologically indistinguishable from mucinous carcinoma of other sites. We describe the clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical features of this rare tumour with a review of the literature. We describe a case of thyroid tumour, in 56-year-old Tunisian man, composed of small nests and sheets of malignant epithelial cells associated with extensive extracellular mucin that entrapped the follicular parenchyma of thyroid. Thyroglobulin and thyroid-specific-transcription factor 1 (TTFl) were focally positive. Follow-up did not reveal another neoplasm at other sites. Based on these features, we classified this tumour as PMTC. Mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland can be a cause of pitfall in differential diagnosis. For correct diagnosis, complete clinical history, restricted histological criteria and immunohistochemical panel are necessary. PMID:24466763

Mnif, H; Chakroun, A; Charfi, S; Ellouze, S; Ghorbel, M; Sallemi-Boudawara, T

2013-08-01

62

Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (500 cells, cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation, cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin, and background (colloid-like material and macrophages. Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51–500 cells with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma. Immunocytochemical analysis for PHT was performed for 14 cases (6 destained smears and 8 cell blocks which showed distinct cytoplasmic positivity. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland. Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin. Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology. Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

Dimashkieh Haytham

2006-03-01

63

Indications for sonography in the investigation of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The indications for using sonography in the investigation of the thyroid gland are discussed. Correlation of echo patterns and thyroid disease has shown that sonography deserves a place in the diagnosis of thyroid disease in the same way as the classical methods, such as clinical examination, scintigraphy, laboratory investigations and aspiration biopsy. The indications for sonography, which are illustrated by a number of examples, include: 1) when scintigraphy cannot be used, 2) pre-operative demonstration, 3) disagreement between clinical findings and the scintigram, 4) diagnosis of cysts, 5) suspicion of thyroiditis. (orig.)

1981-01-01

64

Ectopic thyroid glands : clinical and radiological features  

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To understand the various clinical and radiological features of ectopic thyroid. This study involved nine ectopic thyroid cases (M:F=2:7; age range, 2-57 years) confirmed by RI thyroid scan between 1993 and 1997. We analyzed one neck ultrasonogram, five CT scans, three MR images, nine Tc-99m thyroid scans, and classified the ectopic thyroid by the basis of these findings. Hormonal abnormalities and symptoms were evaluated on the basis of medical records. Understanding the various clinical and radiologic features of ectopic thyroid can help accurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery or other procedure. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs.

Cho, Nariya; Yoon, Choon Sik; Oh, Sei Jung; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Myung Joon; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Mi Suk [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

1998-03-01

65

Ectopic thyroid glands : clinical and radiological features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the various clinical and radiological features of ectopic thyroid. This study involved nine ectopic thyroid cases (M:F=2:7; age range, 2-57 years) confirmed by RI thyroid scan between 1993 and 1997. We analyzed one neck ultrasonogram, five CT scans, three MR images, nine Tc-99m thyroid scans, and classified the ectopic thyroid by the basis of these findings. Hormonal abnormalities and symptoms were evaluated on the basis of medical records. Understanding the various clinical and radiologic features of ectopic thyroid can help accurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery or other procedure. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

1998-03-01

66

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... thyroid is much larger than this, hence the reason for the surgery today. That is correct. All ... calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is there some reason that we are hearing about so many thyroid ...

67

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... let people know they might be having a problem with their thyroid? Well outside of a goiter ... who have hypo-functioning thyroids can actually have problems with mentation, with fatigue, with normal function. They ...

68

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... be hyperactive, the two opposite extremes of thyroid disease. Usually goiters are asymptomatic, except for the enlargement ... decide if the symptoms are consistent with thyroid disease and to do the blood test, absolutely. What ...

69

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the removal of an enlarged thyroid from this female patient. As you can see, we are already ... team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female patient, she’s 65 years old, and she presented ...

70

Peculiarities of thyroid gland pathology in a residents living near uranium mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the investigation is studying of thyroid gland in the 542 residents of Shantobe and Stepnogorsk. In 24-32 % residents living near uranium mining area the thyroid gland pathology were revealed

2003-12-12

71

An Unusual Case of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis with Four Lobed Thyroid Gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), an autoimmune disorder, is the most prevalent cause of subclinical or overt hypothyroidism in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The gland is often diffusely enlarged, and the parenchyma is coarsened, hypoechoic, and often hypervascular on ultrasonograpy. Histopathologic appearance of HT includes lymphocyte aggregates with germinal centers, small thyroid follicles, presence of Hurthle cells, and variable fibrosis. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with suspected follicular neoplasm on fine-needle aspiration cytology of neck swelling. Intraoperatively, thyroid gland was found having four lobes separated from each other. Total thyroidectomy was done and histopathology from all four lobes revealed HT. At present, there is no literature to support the fact that such distorted thyroid anatomy may be due to the underlying disease. If we consider it as thyroid gland anomaly, no such anomaly has been mentioned in the literature till date. PMID:22454831

Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Chowdri, Nisar Ahmad; Parray, Fazl Qadir; Wani, Sabiya Hamid

2012-03-01

72

Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs  

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We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland.

Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

1981-06-01

73

Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland

1981-01-01

74

Iodine and iodothyronine content in human neonate thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A few years after the iodine content of salt in Serbia was increased from 7 to 15 mg/kg NaCI, iodine, thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations were measured in thyroid tissue obtained at autopsy from 21 human neonates who died within 30 days after birth. The thyroidal iodine as well as T4 and T3 content per gland in­creased progressively with gestational age of human neonates (r = 0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 respectively, p < 0.001. In seven newborns (gestational age 36 to 41 weeks the mean values for total iodine, T4 and T3 per gland were 109.1 ?g, 52.2 ?g and 4.4 ?g respectively. The results of iodine and iodothyroninc content found in neonatal thyroid gland, particularly at the end of gestation and a few days of postnatal life, indicates that the iodine supply was satisfactory.

Savin-Žegarac Svetlana B.

2002-01-01

75

Histopathological Study on Thyroid Gland of Goat in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

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The thyroid gland in most animal species has two lobes, one on each lateral surface of the trachea. In pigs, the main lobe of the thyroid gland is on the midline in the ventral cervical region with dorsolateral projections from each side. The thyroid structural changes in gouts were investigated. About 386 pairs of thyroid glands collected from gout at the local municipal abattoir in Tabriz city of East Azerbaijan province. A total of 386 thyroid specimens examined, 8 cases were follicular at...

Daryoush Mohajeri; Ghafour Mousavi; Mehrdad Nazeri

2012-01-01

76

Thyroid tissue connected to normally located thyroid gland: ectopic or exophytic?  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic thyroid tissue is seen rarely. It is often seen in cervical midline, and rarely in other areas such as submandibular area. Diagnosis is made histopathologically by fine needle biopsy after the elimination of malignancy. In the treatment of ectopic thyroid tissue, surgical excision is mostly applied. According to our knowledge, there is no exophytic thyroid tissue reported in the literature. In this paper, a 32-year-old woman who presented with a swelling under the right jaw and found a thyroid tissue attached to the normally located thyroid gland with a fibrous band in the neck was discussed. PMID:23094169

Keles, Erol; Ozkara, Sule; Karlidag, Turgut; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi

2012-01-01

77

Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland  

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Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

Mamaev, N. N.; Grynyeva, E. N.; Blagosklonnaya, Y. V.

1996-01-01

78

Isolated submandibular gland metastasis from an occult papillary thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available A case of an isolated submandibular gland metastasis from a clinically occult papillary thyroid carcinoma is described in a 46-year old lady. Initial surgery was done based on the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC report of adenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland. Histopathologic examination of the specimen suggested a metastatic papillary carcinoma. Occult papillary carcinoma in the thyroid was found by multiple blind FNACs. Subsequently to near-total thyroidectomy, no other site of metastasis was found on radio-iodine scanning.

Sarda A

2004-01-01

79

Alternative approaches to the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in surgical technology and patient-driven demands have fueled exploration into methods to improve cosmetic outcomes in thyroid surgery. This exploration has produced 2 fundamentally different pathways for reducing the visible thyroidectomy scar. Minimally invasive anterior cervical approaches use small incisions hidden in natural skin creases and reduce the overall extent of dissection required to remove the thyroid. Remote access approaches remove the incision from the anterior neck completely but require more extensive dissection to access the thyroid compartment. PMID:24891172

Duke, William S; Terris, David J

2014-06-01

80

Inhibition of Thyroid Hormone Release from Cultured Amphibian Thyroid Glands by Methimazole, 6-Propylthiouracil, and Perchlorate  

Science.gov (United States)

The research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis. . . This information can then be used to select chemicals for further evaluation in v...

 
 
 
 
81

Burkitt Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland in an Adolescent  

Science.gov (United States)

Burkitt Lymphoma is a highly aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that in nonendemic areas has abdominal primary sites. We report a very rare case of Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid swelling in a 14-year-old white Caucasian British male with no preexisting thyroid or medical problems. The diagnosis was confirmed by an open wedge biopsy following a fine needle aspiration. The patient was treated according to the Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group guidelines for BL—Group B protocol and currently is in remission.

Cooper, K.; Gangadharan, A.; Arora, R. S.; Shukla, R.; Pizer, B.

2014-01-01

82

Salivary gland functions after radioiodotherapy of thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the method of sialoscintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate 66 patients with thyroid cancer who received 131I perorally were examined. The investigation results are given in the form of sialoscintigrams and activity-time curves, which reflect the dynamics of accumulation and removal of indicator in salivary glands. It is ascertained that administration of radioactive iodine with medical aim results in malfunctioning of period and submandibular glands. Special attention should be paid to the decrease of radiation burdens on salivary glands to prevent from complications due to their malfunctioning in the process of radioiodotherapy

1989-01-01

83

Sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates  

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The purpose of this study was to establish the sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in the first week of life in 107 term neonates. The serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was normal in all neonates. Their gestational age at birth was range from 37 to 41 weeks and birth weight was 3305 +- 457.74 g. Sonography was performed with 7.5 MHz linear array transducer (SA-8800 MT, Medison, Korea) within the first week of postnatal age. Maximal transverse (T), anteroposterior (AP), and longitudinal (L) dimensions of thyroid gland were measured. The volume of each lobe was estimate by using standard geometric formula; volume of a prolate ellipsoid = T X AP X L X pi/6. The total volume of the thyroid gland was calculated as the sum of the each lobe. The correlations with total thyroid volume and weight, height, the body surface area, gestational age of the neonate were estimated by Pearson's coefficient and p volume on Bivariate correlation analysis. Total thyroid volume was 0.68 +- 0.23 cm{sup 3}, left and right lobe volumes of thyroid gland were 0.32 +- 0.12 cm{sup 3} and 0.36 +- 0.14 cm{sup 3}, respectively. T, AP, and L dimension of right lobe were 0.69 +- 0.14 cm, 0.71 +- 0.13 cm, 1.37 +- 0.22 cm respectively. And those of left lobe were 0.70 +- 0.11 cm, 0.65 +- 0.13 cm, 1.31 +- 0.21 cm, respectively. The Pearson's coefficients for total thyroid volume with the weight, and body surface area of neonate were 0.385, 0.395 (p<0.05),respectively, representing significant correlation. The total thyroid volume of the term euthyroid neonate was 0.68 +- 0.23 cm{sup 3} and was significantly correlated with the weight and body surface area.

Jeon, Gwun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Goo, Dong Erk; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Chunan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo [Hanseo College Hospital, Seosun (Korea, Republic of)

2001-09-15

84

Myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland with bilateral thyroid involvement: A case report and review of the literature  

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A patient was admitted to hospital with enlarged lobes of the thyroid gland with bilateral cervical lymph node involvement, and surgical excision followed. Histological examination of this specimen revealed a lesion that showed myoepithelial cell differentiation. Primary thyroid and skin appendage tumors were excluded based on clinical examination, conventional histology and immunohistochemistry. A tumor of the right parotid surgically treated in June 2008, approximately 2 years previously, w...

2010-01-01

85

Primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland: Its limited diagnostic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scintigraphic examination with pertechnetate (sup(99m)Tc), 123I, 67Ga-citrate and 201Tl-chloride in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland is non-specific. Needle aspiration biopsy cytologically indicative of malignant lymphoma together with a clear elevation of serum ?2-microglobin are highly suggestive for this condition. (orig.)

1982-01-01

86

Aging Processes in the Thyroid Gland of the CBA Mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thyroid gland in rats and mice displays a colloid goiter increasing with advancing age. This development is very pronounced in the CBA mouse and leads ultimately to local hyperplasia and adenomas in the glandular tissue. A variety of possible etiologi...

G. Walinder A. M. Sjoden C. J. Jonsson

1971-01-01

87

A CASE REPORT OF WELL DIFFERENTIATED CHONDROSARCOMA OF THYROID GLAND  

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Full Text Available We report a 75 year - old man who presented with a cervical mass, dysphagia anil hoarseness, CT - xcan of neck showed a large cold nodule in the right lobe of thyroid gland, which was followed by surgical excision and its histopathologic exam revealed well-differentiated chondrosarcoma.

H. Haeri.

1999-09-01

88

Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

2014-08-01

89

Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000. RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %, seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente. Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 % y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea.INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of structural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000. RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5% followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively. There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%, and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%. Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

Caridad Verdecia Cañizares

2009-03-01

90

Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia / Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptiv [...] o de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000). RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %), seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente). Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 %) y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %). La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of st [...] ructural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000). RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5%) followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively). There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%), and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%). Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

Verdecia Cañizares, Caridad; Portugués Díaz, Andrés; Longchong Ramos, Marta.

91

Role of metallothioneins in benign and malignant thyroid lesions  

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Abstract Recent findings in the past two decades have brought many insights into the biology of thyroid benign and malignant lesions, in particular the papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Although, much progress have been made, thyroid cancers still pose diagnostic problems regarding differentiation of follicular lesions in relation to their aggressiveness and the treatment of advanced and undifferentiated thyroid cancers. Metallothioneins (MTs) were shown to induce cancer cel...

Pula Bartosz; Domoslawski Pawel; Podhorska-Okolow Marzena; Dziegiel Piotr

2012-01-01

92

Alterations within the rat thyroid gland during vitamin A deficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid glands from female rats kept vitamin A deficient for one, two, and three months were examined by electron microscopy. After one month on the diet, no consistent alterations were noted. After two months, the colloid in some follicles displayed a peripheral zone of decreased density. In addition, ultimobranchial follicles within the gland had become keratinized. After two to three months on the diet, cells were seen entering the colloid. Many of these cells were identified as follicular cells. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies indicated that thyroids of vitamin A deficient rats took up less radioiodide than thyroids of control rats. It's possible that the presence of follicular cells in the colloid reflects an accelerated turnover of these cells and could indicate an early pathological sign

1979-01-01

93

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... it’s failing to work properly? It regulates your metabolism, and so people who have hypo-functioning thyroids ... body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. I see. Now, is there some reason that ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... Kulkarni, in that case, would need to be monitoring the heart and may have to intervene with ... off any possibility of thyroid cancer down the road. We’re about three-quarters of the way ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... also, during that time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid- ... the “Ask” icon on your screen. You can send in your questions live via the web to ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... time with one surgeon, one assistant, with good clinical results. The incisions are plastic closure. The patients ... thyroidal vessels come in. Now are there some cases when you don’t have to remove the ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... so that we have less bleeding in the neck. We also have placed a gel roll underneath ... that is for the purpose of stretching the neck and pushing the thyroid more anteriorly. And why ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... today. Thank you very much, and thank you all for joining us. Well before we hear more ... have some greater explanations once we get in. All right. The patien t’s thyroid is much larger ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... thyroid; correct? That is correct. We’ve already cut the skin here. Now we’re just goin ... a transient or temporary hoarseness. If you actually cut it or if you burn it, then that ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... neck and pushing the thyroid more anteriorly. And why is it so important for the patient to ... Can you explain what that monitor is and why it’s so important to the surgery? We’ll ...

 
 
 
 
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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... removal of an enlarged thyroid from this female patient. As you can see, we are already in ... us. Well before we hear more about the patient, I wonder if you could take just a ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... above on both sides. And, Dr. T, what causes an enlarged thyroid to begin with? A goiter ... we could talk about some of the other causes in more detail for having to have your ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... its relationship to the trachea and to the cartilage and the muscles surrounding it. We’re going ... along the esophagus. Here’s the trachea. The thyroid cartilage up in through here. Yes. The cricothyroid membrane. ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... get started and move over to your surgical team. And if you’d be so kind as ... Hospital. General Surgeon Dr. George Tershakovec and his team are removing an enlarged thyroid from their female ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... replacing the normal hormone that the thyroid was manufacturing. I see. And if only part of the ... cord is actually hitting the sensor on the tube that Dr. Kulkarni demonstrated. Now when you and ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... time period, invite you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will offer to answer as many of those questions as he can get to before the hour ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... their relationships with the thyroid; in particular, the nerves to the vocal cords, the trachea, the carotid ... to the surgery? We’ll be using a nerve integrity monitor, and that monitor will be checking ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... we are coming to you live via the web from the beautiful, state-of-the-art Homestead ... you to send in your questions via the web, any thyroid-related questions, and our doctor will ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... the thyroid is removed, does it go into pathology? OR Live Bah 3926 12 Absolutely. It will ... on is adequate. We’ll discuss the final pathology, and then we’ll reinforce that the patie ...

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Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

2006-07-01

111

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... try to deliver the gland here gently. Uh-huh. And for people at home who are watching, ... lobe may be a little bit smaller. Uh- huh. While you’re making your way through this ...

112

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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... is so important when it comes to hormone production in the body and how it can affect ... iodine, ablating the gland. Those patients that are refractory to the treatment or who may be allergic ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... is so important when it comes to hormone production in the body and how it can affect ... iodine, ablating the gland. Those patients that are refractory to the treatment or who may be allergic ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... it. OR Live Bah 3926 6 Now what does that mean in laymen’s terms, doctor? Well, it ... and work perfectly. No kidding. Wow. And what does the parathyroid gland do in the body? What ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... and the size of gland, and what I feel I’m going to need for the exposure. ... fatigue, intolerances to hot and cold, they can feel sluggish, they can be hyperactive, the two opposite ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... Gland Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL February 1, 2012 Hello, I’m Diane Magnum, and welcome ... goiter. Recently there has been substantial growth in one of the nodules, going from 2.8 to ...

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Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available ... mobilizing again. And here we have a great demonstration (INAUDIBLE). Now, because this gland is very rich ... demonstrate the nerve once again. That’s a beautiful demonstration of the nerve both here with the clamp ...

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False positive uptake of I-131 during a I-131 whole body follow up scan in a patient with differentiated thyroid cancer and chronic inflammation of parotid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unusual high uptake of I-131 was detected in a parotid gland during a routine I-131 whole body scan in a patient of papillary carcinoma thyroid, raising the suspicion of functioning metastasis from the primary lesion in the thyroid. A review of the clinical history and additional scintigraphic evaluation revealed this to be of inflammatory origin. (author)

2007-04-01

119

Development of Thyroid Gland Specific Markers of Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid Axis Disruption in the Amphibian Model Species Xenopus laevis  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis....

120

Rare localisation of breast cancer metastasis to thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Metastases to the thyroid gland are very rare. They are usually seen in malignant melanoma, kidney, breast cancer and lung cancer. Case report. We presented a 54- years-old female patient with breast cancer diagnosed in 2002. The adequate surgical procedure was done and the tumor and axillary lymph nodes were removed. The patient also received adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. After seven years of a disease free period, the first relapse of the disease was detected as thyroid gland tumor with axillary lymphadenopathy. The patient had a good response to systemic treatment so the surgical removal of thyroid gland and enlarged lymph nodes was performed. Histopathological analysis confirmed metastasis with breast cancer origin. Radical mastectomy was also preformed. Second relapse of the disease was detected 10 months later, while the patient was on hormonal therapy. It was manifested as the appearance of bone and skin metastases, pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. Conclusion. This case report emphasized the importance of detailed examination of any new onset of thyroid swelling in a patient with previous history of malignancy.

Kolarevi? Daniela

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

131I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Therapeutic doses of 131I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of 131I (64-277 µCi). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (u [...] ntreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before 131I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following 131I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 ± 8.16 to 55.0 ± 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 ± 6.9 to 25.4 ± 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after 131I administration to rats, which was not 131I dose dependent.

Torlak, V.; Zemunik, T.; Modun, D.; Capkun, V.; Pesutic-Pisac, V.; Markotic, A.; Pavela-Vrancic, M.; Stanicic, A..

122

Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion  

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A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by block...

2012-01-01

123

Hybrid SPECT/CT evaluation of dual ectopia of thyroid in the absence of orthotopic thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately 1 per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in 1 of 4000 to 8000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of the thyroid is extremely rare, with fewer than 35 cases published in literature to date. We report a 4-year-old girl with euthyroid and dual ectopia of thyroid without orthotopic thyroid gland. The role of hybrid SPECT/CT in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted. PMID:22614198

Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Preethi, Govindababu Rajalakshmi; George, Mv

2012-06-01

124

An Unusual Case of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis with Four Lobed Thyroid Gland  

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Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), an autoimmune disorder, is the most prevalent cause of subclinical or overt hypothyroidism in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The gland is often diffusely enlarged, and the parenchyma is coarsened, hypoechoic, and often hypervascular on ultrasonograpy. Histopathologic appearance of HT includes lymphocyte aggregates with germinal centers, small thyroid follicles, presence of Hurthle cells, and variable fibrosis. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with ...

2012-01-01

125

Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that’s the problem and perhaps the se symptoms aren’t telling us about some other problem, you ... re very close to separating this gland entirely, aren’t you? That is correct. We’re about ...

126

Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increase of thyroid gland cancer in people of Belarus is one of the most actual medical problems appeared after the Chernobyl disaster. During the period 1986 -1999 in Belarus were revealed 6901 cases of cancer in the adults and 673 -in the children. Compared with the pre-disaster period the increase of the pathology has made 4.7 and 84 times correspondingly. In Magilew region during post-disaster years were revealed 899 cases of thyroid gland cancer in the adults and 34 -in the children. From the year 1998 perceptible rise of disease appeared in people over 19 years old. According to the prognosis of specialists the problem of high thyroid gland carcinoma rate will be actual for years, gradually decreasing in the children and increasing in the adults. Thyroid gland cancer promoted by radiation has very aggressive nature. According to the data of Republican science-practical thyroid gland tumors center even small carcinomas (3-9 mm) can give numerous metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. The possibility of tumor growth to the nearest tissues is very high. That's why the early diagnostic of the pathology is important. Medical help to the patients with thyroid gland cancer and other node formations consist in the complex problem solution: early node formation revealing by ultrasonic method, early diagnosis verification with the help of cytological bio-assays examination, received by the way of the thin needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were carried out on ultrasonic apparatus Aloka SSD-630, Toshiba-220A, Sonoscop-20 electronic sensor with 7.5 MHz using adapter or by the 'free hand' method. Preparations for cytological examination were prepared according to the common procedure with the coloration after Papanikolou and Pappenheim. Diagnostic methods of thyroid gland node formation changed. The main doctor's problem is to distinguish good-quality and malignant formations because their treatments are diametrically opposite. Between laboratory methods applied for differential diagnostic of good-quality and malignant thyroid gland nodes is used scanning of thyroid gland by I-123 and Tc-99 radio isotopes, but it has lost its meaning for diagnostic of malignant new formations. Nevertheless, the method is still applied for the metastasis of high-differentiated thyroid cancer revealing. Now ultrasonic scanning with following TNAB under the control of ultrasonic beam and cytological examination of the bioassays received is the most effective, high informational and reliable method. Node formations revealing with size of 0.3 cm can be done by ultrasonic method. Screening must be done at first among people whose age at the moment of disaster was 0-19 years. Early ultrasonic feature of thyroid cancer is appearing of focal formation in its parenchyma. Most often locus has low echo (75%), irregular contours (80%), impure structure (97%). Precise correlation between types of vascular net on ultrasonic angiographies and echo structure of node formations has not been found. The main role of ultrasonic examination is in revealing of the focal alterations in the parenchyma of gland, visualization of regional lymph nodes and TNAB applying. The introduction of TNAB to the clinical practice with the following bioassays cytology has raised the efficiency of early thyroid gland cancer diagnostic and has given the possibility to choose patients, who can be operated in occasion with nodal craws, more accurate. Since 1993 in diagnostic centre were made 10739 TNAB and revealed 445 cases of thyroid gland cancer. Four hundred fo

2001-11-01

127

Incidental thyroid lesions detected by FDG-PET/CT: prevalence and risk of thyroid cancer  

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Abstract Background Incidentally found thyroid lesions are frequently detected in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of incidentally found thyroid lesions in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT and determine the risk for thyroid cancer. Methods FDG-PET/CT was performed on 3,379 patients for evaluation of suspected or known cancer or cancer screening without any history of thyroid cancer between November 2003 and De...

Bae Ja; Chae Byung; Park Woo; Kim Jeong; Kim Sung; Jung Sang; Song Byung

2009-01-01

128

Rare localisation of breast cancer metastasis to thyroid gland  

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Introduction. Metastases to the thyroid gland are very rare. They are usually seen in malignant melanoma, kidney, breast cancer and lung cancer. Case report. We presented a 54- years-old female patient with breast cancer diagnosed in 2002. The adequate surgical procedure was done and the tumor and axillary lymph nodes were removed. The patient also received adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. After seven years of a disease free period, the first relapse of the disease was detected as t...

2012-01-01

129

The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

1981-01-01

130

Histopathologic effects of I131 on the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since I131 became readily available from nuclear reactors it has been used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis. Although its therapeutic efficacy in many patients with these conditions has been adequately demonstrated, only fragmentary knowledge of histologic effects of I131 on thyroid tissue is available. In order to clarify the pathologic effects of I131 on thyroid gland, study on the histologic changes of thyroid tissue, treated with I131, was carried out. In the acute group (less than 1 year), the main pathologic changes were swelling and desquamation of thyrocytes. In the chronic group (2 years-8.5 years), obvious histologic alterations were noted, revealing interfollicular fibrosis, marked nuclear atypism or polyploidy, oxyphilic change of thyrocytes, disruption of follicular basement membrane and diminution of follicular sizes. (author)

1982-01-01

131

Lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence rate, distribution, patient characteristics and indications for surgical intervention of lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007. Material and methods: All biopsied/surgically removed lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark during the period 1974-2007 were identified by searching two population-based registries. Specimens were collected and re-evaluated. The following data were collected: age, gender, indications for surgical intervention and local recurrence. Results: A total of 232 lesions from 210 patients with a histologically verified lesion of the lacrimal gland were included. The incidence rate of lacrimal gland lesions was 1.3/1 000 000/year. The overall annual age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate more than doubled during the study period, owing to an increase in non-malignant lesions. Approximately half of the lesions were neoplasms (119) and 55% (66) of these were malignant. Dacryops constituted 10% (24), inflammatory lesions 27% (62), normal tissue12% (27), benign tumours 23% (53) and malignant tumours 29% (66). Patients with malignant neoplasms were significantly older than patients with benign neoplasms (63 versus 48 years, p

von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

2013-01-01

132

TIME AND DOSE-DEPENDENT THYROID HORMONE RELEASE FROM XENOPUS THYROID GLAND CULTURES IN RESPONSE TO THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND INHIBITION BY METHIMAZOLE  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis....

133

Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

Ellis, Gary L..

134

Expression of hepatocyte growth factor in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with nodular lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT is an autoimmune thyroid disease frequently associated with hyperplastic nodules (HNs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is expressed in benign thyroid nodules and over-expressed in malignant thyroid nodules, particularly in papillary thyroid carcinomas. To elucidate the role of HGF in the development of HNs in association with HT we evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of HGF in both nodular and extranodular tissues, obtained from 30 HTs and 15 goiter samples. Six normal thyroid glands were used as controls.All normal control tissue samples exhibited no evidence of HGF immunoreaction. HNs showed weak to moderate HGF immunoreaction,which was located exclusively in the cytoplasm of stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells. However, the percentage of positive cases was higher in HNs arisen in the context of HT, compared to HNs not associated with HT (30/30 or 100% vs 4/15 or 40%; p<0.001. HGF immunoreactivity was also detected in all extranodular tissues from HT specimens (30/30 or 100%, but we found some significant differences. In fact, while in HNs observed in the context of HT lesions HGF was expressed only in stromal cells, in the extranodular tissues from the same thyroid gland affected by HT it was also detected in the cytoplasm of the epithelial follicular cells. Furthermore, HTs showed a much higher HGF staining grade in the extranodular tissue compared to HNs. Finally, a clear positive correlation was observed in HT between the proportion of HGF expressing follicular cells and the grade of lymphoid aggregates of the thyroid gland. In conclusion, HGF is much more frequently and highly expressed in thyroid tissue with HT, compared to goiter. In HT glands HGF can be detected in both follicular thyroid cells and stromal cells, while in HNs, either from goiters or associated with HT, its expression is restricted only to the stromal cells.These data indicate that HGF may play a role in cell proliferation processes occurring in thyroid glands affected by HT, probably under the regulation of the lymphoid infiltrate.

M Trovato

2007-09-01

135

Early thyroid gland dysfunction and biorhythmic activity disturbance in patients with cardiovascular pathology and atrial fibrillation  

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The review deals with the problem of combined pathology of the thyroid gland and cardiovascular system, the state of thyroid homeostasis in atrial fibrillation. The main mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on the heart and blood vessels, particularly changes in the cardiovascular system with hypo-or hyperthyroidism; the possibility of substitution therapy in subclinical disease have been presented in the article. Characteristics of daily rhythmic activity of thyroid gland in normal and v...

Baurina Yu.O.; Mayskova ?.?.; Shvarts Yu.G.

2012-01-01

136

Colour-coded Doppler sonography in thyroid gland diagnosis: Preliminary results. [comparison with scintigraphic findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thyroid gland was investigated in 43 persons (12 healthy volunteers, 31 patients with diseases of the thyroid gland) with a new colour Doppler system (angiodynography). In euthyreotic persons (normal thyroid gland, diffuse or multinodular goitre) only a few vessels were detected. In cases with Graves' disease however, hypervascularisation was evident. Autonomus adenomas had a hypervascular periphery, whereas our two carcinomas showed a high vascularisation in the nodule. Angiodynography might become an important diagnostic tool for the evaluation of thyroid glands. The number of radionuclide studies and punctures might be limited.

Schwaighofer, B.; Kurtaran, A.; Huebsch, P.; Fruehwald, F.; Barton, P.; Trattnig, S.

1988-09-01

137

Involvement of the thyroid and the salivary glands in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas at initial diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The clinical spectrum of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is different from that in adults, with frequent extranodal involvement. We searched the incidence and radiological appearance of the secondary involvement of the thyroid and salivary glands by ultrasonography (US) to assess its importance for staging of the disease. Materials and methods: We examined the thyroid, parotid and submandibulary glands of 43 children with NHL, age ranging between 9 months and 17 years, by US. Results: According to US findings, involvement of the parotid gland was very common as detected in 18 of the cases with NHL (41%). It was the most common organ involved in lymphoma. Lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland, with bilateral multiple focal lesions, was detected in two patients and proved by fine needle aspiration biopsy in all cases (5%). Salivary gland and thyroid involvement changed staging in three (6%) of the patients, however, the treatment plan was unchanged. Conclusions: This study shows that anatomic sites, known to be very rarely involved at the initial presentation of the disease is actually more commonly involved in childhood NHL. However, it does not cause any significant change in the treatment planning or in the survival

2002-12-01

138

Involvement of the thyroid and the salivary glands in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas at initial diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: The clinical spectrum of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is different from that in adults, with frequent extranodal involvement. We searched the incidence and radiological appearance of the secondary involvement of the thyroid and salivary glands by ultrasonography (US) to assess its importance for staging of the disease. Materials and methods: We examined the thyroid, parotid and submandibulary glands of 43 children with NHL, age ranging between 9 months and 17 years, by US. Results: According to US findings, involvement of the parotid gland was very common as detected in 18 of the cases with NHL (41%). It was the most common organ involved in lymphoma. Lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland, with bilateral multiple focal lesions, was detected in two patients and proved by fine needle aspiration biopsy in all cases (5%). Salivary gland and thyroid involvement changed staging in three (6%) of the patients, however, the treatment plan was unchanged. Conclusions: This study shows that anatomic sites, known to be very rarely involved at the initial presentation of the disease is actually more commonly involved in childhood NHL. However, it does not cause any significant change in the treatment planning or in the survival.

Akata, Deniz; Akhan, Okan; Akyuez, Canan; Oezmen, Mustafa N.; Yalcin, Bilgehan

2002-12-01

139

The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid imaging approach is based on the preliminary clinical evaluation. Lesions that are smaller than 2 cm should be assessed with US, which is capable of discriminating masses as small as 2 mm and distinguishing solid from cystic nodules. US-guided FNAB provides tissue for cytologic examination of thyroid nodules. CT and MR imaging are indicated for larger tumors (greater than 3 cm diameter) that extend outside the gland to adjoining structures, including the mediastinum, and retropharyngeal region. Metastatic lymph nodes in the neck and invasion of the aerodigestive tract are also in the realm of CT and MR imaging. Thyroid nodules are categorized on scintigraphy as hot or cold nodules. Hot nodules are rarely malignant, whereas cold nodules have an incidence of 10% to 20% of malignancy. Calcifications (amorphous, globular, nodular, and linear) occur in adenomas and carcinomas and have no differential diagnostic features except for psammomatous calcifications, which are a pathognomonic finding in papillary carcinomas and a small percentage of medullary carcinomas. Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor (80%) followed by follicular (20% to 25%); medullary (5%); undifferentiated; anaplastic carcinomas (midline between posterior tongue and isthmus of thyroid gland; lateral neck; mediastinum; and oral cavity. Goiter and malignant tumors, notably papillary carcinoma, may develop in ectopic thyroid tissue. Carcinomas may also arise in thyroglossal duct cysts, which develop from duct remnants between the foramen cecum and thyroid isthmus. Infectious disease of the thyroid gland is not common and the CT and MR imaging findings are similar as described under neck infection. Other types of inflammatory disorders including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, granulomatous thyroiditis, and Riedel's struma display no specific imaging features. Imaging studies may, however, be indicated to confirm a suspected clinical diagnosis and assess compromise of the airway (Riedel's struma). HPT is a clinical diagnosis in which hypercalcemia is the most important finding. Parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma represent underlying lesions. To relieve the patient's symptoms surgical extirpation is indicated. The surgical success rate without imaging is 95%. The indications for imaging studies vary but it is generally agreed that reoperation after a previous failed surgical attempt and suspicion of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma should be investigated by imaging. These consist of US, nuclear medicine studies, CT and MR imaging. US and technetium sestamibi scanning have the highest accuracy rate for localizing an adenomatous gland at and near the thyroid gland. Ectopic adenomas, particularly if they are located in the mediastinum, are preferrably investigated with CT and MR imaging with gadolinium and fat suppression. Carcinomas and parathyroid cysts are optimally evaluated by CT and MR imaging. On MR imaging adenomas are low in signal intensity on T1-weighted images, high in signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and enhance post introduction of gadolinium. PMID:11054972

Weber, A L; Randolph, G; Aksoy, F G

2000-09-01

140

Agenesis of Isthmus of the Thyroid Gland in a Patient with Graves-Basedow Disease and a Solitary Nodule  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thyroid is a vascular endocrine gland with two lateral lobes connected by a narrow, median isthmus. Although a wide range of congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland has been reported in the literature, agenesis of the thyroid isthmus is a very rare congenital anomaly. Thyroid isthmus agenesis does not manifest clinical symptoms, and it can be confused with other thyroid pathologies. We describe a patient with no isthmus of the thyroid, associated with Graves-Basedow disease. Thyroid ist...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

1985-04-01

142

Thyroid Nodule Demonstrating Itself as Calcified Lung Lesion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multinodular goiter (MNG) is the most prevalent thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland enlarge as a result of MNG, the initial extension is typically outward. After this cervical  enlargement, expansion may extend in to the mediastinum. As substernal goiters enlarge within the mediastinum, vascular and visceral structures may slowly became compressed. The most common symptoms of substernal goiter result from compression of the trachea and/ or esophagus and include dyspnea, choking sensation, c...

Ediz Yorganc?lar; Müzeyyen Y?ld?r?m; Ramazan Gün; Faruk Meriç; ?smail Topçu

2010-01-01

143

Chemical homeostasis of thyroid gland under modelling microelementosis influence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work presents the results of the research of a thyroid tissue of 36 laboratory rats of different ages which have been drinking water with salts of zinc, cooper, iron, manganese, chrome and lead within 60 days. By means of anatomical, histological and spectrochemical methods it was established: the most significant morphological changes was increase with the growing terms of the experiment, concentration of ions in 30 days of experiment was the highest in the thyroid gland of young aged rats, at the end of the experiments the decreasing of the speed of their accumulation was observed. This work consideres the influence of ions of heavy metals on apoptosis of thyrocytes.

Moskalenko R.A.

2009-01-01

144

Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

Catherine, Skouroliakou [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece); Maria, Lyra [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece)]. E-mail: mlyra@pindos.uoa.gr; Aristides, Antoniou [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece); Lambros, Vlahos [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece)

2006-12-20

145

Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

Catherine, Skouroliakou; Maria, Lyra; Aristides, Antoniou; Lambros, Vlahos

2006-12-01

146

Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue

2006-12-20

147

Digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands of human being  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new digital monitor of 125I in thyroid glands is described. This instrument is used to measure the activity of 125I in thyroid glands of human being directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent

1996-12-02

148

Oncocytic lesion of parotid gland: A dilemma for cytopathologists  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oncocytes are epithelial cells with abundant, granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm due to presence of numerous large mitochondria of varied sizes. The presence of oncocytes in salivary glands can occur in a variety of conditions. Here, we present a rare case of a 68 year old male patient who presented with a 6 cm diameter swelling in the right parotid region. A fine needle aspiration cytology done from the lesion showed a cellular oncocytic lesion. A possibility of oncocytoma was entertained. His...

Chakrabarti, Indranil; Basu, Amitabha; Ghosh, Nilanjana

2012-01-01

149

Cytodiagnosis of thyroid lesions-usefulness and pitfalls: A study of 288 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been widely and successfully utilized for diagnosis. Aim: Our aim was to demonstrate the effectiveness of this cheap and simple procedure for the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions, particularly, differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions. In addition, we sought to highlight probable causes of error and possible remedies in the cases showing lack of correlation between cytological and histological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 cases of thyroid swellings were aspirated in our two-year study period. Cases were divided into four groups, namely, aspiration inadequate where diagnosis was not offered; a nonneoplastic group which included different goiters and thyroiditis; an indeterminate group which included cases showing features of follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasms, and a malignant group that included nonfollicular malignant tumors of the thyroid. Cases showing cytohistologic disparity were reevaluated. Results: Almost 14% of the cases could not be reported because of inadequate aspiration, however, an overall cytohistological correlation was achieved in 82.66% of all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy were 92.7 and 98.2%, respectively. There were four false negative malignant cases with one false positive case and 13 cases failed to show any cytohistological correlation. Conclusions: FNAC is the single most important test for preoperative assessment of thyroid pathology if attention is paid to the clinical features and collection of samples from proper sites.

Guhamallick M

2008-01-01

150

Agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland with bilateral levator glandulae thyroideae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among endocrine glands, thyroid gland is well known for its developmental anomalies ranging from common to rare. During routine dissection of the male cadaver, agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland in the midline was noted. It resulted in two lateral lobes with two pyramidal lobe and levator glandulae thyroidae. There is no anastamosis of blood vessels between the right and left lobes as normally seen. The agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland is extremely rare and very few cases have been reported in literature.

Sankar DK

2009-03-01

151

Scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with pinhole-collimation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small thyroidal lesions are precisely delineated by up-to-date ultrasonography, whereas image resolution of thyroid gamma camera scintigraphy with parallel-hole collimation is less satisfactory, especially for patients with unfavorable body contours. Pinhole-collimation is ideally suited for imaging of small organs in superficial location near the body surface and allows highly improved resolution of the thyroid scintigraphy, which is independent of the bodyshape of the patient. This paper shows that standard thyroid scintigraphy can be improved by use of pinhole-collimation, technical details will be discussed. Since March 2003, we examined 1300 patients in our clinic with both techniques. In daily routine it turned out quickly that the advantage of superior image quality provided by pinhole-collimation outnumbers its intrinsic disadvantages by far. In addition, patients felt more comfortable with their positioning during the examination. The scintigrams of 200 randomly selected patients were analyzed and compared systematically with respect to the diagnostic value. Additional information could be obtained for 120/200 patients, for 50 patients this information was clinically relevant. There was good correlation between the respective 99mTc-uptake values when carefully for precise distance adjustment between patient neck and pinhole-collimator. Conclusions: Improved resolution by pinhole-collimation allows a better correlation with high resolution sonography. Thyroid scintigraphy with pinhole-collimation is a useful method in daily routine work. (orig.)

2004-06-01

152

The determination of the volume of the thyroid gland by a new ultrasonic scanner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed high-resolution ultrasonic scanner for determining the volume of the thyroid gland was employed in 1983's health screening for A-bomb survivors in Nishiyama district (Nagasaki), and effects of radiation on the thyroid gland were examined. Thirty-one inhabitants who have been living in Nishiyama district since the A-bombing were selected as subjects (Nishiyama group) and their sex- and age-matched persons were selected as controls (control group). Regarding the incidence of chronic thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid adenoma, and hypothyroidism, there was no significant difference between the groups. The volume of the thyroid gland was 14.6+-6.2 ml in the Nishiyama group and 13.1+-4.0 ml in the control group; the average volume of the thyroid gland was a little higher in the Nishiyama group than in the control group, but this was not statistically significant. (Namekawa, K.)

1984-01-01

153

Unusual lesions of the parotid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten unusual cases of parotid tumors are added to the literature from a series of 318 consecutive parotidectomies. These 10 cases are: 3 branchial cleft cysts; a lipoma; a lymphangioma; a hemangiopericytoma; a Boeck sarcoid; a metastasizing basal cell carcinoma; a lymphoma of the parotid; and a metastatic adenocarcinoma from the left breast to the right parotid. The lymphoma, Case 1, is also an example of some other cranial nerve taking over the function of the facial nerve when it is destroyed in early childhood. Though most tumors of the parotid gland are of the mixed type, many suprising findings are possible. The pathology report may be the first clue to a hidden systemic disease. PMID:1152472

Katz, A D

1975-01-01

154

Comparative studies on the activity of the thyroid gland in black Bengal and Barbari goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the thyroid activity in two Indian breeds of goats viz. the Black Bengal and Barbari.was compared. This investigation included two different in vivo isotopic approaches; the uptake of the sup(131)I by the thyroid gland and measurement of the PB-sup(131)I conversion ratio. Both the approaches reflected that the thyroid gland in the Barbari goats was more active than in the Black Bengal goats. Significance of these findings is discussed. (auth.)

1980-03-01

155

Study of a unique 'inverted u' shaped thyroid gland and its clinical importance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid anomalies are not uncommon. Two lobes are usually connected by isthmus at the level of 2-4 tracheal rings. We encountered a unique variation in which thyroid lobes were connected near upper pole by an isthmus at the level above the cricoid cartilage giving an 'inverted U' shape to the thyroid gland. Such unusual variation in thyroid gland has not been reported earlier in the literature. The sound knowledge of such variation should be important to the surgeon while operating on thyroid. PMID:24822168

Mangalgiri, Ashutosh S; Mahore, Devendra; Kapre, Madan

2014-06-01

156

Ectopic thyroid tissue in the anterior mediastinum with a normally located gland: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic thyroid tissue occurs in about 7 to 10% of the general population. Localization in the anterior mediastinum is rare: seven cases reported in the literature, most associated with thyroid dysfunction. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman who presented ectopic thyroid tissue in the anterior mediastinum and a normally-located normally-functioning gland. PMID:22260940

Thuillier, Frédéric; Venot, Jacques

2012-02-01

157

CT and MRI findings of developmental abnormalities and ectopia varieties of the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic thyroid tissue may be observed anywhere from the tongue base to the lower neck. It is rarely seen in the mediastinum and abdominal cavity. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are very sensitive for detection and localization of ectopic thyroid tissue. This pictorial essay presents the radiological characteristics of developmental abnormalities and ectopia varieties of the thyroid gland. PMID:22328282

Altay, Canan; Erdo?an, Nezahat; Karasu, Sebnem; Uluç, Engin; Sars?lmaz, Ay?egül; Mete, Berna; Oyar, Orhan

2012-01-01

158

Histopathological Study on Thyroid Gland of Goat in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thyroid gland in most animal species has two lobes, one on each lateral surface of the trachea. In pigs, the main lobe of the thyroid gland is on the midline in the ventral cervical region with dorsolateral projections from each side. The thyroid structural changes in gouts were investigated. About 386 pairs of thyroid glands collected from gout at the local municipal abattoir in Tabriz city of East Azerbaijan province. A total of 386 thyroid specimens examined, 8 cases were follicular atrophy, 4 cases were thyroid fibrosis, 71 cases were diffuse hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells, 5 cases were colloid goiter, 10 cases were parenchymal cysts, 3 cases were nodular hyperplasia, 1 case was C-cell adenoma and 1 case was C-cell carcinoma.

Ghafour Mousavi

2012-01-01

159

Thyroid gland: US in patients with Hodgkin disease treated with radiation therapy in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors retrospectively assessed with sonography the prevalence of thyroid gland abnormalities in 30 patients who underwent radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease between 1962 and 1984. Doses ranged from 3,000 to 4,500 rad (3,000-4,500 cGy). Abnormalities were found in the sonograms of 24 patients and included unilateral (n = 6) or bilateral (n = 2) atrophy; multiple hypoechoic lesions smaller than 0.75 cm (n = 18); and dominant cystic (n = 2), solid (n = 3), or complex lesions (n = 4) larger than 0.75 cm. The risk of development of an abnormality increased as the time from irradiation increased and was comparable between patients who did and did not receive chemotherapy as part of the treatment regimen. Although the pathologic correlates of the various abnormalities seen on sonograms may differ, the findings indicate a need for long-term follow-up of patients who underwent cervical irradiation for Hodgkin disease

1989-01-01

160

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland  

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We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 {+-} SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 {+-} SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland.

Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee [Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-15

 
 
 
 
161

Thyroid/parotid ratio a new cost effective parameter for assessment of functional status of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This prospective study was under-taken to evaluate the efficacy of a new parameter for the assessment of thyroid function, During routine thyroid scan under the Gamma Camera ratio of activity in the thyroid and parotid gland (T/P ratio) was calculated using ROI technique. Sensitivity and specifications of this T/P ratio was analyzed in 455 non selected and fully worked up patients after standaridising the normal value in 20 voluntaries who had no thyroid diseases . The overall sensitivity was found to be 93.7 % and specificity 85.5%. This parameter could also be used to differentiate borderline hyperthyroidism from thyroiditis

1997-01-01

162

Thyroid/parotid ratio a new cost effective parameter for assessment of functional status of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This prospective study was under-taken to evaluate the efficacy of a new parameter for the assessment of thyroid function, During routine thyroid scan under the Gamma Camera ratio of activity in the thyroid and parotid gland (T/P ratio) was calculated using ROI technique. Sensitivity and specifications of this T/P ratio was analyzed in 455 non selected and fully worked up patients after standardising the normal value in 20 voluntaries who had no thyroid diseases . The overall sensitivity was found to be 93.7 % and specificity 85.5%. This parameter could also be used to differentiate borderline hyperthyroidism from thyroiditis

1997-01-01

163

Ectopic thyroid gland: description of a case and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical occurrence of ectopic thyroid gland is an infrequently encountered condition, resulting from a developmental abnormality during the migration of the thyroid anlage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its final position in the neck. It can be found along the way of thyroid descent, in the midline, or laterally in the neck or even in the mediastinum or under the diaphragm. This condition is often asymptomatic, whereas symptoms could be related to ectopic thyroid size, to its relationships with surrounding organs or to diseases affecting the ectopic thyroid in the same way they involve orthotopic glands. Sometimes, a growing mass can lead to the clinical suspicion of a tumor disease. On the other hand, thyroid ectopy must be distinguished from metastasis of thyroid cancer. Scintigraphy and ultrasonography are the main diagnostic means for evaluating ectopic thyroid tissue, whereas fine needle aspiration could be useful in the presence of a nodular ectopic gland or when the coexistence of an orthotopic thyroid can arise the suspicion of a metastasis from a thyroid cancer. Surgical removal is indicated in symptomatic cases, whereas radioiodine ablation is reserved to recurrent disease. In this paper we report an emblematic case of ectopic thyroid gland and a review of the literature dealing with this condition. PMID:24107087

Triggiani, Vincenzo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Licchelli, Brunella; Resta, Francesco; Fiore, Giorgio; De Pergola, Giovanni; Sabbà, Carlo; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

2013-09-01

164

Technetium-99m high resolution tomographic imaging in the thyroid gland diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the experiments with the thyroid phantom and first studies of patients with hyperthyroidism it was proved that in combining SPECT imaging technique and high resolution ability of pinhole collimator (commonly used for conventional scintigraphy of the thyroid) it is possible to obtain quantitative information concerning the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid tissue , not available tom the planar imaging. The following applications of the the method are expected: 1) Estimation of the thyroid dimensions and volume for the accurate dosimetry of the following Iodine-131 - therapy. 2) Determination of the location of the thyroid in the neck , occurrences of the retrotracheal, retrolaryngeal and retrostemal extension of the goiter. 3) Estimation of the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid gland . 4) Locations and dimensions of cold nodules in the thyroid tissue . Some of these applications are illustrated in our studies of the patients with different thyroid gland diseases (authors)

1996-12-01

165

What Is Thyroid Cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

... the key statistics about thyroid cancer? What is thyroid cancer? Thyroid cancer is a cancer that starts ... structure and function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland The thyroid gland is below the thyroid ...

166

Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

2008-10-19

167

Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30?Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients.

Riaz, Khalid; Tunio, Mutahir A.; AlAsiri, Mushabbab; Elbagir Mohammad, Asim Ali; Fareed, Muhammad Mohsin

2013-01-01

168

Histological Review of Thyroid Lesions: A 13-year Retrospective Study (1989-2001).  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: We present a 13-years retrospective histological study of 444 thyroidectomies received between 1989 and 2001 at the Morbid Anatomy department of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The aim of the study is to update the available literature on the frequencies of the common thyroid lesions as well as compare with previous studies. Materials and Methods: The materials for this study consist of slides and paraffin embedded blocks of all thyroidectomies received from within and outside the teaching hospital. The clinical data such as the age, sex, and clinical summary were extracted from the request forms. Results: The male: female ratio is 1: 7. The most common entity was goiter (74%); most of which occurred in the age group 30-39 yrs. Thyroid adenomas (majority; follicular), constituted 10%. There were 29 cases of thyroid carcinoma accounting for 7% of all lesions and occurring more in females than males (17:12). Histologically, follicular carcinoma predominated (48.3%), followed by papillary carcinoma (34.5%) and medullary carcinoma (13.8%). Thyroiditis was uncommon (only 2%). Conclusion: Goiter, adenoma and carcinoma remain the commonest pathologic entities of the thyroid gland in Lagos. The age and sex incidences as well as the histological characteristics concur with reports from other parts of Africa and Nigeria. However, unlike many of the Nigerian series except the latest from Ibadan, 4 cases of medullary carcinoma were encountered in this study. The frequencies of toxic hyperplasia and thyroiditis are also lower than those recorded in previous studies. Keywords: thyroidectomy, histopathology, thyroid lesions. PMID:16160724

Abdulkareem, F B; Banjo, A A; Elesha, S O

2005-09-01

169

The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?  

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The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attri...

2012-01-01

170

The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?  

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Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle ...

Gesing Adam; Lewi?ski Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewi?ska Ma?gorzata

2012-01-01

171

Interferon-induced progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with enlarged thyroid glands in gynecological patient: A case report and literature review  

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A case report presents a progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid glands and increased thyreotropin hormone concentration-associated with interferon treatment in human papillomavirus infected patient with the autoimmune thyroiditis and a daily L-thyroxin hormone replacement therapy background. Observation was supplemented with a brief review of literature and discussion.

2013-01-01

172

The state of thyroid and calcium-regulated function of thyroid and parathyroid glands under gamma-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of acute irradiation on thyroid hormones, calcitonin content and some parameters of calcium metabolism (activity of alkaline phosphatase and content of vitamine D) in rat blood and liver homogenates was studied. It was established that irradiation in 1 Gy dose decreased level of T3 and T4, increased calcitonin level and altered calcium metabolism. Effect of radiation on thyroid and calcium-regulated metabolisms is realized, probably, by means of central mechanisms in hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid gland system

1999-01-01

173

Modular Measuring System for Assesment of the Thyroid Gland Functional State  

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Full Text Available Distributed modular system BioLab for biophysical examinations enabling assessment of the thyroid gland functional state is presented in the paper. The BioLab system is based on a standard notebook or desktop PC connected to an Ethernet-based network of two smart sensors. These sensors are programmed and controlled from PC and enable measurement of selected biosignals of the human cardiovascular and neuromuscular system that are influenced by the production of thyroid gland hormones. Recorded biosignals are processed in a PC and peripheral indicators characterizing thyroid gland functional state are evaluated.

Vladimir Rosik

2005-01-01

174

The trapping of iodine and pertechnetate by normal, multinodular and dyshormonogenic thyroid glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the trapping rates of 123I and sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and the retention of 123I by normal, multinodular and dyshormonogenic thyroid glands. The method used involved background correction of the raw thyroid using time-activity blood curves. The trapping rates of iodine and pertechnetate by normal glands were similar and comparable to those obtained by other methods. Increased trapping of iodine and pertechnetate and impaired retention of iodine was observed in multinodular and dyshormonogenic thyroid glands. (U.K.)

1982-01-01

175

Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

2011-01-01

176

Technical aspects of magnetic resonance imaging in parathyroid gland lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were examined before parathyroid surgery with magnetic resonance imaging at 0.35 telsa in order to analyse optimal methods of visualization. Two large parathyroid glands in the neck had long transverse relaxation times which rendered them clearly visible in T2-weighted images as structures of a signal intensity higher than that of the surrounding. Large parathyroid lesions may thus be easily detected by magnetic resonance imaging provided proper examination parameters are employed. (orig.)

1986-01-01

177

Early thyroid gland dysfunction and biorhythmic activity disturbance in patients with cardiovascular pathology and atrial fibrillation  

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Full Text Available The review deals with the problem of combined pathology of the thyroid gland and cardiovascular system, the state of thyroid homeostasis in atrial fibrillation. The main mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on the heart and blood vessels, particularly changes in the cardiovascular system with hypo-or hyperthyroidism; the possibility of substitution therapy in subclinical disease have been presented in the article. Characteristics of daily rhythmic activity of thyroid gland in normal and various pathological conditions with persistent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation have been considered.

Shvarts Yu.G.

2012-12-01

178

Electromagnetic fields at 2.45?GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland  

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Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45?GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-...

2012-01-01

179

Histopathological Changes of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in HIV-Infected Patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To study histopathology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in HIV-infected African Americans in the United States. Methods. A retrospective review of 102 autopsy cases done by the Department of Pathology at Howard University Hospital from 1980 through 2007 was conducted. The histopathological findings of the thyroid and parathyroid glands were reviewed, both macroscopically and microscopically. A control group of autopsy patients with chronic non-HIV diseases was examined. Results. There were 71 males (70%) and 31 females (30%) with an average age of 38 years (range: 20-71?y). Thirteen patients with abnormal thyroid findings were identified. Interstitial fibrosis was the most common histological finding (4.9%), followed by thyroid hyperplasia (1.9%). Infectious disease affecting the thyroid gland was limited to 2.9% and consisted of mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and cytomegalovirus. Kaposi sarcoma of the thyroid gland was present in only one case (0.9%). Parathyroid hyperplasia was the most common histological change noted in the parathyroid glands. Comparing the histological findings of cases and controls, we found a similar involvement of the thyroid, with a greater prevalence of parathyroid hyperplasia in HIV patients. Conclusion. Thyroid and parathyroid abnormalities are uncommon findings in the HIV-infected African American population. PMID:24587936

Cherqaoui, Rabia; Shakir, K M Mohamed; Shokrani, Babak; Madduri, Sujay; Farhat, Faria; Mody, Vinod

2014-01-01

180

The Effects of Neck Irradiation on Thyroid Gland for Tumors of the head and Neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-five patients with tumors of the head and neck treated with either radiation therapy alone or combined with surgery or chemotherapy were studied prospectively to evaluate the effects of radiation therapy to the neck on thyroid gland between September 1986 and October 1992. All patients were serially monitored for thyroid function tests before and after radiation therapy. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 35 to 60 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Median follow-up time was 30 months with a range of 11 to 85 months. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction was 40%; forty-five patients (60%) euthyroid, 2 patients (3%) clinical hypothyroidism, 27 patients (36%) subclinical hypothyroidism and 1 patient (1%) hyperthyroidism. No thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer were detected in any patients. Thyroid dysfunction appeared earlier in patients who underwent surgery than in those patients treated with radiation therapy alone or combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p=0.0013). By multivariate analysis, risk factors that significantly influenced a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction were female sex (p=0.0293) and combination of total laryngectomy and radiation therapy (p=0.0045). In conclusion, evaluation of thyroid function before and after radiation therapy with periodic thyroid function tests are recommended to detect thyroid dysfunction in time and thyroid hormone replacement therapy is recommended whenever thyroid dysfunction develops

1994-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland  

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For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(..mu..g/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Grebe, S.F.; Mueller, H.

1984-10-01

182

Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(?g/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.)

1984-10-01

183

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Assay as the First Line Biochemical Parameter to Determine Thyroid Gland Abnormalities  

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Increased cellular catabolic activities observed in hyperthyroid state had been established. This is consequent to excessive hormones secreted by the thyroid gland during this condition. A total of 60 subjects comprising of 45 females mean age 43.02±1.90 (range 22-70 years) and 15 males mean age 50.40±3.59 (range 25-68) and 60 controls comprising of 45 females mean age 41.18±1.68 (range 22-68 years) and 15 males mean age 40.53±2.88 (range 25-65) were recruited for the study. The plasma le...

Wasiu Eniola Olooto; Adebambo Olufemi Adeleye; Adebayo Adetola Amballi; Ademola Oladipupo Mosuro; Taiwo Abayomi Banjo

2014-01-01

184

Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600?ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22?months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

Yokoyama Junkichi

2012-04-01

185

A preliminary study on the use of cadmium telluride detectors in the scintigraphy of thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cadmium telluride gamma detector has been used for monitoring the activity of a radioactive tracer in a thyroid gland. Preliminary measurements are reported in comparison with those obtained with a standard NaI(Tl) scintillator. (orig.)

1981-11-01

186

Extrapulmonary small cell: a novel case of small cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroendocrine tumors comprise a large group of malignancies which share unique morphological features and are characterized by the presence of neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin, chromogranin-A, and CD56 (N-CAM), ranging from indolent tumors, such as carcinoid tumors, to aggressive tumors, such as small cell carcinoma. The lung is the most common site for primary neuroendocrine tumors. Extrapulmonary primary sites of small cell carcinoma are rare but have been documented arising from various sites including esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, gallbladder, thymus, salivary gland, ovary, cervix, bladder, prostate, and skin. We present a case of small cell carcinoma arising from the thyroid gland, a site not previously described in the literature. A 59-year-old woman presented with a thyroid mass, which, after resection, showed small cell morphology and positive immunostains for TTF-1, synaptophysin, chromogranin-A, CD56, etc. Five months after diagnosis, she had widely metastatic disease. After a near-complete response to the first chemo-treatment, her disease progressed. Following local radiation and more rounds of chemotherapy, she succumbed to the disease, 15 months after diagnosis. Our patient had no pulmonary lesions at the time of diagnosis to suggest metastasis from the lung. Much like its pulmonary counterparts, this small cell carcinoma of primary thyroid origin displayed an aggressive clinical course and poor outcome. Although it shows early sensitivity to chemotherapy, small cell carcinoma remains a difficult-to-treat cancer with a poor prognosis and can rarely be seen originating in organs outside of the lung. PMID:21644012

Beach, Douglas F; Klump, William J; Haddad, Ghada; Reid, Lisa M; Schwarting, Roland; Hageboutros, Alexandre

2012-09-01

187

Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study  

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Purpose: To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). Methods and materials: In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)- based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT te...

Johansen, S.; Reinertsen, K. V.; Knutstad, K.; Olsen, Dag R.; Fossa?, S. D.

2011-01-01

188

Metastasis of Dermatofibrosarcoma from the Abdominal Wall to the Thyroid Gland: Case Report  

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Metastases in the thyroid gland are very rare. Even the rarer are sarcoma metastases. A 52-year-old woman was referred to our department for evaluation of a nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid gland. She had a history dermatosarcoma of the abdominal wall with known metastasis in the lung. Clinically she had neck pain and worsened swallowing. Objective assessment (ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance) indicated a voluminous right lobe nodule with mechanical syndrome, and...

Kreze, Alexander; Za?potocka?, Andrea; Urbanec, Toma?s?; Koskuba, Jir?i?; Pura, Mikula?s?; Vi?tek, Pavel; Praz?enica, Pavol; Traboulsi, Eva

2012-01-01

189

Selective exposure of thyroid gland follicles to radionuclides decaying according to K-capture model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors submit the results of studies of the effect of internal exposure of microstructures of thyroid gland follicles to electron radiation within the energy range from tenths of keV to 1 MeV, covering the electron radiation spectra of the commonly used radionuclides which decay according to the K-capture model. The case of selective exposure of thyroid gland follicles to selenium-75 delivered as a constituent of selenomethionine is described as an example

1980-01-01

190

Modular Measuring System for Assesment of the Thyroid Gland Functional State  

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Distributed modular system BioLab for biophysical examinations enabling assessment of the thyroid gland functional state is presented in the paper. The BioLab system is based on a standard notebook or desktop PC connected to an Ethernet-based network of two smart sensors. These sensors are programmed and controlled from PC and enable measurement of selected biosignals of the human cardiovascular and neuromuscular system that are influenced by the production of thyroid gland hormones. Recorded...

2005-01-01

191

Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT. Methods and materials In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50 together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy. The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy and the absolute volumes (cm3 receiving respectively Results No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (? = 0.003, with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving Conclusions We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

Knutstad K

2011-06-01

192

Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up  

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The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN).

Deveci, M. Salih; Deveci, Gu?zin; Livolsi, Virginia A.; Baloch, Zubair W.

2006-01-01

193

Thyroid Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, or TSH. TSH causes the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone. ... pituitary gland can damage the area that secretes TSH. Without TSH, the thyroid gland does not make ...

194

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, or TSH. TSH causes the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone. ... pituitary gland can damage the area that secretes TSH. Without TSH, the thyroid gland does not make ...

195

Late Simultaneous Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Submandibular and Thyroid Glands Seven Years after Radical Nephrectomy  

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Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC metastasis to the salivary glands is extremely rare. Most cases reported previously have involved the parotid gland and only six cases involving the submandibular gland exist in the current literature. Metastasis of RCC to thyroid gland is also rare but appears to be more common than to salivary glands. Methods and Results. We present the first case of simultaneous metastasis to the submandibular and thyroid glands from clear cell RCC in a 61-year-old woman who presented seven years after the primary treatment. The submandibular and thyroid glands were excised completely with preservation of the marginal mandibular and recurrent laryngeal nerves, respectively. Conclusion. Metastatic disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with painless salivary or thyroid gland swelling with a previous history of RCC. If metastatic disease is confined only to these glands, prompt surgical excision can be curative.

Mohammed S. Miah

2010-01-01

196

GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS  

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Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

2006-04-01

197

MR imaging of noncancerous lesions of the prostate gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper determines the importance of MR signal characteristics in noncancerous lesions of the prostate. Step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens from over 50 individuals with stage A or B cancer were retrospectively reviewed and compared with correlative axial T2-weighted MR images obtained just prior to surgery. Noncancerous lesions were evaluated for signal intensity and location. Focal high-signal-intensity areas were present in 82% of patients. The 28% of lesions in the central gland correlated with cystic atrophy. Of the lesions in the peripheral prostate, 85% were cystic atrophy without associated cancer, 7.5% cystic atrophy with cancer, and 7.5% focal inflammation. Focal low-signal-intensity areas were present in 76% of patients. Of the 31% in the central prostate, one-fifth correlated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and four-fifths with fibrous tissue, 10% to the 69% that were peripheral, 82% corresponded to fibrous tissue, 10% to BPH, and 8% to normal tissue. Mixed lesions were present in 73%; 93% of these were located centrally and 7% peripherally. All mixed central lesions were BPH, and the peripheral 7% were areas of combined cystic atrophy and fibrosis

1990-11-25

198

Metabolic Pathways of Tetraidothyronine and Triidothyronine Production by Thyroid Gland: A Review of Articles  

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Full Text Available Tetraidothyronine (T4 and Triiodothyronine (T3 are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT and diiodothyrosine (DIT on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction , or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO, which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin to show themselves.

A.R. Mansourian

2011-01-01

199

Metabolic Pathways of Tetraidothyronine and Triidothyronine Production by Thyroid Gland: A Review of Articles  

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Tetraidothyronine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg) to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT) and diiodothyrosine (DIT) on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues whi...

2011-01-01

200

Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response.

Ling, M.C.; Dake, M.D.; Okerlund, M.D.

1988-04-01

202

Head and neck irradiation: its role in the production of thyroid gland abnormalities including cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physicians caring for patients should be certain to inquire about preceding irradiation in the head and neck region for enlarged tonsils, thymus glands or acneform eruptions. Careful palpation of thyroid glands should be undertaken in these patients and if any doubt exists appropriate referral should be made. The young age of the population at risk seems to warrant such an approach

1976-01-01

203

Interferon-induced progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with enlarged thyroid glands in gynecological patient: A case report and literature review  

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Full Text Available A case report presents a progression of autoimmune thyroiditis with an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid glands and increased thyreotropin hormone concentration-associated with interferon treatment in human papillomavirus infected patient with the autoimmune thyroiditis and a daily L-thyroxin hormone replacement therapy background. Observation was supplemented with a brief review of literature and discussion. On the basis of this observation and a brief review of literature authors suggested that the potential adverse effects of interferon therapy are overbalanced than its benefits for gynecological patients, therefore any interferon treatment should be recommended with strict indications as well as after screening of conditions and functions of thyroid glands and other interferon target organs to avoid interferon treatment side effects. Practitioners especially gynecologists should inform their patients about pleiotropic interferon effects and its high frequent and wide range side effects before to start such kind of treatment.

Andrea Tinelli

2013-03-01

204

Influence of chronic stress and terahertz radiation at nitric oxide frequency on functional activity of thyroid gland  

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In the chronic stress conditions oppression of functional activity of thyroid gland is revealed. Influence of terahertz radiation at the nitric oxide frequency of 150,176-150,664 GHz on functional activity of thyroid gland in the conditions of chronic experimental stress was studied. It was shown that during 15 minutes of influence of terahertz waves at nitric oxide frequency partial restoration of studied indicators of activity of thyroid gland was observed in stressed animals. At 30 minute ...

2010-01-01

205

Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report  

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Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13?cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor...

2012-01-01

206

Stereological study of the capillaries in the thyroid gland after IR laser radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

We have planned a stereological ultrastructural study of capillaries in the thyroid gland treated with IR laser radiation and quantified 1 day after the last treatment. Wistar rats, 50 days old, were irradiated with IR laser radiation. The rats were perfused with 2.5 percent glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (ph equals 7.4). The pieces obtained after sectioning the thyroid gland were placed immediately into the same fixative. A stereological study of the thyroid capillaries was carried out. This analysis revealed an increase of luminal area in irradiated capillaries.

Perez de Vargas, I.; Vidal, Lourdes; Parrado, C.; Carrillo, F.; Pelaez, A.; Rius, F.

1994-02-01

207

Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study  

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Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

Bondarenko O.O.

2009-01-01

208

Distribution of 129I in soil and in cattle thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Depth profile of 129I in surface soil was measured with some long-lived radionuclides. In the organic rich soil 129I remained in the surface. Distribution ratio of radioiodine in surface soil decreased after heated, irradiated by ?-ray, and fumigated with chloroform. So radioiodine were trapped by the effect of living in the surface soil. Iodine and 129I in thyroid gland of cattle and human were measured by neutron activation analysis and compared each other. 129I/127I ratio in Japanese thyroid gland are lower than cattle. And also those data of Japanese human thyroid were lower than European. (author)

1996-12-01

209

Calculation of energy deposition, photon and neutron production in proton therapy of thyroid gland using MCNPX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the MCNPX code has been used to simulate a proton therapy in thyroid gland, in order to calculate the proton energy deposition in the target region. As well as, we have calculated the photon and neutron production spectra due to proton interactions with the tissue. We have considered all the layers of tissue, from the skin to the thyroid gland, and an incident high energy pencil proton beam. The results of the simulation show that the best proton energy interval, to cover completely the thyroid tissue, is from 42 to 54 MeV, assuming that the thyroid gland has a 14 mm thickness and is located 11.2 mm under the skin surface. The most percentage of deposited energy (78%) is related to the 54 MeV proton energy beam. Total photon and neutron production are linear and polynomial second order functions of the proton energy, respectively.

Asghar Mowlavi, Ali, E-mail: aa_mowlavi@yahoo.c [S.C. di Fisica Sanitaria, A.O.U. Ospedali Riuniti di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Physics Department, School of Sciences, Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rosa Fornasie, Maria; Denaro, Mario de [S.C. di Fisica Sanitaria, A.O.U. Ospedali Riuniti di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

2011-01-15

210

Influence of chronic stress and terahertz radiation at nitric oxide frequency on functional activity of thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the chronic stress conditions oppression of functional activity of thyroid gland is revealed. Influence of terahertz radiation at the nitric oxide frequency of 150,176-150,664 GHz on functional activity of thyroid gland in the conditions of chronic experimental stress was studied. It was shown that during 15 minutes of influence of terahertz waves at nitric oxide frequency partial restoration of studied indicators of activity of thyroid gland was observed in stressed animals. At 30 minute mode of influence of specified waves a complete recovery of broken indicators of functional condition of thyroid gland was determined

Tsymbal ?.?.

2010-12-01

211

Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common finding in Nuclear Medicine in this patient population. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

2003-06-01

212

Ultrasound examination of the thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland. (orig.)

1982-01-01

213

The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?  

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Full Text Available Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attributed to normal aging. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, as well as thyroid neoplasms, require special attention in elderly subjects. Intriguingly, decreased thyroid function, as well as thyrotropin (TSH levels – progressively shifting to higher values with age – may contribute to the increased lifespan. This short review focuses on recent findings concerning the alterations in thyroid function during aging, including these which may potentially lead to extended longevity, both in humans and animals.

Gesing Adam

2012-11-01

214

Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients  

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Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3% se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73% correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27% a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total, 4 (36,3% con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18% con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18% con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9% con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9% con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9% con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología.Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81% had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%. were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36% had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18% had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18% had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

MARÍA ANGÉLICA MATAMALA S

2012-08-01

215

Lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores / Intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands. Analysis of 59 patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores son en su mayoría benignas. Los tumores son infrecuentes y conforman un grupo heterogéneo, siendo el adenoma pleomorfo Ia neoplasia benigna más frecuente y el carcinoma adenoideo-quistico el tumor maligno más encontrado. Objetivos: El propósi [...] to de este estudio es evaluar Ia incidencia, manejo y evolución de Ias lesiones intraorales de glándulas salivales menores en el Servicio de Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau. Material y Método: Se presenta estudio retrospectivo de 59 casos tratados entre 1975 y 2009 en dicho hospital. Resultados: Encontramos 35 mujeres y 24 hombres. En 48 pacientes (81,3%) se encontró lesiones benignas, de Ias cuales 35 (73%) correspondieron a lesiones no neoplásicas y 13 (27%) a neoplasias. Las neoplasias malignas fueron 11 (18,6% del total), 4 (36,3%) con Ca mucoepidermoide, 2 (18%) con Ca adenoideo-quistico, 2 (18%) con Ca de células acinosas, 1 (9%) con Ca indiferenciado, 1 (9%) con adenocarcinoma y 1 (9%) con Ca epider-moide. Conclusiones: Las lesiones de glándulas salivales menores en nuestro hospital se caracterizan por ser predominantemente benignas. Se encontró similar frecuencia de tumores benignos y malignos. Predominó el adenoma pleomorfo entre Ios primeros y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide entre Ios segundos. Los tumores benignos, luego de su extirpación, se manejaron con cierre del lecho tumoral mediante rotación de colgajos locales de mucosa oral para cobertura y, en algunos casos, cierre por segunda intención. La evolución fue en general excelente. En el caso de Ios tumores malignos, el manejo dependió de Ia histología. Abstract in english Background: Most salivary gland lesions are benign. Tumors are uncommon. Pleomorphic adenoma and cystic adenoid carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant lesions. Alm: To assess the incidence management and evolution of intraoral lesions among patients consulting in a head and neck surgical [...] service. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients consulting for intraoral lesions of minor salivary glands between 1975 and 2009 in a head and neck surgical service. Results: Thirty five females and 24 males are reported. Forty eight (81%) had benign lesions. Of these, 35 (73%). were non neoplastic lesions. Eleven patients had malignant lesions. Of these, four (36%) had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two (18%) had an adenoid-cystic carcinoma, two (18%) had an acinous cell carcinoma and one patient each had an undifferentiated carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and an epidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: In this series of patients, benign lesions predominated. Benign lesions were excised and the management of malignant lesions depended on the type of tumor.

MATAMALA S, MARÍA ANGÉLICA; GONZÁLEZ P, MIGUEL; ROSSEL D, GONZALO; NIEME S, CONSTANZA.

216

Incidental thyroid lesions detected by FDG-PET/CT: prevalence and risk of thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidentally found thyroid lesions are frequently detected in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of incidentally found thyroid lesions in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT and determine the risk for thyroid cancer. Methods FDG-PET/CT was performed on 3,379 patients for evaluation of suspected or known cancer or cancer screening without any history of thyroid cancer between November 2003 and December 2005. Medical records related to the FDG-PET/CT findings including maximum SUV(SUVmax and pattern of FDG uptake, US findings, FNA, histopathology received by operation were reviewed retrospectively. Results Two hundred eighty five patients (8.4% were identified to have FDG uptake on FDG-PET/CT. 99 patients with focal or diffuse FDG uptake underwent further evaluation. The cancer risk of incidentally found thyroid lesions on FDG-PET/CT was 23.2% (22/99 and the cancer risks associated with focal and diffuse FDG uptake were 30.9% and 6.4%. There was a significant difference in the SUVmax between the benign and malignant nodules (3.35 ± 1.69 vs. 6.64 ± 4.12; P max and the size of the cancer. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that incidentally found thyroid lesions by FDG-PET/CT, especially a focal FDG uptake and a high SUV, have a high risk of thyroid malignancy. Further diagnostic work-up is needed in these cases.

Kim Sung

2009-08-01

217

An Abattoir Study of Thyroid Histopathology in Ewes and their Fetus in Ahvaz City of Iran  

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Full Text Available The thyroid structural changes in pregnant ewes and their fetuses were investigated. Out of 100 pairs of thyroid glands collected from ewes and their fetuses at the local municipal abattoir in Ahvaz city of Khuzestan province, multiple lesions were seen in 59% and 21% of the thyroid glands of ewes and fetuses, respectively. Histologically, ninety nine lesions in the ewes and twenty two lesions in the fetuses’ thyroid glands were noticed.

Reza Pourjamshid

2010-06-01

218

Functional thyroid gland adenoma in a dog treated with surgical excision alone.  

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An 11-year-old male Golden Retriever presented with progressive weight loss, tachycardia, hyperthermia, polyuria and polydipsia. A freely movable mass, 4.5 x 4 cm in size, was palpated at the cranioventral cervical region. Hormonal study revealed high levels of serum thyroid hormones, and a tentative diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to a thyroid tumor was made. The tumor was removed surgically and diagnosed histopathologically as thyroid gland adenoma. Serum thyroid hormone levels decreased after surgery with improved clinical signs. At 12 months after surgery, the dog maintained a good physical condition with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:17283402

Itoh, Teruo; Kojimoto, Atsuko; Nibe, Kazumi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Shii, Hiroki

2007-01-01

219

Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).  

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Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs. PMID:22688583

Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

2013-03-01

220

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland associated with multinodular goiter: case report and review of the literature.  

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Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from plasma cells most commonly occurring in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx and larynx. Thyroid involvement is rare and less than 75 cases of SEP of the thyroid gland have been reported to date. A 74-year-old woman with an history of multinodular goiter presented with dysphonia and painful neck swelling, related to a rapidly growing nodule in the right thyroid lobe. Thyroid function tests showed subclinical hypothyroidism; no evidence of Hashimoto's disease was found. Ultrasound confirmed the presence of an isoechoic nodule, 35 mm in diameter, with a CDIII vascular pattern. FNAC showed a monotonous population of atypical cells, interpreted as suspicious for malignant neoplasia (Thyr. 4). The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination showed a unencapsulated neoplasm composed of atypical tumour cells characterized by abundant cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei. At immunohistochemistry, tumour cells revealed diffuse reactivity for CD138 and CD45RB and predominant staining for kappa chains. Pan-cytokeratins, TTF1, thyreoglobulin, calcitonin, CD20 and CD79a were negative. Clinically, a complete multiple myeloma workup was negative. On this basis, a definitive diagnosis of SEP was made. At 16 months follow-up, the patient showed good clinical conditions without evidence of multiple myeloma. In conclusion, SEP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a rapidly enlarging thyroid nodule. Clinical correlation and immunocytochemistry are crucial in avoiding pitfalls. Surgery remains the best modality of treatment whenever the lesion is localized and easily removable. PMID:22007566

Puliga, G; Olla, L; Bellisano, G; Di Naro, N; Ganau, M; Lai, M L; Faa, G; Tolu, G A

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Histological Observation of Thyroid Gland at Prepubertal, Pubertal and Castrated Black Bengal Goat  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy and Histology with an aim to observe the histological architecture of thyroid gland at prepubertal, pubertal and castrated Black Bengal goat with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. The thyroid gland was covered by a three-layered capsule, an outer, the middle and an inner layer. The connective tissue capsule was rich in blood vessels, some times accompanied with lymphocytic infiltration also some fibroblasts. From the capsule, connective tissue septa penetrated the gland parenchyma forming indistinct lobe and lobules of the gland. The thyroid gland was consisted of numerous follicles with interfollicular stroma. The follicle consisted of follicular epithelium and intrafollicular substances. Usually, small sizes follicle were near the capsule and active, whereas, large sizes follicle were towards the center of the gland. The thyroid follicles were lined by cuboidal epithelium in prepubertal Black Bengal goats, cuboidal to columnar in pubertal group. Follicular epithelium becomes squamous or flattened in castrated group. The thyroid follicle contained amber-colored homogenous, solid, lightly eosinophilic colloid material. In the active follicle the colloid was thinner and less in amount, whereas, in inactive follicle it was thicker and more quantity. The colloid materials mostly cracked at castrated group but cracked colloidal materials were found in few large follicles or absent in prepubertal and pubertal group of Black Bengal goats. Parafollicular cells or interfollicular cells were arranged singly or grouped within the basal lamina or interfollicular space. The parafollicular cells were significantly decreased in the adult castrated Black Bengal goats than prepubertal and pubertal group. The inetrfollicular spaces were significantly decreased in castrated Black Bengal goats when compared to prepubertal and pubertal group. Thus it can be assumed that histoarchitectures of the thyroid gland of Black Bengal goat changed at different stages with their activity.

G. N. Adhikary

2003-01-01

222

Galectin-3 Immunostaining in Cytological and Histopathological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions  

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Background: Ga lectin-3 is a human lectin linked to malignant transformation in different organs including thyroid gland. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions in cytological and histological samples. Material and Methods: This study included a total of 79 cases; 19 multi nodular goiter (MNG), 19 follicular adenoma (FA), 13 follicular carcinoma (FTC) and 28 papillary carcinoma (PTC). Galectin-3 immunostaining was applied on histological sections from all the cases (retrospective analysis) as well as for the available preoperative FNAC (28 cases) (prospective analysis). Results: Retrospective analysis: The positivity percentage of galectin-3 was 10.5%, 92.3%, 93% for non-malignant, FTC and PTC respectively. According to H score, glaectin-3 immunostaining was significantly lowered in FA) 1±2.8 as compared to papillary (158.5±88.6) and follicular carcinoma (150±83.9) (p>0.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between FTC and PTC (p=0.56) or between classic and follicular variants of PTC (p='0.51). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for galectin-3 staining were 93%, 89.5%, 90.5% and 92% respectively. Prospective analysis: There were five benign, six malignant and 17 indeterminate cytology cases. Galectin-3 immunostaining was able to detect the benign nature of 11/17 indeterminate cytology. Combination of standard cytological evaluation with galectin-3 immunostaining markedly improved sen¬sitivity (71% versus 85%), specificity (75% versus 94%), positive predictive value (83% versus 92%) negative predictive value (60% versus 87.5%) and diagnostic accuracy (72% versus 90%). Conclusion: We suggest Galectin-3 as a supplementary immunostaining in histological diagnosis of difficult thyroid follicular lesions and in preoperative evaluation of indeterminate thyroid cytology to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical interference in benign lesions.

2008-03-01

223

An Abattoir Study of Ovine Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Lesions and the Respective Serum T3 andT4 Levels in an Endemic Goiter Region in Iran  

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Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of histologic thyroids lesions and the respective thyroid hormones changes of ewes in an endemic goiter region and to find out any impact of this condition on the fetal thyroid structures and serum thyroid hormones. In the present study a total number of 100 pregnant ewes and their fetuses slaughtered at slaughterhouse were selected for the study. The sera were prepared from the jugular vein blood of ewes and fetuses umbilical cords. The ewes and fetuses thyroids subjected to histopathological examination and radioimmunoassay procedure was used for sera T3 and T4 assay. The results showed a high prevalence of thyroid lesions in ewes and their fetuses. The different kinds of lesions including cysts, follicular hyperplasia, hemorrhage and inflammation were seen in ewes. In the fetuses thyroid structural changes were cysts resemble structures; hemorrhage and hyperemia. Mean T4 concentration was significantly higher in the ewes with pathologic thyroid compared to normal animals. However, there was not any significant difference between pathologic and normal ewes’ thyroids on serum T3. Although, existence of lesions on fetal thyroids did not affect the serum concentrations of T4 and T3, there was a significant correlation between T4 and T3 serum concentrations of fetuses and their age. In conclusion, the significant prevalence of fetal and maternal thyroid pathological changes in the endemic goiter region raises a question about probable congenital source of these variations. The thyroid lesions significantly influenced the functions of mothers' gland but not fetuses.

Farid Barati

2011-09-01

224

Right thyroid hemiagenesis with adenoma and hyperplasia of parathyroid glands -case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare anomaly, more commonly seen on the left side (ratio 4:1 and in females (ratio 3:1. The first to describe this anomaly was Handfield Jones in 1852. Case presentation We present a 66 year old female patient with right thyroid hemiagenesis, parathyroid adenoma on the side of hemiagenesis and parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side. The patient had neck pain and was diagnosed as Hashimto thyroiditis with hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid hormone, thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab were elevated. Neck ultrasound and technetium 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI scintigraphy confirmed the right thyroid hemiagenesis, but not adenoma of parathyroid glands. Intraoperatively, right thyroid hemiagenesis was confirmed and left loboistmectomy was performed with removal of left inferior hyperplastic parathyroid gland. Postoperative PTH (parathyroid hormone levels were within normal range. Five months after the operation PTH level was elevated again with calcium values at the upper limit. MIBI scintigraphy was performed again which showed increased accumulation of MIBI in the projection of the right parathyroid gland. Surgical reexploration of the neck and excision of the right upper parathyroid adenoma was performed which was located behind cricoid laryngeal cartilage. After surgery a normalization of calcium and PTH occured. Conclusion From available literature we have not found the case that described parathyroid adenoma on the side of thyroid hemiagenesis,with parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side.

Oruci Merima

2012-11-01

225

Investigation of abnormal appearing thyroid glands on Tc-99m sestamibi breast scintimammography.  

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Of 507 breast scintimammograms performed using Tc-99m sestamibi, 34 patients were incidentally found to have abnormal appearing thyroid glands. The authors sought to investigate the clinical significance and/or ascertain an extraneous causative factor for these findings. One cold thyroid nodule was detected and was proven benign through biopsy. Two cases of subacute and chronic thyroiditis were proven, and it is possible that additional patients had this disease process. Focal areas of increased thyroid Tc-99m sestamibi uptake were observed in eight patients and probably represent parathyroid adenomas, nonautonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, or nontoxic multinodular goiter. The results did not yield an extraneous causative factor, underlying pathology, or clinically significant disease in all of the patients investigated, but the findings suggest a need for careful evaluation of any unusual uptake in the thyroid gland and the rest of the image. The authors do not recommend investigation of all abnormal appearing thyroid glands on Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography. However, clinical correlation should be recommended. PMID:7554656

Korbin, C D; Khalkhali, I; Cutrone, J A; Diggles, L; Mena, I

1995-07-01

226

Interfering factors in in vivo diagnostics of the thyroid gland  

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Anamnestic iodine contamination and medication with thyroid drugs were registered in 260 patients of a clinical thyroid care unit and 200 patients of a thyroid doctor's office in the southern German endemic goiter region. We found in the university clinic 54% patients with interfering factors, 30% with iodine contamination and 20% with multiple interferences. In the physician's practice there were 18%, nearly all treated with thyroid hormone. The influence of those factors on thyroidal technetium uptake and the resulting restriction on its diagnostic value is discussed.

Anger, K.; Funke, G.; Lagemann, K.

1985-02-01

227

ARFI elastography for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid gland pathology: Preliminary results  

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Full Text Available AIM: To assess whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma. METHODS: We evaluated 136 subjects (mean age 45.8 ± 15.6 years, 106 women and 30 men: 44 (32.3% without thyroid pathology, 48 (35.3% with Basedow-Graves’ disease (GD, 37 (27.2% with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT; diagnosed by specific tests, 4 (2.9% with diffuse thyroid goiter and 3 (2.2% cases with thyroid pathology induced by amiodarone. In all patients, 10 elastographic measurements were made in the right thyroid lobe and 10 in the left thyroid lobe, using a 1-4.5 MHZ convex probe and a 4-9 MHz linear probe, respectively. Median values were calculated for thyroid stiffness and expressed in meters/second (m/s. RESULTS: Thyroid stiffness (TS assessed by means of ARFI in healthy subjects (2 ± 0.40 m/s was significantly lower than in GD (2.67 ± 0.53 m/s (P < 0.0001 and CAT patients (2.43 ± 0.58 m/s (P = 0.0002, but the differences were not significant between GD vs CAT patients (P = 0.053. The optimal cut-off value for the prediction of diffuse thyroid pathology was 2.36 m/s. For this cut-off value, TS had 62.5% sensitivity, 79.5% specificity, 87.6% predictive positive value, 55.5% negative predictive value and 72.7% accuracy for the presence of diffuse thyroid gland pathology (AUROC = 0.804. There were no significant differences between the TS values obtained with linear vs convex probes and when 5 vs 10 measurements were taken in each lobe (median values. CONCLUSION: ARFI seems to be a useful method for the assessment of diffuse thyroid gland pathology.

Ioan Sporea

2012-01-01

228

Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report  

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The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

229

Changes in the thyroid gland during the reproductive cycle of the male vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi  

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Full Text Available The aim of present study was to compare the changes in thyroid gland with the reproductive cycle of S. heathi. Thyroid showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting the thyroid gland to be inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and active during the time of recrudescence and breeding similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4 concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during breeding and post-breeding and low concentration during quiescence. However, the T4 concentration increased from breeding to post-breeding phase, when the testes weight was declining. It is suggested that in S. heathi the positive correlation between thyroid and testicular cycles occurs only during the phases of the reproductive cycle when the body weight and testicular activity are also closely correlated.

KRISHNA A.

1998-01-01

230

Histological features of the thyroid gland in a patient with lithium induced thyrotoxicosis.  

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A 26 year old woman with lithium induced thyrotoxicosis is reported. The thyrotoxicosis was associated with a non-tender diffuse goitre and a low radioiodine uptake by the gland. The thyrotoxicosis was reversible and remitted on withdrawal of the drug. The histopathological alterations of the thyroid glad were characterised by extensive follicular cell disruption with no lymphocytic infiltration. It is postulated that lithium might directly damage thyroid follicular cells and that subsequent ...

Mizukami, Y.; Michigishi, T.; Nonomura, A.; Nakamura, S.; Noguchi, M.; Takazakura, E.

1995-01-01

231

Leiomyoma and neurilemoma: report of two unusual non-epithelial tumours of the thyroid gland.  

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Two primary spindle cell tumours of the thyroid are described showing light microscopic features of leiomyoma and neurilemoma respectively. The origin from smooth muscle and nerve sheath was confirmed by both immunohistochemical reactions and ultrastructural findings. Review of the literature reveals only one case of leiomyoma and three cases of neurilemoma reported as developing within the thyroid gland. Our observations further support the view that leiomyoma and neurilemoma may occur at th...

Mazzucco, Gianna; Bussolati, Giovanni

1988-01-01

232

[The treatment of thyroid gland cyst using ND-YAG laser].  

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The results of treatment of 23 patients with the thyroid gland cyst was summarized. Laser photocoagulation was performed under ultrasonographic control. Peculiarities of the treatment performance using laser for the thyroid gland cyst with more than 10 ml volume were established. Twenty two (95.7%) patients had recovered and in one (4.3%)--the state improvement was noted. In laser photocoagulation for the cystically-transformed nodes the reduction or disappearance of residual nodal tissue was noted, there were no postoperative complications. PMID:11288239

Zubov, A D

2000-05-01

233

Malignant thyroglossal duct cyst with synchronous occult thyroid gland papillary carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 52-year-old male was referred to our department with complaints of a painless midline neck swelling. Clinico-radiological evaluation suggested a 6 × 5 cm thyroglossal cyst with non-palpable nodules in isthmus and right lobe of thyroid gland. FNAC of the thyroglossal cyst was suggestive of papillary carcinoma. He underwent Sistrunk's operation, total thyroidectomy, and central compartment neck dissection. Co-existence of papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland and thyroglossal cyst is a rare presentation and in this report, we describe our management and propose an evidence-based algorithm to assist decision-making in the management of these patients in future. PMID:24083187

Senthilkumar, R; Neville, J F; Aravind, R

2013-09-01

234

Postirradiation changes in the thyroid gland and skeletal muscle of rats injected with iodine 131  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The functional status of rat skeletal muscles was studied at dormancy and during the intensive muscular work under conditions of repeated administration of iodine 131 in doses causing reversible and irreversible damages to thyroid gland (the absorbed doses were from 0.27 to 266 Gy). The biochemical changes in muscles were transient; they correlated with the thyroid gland status and lifetime of animals and were displayed during the first 15 days and 2-12 months after the start of the isotope injection

1986-01-01

235

Histoarchitectonics of a thyroid gland in the conditions of a blastomogenesis  

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Full Text Available Experiment has been supplied on 20 white rats-males in mass of 140-160 g to whom under a skin the tumoral strain of a Guerin’s carcinoma has been transplanted. The purpose of the real research was studying distant tumour influences on histotopography structural components of a thyroid gland. Distant influence of a tumour on a thyroid gland calls essential rearrangements of a stroma and a parenchima of an organ which are accompanied bydepression of functional activity thyro-cyties and reduction of quantity of haemocapillars of a stroma of an organ.

Khripkov I.S.

2012-01-01

236

Submicroscopic ?hanges in the thyroid gland of rats after the immunosuppression  

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Full Text Available Background. A significant number of patients receive immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of autoimmune, allergic diseases, organ and tissue transplantation. In this regard, the study of reactivity of the thyroid gland during immunosuppression caused by the introduction of cyclophosphamide is of current interest. Objective. To investigate the submicroscopic changes in the thyroid gland at the single administration of cyclophosphan in high doses. Methods. The research was conducted on 24 male rats with an initial body weight of 180±10, which were divided into 4 groups. The animals of 1st and the 2nd groups received cyclophosphan in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The 3rd and the 4th groups included control (intact animals. The material was taken on 3rd and 30th days after the injection of cyclophosphan in accordance with the immune response phases. Results. The conducted electron microscopy research revealed significant changes of thyrocyte organelles and thyroid gland stroma during the short term of observation (3 days. After 30 days of cyclophosphan injection reactive changes directed at the normalization of the gland structure took place. Conclusion. It is planned further to investigate the ultrastructure of the thyroid gland of animals after correction of cyclophosphan-inducted immunosuppression with imunofan.

Kashchenko S.A.

2013-01-01

237

Warthin-Like Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

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We present a case of Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman and a review of the literature on the topic. The patient had the occasional discovery of a hypoechoic thyroid nodule of approximately 18?mm, characterized by irregular margins, hyperechoic spots, rich intra- and perilesional vascularization, and a suspicious enlarged right laterocervical lymph node. Fine-needle aspiration was performed for both lesions and the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma withou...

2012-01-01

238

Warthin-like papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: case report and review of the literature  

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We present a case of Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman and a review of the literature on the topic. The patient had the occasional discovery of a hypoechoic thyroid nodule of approximately 18?mm, characterized by irregular margins, hyperechoic spots, rich intra- and perilesional vascularization, and a suspicious enlarged right laterocervical lymph node. Fine-needle aspiration was performed for both lesions and the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma withou...

2012-01-01

239

Histological evaluation of thyroid lesions using a scanning acoustic microscope  

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Full Text Available Katsutoshi Miura,1 Hiroyuki Mineta2 1Department of Health Science, Pathology, and Anatomy, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM uses an ultrasound to image an object by plotting the speed-of-sound (SOS through tissues on screen. Because hard tissues result in great SOS, SAM can provide data on the tissue elasticity. This paper investigated the utility of SAM in evaluating thyroid lesions. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin sections were scanned with a 120 MHz transducer. SOS through each area was calculated and plotted on the screen to provide histological images, and SOS of each lesion was compared and statistically analyzed. Results: High-concentrated colloids, red blood cells, and collagen fibers showed great SOS, while low-concentrated colloids, parathyroids, lymph follicles, and epithelial tissues including carcinomas demonstrated lower SOS. SAM clearly discriminated structure of thyroid components corresponding to low magnification of light microscopy. Thyroid tumors were classified into three groups by average SOS: the fast group consisted of follicular adenomas/carcinomas and malignant lymphomas; the slow group contained poorly differentiated/undifferentiated carcinomas; and the intermediate group comprised papillary/medullary carcinomas. Fragmented colloids, irregular-shaped follicles, and desmoplastic reactions were observed in the invasive area of surrounding carcinomas. Conclusion: The SAM imaging method had the following benefits: 1 precise images were acquired in a few minutes without special staining; 2 structural irregularity and desmoplastic reactions, which indicated malignancy, were detected; 3 images reflected tissue elasticity, which was statistically comparable among lesions by SOS; 4 follicular functional activity was predictable by converting colloid concentration to SOS; and 5 tumor classification was predictable by SOS because more poorly differentiated carcinomas had a tendency to show lower SOS. Keywords: scanning acoustic microscope, tissue elasticity, cancer imaging, thyroid tumor, parathyroid

Miura K

2014-02-01

240

Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland  

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A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Hi...

Luca Giovanella; Fabrizio Fasolini; Sergio Suriano; Luca Mazzucchelli

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Functional disorders in the pituitary body--adrenal gland--thyroid gland system in acute radiation injury. [Gamma radiation, mice  

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With the help of radioimmunological and histochemical methods a comparative analysis of morphological and functional changes in the pituitary body, adrenal, and thyroid glands of mice has been made in acute radiation injury due to total ..gamma..-irradiation in doses of 900 and 600 R. Irradiation with a dose of 900 R leads to a sharp increase of corticosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex and decrease of thyroxin level in the blood during the first hours after irradiation. Morphological manifestations in the thyroid gland are clearly seen. The level of the immunoreactive thyrotropic hormone in the blood plasma remains unchanged. Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex after irradiation with a dose of 600 R manifests itself only in 3 days interval and becomes maximal in 17 days. The level of thyroxin in the blood also decreases 7 days after irradiation. Concentration of the thyrotropic hormone in the blood plasma and pituitary body has changes of the same type: its increase goes up to 3 days and decrease occurs 7 days after irradiation. This points to the fact that hypofunctional transformation of the thyroid gland is not connected with the disorders of thyrotropic hormone secretion: the cause of it is a disorder of the receptor system of thyrocytes or blocking of the iodine accumulation process due to a high level of corticosteroids in irradiated animals.

Zherbin, E.A.; Yakovlev, V.A.; Tkacheva, G.A.

1976-03-01

242

Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report  

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Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as ...

2011-01-01

243

Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

2009-01-01

244

Thyroid Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood to make the thyroid hormone. A small gland ... the levels of the thyroid hormone in the blood. It secretes a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating ...

245

Characterization of new molecular targets involved in iodide flux in the thyroid gland: the anoctamins  

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Iodide transport is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones following accumulation in the follicular lumen out of thyroid cells, via channels unknown with the exception of pendrin. According to our hypothesis, TMEM16A could be the main molecular identity of the channel mediating iodide efflux in the thyroid gland. TMEM16A is the prior candidate for calcium-activated chloride conductance (CaCC). TMEM16A belongs to the TMEM16/anoctamin family comprising ten members (TMEM16A-K). Hi...

Iosco, Carmela

2012-01-01

246

Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)  

Science.gov (United States)

PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

1987-03-01

247

Experimental confirmation by Sir Victor Horsley of the relationship between thyroid gland dysfunction and myxedema.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas Sir Victor Horsley is well known for his many contributions to neurosurgery, this is not the case for his treatments for both myxedema and cretinism. Horsley's research on thyroid physiology was concentrated in the years 1884-1890, while he was director of the Brown Institute for Animals. Based upon experimentation with dogs and monkeys as well as some human patients, Horsley demonstrated conclusively that removal of the thyroid gland produced tremors, rigidity, and paralysis, which he attributed to changes in lower motor centers. Furthermore, the development of imbecility suggested that thyroid excision produced deficits in higher cortical functioning. Horsley showed that it was possible to alleviate temporarily some of the psychological and physiological symptoms of both myxedema and cretinism using transplanted thyroid tissue. Several of Horsley's students, most notably George Murray, continued and extended his work by examining other ways in which myxedema and cretinism could be treated (e.g., by injecting an extract of thyroid tissue). PMID:16910875

Ginn, Sheryl R; Vilensky, Joel A

2006-08-01

248

A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T4) and/or triiodothyronine (T3). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism

2006-08-01

249

Two cases of lymphoma of the parotid gland following ablative radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two adult patients are described in whom 131I therapy for thyroid carcinoma was followed by the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in salivary glands. Histologically one was lymphocytic and the other histiocytic. The total doses of 131I given were 27 GBq (675 mCi) and 14 GBq (350 mCi), lymphoma presenting 10 and 3 years respectively after the initial therapeutic dose of 131I. It is suggested that the relationship is a causal one, because of the rarity of salivary gland lymphoma and the high dose of radiation to the salivary glands with this mode of therapy. (author)

1982-01-01

250

"THYROID GLAND INVOLVEMENT IN CANCER OF THE LARYNX: A FIVE-YEAR MULTICENTER STUDY"  

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Full Text Available Intra-operative management of thyroid gland in laryngeal cancer is controversial. To determine the rate of thyroid involvement in patients with laryngeal cancer treated by radical surgical excision, we reviewed the records during 1996-2000 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Cancer Institute, and Amir Alam Hospital.We studied several factors such as age, gender, and tumor location, presence of thyroid involvement, tumor staging and tumor grading. Thyroid involvement was confirmed by pathologic findings. Two hundred and eighty patients were included in this study. The results showed that only 4.64% of patients (13 cases of 280 treated by laryngectomy had thyroid involvement. Direct invasion was responsible for thyroid involvement in all cases. It was most prevalent in the sixth decade of life and seen in stages 3 and 4 of laryngeal cancer. Thyroid involvement appeared more in men, and in all cases cancer was squamous cell carcinoma. We recommend limited indications for laryngectomy and thyroid lobotomy, including glottic tumor with subglottic invasion, subglottic tumor, intralaryngeal tumor with transcartilage invasion, tumor of sinus piriformis (in stage 4, glottic and supraglottic tumors stage III or IV, which should be individualized. In suspected cases such as those with abnormal thyroid consistency, the decision should be made during laryngectomy .

B. Naghibzadeh J.Mehdizadeh

2004-08-01

251

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Assay as the First Line Biochemical Parameter to Determine Thyroid Gland Abnormalities  

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Full Text Available Increased cellular catabolic activities observed in hyperthyroid state had been established. This is consequent to excessive hormones secreted by the thyroid gland during this condition. A total of 60 subjects comprising of 45 females mean age 43.02±1.90 (range 22-70 years and 15 males mean age 50.40±3.59 (range 25-68 and 60 controls comprising of 45 females mean age 41.18±1.68 (range 22-68 years and 15 males mean age 40.53±2.88 (range 25-65 were recruited for the study. The plasma level of T4, T3 and TSH were determined in both the experiment group and the controls. A significant increase (p<0.05 in plasma T4, T3 and a significant decrease (p<0.05 in plasma TSH were observed in the experiment group in comparison to the controls. Also, an inverse relationship was noted to exist between the plasma T4 and T3; and TSH in primary hyperthyroid state.

Taiwo Abayomi Banjo

2014-01-01

252

Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans  

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Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T/sub 3/ suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author).

Ikekubo, Katsuji; Hino, Megumu; Ito, Hidetomi and others

1989-03-01

253

Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author)

1989-01-01

254

Comparative radioisotope study on the function of the thyroid gland of some farm animal species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotope functional investigations of the thyroid gland were carried out with weaned lambs and pigs. The 131I captation capacity of the thyroid gland was studied to characterize the inogranic phase of iodine exchange. The evaluation of the hormone producing function of the thyroid gland required the determination of the level of the protein-bound 131 I (PB 131 I), T3-binding capacity of the thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) and the ratio of the T3-binding capacity of TBG and the free thyroxine (T4) calculated as the FT4 index.Established was the species peculiarity of the 131 I captation capacity of the thyroid gland in weaned lambs and pigs in the early phases of investigation. At the second hour the percent captation was calculated as 7.2+-0.8 and 1.11+-0.21%, respectively. The values of PB 131 I, T3-binding capacity of TBG and FT4 of pigs varied within the limits of 1.20+-0.05%, 0.605+-0.012, and 0.976+-0.015 and of weaned lambs they were 0.954+-0.009%, 0.912+-0.017 and 0.890+-0.03. (authors)

1981-01-01

255

Effect of laser treatment on thyroid gland hormones in female rabbits  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of laser treatment on thyroid functions and hormones in female rabbits. A total of 18 female rabbits were used in this investigation. Six rabbits were used for examining the thyroid gland location and dissected to be sure that laser therapy will be directed to this gland. Twelve female rabbits were used in this experiment to study the physiological effect of laser therapy (4J/cm2 on normal thyroid function they were divided into two equal groups, six used as control and the others were exposed to laser therapy at the thyroid gland region for three successive days for 5 minutes on each side. Then blood was collected for hormonal assay from ear vein at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after the last dose of laser treatment. The results revealed a gradual decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels with a concomitant increase in TSH level at the first eighteen days of laser treatment, then normalization of hormones level were take place to be normal after thirty days. More work is needed on this subject to examine the specific role of laser on glands.

N. S. AL-Mustawfi

2011-01-01

256

Small cell tumors of the thyroid gland: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The small cell group of thyroid tumors that includes lymphoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, secondary neoplasms, as well as tumors with uncertain histogenesis, remains as a valid diagnostic cul-de-sac due to its heterogeneous constitution. The existence of small cell thyroid tumors with EWSR1-FLI1 rearrangement together with neuroendocrine and/or carcinomatous differentiation raises not only differential diagnostic problems but also a very interesting therapeutic dilemma. This review explores the classification of small cell tumors of the thyroid taking into account the immunophenotype and molecular profile of such tumors. PMID:24275884

Eloy, Catarina; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

2014-05-01

257

Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

2002-01-01

258

The thyroid gland function assessment in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy during breast cancer therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: For many years much attention has been focused on an interaction between the breast disease and the thyroid gland function in the literature. In those studies the question whether disease changes in the thyroid gland can induces the breast disease was addressed. On the other hand there are a few works concerning the inverted question whether the breast cancer therapy, in particular after mastectomy and chemotherapy, can disturb the thyroid gland function. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the mastectomy and chemotherapy on the thyroid gland function in women after breast cancer therapy. Material and methods: 173 patients aged 30 - 80 (average 56) were included in this study. The studied group comprised 97 women after breast cancer therapy (average age 60). The control group consisted of 76 patients (average age 55). 75 patients after mastectomy of the studied group were additionally treated with chemotherapy, but in 22 women chemotherapy was not applied. The following methods were used to carry out the research: the USG method was applied to evaluate thyroid morphological condition in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy; the color Doppler technique was used for dynamic presentation and fine- needle aspiration biopsy: examination of the thyroid functional state by measuring the TSH, fT3, fT4 hormone concentration and the level of antithyroid antibodies. Results: An average concentration of antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and anti-Tg was found significantly higher in the studied group of women after chemotherapy, comparing with the control group. The level of fT3 hormone concentration was comparable in all investigated groups. Nevertheless, the average concentration of TSH was found higher in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy and as a consequence leading to hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the high level of the concentration of antithyroid antibodies: (anti-TPO and anti- Tg), which lead to destruction of the thyroid gland tissue, the thyroid gland function of the women after mastectomy and chemotherapy should be monitored morphologically as well as functionally. (author)

2007-01-01

259

Thyroglossal duct cyst cancer most likely arises from a thyroid gland remnant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroglossal duct cancer is a rare entity, occurring in 1.5 % of all thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC). A definitive consensus about its neoplastic origin has not been established as two contrasting theories exist, one proposing an origin in extra-thyroid remnants and the other a metastatic localization of a primary thyroid cancer. We compare morphological and molecular characteristics of both thyroglossal and thyroid carcinomas in a case series from our institute. We evaluated histology of 80 TDC. In 12 cases, prior cytological evaluation had been performed by liquid-based cytology (LBC). The BRAF gene was examined for mutations, and the histology of both thyroglossal duct and synchronous thyroid carcinoma was reevaluated. In 9 out of 80 (11 %) TDC cases, a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was diagnosed. In five out of nine (56 %) thyroglossal carcinomas, a synchronous thyroid cancer was diagnosed: 3 PTC and 2 follicular variant PTC (FVPC). In five thyroglossal carcinomas, mutated BRAF (V600E) was found, three in PTC and in thyroglossal as well as in the synchronous tumor in the thyroid. All the patients are in a disease-free status and still alive. Our results suggest that the majority of thyroglossal carcinomas most likely develop as a primary malignancy from a thyroid remnant. Neither the presence of V600E BRAF mutations nor that of a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma changed the outcome or disease-free survival. We suggest that a diagnosis of thyroglossal carcinoma should be followed by a detailed evaluation of the thyroid gland. In the absence of clinical and radiological thyroid alterations, follow-up as for thyroid cancer is the correct management. PMID:24777145

Rossi, Esther D; Martini, Maurizio; Straccia, Patrizia; Cocomazzi, Alessandra; Pennacchia, Ilaria; Revelli, Luca; Rossi, Armando; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Larocca, Luigi M; Fadda, Guido

2014-07-01

260

Protein metabolism in hypo- and hyperstimulated rat thyroid glands. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The comparative study of the in vivo synthesis of thyroglobulin and proteins other than thyroglobulin was carried out in thyroid glands from animals submitted to different levels of TSH stimulation. In hypostimulated thyroids the total protein synthesis is very much reduced, while in hyperstimulated glands it is significantly increased. In both hyper- and hypostimulated animals, the proportion of radioactivity bound to the particulate protein fraction is higher than in control rats. However, the solubilization by digitonine of these proteins is lower in hypostimulated and higher in hyperstimulated animals than in controls. Thyroglobulin synthesis is significantly modified qualitatively and quantitatively in both hypo- and hyperstimulated glands. Qualitative modifications are characterized by a changed ratio of 19S/12S molecules with respect to the controls. This is probably caused by a more important dissociation of 19S molecules due to the lower level of halogenation in both hypo- and MTU treated glands. The modifications of synthesis observed for the proteins other than thyroglobulin are less significant in both types of treated glands than are those observed for thyroglobulin. The level of hormonal stimulation has no effect on the distribution of these proteins between the soluble and the particulate fraction, but seems to have a slight effect on the solubilization of the latter ones. Comparative evaluation of the TSH effect on the synthesis of different thyroidal proteins shows that it has a much more specific and significant action on thyroglobulin than on other proteins. (orig./GSE)

1975-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report  

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Full Text Available Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial.Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its clinical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

Gustavo Soares Corrêa Silva

2012-06-01

262

Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso / Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idad [...] e, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial. Abstract in english Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles, with histogenesis still unknown. It commonly affects adult female patients. We report a case of adenolipoma of the thyroid gland in a 65 year-old female patient and discuss its cl [...] inical and laboratorial aspects and differential diagnosis.

Gustavo Soares Corrêa, Silva; Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro, Chagas; Maurício Buzelin, Nunes; Rodrigo Assis de, Paula.

263

Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

Sadat Alavi Mehr

2011-12-01

264

Morpho-functional characteristics of rat fetal thyroid gland are affected by prenatal dexamethasone exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones (TH) and glucocorticoids strongly contribute to the maturation of fetal tissues in the preparation for extrauterine life. Influence of maternal dexamethasone (Dx) administration on thyroid glands morpho-functional characteristics of near term rat fetuses was investigated applying unbiased stereology. On the 16th day of pregnancy dams received 1.0mg/Dx/kg/b.w., followed by 0.5mg/Dx/kg/b.w. on the 17th and 18th days of gestation. The control females received the same volume of saline. The volume of fetal thyroid was estimated using Cavalieri's principle; the physical/fractionator design was applied for the determination of absolute number of follicular cells in mitosis and immunohistochemically labeled C cells; C cell volume was measured using the planar rotator. The functional activity of thyroid tissue was provided from thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (TPO) immunohistochemical staining. Applying these design-based modern stereological methods it was shown that Dx treatment of gravid females led to a significant decrease of fetal thyroid gland volume in 19- and 21-day-old fetuses, due to decreased proliferation of follicular cells. The Tg and TPO immunohistochemistry demonstrated that intensive TH production starts and continues during the examined period in control and Dx-exposed fetuses. Under the influence of Dx the absolute number of C cells was lower in both groups of near term fetuses, although unchanged relation between the two populations of endocrine cells, follicular and C cells suggesting that structural relationships within the gland are preserved. In conclusion maternal glucocorticoid administration at the thyroid gland level exerts growth-inhibitory and maturational promoting effects in near term rat fetuses. PMID:24657223

Manojlovi?-Stojanoski, Milica N; Filipovi?, Branko R; Nestorovi?, Nataša M; Šoši?-Jurjevi?, Branka T; Risti?, Nataša M; Trifunovi?, Svetlana L; Miloševi?, Verica Lj

2014-06-01

265

The Effect of Methimazole on Thyroid Gland Uptake of Technetium in Hyperthyroid Patients  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methimazole on Technetium-99m reabsorbing by thyroid gland , it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole. Patients and Methods: Among all the patients with hyperthyroidism who referred to nuclear medicine ward of Shiraz University of medical sciences, 50 patients were randomly selected. we asked the patients who were on Methimazole, to discontinue the usage of all drugs (not Methimazole and foods which are effective on thyroid gland for 1 week, after that thyroid scan was performed for these patients. In The other episode, we asked them to discontinue the usage of all drugs (also Methimazole and foods which are effective on thyroid gland for 1 week and then thyroid scan was performed again .Revealed data was analyzed under supervision of statistical specialist with descriptive methods on SPSS. Results: 34 patients were males (68% and other was females. Mean age of the patients was 53.5 years. (Min: 39 years and max: 75 years Although The ROI (Region of Interest of thyroid was increased in the patients who used methimazole before scan 398.72(SD: 191.73 than the patients who discontinued for one week 380.15 (SD: 112.49, but the difference wasn’t statistically significant. The ROI of peripheral tissue of the thyroid was decreased in the patients who used methimazole before scan 26.44(SD: 5.42 than the patients who discontinued for one week 27.0414 (SD: 5.57, but the difference wasn’t statistically significant. Discussion: In conclusion, we demonstrated that methimazole pretreatment does not interfere with either the efficacy of ROI and reabsorbing of Technetium-99m in thyroid gland and peripheral tissues. A possible limitation of this study is the number of patients in the sample.So it seems that it may be possible to perform thyroid scan when the patients are on the methimazole, this can be time saving and decrease the adverse effects of discontinuing methimazole.

Farshid Gheisari

2012-09-01

266

Electromagnetic fields at 2.45?GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45?GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30?min to 2.45?GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR), which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01) after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10?W/Kg or 0.104±5.10(-3)?W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45?GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:23213477

Misa Agustiño, María José; Leiro, José Manuel; Jorge Mora, María Teresa; Rodríguez-González, Juan Antonio; Jorge Barreiro, Francisco Javier; Ares-Pena, Francisco José; López-Martín, Elena

2012-09-15

267

Evaluation of thyroid scintigraphic lesions by whole-organ sections and autoradiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new technique for detailed morphological evaluation of scintigrams of thyroid lesions based on rapid, whole-organ sectioning technique combined with autoradiography is described. The findings in 10 thyroid specimens illustrate the possibilities for assessement of thyroid scintigrams, especially of hot nodules, by this technique. (author)

1982-01-01

268

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-directed induction of the CREM gene in the thyroid gland participates in the long-term desensitization of the TSH receptor.  

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Thyroid gland function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis via the secretion of TSH, according to environmental, developmental, and circadian stimuli. TSH modulates both the secretion of thyroid hormone and gland trophism through interaction with a specific guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor (TSH receptor; TSH-R), which elicits the activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. After TSH stimulation, the levels of TSH-R RNA are known to decrease dramatically ...

Lalli, E.; Sassone-corsi, P.

1995-01-01

269

Relationship between expression of the sodium/iodide symporter and 131I uptake in recurrent lesions of differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is known to be responsible for the active accumulation of iodide within the thyroid gland. We evaluated the relationship between the expression of NIS in primary or lymph node lesions and iodine-131 uptake in recurrent lesions of differentiated thyroid cancer. In 67 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (5 follicular and 62 papillary carcinomas), the expression of NIS was analysed by immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal antibodies against human NIS. We used paraffin block tissues of primary tumours or metastatic lesions, and also assessed 131I uptake in recurrent lesions of thyroid cancer on post-operative 131I whole-body scan. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in 22 patients (32.8%), including 2 of 5 follicular and 20 of 62 papillary carcinomas. Recurrence was confirmed in 40 patients pathologically or clinically by serum thyroglobulin, 131I scan, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and/or computed tomography. Among these 40 patients, 28 showed positive uptake on 131I scan. Fourteen tumour specimens out of 28 (50%) were positive by NIS immunohistochemical staining. The remaining 12 patients with recurrent cancer showed negative 131I scans, and all specimens were negative by NIS immunohistochemical staining. Thus, NIS immunohistochemical staining predicted 131I uptake in recurrent cancer with a 100% positive predictive value and a 46.2% negative predictive value. There was no difference in the positivity of NIS according to the site of recurrence on 131I scan. Outcome of 131I therapy could be assessed in 22 of the 28 patients who showed 131I uptake in recurrent lesions. Patients with positive NIS immunostaining responded to 131I therapy better than did patients with negative immunostaining (P131I accumulation and effectiveness of 131I therapy in recurrent lesions. (orig.)

2001-05-01

270

Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats  

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Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

Nasseer Ahmad Shah

2014-02-01

271

Primary tuberculosis of the thyroid gland: an unexpected cause of thyrotoxicosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a 38-year-old Indian man who presented with a 2-week history of fever, night sweats and neck swelling who was found to be clinically thyrotoxic with a nodular goitre, tachycardia and high fever. Biochemical investigation revealed hyperthyroidism in association with deranged liver function tests and raised inflammatory markers. Ultrasound and CT scans of the neck revealed multinodular thyroid enlargement. He was considered most likely to have an acute infectious thyroiditis with a differential diagnosis of a toxic multinodular goitre and was started on carbimazole and antibiotics. He underwent fine needle aspiration of the thyroid which revealed necrotic cells and acid-fast bacilli, confirming a diagnosis of primary tuberculosis (TB) of the thyroid gland with no evidence of any other organ involvement on systemic imaging. He was started on TB therapy for 6 months and discharged with outpatient follow-up. Symptoms and biochemical markers subsequently resolved. PMID:24577178

Raman, Lavanya; Murray, James; Banka, Rajesh

2014-01-01

272

Thyroid Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... the world is a thyroid? What Is the Thyroid? The thyroid (say: thy -royd) is a gland, ... keeps the temperature just right. Continue What Is Thyroid Disease? There are two main kinds of thyroid ...

273

Inmunohistochemical Profile of Solid Cell Nest of Thyroid Gland  

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It is widely held that solid cell nests (SCN) of the thyroid are ultimobranchial body remnants. SCNs are composed of main cells and C cells. It has been suggested that main cells might be pluripotent cells contributing to the histogenesis of C cells and follicular cells, as well as to the formation of certain thyroid tumors. The present study sought to analyze the immunohistochemical profile of SCN and to investigate the potential stem cell role of SCN main cells. Tissue sections from ten cas...

Ri?os Moreno, Mari?a Jose?; Galera-ruiz, Hugo; Miguel, Manuel; Lo?pez, Mari?a Ine?s Carmona; Illanes, Matilde; Galera-davidson, Hugo

2011-01-01

274

[Indications and surgical therapy of thyroid gland diseases--analysis of 725 operated patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases of the thyroid gland are an important part of elective surgical procedures. The adequate surgical therapy is at present standardized and requires a permanent qualitative control to reduce avoidable complications. The relation between men and women in our patients (n = 725) was 1 to 5. The mean age was 51.2 years. 10% (n = 79) of the patients were hyperthyroid. 646 patients had benign disease; and 79 patients were found to have malignancy of the thyroid gland. The most common indication for an operation was bilateral multinodular goitre (n = 325) in combination with a cold nodule (n = 123), in 79 patients latent hyperthyroidism or Morbus Basedow (n = 22). Struma nodosa with retrosternal extension (n = 49), recurrence of goitre (n = 34), thyroiditis (n = 12) and dystopic goitre (n = 2) were rare in these patients. Patients with malignancy of the thyroid gland were always treated by thyroidectomy or completed thyroidectomy with lymphnode dissection. In the cases of benign disease the surgical methods were variable, although the bilateral subtotal resection (n = 413) predominated. While doing so the radical resection of parenchyma with a persistent functioning remnant of goitre of 5 cm3 was favoured. The resulting postoperative complications are discussed. An endocrinological appropriate follow-up of the patients is necessary. PMID:9542026

Steinert, M; Friedrich, T; Keitel, R; Sattler, B; Schönfelder, M

1998-01-01

275

Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2011-07-01

276

Use of 131-I metaiodinebenzylgunidine (131-I MIBG) in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: One of the most common problems of modern oncology practice and nuclear medicine is the treatment of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), which is considered to be the tumor of the APUD system. The neoplasm originates from C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland. The tumor is hormone-active and can produce calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland constitutes 3-13% of all malignant thyroid tumors. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes, mediastinum, lungs, liver, bones are frequent. The purpose of our work was to review the efficacy of MCT treatment done in our centre. Since 1999 131I-MIBG (Amersham-Nycomed) has been used in the treatment of MCT at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology. During 1999-2002, 131I-MIBG was administered in various doses (100 to 300 mCi) to 12 patients with different stages of MCT. Four non-radically operated patients with local dissemination of the tumor were cured following 131I-MIBG therapy (total activity 200-300 mCi, follow up period - 2 years). In four patients reduction in the tumor volume and/or disappearance of metastases in the cervical nodes (follow-up period 1.5 years, total activity of 131I-MIBG 100 - 200 mCi) was noticed. Three patients are still on follow up since 1.5 years (total activity of 131I-MIBG 100-200 mCi). One patient died due to the progression of disease. Myelosuppression was not observed in any of the treated patients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promising radiopharmaceutical for treatment medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

2004-01-01

277

Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

2007-12-01

278

Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

1999-10-20

279

Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

Clifton, K.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

2000-07-01

280

{sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function  

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Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

2007-08-15

 
 
 
 
281

Function of the thyroid gland following percutaneous radiation therapy in the region of the neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14 patients are reported who were submitted to radiation therapy because of a laryngeal carcinoma, and in whom the function of the thyroid gland was examined after irradiation. During radiation therapy at the gammatron 3 a focal dose totalling 6000 cGy at least was delivered to every patient, and the thyroid always was fully encompassed by the radiation field. Beside the clinical index, there was performed chemical analysis of total cholesterine as well as the test of T3, T3-RIA, T4-RIA, and TRH. The weight of the gland was also determined. Results obtained in the course of 4.3 years are showing that the rate of hypothyroidism is increased after radiation therapy and lies above the data from a recently examined control group which is geographically comparable. Though none of our patients had manifest hypothyroidism, there was slight hypothyroidism detected in 2 of 14, and a latent one in 5 of 14 cases. Analysis of the thyroid hormones in the serum might possibly yield normal values in cases of slight hypothyroidism. Determination of the TSH-activity in the serum, however, offers a sure proof of relative as well as of absolute deficiency of hormones. Hence follows, as a clinical consequence, that patients whose thyroid had been exposed to radiation in the course of therapy always should have a determination of their TSH made. Increase of the TSH-activity has to be considered as an indication for a treatment with thyroid hormones. (orig.)

1980-01-01

282

Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

1979-01-01

283

Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification. Mature bone formation is a rare phenomenon, but extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH has also been rarely reported in thyroid gland. The combination of mature bone formation and EMH is rarer and has been reported, in a single case report, in a multinodular goitre. We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle-?aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature.

Harsh Mohan

2009-07-01

284

The effect of low-level radiation on the cAMP system of chick embryo thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content were studied in the thyroid gland of intact and irradiated (0.029 Gy given before incubation) embryos and chickens. The enzyme activity was stimulated and the nucleotide content increased on the 18th day of the embryo development. It is suggested that the observed stimulation of the cAMP system is associated with the increased secretion of the thyreotropic hormone which controls the functional activity of the thyroid gland

1986-01-01

285

Fine-Needle Aspiration Versus Non Aspiration Technique of Cytodiagnosis in Thyroid Lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The two sampling techniques were studied in 50 patients presenting with enlargement of thyroid gland.They were sampled by fine needle aspiration (FNA and by non-aspiration (NA - a needle withoutapplication of aspiration pressure. Cell samples were cytologically assessed and were scored (0, 1 & 2using five objective parameters which includes background blood or clot, amount of cellular material,degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma and retention of appropriate architecture.Non-aspiration performed better than FNAC for criteria background blood or clot and retention ofappropriate architecture with statistically significant difference. Non-aspiration also scored better thanFNAC for the other parameters as well as cumulatively. Smears were then cytologically assessed asdiagnostically inadequate, adequate and superior. Greater number of diagnostically adequate specimenswere obtained by FNAC than by NA but the number of diagnostically superior specimen were obtainedsignificantly more frequently by the non-aspiration technique. Thus, the non-aspiration technique combinedwith FNAC can result in obtaining good quality cellular material in thyroid lesions.

Prachi Mahajan, P R. Sharma

2010-07-01

286

Study on the reproducibility of thyroid lesions telecytology diagnoses based upon digitized images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility and usefulness of telecytology diagnoses proffered on the basis of digitized images from fine-needle aspiration specimens prepared by means of liquid-based cytology. Representative digital cytological images from a total of 270 thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens were transferred via file transfer protocol to specific password-protected accounts and were remotely reviewed by five independent board-certified cytopathologists (initial round). Their reports were recorded and classified. After 6 and 12 months, the same representative digital images were transferred in random order to the same cytopathologists and were reviewed again (first and second review rounds). The cytopathologists' first and second round diagnoses were recorded and compared with their initial ones. Statistical evaluation of cytological diagnoses detected no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy among initial and review diagnoses. The overall interobserver agreement was almost perfect with ? values of 0.869-0.939, whereas intraobserver agreement ranged from almost perfect to perfect with ? values of 0.967-1 in all diagnostic rounds. Digitized cytological images transmission and remote evaluation allows reproducible diagnosis of thyroid gland lesions. Diagnoses made by using static telecytology systems can be equally reliable to those made by using conventional microscopy, provided that representative images are utilized and that the standard cytological diagnostic criteria are applied. PMID:20730904

Georgoulakis, John; Archondakis, Stavros; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Anninos, Dionisis; Skagias, Lazaros; Stamataki, Magdalini; Peros, George; Karakitsos, Petros

2011-07-01

287

Assessment of the effect of interferon-beta1a therapy on thyroid and salivary gland functions in patients with multiple sclerosis using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Interferon-beta (IFN-?) is widely used in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. High incidence of thyroid dysfunction has been reported after administration of IFN-? in MS patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of IFN-?1a therapy on simultaneous thyroid and salivary gland function in patients with MS using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS). Methods: Fifteen relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients treated with IFN-?1a and two control groups consisting of 15 untreated RRMS patients and 20 healthy age and sex-matched individuals were included in the study. The functional status of the salivary and thyroid glands was analysed with the QSGS and laboratory tests, including thyroid function and thyroid antibody. After intravenous administration of 150 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic study was performed for 25 minutes. Salivary gland secretion was stimulated with oral lemon juice at 15 minutes. At the end of dynamic study, a static image in the same projection was taken. Uptake ratios at 12-14 min (UR%) and stimulated excretion fraction (EF%) of each parotid and submandibular gland were calculated automatically from SGS. Thyroid uptake ratio (TUR) of thyroid gland was calculated from the static image. Results: All MS patients treated and untreated with IFN-?1a, and healthy individuals were euthyroid. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) was detected in 4 out of 15 MS patients (26.6%) treated with IFN-?1a. There was no significant differences in the UR, EF and TUR values among MS patients treated and untreated with IFN-?1a, and healthy controls (p>0.05). Although the TUR values in MS patients treated with IFN-?1a were less than those of the both control group, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: IFN-?1a therapy was demonstrated to have no effect on thyroid and salivary gland functions using QSGS in patients with MS. Thyroid and salivary gland functions were also found to remain unchanged in untreated MS patients. PMID:24963444

Erhamamc?, Seval; Horasanl?, Bahriye; Akta?, Ay?e

2014-06-01

288

Assessment of the Effect of Interferon-Beta1a Therapy on Thyroid and Salivary Gland Functions in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Using Quantitative Salivary Gland Scintigraphyz  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Interferon-beta (IFN-?) is widely used in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. High incidence of thyroid dysfunction has been reported after administration of IFN-? in MS patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of IFN-?1a therapy on simultaneous thyroid and salivary gland function in patients with MS using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS). Methods: Fifteen relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients treated with IFN-?1a and two control groups consisting of 15 untreated RRMS patients and 20 healthy age and sex-matched individuals were included in the study. The functional status of the salivary and thyroid glands was analysed with the QSGS and laboratory tests, including thyroid function and thyroid antibody. After intravenous administration of 150 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic study was performed for 25 minutes. Salivary gland secretion was stimulated with oral lemon juice at 15 minutes. At the end of dynamic study, a static image in the same projection was taken. Uptake ratios at 12-14 min (UR%) and stimulated excretion fraction (EF%) of each parotid and submandibular gland were calculated automatically from SGS. Thyroid uptake ratio (TUR) of thyroid gland was calculated from the static image. Results: All MS patients treated and untreated with IFN-?1a, and healthy individuals were euthyroid. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) was detected in 4 out of 15 MS patients (26.6%) treated with IFN-?1a. There was no significant differences in the UR, EF and TUR values among MS patients treated and untreated with IFN-?1a, and healthy controls (p>0.05). Although the TUR values in MS patients treated with IFN-?1a were less than those of the both control group, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: IFN-?1a therapy was demonstrated to have no effect on thyroid and salivary gland functions using QSGS in patients with MS. Thyroid and salivary gland functions were also found to remain unchanged in untreated MS patients.

Erhamamc?, Seval; Horasanl?, Bahriye; Aktas, Ayse

2014-01-01

289

Thyroid Tissue Connected to Normally Located Thyroid Gland: Ectopic or Exophytic?  

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Ectopic thyroid tissue is seen rarely. It is often seen in cervical midline, and rarely in other areas such as submandibular area. Diagnosis is made histopathologically by fine needle biopsy after the elimination of malignancy. In the treatment of ectopic thyroid tissue, surgical excision is mostly applied. According to our knowledge, there is no exophytic thyroid tissue reported in the literature. In this paper, a 32-year-old woman who presented with a swelling under the right jaw and found ...

Keles, Erol; Ozkara, Sule; Karlidag, Turgut; Ozercan, I?brahim Hanifi

2012-01-01

290

Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland - a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rare localization of primary osteosarcoma is presented. A woman aged 76 years was operated on for rapid growth of thyroid right lobe tumour. Histopathology showed anaplastic cancer with numerous foci of osseous metaplasia, negative with thyroglobulin, calcitonin, synaptophysin and chromogranin. A high proliferative activity of the tumour was observed (MIB-1 reaction) in the form of a positive reaction in approx. 40% of the tumour cell nuclei. The tumour stage was evaluated as pT4aNxMx according to the TNM scale. The reconsultation revealed negative staining with cytokeratin, and positive with vimentin, thereby confirming the mesenchymal origin of the tumour, with the final diagnosis being primary thyroid osteosarcoma. Taking into consideration the histopathological diagnosis, the extremely low radiation sensitivity of the tumour, the patient's age, the radical surgical treatment and persisting respiratory failure, radiotherapy was rejected in favour of further follow-up. The patient remains under oncological and endocrinological care. PMID:23788971

Zembala-No?y?ska, Ewa; Lange, Dariusz

2013-01-01

291

Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland - a case report  

Science.gov (United States)

A rare localization of primary osteosarcoma is presented. A woman aged 76 years was operated on for rapid growth of thyroid right lobe tumour. Histopathology showed anaplastic cancer with numerous foci of osseous metaplasia, negative with thyroglobulin, calcitonin, synaptophysin and chromogranin. A high proliferative activity of the tumour was observed (MIB-1 reaction) in the form of a positive reaction in approx. 40% of the tumour cell nuclei. The tumour stage was evaluated as pT4aNxMx according to the TNM scale. The reconsultation revealed negative staining with cytokeratin, and positive with vimentin, thereby confirming the mesenchymal origin of the tumour, with the final diagnosis being primary thyroid osteosarcoma. Taking into consideration the histopathological diagnosis, the extremely low radiation sensitivity of the tumour, the patient's age, the radical surgical treatment and persisting respiratory failure, radiotherapy was rejected in favour of further follow-up. The patient remains under oncological and endocrinological care.

Lange, Dariusz

2013-01-01

292

Assessment of the role of cone beam computed sialography in diagnosing salivary gland lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to assess cone-beam computed (CBCT) sialography imaging in the detection of different changes associated with lesions of salivary glands. This study consisted of 8 cases with signs and symptoms from salivary gland lesions. Conventional sialography using digital panoramic and lateral oblique radiographs and CBCT sialography were performed for each subject. The radiographs were evaluated by 3 radiologists independently of each other. The results were compared between conventional sialography and CBCT sialography in the evaluation of various lesions associated with the salivary glands. There was an agreement between the radiologists in interpreting the lesions that affected salivary glands with both techniques. The detection of the presence of stones or filling defects, stenosis, ductal evagination, dilatation, and space occupying lesions was 83% for conventional sialography compared with CBCT sialography. CBCT sialography was superior to conventional sialography in revealing stones, stenosis, and strictures, especially in the second and third order branches. It would be advisable to perform CBCT sialography in cases of obstructive salivary gland diseases for better demonstration of the ductal system of the gland.

2013-03-01

293

Assessment of the role of cone beam computed sialography in diagnosing salivary gland lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to assess cone-beam computed (CBCT) sialography imaging in the detection of different changes associated with lesions of salivary glands. This study consisted of 8 cases with signs and symptoms from salivary gland lesions. Conventional sialography using digital panoramic and lateral oblique radiographs and CBCT sialography were performed for each subject. The radiographs were evaluated by 3 radiologists independently of each other. The results were compared between conventional sialography and CBCT sialography in the evaluation of various lesions associated with the salivary glands. There was an agreement between the radiologists in interpreting the lesions that affected salivary glands with both techniques. The detection of the presence of stones or filling defects, stenosis, ductal evagination, dilatation, and space occupying lesions was 83% for conventional sialography compared with CBCT sialography. CBCT sialography was superior to conventional sialography in revealing stones, stenosis, and strictures, especially in the second and third order branches. It would be advisable to perform CBCT sialography in cases of obstructive salivary gland diseases for better demonstration of the ductal system of the gland.

Abdel-Wahed, Nagla' a; Abo-Taleb, Noha Saleh Mahmoud [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Korea, Republic of); Amer, Maha E. [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University, El Menia City (Korea, Republic of)

2013-03-15

294

Genetic defects of hydrogen peroxide generation in the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a key element in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. It is the substrate used by thyroid peroxidase for oxidation and incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin, a process known as organification. The main enzymes composing the H2O2-generating system are the dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) and the recently described DUOX maturation factor 2 (DUOXA2). Defects in these reactions lead to reduced thyroid hormone synthesis and hypothyroidism, with consequent increased TSH secretion and goiter. Since the first report in 2002 of DUOX2 mutations causing congenital hypothryoidism (CH), to date 25 different mutations have been described. Affected patients show a positive perchlorate discharge test and high phenotypic variability, ranging from transient to permanent forms of CH. Up to now, only two cases of CH due to DUOXA2 defects have been published. They also suggest the existence of a great genotype-phenotype variability. The phenotypic expression is probably influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. DUOX and DUOXA constitute a redundant system in which DUOX1/DUOXA1 can at least partially replace the function of DUOX2/DUOXA2. Furthermore, increased nutritional iodide could ensure a better use of H2O2 provided by DUOX1. PMID:23404134

Weber, G; Rabbiosi, S; Zamproni, I; Fugazzola, L

2013-04-01

295

Gamma camera scintigraphy of the thyroid gland using 201 Ti-chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a report on the results of comparative scintigraphic studies 131I and 201TI-chloride, performed in a series of 25 patients with various thyroid gland diseases. 201TI-chloride incorporation in previously labelled cold nodes of the thyroidea is established, suggestive of the malignant character of the formation. 201TI-chloride accumulation within the cold nodes points explicitly to the presence of a cystose alteration. In instances of undifferenciated carcinoma of the thyroid gland the same radionuclide yields a positive scintigraphic appearance, which is a noticeable superiority over 131I. Hitherto experience show that scintigraphy with 201TI-chloride may serve as a test for the radicalism of the operative intervention considered. Its high-degree selectivity regarding primary carcinoma of the thyroidea lends superiority to 201TI-chloride over all tumorotropic radiopharmaceutical thus far employed. (author)

1982-01-01

296

Decrease of 131I uptake in thyroid gland and rat fetuses by combined treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable potassium iodide and potassium iodate were compared from the point of view of their protective qualities concerning radiation burden of thyroid gland. In case of single use no difference was observed. After repeated treatment, KI had more significant protective effect than KIO3. The higher the embryonic age is, the higher is the activity of radioiodine in the fetuses and their placenta in accordance with numerous laboratory observations. KI, administered 2 hours after the 131I incorporation of pregnant rats, is able to decrease the radioactivity of fetuses with one order of magnitude. The protective effect of KI can be increased by combining it with potassium perchlorate. Combined treatment guaranteed better protection for the thyroid gland of dams, too. (author)

1982-01-01

297

Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml. The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3, thyroxine (T4, thyrotrophin (TSH, interleukin 6 (IL6, tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001 were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001 of serum (T4 & T3 with Concomitant suppression of (TSH (P<0.001. Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001. Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of epithelial hyperplasia with atypical nuclear features. Thyroid tissue damage with haemorrhage and necrosis. Electron microscopic examination showed a remarkable cellular changes in the form of dilated rouph endoplasmic reticulum, inclusion lysosomes, dilated Golgi bodies, mitochondrial distension and nuclear degeneration. In both treated groups these changes were dose related.

Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

2007-12-01

298

Morbidity of the thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area after the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As a result of accident on the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPP all the territory of Bryansk area underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. The density of losses has made from 1-5 up to 30 and more Ci/km2 on different areas. Besides in the territory of Bryansk area the deficiency of iodine is registered from easy weight up to an average degree. Among the problems of modern thyroidology the thyroid gland cancer takes a special place in connection with progressing increase of its frequency in zones of ecological trouble and iodic deficiency. The purpose of the given work consisted in estimation of dynamics of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area before and after accident on the Chernobyl NPP. For the period from 1975 to 1985 on the territory of Bryansk area 308 cases of thyroid gland cancer, including 2 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children (in 1975 and 1984) have been revealed. These years morbidity in Bryansk area has changed from 0,78 on 100000 population in 1975 up to 2,6 in 1981-1982. Since 1986 up to 2004 on territory of Bryansk area 2638 cases of thyroid gland cancer have been revealed. Morbidity of the given pathology has increased from 3,3 on 100 thousand population in 1986 up to 23,6 on 100 thousand in 2004. The highest all-Russian parameter of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer was in 2003 - 5,4. Thus, morbidity of thyroid gland cancer in our area since 1989 up to 1999 was on the average 2 times more, than across the Russian Federation, and in 1999-2004 - more than 3 times. Thus rates of the increase of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer at inhabitants of southwest territories (density of radioactive pollution of Cs 137 over 5 Ci/km2, more than at inhabitants of Bryansk area. The highest parameter on these territories is noted in 2004 (27,3), more than in 5 times more, than in the Russian Federation. The parity of men and women among inhabitants of Bryansk area, who fell ill with thyroid gland cancer before accident on the Chernobyl NPP changed from 1:4 up to 1:8. Laws of the parity of quantity of thyroid gland cancers revealed at men and women before accident in comparison with data after accident are not noted. For the after accident period (1986-2004) 57 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children of Bryansk area have been revealed, among them 49 underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. Since 1986 for 1990 it is the 5-4 years period after accident on the Chernobyl NPP, during this period the thyroid gland cancer has not been revealed at a single child. The basic peak of morbidity of children of Bryansk area by thyroid gland cancer has fallen to 1992-1999 when parameters of morbidity were at 10-20 time more, than across the Russian Federation. Thus parameters of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer among children of southwest territories exceeded the data on Bryansk area in several times. Possibly, growth of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer, both at children, and at adult inhabitants of Bryansk area is possible to consider as the phenomenon of oncoepidemiological character, connected with influence of radiation factors after the Chernobyl NPP accident

2006-04-01

299

Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

2011-09-01

300

Gene p53 mutations are restricted to poorly differentiated and undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland.  

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The p53 gene was analyzed in tumor specimens obtained from 52 patients with various types of carcinoma of the thyroid gland by a combined molecular and immunocytochemical approach. The histologic types included 37 well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas, 8 poorly differentiated, and 7 undifferentiated carcinomas. The p53 gene was shown to be unaffected in all differentiated tumors by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. However, in two out of eight (25%) of poorly...

Donghi, R.; Longoni, A.; Pilotti, S.; Michieli, P.; Della Porta, G.; Pierotti, M. A.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Thyroid gland as an initial site of delayed metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: A case report  

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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain and abdominal mass is uncommon. About, 25%-30% of patients are found to have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Bones, lungs, liver and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the thyroid gland is rarest manifestation. We report a case of 40 years old male who underwent radical nephectomy for localized RCC seven y...

Tunio, Mutahir A.; Iasiri, Mushabbab A.; Yasir Bayoumi; Mohsin Fareed; Shoaib Ahmad

2012-01-01

302

Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland were discussed in this paper, such as deposition velocity of radioactive iodine onto plant leaves, elimination factor from the leaves, transfer of this nuclide to milk and the consumption of those critical foods especially by inhabitants around nuclear sites in coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture. Uptake of the stable iodine was estimated. (auth.)

1976-10-01

303

Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular car...

Alzaraa Ahmed; Stone Jason; Williams Glyn; Ahmed Irfan; Quraishi Mohammed

2008-01-01

304

Reversible splenial lesion in auto-immune thyroid disease: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reversible lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum constitute a clinicoradiological syndrome that has been associated to various medical conditions. We report the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with encephalopathy associated to auto-immune thyroid disease in which a reversible splenial lesion was isolated. Although encephalopathy associated to auto-immune thyroid disease is characterized by variable radiological findings, it has only been once associated with a reversible splenial lesion. PMID:24820920

De Greef, J; Jaumotte, C; Quivron, B; Derue, G

2014-06-01

305

Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma  

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Full Text Available Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento.Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

Antonio Augusto T. Bertelli

2010-03-01

306

Leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide / Thyroid gland primary leiomyosarcoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Aproximadamente 15% a 20% dos sarcomas ocorrem na região da cabeça e pescoço, 80% em adultos, sendo apenas 0,014% leiomiossarcomas primários de tireoide. Existem apenas 16 casos relatados no mundo, dos quais não há nenhum em nosso meio. São tumores com diagnóstico citológico pré-operatório difícil e [...] podem ser confundidos com outras lesões mais comuns da tireoide, como carcinomas anaplásicos e medulares. O tratamento ideal ainda não está bem definido, visto que o prognóstico é ruim e a cirurgia radical associada à quimioterapia e à radioterapia adjuvantes não demonstra melhora nas taxas de recorrência e sobrevida. Relatou-se um caso de leiomiossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide em um paciente jovem, submetido a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical, associado à radioterapia adjuvante e realizou-se uma extensa revisão da literatura existente sobre o tema. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória, sem sinais de recidiva após quatro anos de seguimento. Abstract in english Despite the fact that 15% to 20% of sarcomas occur in the head and neck and 80% in adults, only 0.014% are primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas. To the best of our knowledge, only 16 cases have been reported around the world, none in South America. Cytologic diagnosis is challenging and these tumors may [...] be mistaken by more common ones such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. The treatment of choice for thyroid leiomyosarcomas is not well established yet because of its poor prognosis. Radical surgery associated with chemoradiotherapy has not been effective and did not improve survival rates. The authors report a case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a young male, who has been submitted to total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection. Extensive literature review was performed by the authors. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy, presenting good postoperative course. After four years evolution, there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.

Antonio Augusto T., Bertelli; Luiz Cláudio Bosco, Massarollo; Erivelto Martinho, Volpi; Rubens Yassuzo Ykko, Ueda; Elci, Barreto.

307

Interrelation between a degree of accumulation "1"3"1I in a residual thyroid tissue and salivary gland, its influence on salivary gland function of the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aim of study of a degree of accumulation "1"3"1I in salivary gland depending on intensity of accumulation "1"3"1I a residual thyroid tissue of the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DIC) and its influence on salivary gland function investigated 72 patients aged of from 35 to 65 years. The return proportional dependence between reduction of intensity of accumulation "1"3"1I a residual thyroid tissue and increase in salivary gland was established. At patients after thyroidectomy and following radioiodine therapy the intensity of accumulation "1"3"1I in the salivary gland was greater, in comparison with the data of the patients after thyroidectomy

2003-01-01

308

Management of benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the parotid gland in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis and radiotherapeutic treatment of these HIV-associated benign lymphoepithelial lesions in the parotid gland are discussed. As an example of these lesions, a case is presented involving a 43-year-old HIV-infected man with a 2-year history of enlargements in both parotid glands. After evaluation by computer tomography and cytology, the diagnosis of benign lymphoepithelial lesions was made. Treatment by low-dose radiotherapy (15 Gy) caused regression of both lesions. The lesion on the left regressed completely, but the one on the right side responded only partially. A second course of high-dose radiotherapy (24 Gy) to the right lesion caused regression to a cosmetically acceptable size. PMID:9801863

Kooper, D P; Leemans, C R; Hulshof, M C; Claessen, F A; Snow, G B

1998-01-01

309

The state of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system of rats to long-term internal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data are submitted on the state of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system of male rats after a single intravenous injection of 75Se-selenomethionine in a concentration constituting for 3 months the absorbed dose of up to 1 Gy in the thyroid gland and hypophysis, and 0.5-0.55 Gy in the whole body. It was demonstrated that activation of the hypophysisthyroid gland system during the first 3 months after the administration of the preparation is followed by a profound inhibition after 6-18 months

1981-01-01

310

Fluorine and thyroid gland function: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing use of fluoride for prevention of dental caries poses the problem as to whether this halogen has antagonistic properties towards iodine, whereby it could hamper the success of iodine prophylaxis of endemic goitre. Review of the literature shows that some authors have found an inhibition by fluoride of various steps of thyroid hormone biosynthesis in animal experiments. By and large, the inhibition was only slight and it was elicited only with fluoride doses greatly in excess of those recommended for caries prevention. The inhibition was not consistently present and other authors could not confirm it in comparable experiments. There is no convincing evidence that fluoride produces true goitres with epithelial hyperplasia in experimental animals. There are some reports based on casual observations that fluoride is goitrogenic in man. On the other hand, several good studies with adequate exposed and control populations failed to detect any goitrogenic effect of fluoride in man. It is noteworthy in particular that fluoride does not potentiate the consequences of iodine deficiency in populations with a borderline or low iodine intake. Published data failed to support the view that fluoride, in doses recommended for caries prevention, adversely affects the thyroid. PMID:6384648

Bürgi, H; Siebenhüner, L; Miloni, E

1984-06-15

311

Radionuclide method for functional and structural examination of the thyroidal gland with 99mTc-pertechnetate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the current study is the introduction of a complex radionuclide method for examination of the functional and structural condition of the thyroidal gland into routine clinical practice. The method includes intra venal injection of 74 MBq 99mTc pertechnetate, thyroidal gland scintigraphy and precise calculation of the radio-marker accumulation in accordance with the specified activity. One hundred and eighty two patients (159 women and 23 men, aged 19 to 80), suffering from various failures of the thyroidal gland, have been examined for the current study. In order to diagnostically examine the functional condition of the thyroidal gland, all patients have received detailed follow up of thyreo-stimulating hormone levels, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg-Ab) and microsomal antibodies (MAT). The accumulation of the 99mTc pertechnetate in euthyroidal conditions (117 patients) was approximately 1,06% ± 0.42, in hyperthyroidal conditions (54 patients) it was 4,55% ± 3,02, while in hypothyroidal conditions (11 patients) it was 0,22 ± 0.11. The above method provides quick and precise diagnostic information, at the same also performing as a screening definition while differentiating euthyroidal of hyperthyroidal function of the thyroidal gland. Furthermore, we may define the shape, size, location and the structure of the gland, as well as the mass, volume and the surface, necessary for the further medical strategy. (authors)

2009-01-01

312

[Dynamics of thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentration in the rat blood at early times after subtotal removal of the thyroid gland or under effects of different I-131 action].  

Science.gov (United States)

The alterations of amount of thyroid hormones have the characteristic dynamics that manifest itself by initial reduction with following partial or complete restoration of T3 and T4 concentration in rat blood after surgical or radioactive injuries of thyroid gland. Through presence of threshold of several dozens Gy for early dose-dependent hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland seems to be relatively radioresistant organ. Thyroid hormones concentration in blood has restored to normal level after experimental injuries which shows high restoration potential of thyroid gland function. PMID:8069373

Shkumatov, L M; Krylova, I I; Markova, A G; Bagel', I M

1994-01-01

313

Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function  

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To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-12-15

314

Estereología de la Glándula Tiroides Humana / Stereology of the Human Thyroid Gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La glándula tiroides es una glándula endocrina voluminosa, impar, mediana y simétrica, que ocupa la parte anterior del cuello, en la unión del tercio inferior con los dos tercios superiores. La unidad funcional y estructural de la glándula tiroides es el folículo tiroideo. Los folículos están separa [...] dos unos de otros por escaso tejido conectivo interfolicular. Se ha observado en modelos experimentales animales, diversos valores estereológicos de células foliculares, parafoliculares y coloide. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si existe un patrón estereológico en la glándula tiroides humana en un grupo etáreo y sexo definidos. Para ello, se ocupó una muestra de 6 glándulas tiroides humanas extraidas de cadáveres no fijados, de individuos adultos de sexo masculino, sin antecedentes de patología o alteración tiroídea.Se procesaron histológicamente con H-E para su estudio estereológico. Los resultados mostraron valores promedio para la densidad de volumen del tejido glandular (33,8%) y del coloide (63,17%), densidad de superficie del folículo tiroídeo (21,09 mm2/mm3), densidad de número de células foliculares (10,81 x 105 células/mm3) y parafoliculares (1,81 x 105 células/mm3). Conocido el volumen promedio de la glándula (21,3 mm3), se determinó el número total de células foliculares (230,22 x 105) y parafoliculares (38,33 x 105). Además, se determinó el número de folículos por mm2 (46,18 folículos/mm2). El conocimiento previo de los valores numéricos y proporciones normales estereólogicos permite establecer parámetros que determinen la alteración hiper o hipotrófica de origen endémico o exógeno que lleven a estratificar ciertas alteraciones, hecho observado en modelos experimentales donde las diferencias son significativas. Abstract in english The thyroid gland is a an extensive, medium and symmetrical endocrine gland situated on the anterior side of the neck at the lower third and the upper third junction. The thyroid follicle is the functional and structural unit of the thyroid gland. Follicles are separated from each other by narrow in [...] terfollicular connective tissue. Stereological values of follicular, parafollicular and colloid containing follicles have been observed in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of a stereological pattern in the human thyroid gland defined by age and sex. A sample of six human thyroid glands of adult males with no history of thyroid disease or disorder obtained from non fixed human cadavers; of these cadavers the gland was removed and processed for thyroid follicle density (21.09 mm 2/mm 3), follicular cell number density (10.81 x10 5 cells/mm3) and parafollicular (1.81 x 10 cells/mm 3). With the average gland volume (21.3 mm 3) we determined the total number of follicular cells (230.22 x 10 5) and parafollicular (38.33 x 105). The number of follicles per mm 2 (46.18 follicles/mm2) was also determined. Prior information and knowledge of numerical values and normal stereological proportions provides excellent parameters for determining hyper or hypotrophic endemic or exogenous alterations leading to stratification of certain disorders which was already observed in experimental models where differences amongst models were significant.

Salgado A, Guillermo; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano.

315

Carcinoma of dual ectopic thyroid gland in a patient with cyanotic congenital heart disease--a case report and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcinoma arising from an ectopic thyroid gland in the absence of a normal thyroid gland is uncommon. There is a clinically relevant and unique association of ectopic thyroid with congenital heart disease which in turn is related to thyroid embryogenesis. The median thyroid anlage develops adjacent to the newly differentiated myocardium during the 3rd week of intrauterine life. The downward pull exerted by continued descent of heart is postulated to assist in the descent of the thyroid to its final location in the lower cervical position. Ectopic thyroid tissue can result from abnormal heart development or abnormal interaction between thyroid primordium and heart. We present a rare association of cancer of the ectopic thyroid gland in a patient with congenital heart disease. PMID:23414893

Ballehaninna, Umashankar K

2013-02-01

316

Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study, study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants, exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid, language (German and English. The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive, work experience (junior and senior surgeons,distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation, more in-depth studies are required on the variations of radiation dose in orthopaedic staff, at different anatomical locations and situations.

Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair

2012-10-01

317

Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice  

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DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

1984-08-01

318

Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Synovial sarcoma (SVS) of the thyroid gland is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a rapidly growing 7-cm neck mass. Because of suspicion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was planned, without preoperative cytology. During surgery, the tumor ruptured, leading to fragmented and incomplete resection. The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects suggested thyroid SVS, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (SYT gene rearrangement). The patient experienced immediate local relapse in close contact with large vessels and the thyroid cartilage and was referred to our institution. Doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy led to a minor response that authorized secondary conservative surgery. Because of microscopically incomplete resection, adjuvant radiotherapy was chosen and is ongoing 10 months after initial surgery. The prognosis of thyroid SVS is associated with a high risk for local and metastatic relapses. Pretreatment diagnosis is fundamental and may benefit from molecular analysis. Margin-free monobloc surgical excision is the best chance for cure, but adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy deserve to be discussed.

Boudin, Laurys; Fakhry, Nicolas; Chetaille, Bruno; Perrot, Delphine; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Daidj, Nassima; Guiramand, Jerome; Sarran, Anthony; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Bertucci, Francois

2014-01-01

319

Primary synovial sarcoma of the thyroid gland: case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synovial sarcoma (SVS) of the thyroid gland is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a rapidly growing 7-cm neck mass. Because of suspicion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was planned, without preoperative cytology. During surgery, the tumor ruptured, leading to fragmented and incomplete resection. The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects suggested thyroid SVS, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (SYT gene rearrangement). The patient experienced immediate local relapse in close contact with large vessels and the thyroid cartilage and was referred to our institution. Doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy led to a minor response that authorized secondary conservative surgery. Because of microscopically incomplete resection, adjuvant radiotherapy was chosen and is ongoing 10 months after initial surgery. The prognosis of thyroid SVS is associated with a high risk for local and metastatic relapses. Pretreatment diagnosis is fundamental and may benefit from molecular analysis. Margin-free monobloc surgical excision is the best chance for cure, but adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy deserve to be discussed. PMID:24575008

Boudin, Laurys; Fakhry, Nicolas; Chetaille, Bruno; Perrot, Delphine; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Daidj, Nassima; Guiramand, Jérôme; Sarran, Anthony; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Bertucci, François

2014-01-01

320

Experimental investigation with 198Au colloid as to lymph communications between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of a direct connection of lymph drainage between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland was examined using the lymphotropic radioactive tracer 198Au colloid. Twelve rabbits were examined. Six animals were injected with 50 ?Ci198Au colloid into the right thyroid lobe and six animals into the right retrobulbar space. Distribution and total bodyradioactivity was measured in vivo using a scintillation camera with a computer. After 6 hrs tissue specimens of different organs were measured in a well-counter. The discharge of activity from the thyroid after 6hrs was significantly higher than that from the retrobulbar space (63% versus 33.5%). This was probably due to a higher vascularisation and to a higher degree of lymph drainage of the thyroid. The lymph drainage of the thyroid gland as well as of the retrobulbar space occured mainly via the lymphonodi cerv.proff. No significant activity was found in the retrobulbar space after thyroid injection or in the thyroid after retrobulbar injection. It may be concluded from these results that there are not direct lymph connections between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland. However, indirect communications via the deep cervical lymph nodes cannot be excluded in the event of reverse lymph flow. (orig.)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Determination of the iodine concentration of the thyroid gland in an endemic goiter area by computed tomography (CT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determined the CT density of the thyroid gland in 60 patients with normal thyroids and 176 patients with various thyroid disorders. The density was 75±6.2 H.U. in normal thyroids, which was markedly higher than in goiters (66±6.0 H.U.), while there was a considerable further decrease in patients with immunogenic hyperthyrodism, the density being 48.5±7.9 H.U. The thyroids of patients with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism differed from these by virtue of a significantly greater density, 79.8±12.5 H.U. The clinical importance of CT investigation of the thyroid is its ability to distinguish rapidly between immunogenic hyperthyroidism without ocular symptoms and the (mostly iodine induced) nonimmunogenic form. There is a linear correlation between CT density and iodine concentration in the thyroid tissue; this was determined in surgical specimens from 17 patients. Iodine concentration in the thyroid, as well as the iodine content of the whole gland, can thus be calculated from the measured CT density at any time by estimating the volume of the gland with ultrasound and combining this value with the measured iodine concentration. The results correlate well with those found using the X-ray fluorescence method. (orig.)

1986-01-01

322

Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

1996-12-01

323

Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

Lisbôa P.C.

1997-01-01

324

Pathologic Significance of a Recurrent Nodular Goiter after the Operations on the Thyroid Gland  

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Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to determine the pathologic significance of a recurrent nodular goiter on the basis of the follow-up results analysis after the operations on the thyroid gland.Materials and methods. 64 patients (58 females and 6 males aged 32—63 years (46.4±8.3 years with a recurrent nodular goiter after the operations on the thyroid gland have been included into the study. The follow-up period was 5 years.Results. The absolute reoperation indications were revealed only in 9 patients (14.1%. They underwent thyroidectomy. A transitory unilateral laryngoparesis developed in 2 patients in a postoperative period. During the follow-up period euthyroidism persisted in patients with a recurrent nodular goiter required no operative intervention. Only 4 of 13 patients needed to take levothyroxine sodium required a substitution therapy correction. No significant increase of the node size was observed according to the ultrasonoscopy data. The average indicator of life quality corresponded to a good result (10.1±0.4 points.Conclusion. A recurrent nodular goiter after thyroid tissue preserving operations has no clinical manifestations in the majority of patients.

A.V. Menkov

2011-03-01

325

Comparison of aspiration vs non-aspiration techniques in fine-needle cytology of thyroid lesions  

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Aim: To compare the efficacy of fine-needle non-aspiration cytology (FNNAC) with that of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: FNAC and FNNAC techniques were studied in 50 cases of thyroid lesions. All the needle-sampling procedures were done by a single operator. The samples were assessed cytologically and evaluated using five parameters, that is, background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, ...

2010-01-01

326

Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter: initial feasibility study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioiodine (RI) such as (131)I or (124)I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with ?-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of (124)I. Small animal PET or ?-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies. PMID:21551958

Jeong, Shin Young; Hwang, Mi-Hye; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Sungmin; Park, Jeong Chan; Yoo, Jeongsoo; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

2011-01-01

327

Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter. Initial feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioiodine (RI) such as 131I or 124I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with ?-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of 124I. Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) or ?-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies. (author)

2011-07-01

328

Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive control. BRAF T1799A mutation was detected in 7 of 26 PTCs included in the study but not in follicular or medullary carcinoma, benign tumors and thyroid tumor-like lesions. No mutations were found in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in all cases including those tested positive for BRAF T1799A. Histological analysis showed that among 26 PTCs studied, 18 had conventional papillary architecture and 8 cases were follicular variant of PTC. Mutations were detected in conventional type PTCs only (38.9%, 7/18), but not in follicular variant tumors. The occurrence of BRAF T1799A mutation did not correlate with tumor metastatic potential although such observation may be due in part to a relatively small number of appropriate cases available for the study. As a whole, our data demonstrate that BRAF T1799A mutation is a prevalent mutational event in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its presence strongly correlates with conventional PTC hypostat but not with follicular variant that is in line with results of other laboratories. The findings suggest that detection of BRAF mutation may be used for molecular diagnostic purposes both preoperatively (on fine needle aspiration biopsy material) and after surgical treatment for differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma to distinguish it from other histological types of thyroid cancer

2006-04-01

329

Incidence of malignant thyroid tumors in humans after exposure to diagnostic doses of "1"3"1I. II. Estimation of thyroid gland size, thyroid radiation dose, and predicted versus observed number of malignant thyroid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The size of the thyroid glands was analyzed for 10% of the patients in a selected group that had been exposed to diagnostic doses of "1"3"1I. The mean thyroid gland weight +- SD was 50 +- 33 g for patients 20 or more years of age and 10 +- 5 g for patients less than 20 years of age. With the present follow-up, diagnostic doses of "1"3"1I appeared not to be associated with an increased risk for later development of malignant thyroid tumors. Possible reasons for the difference between the observed number of such tumors and the number expected (47 to 124) on the basis of risk estimates of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation are discussed

1980-01-01

330

Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in AIDS patients: CT characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast agent-enhanced CT scans in nine male patients with histologically proved benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the perotid gland were reviewed. All scans showed cystic-appearing masses with peripheral rim enhancement corresponding to the macroscopic appearance of the lesion. Five patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or had infections seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Three patients were members of high-risk groups. Only one patient had symptoms of the SICCA syndrome. Once a rare cause of parotid gland enlargement, benign lymphoepithelial lesions have recently been seen with increasing frequency in patients with HIV infection. Although the CT appearance is not pathognomic, correlation results of aspiration cytology and with clinical history can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion

1987-12-04

331

Effect of sharply lowered muscular activity on the thyroid gland of the white rat  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of hypokinesia on the thyroid gland of 200 white rats was studied. The rats were kept in 16x6x6 cm cages for 90 days. The functional activity of the thyroids increased after 24 hrs of partial immobilization and peaked after 15 days. After 30 days of immobilization, the functional activity returned to normal in one third of the test animals and after 60 days in all animals. After 15 days of immobilization, the test animals began to lose weight (in comparison to the controls) and remained underweight for the rest of the test period (up to 90 days). When returned to normal conditions, they caught up with and even overtook in weight the control animals after about 1 month. All changes produced by hypokinesia were reversible after 1 month.

Bekishev, K.

1980-01-01

332

Thyroid gland as an initial site of delayed metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: A case report  

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Full Text Available

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain and abdominal mass is uncommon. About, 25%-30% of patients are found to have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Bones, lungs, liver and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the thyroid gland is rarest manifestation. We report a case of 40 years old male who underwent radical nephectomy for localized RCC seven years back, now presented with swelling in neck which was suspected as thyroid malignancy; subsequently was confirmed as metastatic RCC following excisional biopsy and was treated with surgical resection.

 

Mutahir A Tunio

2012-08-01

333

Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Evaluation of radiation dose to the radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues - ocular lens, parotid and thyroid glands - during dacryocystography and fluoroscopy-guided dacryocystoplasty (DCP). Method: Radiation dose was determined in an Alderson Rando phantom and in 13 patients. Radiation dose was measured directly using Ca-F2-thermoluminescent dosimetry crystals (TLD) which were placed on each eyelid, parotid gland and thyroid gland. Results: The mean radiation dose to the lens placed next to the path of radiation was 6.58 mGy in the Alderson-Rando phantom and 5.43 mGy in patients during DCP. The mean radiation dose to the contralateral lens was 1.37 mGy and 1.7 mGy to the parotid gland placed next to the X-ray tube. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland was max. 0.4 mGy during DCP. Conclusion: Radiation dose to the ocular lens, parotid gland and throid gland during fluoroscopy-guided DCP was 25 times higher than during diagnostic dacryocystography. The radiation dose to radiosensitive head and neck organs and tissues during fluoroscopy-guided DCP is much below the threshold dose for ocular lens cataract. (orig.)

1998-03-01

334

/ Synthesis of Analogues of 2-iodohexadecanal, a Regulator of Iodine Metabolism in the Thyroid Gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo futuro de fazer um estudo da relação estrutura-atividade, foram sintetisados vários derivados do 2-iodo-hexadecanal [1], um regulador do metabolismo de iodo na glândula tireóide, que diferem no comprimento da cadeia, natureza do substituinte e grupo funcional terminal. [...] Abstract in english With the object of performing a structure-activity relationship study, we have synthesized several analogues of 2-iodohexadecanal [1], a regulator of iodine metabolism in the thyroid gland, differing by the chain length, the nature of the substituent, and/or the terminal functional group. [...

Hugues, Van denBergen; Désiré, Daloze; Jean-Claude, Braekman.

335

Facial basal cell carcinoma with successive metastases to the neck, thyroid gland and lung.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basal cell carcinoma of the skin is the most common malignancy in the head and neck area. Regional and distant metastases rarely occur with this type of tumour. We report an uncommon case of a sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma of the facial skin in which metastases developed several years after the primary tumour. The metastases occurred in the soft tissue of the neck, the thyroid gland and the lung. This is the first case of BCC with triple metastases which were histologically confirmed. PMID:23849247

Thiele, Oliver C; Mertens, Christian; Bacon, Claire; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Zaoui, Karim; Mischkowski, Robert A

2014-07-01

336

Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

1982-01-01

337

Relationship between 129I and 127I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

129I/127I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the 129I/127I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that 129I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the 129I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total 129I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

Negri, A. E.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Wallner, A.; Arazi, A.; Steier, P.

2013-01-01

338

Influence of zhen-shen on the function of thyroid gland (experiments on rats)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extr, siccum Ginseng were injected to white rats intraperitonial; the control rats were injected with the same volume of physiological solution. The rats of the two groups after 1 1/2 hours receive intraperitoneal iodine 131. From each group 7 rats were killed 8, 24 and 48 hours after the application of radioactive iodine, and percentage of the counted impulses were determined and compared with the theoretical calculated total number of impulses in the thyroid gland on the applied quantity of iodine 131. The treated rats with Extr. Ginseng with the three intervals of time showed statistical reliable activity stronger than that of the control rats. (author)

1977-01-01

339

Investigation of the results of therapy of anaplastic thyroid gland carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the treatment of 28 patients with an anaplastic thyroid gland carcinoma are investigated, to see whether an optimal therapy is indicated. The execution of an operation before radiotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis (statistically this conclusion is not wholly justified). The presence of metastases at the beginning of the therapy gave rise to a worse prognosis than the absence of metastases. The combination treatment of chemotherapy and either surgery or radiotherapy was only applied to two patients so no conclusions can be made about its benefit. (C.F.)

1979-01-01

340

Efficacy and Pitfalls of FNAC of Thyroid Lesions in Children and Adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objectives: Fine-needle aspiration has proven safe and efficacious in the evaluation of nodular diseases in the adults. It has been used extensively to select patients for surgical exploration with a high degree of reliability. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of its applicability in thyroid lesions in children and adolescents, as well as to determine distribution of thyroid lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients in whom the prevalence of thyroid nodules and probability of malignancy are different. Methodology: This is a four-year study undertaken between January 2009 and December 2012, during which, 284 fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed for palpable thyroid lesions in children and adolescents and analysed. Out of these 11, 52, 82 and 116 aspirates belonged to the age group between 7-unnecessary surgery. PMID:24596718

Vasudev, Vidya; A L, Hemalatha; B, Rakhi; S, Githanjali

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in Treatment.  

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Full Text Available Thyroid surgeons are becoming increasingly more aware of a histologically distinct subset of thyroid carcinoma whose classification falls between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas with respect to both cell differentiation and clinical behavior. This subtype of tumors has been categorized as poorly differentiated or insular carcinoma, based on its characteristic cell groupings. Although the differentiation of insular carcinoma from other thyroid carcinomas has important prognostic and therapeutic significance, relatively little about insular carcinoma has been published in the otolaryngology literature. In this article, we discuss a case of insular carcinoma of thyroid presenting with concurrent distant metastasis to skull, lung, ribs, and inguinal region with review of the literature. We conclude that insular thyroid carcinoma warrants aggressive management with total thyroidectomy and excision of accessible giant lesion followed by radioactive iodine ablation of any remaining thyroid tissue.

Bhattacharya A

2013-01-01

342

Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique  

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The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

2007-07-15

343

[Morphological and functional characteristics of thyroid gland in the offspring of female rats with experimental chronic liver disease of various etiology].  

Science.gov (United States)

The peculiarities of structural and functional development of the thyroid gland were studied in the offspring of female rats with experimental chronic liver disease. Morphometric methods as well as immune enzyme analysis were used. Impairment in the development of thyroid gland structure was found in experimental animals, as evidenced by lower magnitudes of volume density of follicular and intrafollicular epithelium, as well as by reduced values of thyrocyte height. Morphological changes of the thyroid gland in the offspring of female rats with chronic liver disease were accompanied by the impairment of the gland endocrine function (decreased serum levels of T3 and T4). PMID:16669247

Briukhin, G V; Nikolina, O V; Barysheva, S V

2005-01-01

344

Case report: rare case of infiltration of small lymphocytic B-cell lymphoma in the thyroid gland of female patient with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL-B/SLL-B)  

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The article presents a case of 57-year-old woman with the infiltration of rare small lymphocytic B cell lymphoma in the thyroid gland. Initially, the patient was followed-up due to chronic lymphocytic B-cell leukemia diagnosed on the basis of histopathological examination of cervical lymph node. Eight months later, general symptoms occurred along with lymphocytosis and exacerbation of lesions in lymph nodes, and therefore, chemotherapy was started according to COP regimen. After four chemothe...

Andrysiak-mamos, Elz?bieta; Becht, Rafa?; Sowin?ska-przepiera, Elz?bieta; Pob?ocki, Jakub; Syrenicz, Justyna; Zdziarska, Barbara; Karpin?ska-kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Syrenicz, Anhelli

2013-01-01

345

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid cancer develops in the follicular cells of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck below the voice box. The thyroid gland secretes hormones that control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and weight.

346

Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on serum levels of LH and testosterone and weights of testes and thyroid gland in rat  

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Introduction: Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of metabolism, maturity and reproduction. Thyroid dysfunction affects almost all endocrine glands such as pituitary and testis. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) serum levels as well as weights of thyroid gland and testes in methimazole (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism. Methods: Twenty-one adult male rats weighing 185 g were divided into 3 groups. The control gro...

Esmaeil Mohamadizadeh; Namdar Yousofvand; Maryam Kazemi

2011-01-01

347

Stereology of the Thyroid Gland in Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Comparison with Human (Homo sapiens): Quantitative and Functional Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels....

2013-01-01

348

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... thyroid hormones and the patient will have hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism When the thyroid gland produces extra hormone, hyperthyroidism develops. “Hyper” means more. hyperthyroidism causes patients to ...

349

Functional activity of rats' thyroid gland in 6 month after fractional gamma-irradiation in low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male rats (Wistar) were exposed to external fractional irradiation in doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy during 20 days with dose rate 0.64 Gy/min. Cumulative doses were respectively equal 2, 5, 10 Gy. In 6 month after irradiation animals were decapitated and investigated for content of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in blood serum and activity of nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate in liver cytosol. The result showed decreasing rats' thyroid status after fractional irradiation in doses 0.25 and 0.5. It explains functional depression of thyroid gland and metabolism disturbance of thyroid hormone in organs and tissues

2002-04-01

350

Dose monitoring of 125I in the thyroid glands of labelling workers in Beijing and estimation of dose equivalent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of 125I monitoring in the thyroid of labelling workers in Beijing are presented. Thyroid of 79 workers engaged in routine 125I-labelling in the several laboratories of Beijing are monitored. Among them seventy-eight workers presents a 125I obvious contamination. The deposition of 125I in the thyroid glands is within the range of 0.01-6.32 kBq. The estimated intake for workers is lower than 1/10 of annual limit of intake. Collective dose equivalent is 27.72 man·mSv. The per capita dose equivalent is 0.35 mSv

1995-08-01

351

Thermal effect of microwave antenna radiation on a generic model of thyroid gland  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid diffusion of wireless communication systems has caused an increased concern for the potential detrimental effects on human health deriving from exposure to electromagnetic field. It penetrates the body and acts on all the organs, altering the cell membrane potential and the distribution of ions and dipoles. The thyroid gland is one of the most exposed vital organs and may be a target for electromagnetic radiation. This paper presents the computed temperature and specific absorption rate inside to a generic model of a human thyroid using signals radiated by an antenna operating in the 2450 MHz band and the power density levels up to 100 W/cm2. Calculations were carried out using the Finite Difference Time Domain method for the solving of two coupled differential equations, Maxwell and Pennes. The results show that the temperature can rise up to very dangerous levels, i.e., 46 °C, in a very short time. The estimated temperature distribution in the human thyroid due to exposure from microwave signals can be used to design the dangerous aria for personal working around high power emitted antenna and for medical applications.

Gavriloaia, Gheorghe; Gavriloaia, Mariuca-Roxana; Ghemigean, Adina-Mariana

2010-09-01

352

Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland evaluations in patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic examinations during tuberculosis therapy: a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevalence of thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary abnormalities was determined in 91 women who received an average of 112 fluoroscopic chest examinations during pneumothorax treatment for tuberculosis more than 40 yr previously and in 72 women treated for tuberculosis by other modalities. Thyroid abnormalities were determined by physical examination, scintiscans, and measurements of serum free T4 index, TSH, and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Thyroid nodules were diagnosed in 7.7% of the exposed and 4.2% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 1.8; 90% confidence interval 0.6-5.7). Autoimmune thyroid disease was diagnosed in 15.2% of the exposed and 6.9% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-6.2). No salivary tumors were detected. Two exposed women and 1 comparison woman had primary hyperparathyroidism. Although absorbed dose to the thyroid could not be precisely determined, approximately 60 rads would be expected to yield the observed excess of thyroid nodules. While the prevalence ratios were not significantly increased in the exposed group, the results suggest that susceptibility of the thyroid to nodules from cumulative radiation doses of this magnitude could be increased even when the doses are accumulated over years and that such x-ray exposure of the thyroid gland may predispose the patient to the development of autoimmune disease

1988-01-01

353

Emerin immunohistochemistry reveals diagnostic features of nuclear membrane arrangement in thyroid lesions  

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AIMS: Objective appreciation of irregularities of the nuclear shape is a key parameter in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, since foldings of the nuclear membrane (NM) featuring indentations, grooves and pseudoinclusions characterize papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). The aim was to focus on the immunohistochemistry of emerin, a protein of the NM whose decoration best demarcates the nuclear shape. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry of the NM with emerin as well as three-dimensional re...

Bussolati, Giovanni; Asioli, Sofia

2009-01-01

354

Application of an immunodiagnostic method for improving preoperative diagnosis of nodular thyroid lesions.  

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BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignant disease, but preoperative diagnosis remains a challenge. Fine-needle aspiration cytology has greatly improved the clinical management of thyroid nodules, but the preoperative characterisation of follicular lesions is very difficult. Many patients are thus referred to surgery more for diagnosis than for therapeutic necessity. We undertook an international multicentre study to assess the usefulness of immunohistocytochemical stai...

Bussolati, Giovanni; Papotti, Mauro Giulio; Orlandi, Fabio

2001-01-01

355

Initial experience with software system JODNEW for evaluation biophysical characteristics related to treatment of carcinoma of thyroid gland by 131I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our research tries to exploit sophisticated methods for a balancing of positive and negative consequences of radionuclide applications. We have tailored Bayesian data processing in order to support decision making during treatment of thyroid diseases with help of 131I. After successful experimental phase we have implemented them. This novel in-house developed software system JODNEW i now tested. It aim at: (1) increasing quality of raw biophysical data exploited in diagnostics and therapy of thyroid diseases; (2) estimating cumulated activity so that MIRD methodology can be well used; (3) decreasing working load on staff. JODNEW is an extensive data-base system co-operating with advanced estimation algorithms coded in C++. The Bayesian methodology adopted allows us to exploit expert knowledge, models of observed processes as well as measured data in a consistent way. This is important in the considered case when the number of measurements is quite limited and influence of biological and physical variations is high. Moreover, all estimates are qualified by the remaining uncertainty. During diagnostics> The (functioning) volume of thyroid gland and body mass are measured. A diagnostic amount of 131I is administered. Three whole body measurements of elimination rate by urine (excretions) are made within 2 days after administration. The accumulated activities above thyroid gland and other lesions are registered within several days. Evaluation and measurements during therapy are: The accumulation ability is evaluated using diagnostic data. Consequences of 131I administration are judged, then, the therapeutic activity is selected and administered. The accumulation dynamics is supervised and reaching radio-hygienic limits influencing patient regime is predicted. The common features of these steps are: (1) Individual measurements are corrupted by a high and varying uncertainty; (2) The number of measurements is limited; (3) A significant expert experience is available; (4) The subsequent medical decisions have to be supported also by information about uncertainty of data. (authors)

1998-11-23

356

Results of a survey on the use of 123 iodine for scintigraphic exploration of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of thyroid gland scintigraphy with 123 iodine was carried out on 1131 patients, and data concerning the time of examination as well as indications, scintigrams and uptake measurements are presented. Minimal dosage provides a sufficient counting rate and good quality images and delivers a radioactive dose 15 times lower than with conventional 131 Iodine scintigraphy

1981-05-16

357

Investigations of the 131-iodine accumulation in the white male rats thyroid gland during chronic parathion intoxication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 131-iodine accumulating ability of the white male rats thyroid gland during chronic parathion intoxication was investigated. The investigation was carred out through dermal application scheduled as follows: a first series of laboratory animals treated twice a week with 1 or 2 mg/kg water solution of parathion for 45 days and a second series of laboratory animals treated thrice a week with 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg for 150 days. Investigation of the 131-iodine accumulating capacity of the thyroid gland after intraperitoneal application of 1 or 2 ?Ci was carried out at the 30th, the 45th, the 90th and the 150th day. The thyroid gland weight and the protein-binding 131-iodine in the plasma was checked. The results show that the 131-iodine accumulation during prolonged parathion application undergoes phase-changes: at the beginning increased 131-iodine accumulation existed (after the first month), later a tendency toward decreasing in the iodine accumulating capacity of the thyroid gland was established. Only dosage of 1 mg/kg provoke an enhancement of the 131-iodine accumulation after the first as well after the fifth month of the course of parathion treatment. (author)

1977-01-01

358

The value of calcification in CT differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the diagnostic value of calcification in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: CT images of 318 consecutive patients with pathologically proven thyroid lesions were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The following characteristics of calcification on CT images were evaluated: (1) size (? 2 mm indicating microcalcification and >2 mm or shelly and irregular shape indicating macrocalcification, and both features indicating mixed calcification), (2) number (single or multiple) and (3) location (internal or edge). X2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results Of the 318 cases, 48 were diagnosed as malignant (papillary carcinoma 26, follicular carcinoma 7, medullary carcinoma 3 and microcarcinoma 12) and 270 were benign (nodular goiter 36, adenoma 170, nodular goiter with adenoma 38 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 26). Calcification was found in 60 cases (18.9%). Among them 21 (papillary carcinoma 12, microcarcinoma 6, follicular carcinoma 2 and medullary carcinoma 1) were malignant (43.8%) and 39 (nodular goiter 6, adenoma 13, nodular goiter with adenoma 19 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1) were benign (14.4%) (P0.05). Internal calcification was found in 15 cases of malignant lesions (71.4%) and 12 of benign lesions (30.8%); Edge calcification was found in 6 cases of malignant and 27 of benign, (P<0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of internal calcification for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma were 71.4% (15/21) and 69.2% (27/39), respectively. Conclusion: Internal calcification or (and) macrocalcification of t he thyroid lesions may strongly suspect thyroid carcinoma and fine-needle aspiration or surgery should be further performed. (authors)

2010-02-01

359

Proto-oncogene PBF/PTTG1IP regulates thyroid cell growth and represses radioiodide treatment  

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PTTG Binding Factor (PBF or PTTG1IP) is a little characterised proto-oncogene that has been implicated in the etiology of breast and thyroid tumors. In this study, we created a murine transgenic model to target PBF expression to the thyroid gland (PBF-Tg mice) and found that these mice exhibited normal thyroid function but a striking enlargement of the thyroid gland associated with hyperplastic and macrofollicular lesions. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), a gene essential to t...

Read, Martin L.; Lewy, Greg D.; Fong, Jim C. W.; Sharma, Neil; Seed, Robert I.; Smith, Vicki E.; Gentilin, Erica; Warfield, Adrian; Eggo, Margaret C.; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Leadbeater, Wendy E.; Watkinson, John C.; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Boelaert, Kristien; Mccabe, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

360

Infection of the thyroid gland caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus.  

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We report what we consider to be the first case of an abscess of the thyroid gland due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (C. fetus) in a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. C. fetus is known as a rare and opportunistic pathogen in humans, causing a broad variety of systemic infections. Acquisition by humans is thought to occur through contact with animals or animal products and to start as a gastro-intestinal colonization. The detection of C. fetus in stool is challenging, since culture efforts are generally directed in order to fulfil growth requirements of C.jejuni, a much more common enteric pathogen. Detection of C. fetus in non-stool samples is even more challenging since routine culture doesn't imply prolonged incubation (>72h), selective media and microaerophilic conditions. It is therefore not unlikely that human infections caused by C. fetus occur more often than generally assumed. PMID:17547296

Goegebuer, T; Verhaeghe, J P; Verlinde, A; De Laere, E; Surmont, I

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Specifics of preoperative management, intraoperative monitoring and postoperative evaluation of patients with thyroid gland carcinoma  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to show the standards of preoperative management, intraoperative monitoring and postoperative evaluation of patients with thyroid gland carcinoma. It was point out the importance of the preoperative diagnosis of the tumor, and the concurrent diseases. The special attention was paid to difficult airway recognition and resolving this situation. Both, anesthetist’s and surgeon’s point of view of perioperative and postoperative complications were discussed with special interest on early surgical complications and the need for urgent anesthetic treatment. Criteria for minimal and desirable monitoring of vital functions were suggested in order to prevent, recognize and cure complications. Our conclusions were based on recent references from the world literature and on our own experience in Center for endocrine surgery KCS, Belgrade.

Živi? Rastko

2003-01-01

362

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland: a case report and suggested surgical approach.  

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Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland is a rare neoplasm with 40 cases reported in the world literature to date. Controversy surrounds the treatment of this rare neoplasm. It has been described as a low-grade indolent tumor that rarely metastasizes and only recurs locally without morbidity. Suggested treatment has consisted of a lobectomy or subtotal thyroidectomy. We report a case of a 63-year-old woman with a 15-year history of a multinodular goiter with a dominant left lobe nodule. Fine-needle aspiration was inconclusive. The patient opted for a total thyroidectomy. Final pathology yielded a diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. We propose that despite its low-grade appearance the morbidity and mortality associated with its ability to locally recur and metastasize justify the need for more aggressive surgical therapy. PMID:11603557

Steele, S R; Royer, M; Brown, T A; Porter, C; Azarow, K S

2001-10-01

363

Role of percutaneous radiotherapy in the primary treatment of papillary carcinomas of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value post-operative percutaneous radiotherapy is examined by evaluating the case records of 27 patients with papillary carcinomas of the thyroid gland of stage pT4 NOMO and pT1-4pN1-3MO. A loco-regional disappearance of tumors was observed in 95% (20/21) of the post-irradiated patients. In half of all patients not post-irradiated, no loco-regional disappearance of the tumor was achieved; a formation of metastases was found later on in these patients. The percutaneous irradiation has been recommended for years by radiologists, but it is not accepted everywhere. The results suggest the necessity of radiotherapy in case of the above mentioned tumor stages. (orig.)

1982-01-01

364

Histological study of the thyroid gland following 904-nm laser radiation  

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The present histological and stereological studies are on thyroid glands of Wistar rats irradiated with an IR laser. The animals were exposed to total doses of 46,80 J/cm2, and sacrificed at 1, 40, and 180 days after the last treatment. A morphological and stereological study was made on follicular epithelium, follicle, stroma, and capillary. The laser beam produced an increase of follicular epithelial volume and hyperplasia of follicular cells in the animals sacrificed at 1, 40, and 180 days after the last treatment. Capillary dilation underwent a progressive decrease as time passed. It was higher in the animals sacrificed after 24 hours, then it decreased after 40 days and finally disappeared after 180 days.

Perez de Vargas, I.; Parrado, C.; Gonzalez, V.; Vidal, Lourdes; Rius, F.

1993-06-01

365

Relationship between {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina  

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{sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that {sup 129}I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the {sup 129}I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total {sup 129}I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

Negri, A.E., E-mail: negri@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wallner, A. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

2013-01-15

366

Accurate diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions from nuclear morphology using supervised learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Follicular lesions of the thyroid remain significant diagnostic challenges in surgical pathology and cytology. The diagnosis often requires considerable resources and ancillary tests including immunohistochemistry, molecular studies, and expert consultation. Visual analyses of nuclear morphological features, generally speaking, have not been helpful in distinguishing this group of lesions. Here we describe a method for distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid based on nuclear morphology. The method utilizes an optimal transport-based linear embedding for segmented nuclei, together with an adaptation of existing classification methods. We show the method outputs assignments (classification results) which are near perfectly correlated with the clinical diagnosis of several lesion types' lesions utilizing a database of 94 patients in total. Experimental comparisons also show the new method can significantly outperform standard numerical feature-type methods in terms of agreement with the clinical diagnosis gold standard. In addition, the new method could potentially be used to derive insights into biologically meaningful nuclear morphology differences in these lesions. Our methods could be incorporated into a tool for pathologists to aid in distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid. In addition, these results could potentially provide nuclear morphological correlates of biological behavior and reduce health care costs by decreasing histotechnician and pathologist time and obviating the need for ancillary testing. PMID:24835183

Ozolek, John A; Tosun, Akif Burak; Wang, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Kolouri, Soheil; Basu, Saurav; Huang, Hu; Rohde, Gustavo K

2014-07-01

367

Thyroid Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

... producing a hormone knows as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Most people who have an underactive thyroid gland ... levels of T4 and high blood levels of TSH. Hyperthyroidism Also known as overactive thyroid and thyrotoxicosis, ...

368

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... produced by the thyroid gland. Diagnosis Diagnosing thyroid problems includes examining the patients’ medical history, as well as family history. Some thyroid problems run in families. A physical examination is important ...

369

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... decrease in thyroid hormones slows metabolism. This can lead to a feeling of fatigue, slow thinking, and ... to destroy the hyperactive thyroid tissue. This can lead to the total destruction of the thyroid gland, ...

370

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... will have hypothyroidism. re. feel hot in cool environments. Hyperthyroidism When the thyroid gland produces extra hormone, ... Diagnosing thyroid problems includes examining the patients’ medical history, as well as family history. Some thyroid problems ...

371

Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule verses biopsy in thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FNA biopsy of thyroid is a rapid, minimally invasive, and cost effective first line procedure in the evaluation of thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytological accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration (FNA) of solitary thyroid nodules in correlation with post-surgical histological findings. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Department of Pathology, Abbottabad International Medical College, Abbottabad from January 2009 to December 2010. A total of 81 patients with clinically palpable solitary thyroid nodule were included in the study. Thyroid function tests were initially performed followed by FNA of thyroid nodules later operated and histopathological examination was conducted on the excised nodules. FNA diagnoses were correlated with the histological findings. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the procedure were determined. Results: Out of 81 cases, 5 (6.2%) were unsatisfactory and 76 cases were satisfactory for cytological evaluation. Cyto-histopathological correlation was carried out for these cases. The study showed a diagnostic accuracy of 93% with sensitivity and specificity rates of 75% and 96% respectively. Positive predictive value is 81% and negative predictive value is 95%. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has evolved as an accurate and sensitive diagnostic tool for the initial screening of patients with thyroid nodules, and has reduced the need for unnecessary surgery. (author)

2010-01-01

372

Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up  

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Full Text Available Abstract The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN, follicular neoplasm (FON and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN. This study reports our experience with 339 cases diagnosed as FON and 120 as FDN. All cases were evaluated for histologic diagnosis, age, sex and size of the nodule. Histopathologic follow-up was available in all cases. The malignancy rate was 22% (74/359 and 72% (86/120 for cases diagnosed as FON and FDN, respectively. In the FON category almost half of the malignant cases were papillary carcinoma. The risk of malignancy was higher in patients younger than 40 yr (53% vs. 30% than in patients 40 year or more years old and greater in males (41% vs. 33% than females. No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis. According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%. In addition, clinical features, including gender and age can be part of the decision analysis in selecting patients for surgery.

Deveci M Salih

2006-04-01

373

Dental radiography technique and equipment: How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that collimator and technique choice had on the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, during intra-oral examinations of the upper and lower teeth. Radiation dose reduction from a different perspective, other than the application of lead-rubber shielding, was addressed. Methods: A study was performed at a regional dental school with the use of a phantom head/neck and a radiation dosemeter, to measure the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position. The radiation dose was assessed for two intra-oral techniques (paralleling and bisecting angle), and two collimators (rectangular and circular). The radiation dose was also assessed with and without the application of a thyroid shield. Standard descriptive statistics, followed by inferential statistics were applied to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, when employing the paralleling technique (66.7%) and rectangular collimator (45.5%). Other factors, for example the tooth/teeth under examination, were also found to influence the radiation dose detected. Conclusion: Radiation dose reductions using the paralleling technique and rectangular collimator were outlined. The use of this low dose combination within dental practices remains limited, therefore, continued awareness and acceptance of radiation hazards need to be addressed

2007-08-01

374

Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. PMID:23562343

Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos; Raldúa, Demetrio

2013-06-01

375

A comparison of radioiodide and pertechnetate trapping and loss in the human thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The unidirectional clearance of sup(99m)TcO4- and 132I- by the thyroid has been determined by kinetic analysis of counting rates recorded over the thyroid and thigh. The analysis was based on a two-compartment model which is appropriate when no organic binding of trapped iodine or pertechnetate takes place. Under conditions allowing organic binding of iodide, the model constitutes an approximation that seems to be a minimum estimate of unidirectional clearance. A PDP8/L computer was used for the calculations (FOCAL language). The influence of extrathyroidal neck activity on the apparent unidirectional clearance of iodide was investigated in 15 patients. The patients were given 132I- intravenously and the activity in the neck and thigh was measured continuously before and after blocking the iodide uptake. In this way correction of the early uptake and clearance values could be made. The mean relative increase of the unidirectional clearance after correction was 1.68. If, however, reliable measurements were obtained beyond 2 min after injection, no significant increase resulted from the correction and it could be omitted. Another eight patients were investigated by means of a simultaneous injection of 132I- and sup(99m)TcO4-. In all cases the unidirectional clearance of radioiodide was higher than that of pertechnetate, on the average by a factor of 2. The relation between the unidirectional clearance of the two ions was fairly constant in different functional states of the thyroid gland. The rate of loss of pertechnetate was higher than that of iodide. The results indicate a quantitative, but possibly not a qualitative, difference in the trapping mechanisms of iodide and pertechnetate. (author)

1974-07-15

376

Clinical diagnostic study by means of magnetic resonance imaging for lesions of the major salivary gland region  

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The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lesions situated in the major salivary glands was clinically discussed in this study. A total of 46 patients with salivary gland disorders treated in our department over the past five years were assessed by mean of MRI, and in 11 patients the findings were compared with the histopathological features of lesions sectioned at the same level postoperatively. In addition, preliminary investigations to introduce a new qualitative diagnostic procedure for estimation of salivary gland function in geriatric patients were attempted. In this investigation, T[sub 1] and T[sub 2] values, and signal intensity ratios of the submandibular gland were measured in elderly patients complaining of dry mouth and in healthy controls. Likewise, salivary gland function was examined by taste stimulation induced by applying citric acid to the tongue surface just before starting MRI. MRI clearly demonstrated lesions in the salivary glands. The histopathological diagnosis could not be accurately predicted by signal intensity. However, benign tumors showed higher intensity signals than did malignant tumors on T[sub 2]-weighted images. Cystic lesions could be differentiated from tumors by signal intensity. Histopathological features of salivary gland tumors corresponded to the MRI signal intensity. Relaxation times of T[sub 1] and T[sub 2] values and signal intensity in each major salivary gland were diminished in elderly patients in a resting condition. Only T[sub 1] values in healthy subjects remarkably responded to taste stimulation. These results suggest that MRI is useful and beneficial not only in the qualitative diagnosis of tumors arising from salivary glands but also in the estimation of salivary gland function. MRI should therefore be included in routine diagnostic examinations for salivary gland disorders. (author).

Iihama, Tsuyoshi; Mataga, Izumi; Kato, Joji (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata)

1994-08-01

377

Abnormal Serum Thyroid Hormones Concentration with Healthy Functional Gland: A Review on the Metabolic Role of Thyroid Hormones Transporter Proteins  

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Full Text Available Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG, some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid.

Azad Reza Mansourian

2011-01-01

378

Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS. Methods We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and total thyroxine (TT4 levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Results TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area. Conclusions An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.

Iwata Tomoyuki

2011-06-01

379

Evaluation of the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques  

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Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The use of sophisticated radiographic techniques is absolutely necessary in dentistry. The use of these techniques exposes the sensitive organs of head and neck to x-rays. The aim of the present study was to investigate the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in conventional spiral and spiral computed tomography techniques. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 TLD GR-200 circular dosimeters (Thermoluminans Detector were used in male RANDO-like phantom (head and neck segment, i.e. the first 10 segments in order to determine the radiation dose absorbed by the thyroid gland. Then spiral computed tomographies were provided from the anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible along with a lateral Scout view as a guide. Conventional spiral tomographies were prepared from the maxilla, mandible and both jaws with a panoramic radiograph as a guide. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS 11.5 (a = 0.05. Results: The highest and lowest thyroid gland absorbed doses were observed with computed tomography of both jaws and conventional spiral tomography of the anterior maxilla, respectively (5.92 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ± 0.01 mSiv. The mean amount of the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland was lower in the conventional spiral tomography compared to computed tomography. The two techniques revealed significant differences in the absorbed doses except for conventional spiral tomography in the posterior and anterior regions of the mandible (p value = 0.276.Conclusion: According to results of the present study, the absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in the conventional spiral tomography in different regions of the jaws was less than CT scan techniques. As a result, it appears the use of conventional spiral tomography is preferred over CT scans in limited regions where three-dimensional and cross-sectional views are required.Key words: Thyroid gland, Film dosimetry, Spiral Computed Tomography.

Hamid Badrian

2012-01-01

380

RET rearrangement: toward a molecular genetic definition of tumor-inducing radiation effects in the thyroid gland after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molecular genetic analyses of thyroid carcinomas in children exposed to radioactive fallout after Chernobyl revealed a complete lack of mutational activation of H-, K- or N-RAS or of a mutational inactivation of P53. However, a high prevalence of RET rearrangements was found. ELE/RET rearrangements of the RET/PTC3 type were preferentially observed suggesting that this paracentric inversion at chromosome 10 represents a typical form of genetic lesion in thyroid tumors of children after Chernobyl. (orig.)

1996-10-23

 
 
 
 
381

[Experiences in the determination of thyroxine iodine in serum in various functional conditions of the thyroid gland].  

Science.gov (United States)

A report is given on the method of the thyroxine iodine determination in the serum. Of 213 patients the result of the thyroxine iodine determination was compared with the clinically and radiologically established functional condition of the thyroid gland. The findings are discussed. Similar results were also reported of other in-vitro-tests (T3-test, T4-test, BEJ and PBJ). According to our experiences we consider the thyroxine iodine determination in the serum siutable as screening test which - when there is a suspicion of a hypo- or hyper- thyroidism - needs the supplementation by the radio-iodine functional and localisation tests. PMID:56823

Hempel, R D; Polak, H J; Mertens, E; Seelig, G

1975-12-15

382

Diagnostic relevance of fine needle aspiration cytology in nodular thyroid lesions  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been used as an initial investigative procedure of thyroid nodule(s in the Department of Pathology at the Institute of Oncology of Vojvodina for more than 20 years. This procedure is rapid, inexpensive and technologically simple, yet it has found only limited, albeit increasing acceptance in medical practice in Serbia. The aim of the study was to evaluate our FNAC findings by correlating cytological results with histological diagnosis and to define the sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy and positive predictive value of FNAC. Methods. A total of 266 patients with thyroid swellings were aspirated in one year investigated period at our Institute out of whom 69 underwent surgery between May 2008 and May 2009. The cytological results correlated with clinical features, ultrasound investigations (US and subsequent histopathological examination of the resected tissue. Results. By the use of cytology we found out thyroid carcinoma in 10 patients, and by histopathological examination in 12. We obtained 83% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 97% of diagnostic accuracy of FNAC. Conclusion. The obtained results confirm the importance of FNAC in preoperative assesment of thyroid nodule.

Kneževi?-Ušaj Slavica

2012-01-01

383

Epidemiology of Salivary Gland Lesions in Referring Patients to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Hospitals 1998-2003  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Salivary gland lesions, as a diverse group, can be classified as infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic. These lesions have been considered rare and few multitude epidemiologic studies in Iranian populations are noticeable.Methods and Materials: 574 (314 men and 260 women cases diagnosed as salivary gland lesions were studied. The sample comprised of 198 benign lesions, 113 malignant and 263 non­neoplastic ones. The lesions were further classified with regard of age, sex, site and histopathology.Results: Patients' files, 314 men and 260 women, were assessed. The diagnosis included 46% to be non-neoplastic, 34% to be benign and 20% to be malignant. The most common benign lesion was pleomorphic adenoma (68.1% of benign tumors and 23.5% of all lesions. Benign tumors were more frequent, in the age group of 31-50 years. Mucco-epidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor (40% of malignant tumors, and 7.8% of all lesions; most of the malignant lesions were seen to occur by the age of more than 50. Forty-six percent of all lesions were non-neoplastic which comprised of both genders (56.3% men, 43.7% women. Chronic sialadenitis was the most frequent lesion years.Conclusion: Present study showed that pattern of salivary gland lesions epidemiology is different to series studies from all over the world, even though it was similar to the others partly. Such a difference points out the role of geographic and racial factors. Key words: Salivary glands, Epidemiology, Neoplastic lesions, Non-neoplatic lesions,inflammatory lesions

B Movahedian

2007-01-01

384

Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue.  

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Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. PMID:24957592

Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

2014-01-01

385

Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )  

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In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate with the intensity of the administered activity of radioiodine, the previous condition of dental integrity and in patients living in the interior of our country in zones of 'bad' water containing tracers of arsenic and fluorine. In 13 patients submitted to intense treatment of dental problems posterior WBS showed a decrease of the positive maxilla areas or they were not found. The presence of metastasis in the active maxilla area was in all cases negative. Our observations confirm that radioiodine is deposited in maxillary bone in relation of dental lesions and that this 131-I move in a very slow place. This mechanism of fixation has to be determined. We fully recommended taking into account the existence of dental illness or incomplete dental treatments when the administration of higher activities than 3.7 GBq (150 mCi). (author)

2008-01-01

386

Analysis of the behavior and characteristics of thyroid lesions identified by biopsy fine needle aspiration and gammagraphic diagnosis: Hospital Calderon Guardia: period 2004-2006  

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Thyroid lesions have meant one of the most important pathological entities in the Costa Rican population for many years, which have been increased by new diagnostic examinations and early detection and timely thanks to the preventive medicine that is exerted on the security of the country. After the nuclear accident Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union for several decades ago has shown an increase in neoplastic lesions as well as was appreciated after the implementation of the first atomic bomb in World War II, this behavior is the interest to see how thyroid pathology develops in the environment and what have been the Costa Rican experiences in correlation with the expected time to the global statistics. The behavior pattern observed of the lessons of the thyroid gland and based on clinical findings and in some cases together with scintigraphy have allowed to study the development seen through the ultrasound and cytopathological result. The behavior of the patients was similar to global statistics, being most frequent the benign lesions than malignant, and the scintigraphy correlation with lesions were found to be cold was significant for determination of malignant or suspicious for malignancy. Some of these lesions that were suspicious for malignancy scintigraphy and ultrasound were benign have been found to fall within the expected rate for this type of injury. The study consisted of sampling in 2023 noted that the prevalence was 9:1 in women compared with men, which agrees as thyroid diseases are more common in women than in men as well as the expected results in malignant lesions that remained the same behavior. As expected in the age ranges of suffering from thyroid lesions remained between the fifth and sixth decade of life, which has allowed to observe the frequency of different benign and malignant lesions that occurred during this study in the decades and periods covered. While before the study of thyroid lesions was occupied by scintigraphy and endocrinological management has been viewed that incidentalomas appreciated by the teams high-resolution ultrasound bring a benefit in the care of the patient early and fast like its minimally invasive intervention to characterize the thyroid lesions that are suspicious of malignancy or indeterminate by clinical and other diagnostic methods, a fact that increases in the routine study of thyroid pathology. In fact in the cost benefit study of FNA for early patient care is relatively cheap with a great evaluation of lesions and is important for determination of injury, because if there were suspected, sonographically, it is easier to seek the consent from patient and treating physician to take the sample and lead to better clinical guidance, histological and radiological, fact that will allow the patient a concise definition of your case. (author)

2007-01-01

387

Radioimmunoimaging of metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland using an indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody to CEA  

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Elevated levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or calcitonin after surgical therapy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) indicate the presence of residual or metastatic disease. CEA elevations appear to be prognostically more reliable in patients with metastatic disease and suggest a more virulent tumor. Attempts to stage the disease with use of conventional imaging techniques are usually inadequate, as is the therapy for disseminated or recurrent MCT. An indium-111-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (ZCE-025) was used to image metastases in a patient with MCT. Potential applications of monoclonal antibody technology in the management of MCT would include (1) preoperative differentiation of unicentric from multicentric thyroid gland involvement, (2) detection of regional or distant metastases or both, (3) measurement of response to systemic therapy, and (4) the facilitation of radionuclide immunoconjugate therapy.

Edington, H.D.; Watson, C.G.; Levine, G.; Tauxe, W.N.; Yousem, S.A.; Unger, M.; Kowal, C.D.

1988-12-01

388

Studies on the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland through foods contaminated by gaseous radioactive iodine  

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Iodine-131 is one of the troublesome nuclides to human body, because it is concentrated in thyroid gland. If it was released into the air, it could be taken up through inhalation, drinking water and foods such as milk and vegetables which might be most suspicious foods for the ingestion of iodine-131. Factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland were discussed in this paper, such as deposition velocity of the nuclide onto plant leaves relating to its chemical forms in the air, transfer rate from grass to milk and the consumption rate of those critical foods especially by inhabitants around nuclear sites in the coastal area of Ibaragi prefecture. Specially designed closed system, gaseous radioactive iodine exposure chamber, was made in order to investigate the deposition velocity of the nuclide onto leaf vegetables and grass under the different environmental conditions. Stable iodine consumption was also estimated. (auth.)

1976-09-01

389

Diagnostic Accuracy and Pitfalls of Preoperative Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Salivary Gland Lesions  

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Purpose: Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in salivary gland lesions. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 82 patients presented at NCI, Cairo University with salivary gland lesion who underwent preoperative FNAC diagnosis with subsequent excision and histopathologic assessment. Cytology results were classified as negative, positive, suspicious for cancer and inadequate. The definitive histopathologic report according to WHO Histological typing was the gold standard diagnosis against which FNAC was compared. Results: Our study included 82 patients who underwent preoperative FNAC of major salivary glands with subsequent surgical excision. Male to female ratio was 1.4: 1. The median age was 42 years. Parotid gland was involved in (68.3%), submandibular in (28%) and sub mental gland in (3.7%). Forty cases (48.8%) were cytologically diagnosed as benign lesions, 26 (31.7%) were malignant and 10 (12.2%) were suspicious. Cytological findings were non diagnostic in 6 (7.3%). The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma; 16 out of 40 cases (40%), while the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma; 22 out of 26 cases (84.6%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones and were true-negative in 37 (92.5%), true-positive in 33 (91.6%), false-negative in 3 (8.3%) and false-positive in 3 (7.5%) cases regarding detection of malignant tumors. The cytologic diagnosis achieved a sensitivity of 91.7%; a specificity of 92.5%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 92.5% and diagnostic accuracy 92%. The rates of agreement of histopathologic type for benign and malignant tumors were 89.2% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC were 91.7%, 92.5% and 92%, respectively. Attention to subtle morphologic changes, pitfalls and limitations are important to increase diagnostic accuracy. Multidirectional aspiration is preferred to avoid selective sampling. Re-aspiration of solid portion after cyst fluid aspiration is necessary to decrease the rate of inadequacy

2008-12-01

390

Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of atrophic orthotopic thyroid gland in a patient with acquired hypothyroidism: Evaluation with hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography.  

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Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately one per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in one in 4,000 to 8,000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. Multiple ectopia in the presence of orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a 13-year-old boy with stunted growth and developmental delay caused due to acquired hypothyroidism. Technetium scan performed as per management protocol identified dual ectopia of thyroid. The role of hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted. PMID:24019671

Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian

2013-01-01

391

Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara  

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Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas ...

Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

2013-01-01

392

Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland: a single institution 20-year experience and review of the literature.  

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The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastatic disease but cases have been well-documented in the literature, particularly in autopsy series. A retrospective review of surgical pathology and autopsy pathology database for patients with metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid was performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center between January 1993 to January 2013. We identified a total of 10 patients with metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid; 6 were in surgical pathology specimens out of a total of 1,295 thyroid carcinoma (0.46 %) and 4 were diagnosed at autopsy out of a total of 2,117 (0.19 %) autopsy cases during this period. Cases with direct extension of the tumor into the thyroid from local primary sites such as larynx, esophagus or soft tissues of the neck were excluded. The primary tumors in these cases comprised of four lung carcinomas, three colorectal carcinomas, a renal cell carcinoma, a pleural malignant mesothelioma, and an unknown primary. Therefore, it is important to keep intrathyroidal metastases in the differential diagnosis when evaluating a thyroid nodule, particularly in patients with a previous history of malignancy. Furthermore, a literature review reveals over 1,400 cases have been previously reported, with the most common malignancies from the kidney (34 %), lung (15 %), gastrointestinal tract (14 %), and breast (14 %). PMID:23872914

Moghaddam, Parnian Ahmadi; Cornejo, Kristine M; Khan, Ashraf

2013-09-01

393

Studies on _1_2_9I in bovine thyroid glands and investigations on revolatilization of iodine  

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In order to study fall out effect, deposition and revolatilization of iodine in the field and _1_2_9I activity in bovine thyroid glands were studied. Deposition velocity of I"2 was 0.15 to 7 cm/sec, which was 100 times higher than that of CH"3I. Biological half-life of iodine was 7.5 +- 0.5 d. In the contaminated plants, indifferent to the environmental conditions. However, the decrease of iodine concentration was not observed when the plants were cut off immediately after deposition of iodine. A sample of soil with or without plants was contaminated with iodine and re-emitted iodine was trapped by a charcoal filter. Iodine concentration was determined by I-specific electrodes after 1, 2, 4, and 8 hrs. In any case, I"2 was re-emitted immediately after the contamination. Bovine thyroid glands were dried by deep freezing and ground after the addition of KOH. Organic compounds were decomposed by stepwise heating up to 600_0C. Then iodine was extracted by concentrated H"2SO"4 and heated at 110_0C. Evaporating iodine was adsorbed by a pure charcoal filter. By neutron activation analysis of the filter the activity of _1_2_9I was 1.2 pCi/g iodine, which would be about 5 times higher than that measured in animals living far from nuclear installations. The distribution of stable iodine in thyroid gland was inhomogeneous. (Nakanishi, T.)

1979-11-29

394

Does amifostine have radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer  

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To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled clinical trials which compared the effects of amifostine with those of placebo or acid-stimulating agents. Two randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 130 patients were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of amifostine and acid-stimulating agents on the incidence of xerostomia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01 to 9.52), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of 99mTc by the parotid (RR 0.30, 95% CI -2.28 to 2.88) or submandibular glands (RR 1.90, 95% CI -1.46 to 5.26) at 12 months, or the reduction in blood pressure (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16). Neither of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. The results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The use of acid-stimulating agents to increase salivation should remain the first choice during radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients should also be well informed of the importance of hydration and acid stimulation. (orig.)

2010-09-01

395

Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions-A pilot study  

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Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue{sup Registered-Sign} perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

Knopf, Andreas, E-mail: a.knopf@lrz.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Stock, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Nephrologie der II. Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

2012-11-15

396

Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions—A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue® perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

2012-11-01

397

Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland  

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The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

2010-01-01