It is internationally recognized that teachers play a significant role in developing suitable values in their pupils. Students also learn strategies for identifying problems, making decisions, and finding solutions both in and out of school. Among them creative thinking skills play a prominent role in their learning process. Techniques developed specifically to teach creative thinking and examine how they may be applied to the classroom, are precise things to be considered. Awareness with ...
This paper describes some ideas and experiences with training student engineers in creativity and critical thinking. In our survey, a large majority (82%) of respondents felt that as compared to all other kind of academic engagements, their projects had contributed most to develop their creativity. About 50% had also felt that their projects were…
Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa
Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…
Mergal??s M. Kashapov; Anna V. Leybina
The aim of this study was to reveal correlation between motivation and creative professional thinking. Four hundred and seventy-one Russians of different trades participated in the study. It was supposed that motivational structure and level of creative professional thinking were interrelated. The connection between motivational components and professional thinking was revealed. Tendencies of transition form situational level of thinking to oversituational one were determined. It was found ou...
The Cartoneras projects aim to promote the celebration of language, culture, and creativity through a collaboration between top literary minds and cardboard collectors in Buenos Aires and Lima. They produce and publish beautiful books with hand-painted cardboard covers that speak of the wonderful literature inside. Inspired by those projects, the…
Mergal??s M. Kashapov
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal correlation between motivation and creative professional thinking. Four hundred and seventy-one Russians of different trades participated in the study. It was supposed that motivational structure and level of creative professional thinking were interrelated. The connection between motivational components and professional thinking was revealed. Tendencies of transition form situational level of thinking to oversituational one were determined. It was found out that motivational structure of workers with situational thinking was much more consistent than that of workers with oversituational thinking.
Educational dimensions of creativity and creative thinking are researched in the dissertation on theoretical and empirical levels. The research shows that creativity (process and its result) is affected by the following factors: motivation of the author, entirety of personal features and character traits, abilities, thinking, scope of thinking inertia, special and general knowledge, reconstructive and constructive imagination, intuition, author’s behaviour, emotions, physiological and psychol...
Are you looking for strategies to teach critical thinking? The author presents a variety of quick, creative strategies to facilitate teaching critical-thinking skills. These strategies engage students in their learning and are adaptable to any nursing course. PMID:9069926
Duff, Melissa C; Kurczek, Jake; Rubin, Rachael; Cohen, Neal J; Tranel, Daniel
Creativity requires the rapid combination and recombination of existing mental representations to create novel ideas and ways of thinking. The hippocampal system, through its interaction with neocortical storage sites, provides a relational database necessary for the creation, updating, maintenance, and juxtaposition of mental representations used in service of declarative memory. Given this functionality, we hypothesized that hippocampus would play a critical role in creative thinking. We examined creative thinking, as measured by verbal and figural forms of the torrance tests of creative thinking (TTCT), in a group of participants with hippocampal damage and severe declarative memory impairment as well as in a group of demographically matched healthy comparison participants. The patients with bilateral hippocampal damage performed significantly worse than comparison participants on both the verbal and figural portions of the TTCT. These findings suggest that hippocampus plays a role critical in creative thinking, adding to a growing body of work pointing to the diverse ways the hallmark processing features of hippocampus serve a variety of behaviors that require flexible cognition. PMID:24123555
Duff, Melissa C.; Kurczek, Jake; Rubin, Rachael; Cohen, Neal J.; TRANEL, DANIEL
Creativity requires the rapid combination and recombination of existing mental representations to create novel ideas and ways of thinking. The hippocampal system, through its interaction with neocortical storage sites, provides a relational database necessary for the creation, updating, maintenance, and juxtaposition of mental representations used in service of declarative memory. Given this functionality, we hypothesized that hippocampus would play a critical role in creati...
Yanhong REN; Tao, Lin
Critical thinking is an important basis for college students’ creative ability. In order to develop college students’ creative ability and expand creative education, we must pay attention to the cultivation of college students’ critical thinking. This paper starts from “Asking of Qian Xuesen”, which reveals the present situation why Chinese college students’ creativity is blocked. Learning from the universities’ education experience of developed European countries, we know that critical think...
Full Text Available Critical thinking is an important basis for college students’ creative ability. In order to develop college students’ creative ability and expand creative education, we must pay attention to the cultivation of college students’ critical thinking. This paper starts from “Asking of Qian Xuesen”, which reveals the present situation why Chinese college students’ creativity is blocked. Learning from the universities’ education experience of developed European countries, we know that critical thinking is the basis of university’s creative education. Then this paper elaborates the philosophical basis and the meaning of critical thinking, the relationship of critical thinking and creativity. And furthermore, it discusses ways and methods of how to cultivate critical thinking in Chinese universities in depth.
Berretta, S; Privette, G
The immediate influence of flexible and highly structured play on the creative thinking of 184 fourth-grade boys and girls was investigated. Following either flexible or highly structured art, drama, and playground activities, children's performances on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking were evaluated. Children who participated in flexible play experiences showed significantly greater creative thinking than children participating in the highly structured play experiences. No significant differences were found between boys and girls related to effects of flexible and structured play on creative thinking. Implications for curriculum are explored. PMID:2251097
Many creativity methods follow similar structures and principles. Design Patterns capture such invariants of proven good practices and discuss why, when and how creative thinking methods match various situations of collaboration. Moreover patterns connect different forms with each other. Once we understand the underlying structures of creative thinking processes we can facilitate digital tools to support them. While such tools can foster the effective application of establis...
Colzato, Lorenza S; de Haan, Annelies M; Hommel, Bernhard
Anecdotal evidence suggests that creative people sometimes use food to overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration, but empirical support for this possibility is still lacking. In this study, we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is promoted by the food supplement L-Tyrosine (TYR)-a biochemical precursor of dopamine, which is assumed to drive cognitive control and creativity. We found no evidence for an impact of TYR on divergent thinking ("brainstorming") but it did promote convergent ("deep") thinking. As convergent thinking arguably requires more cognitive top-down control, this finding suggests that TYR can facilitate control-hungry creative operations. Hence, the food we eat may affect the way we think. PMID:25257259
Mokaram, Al-Ali Khaled; Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Fong, Fook Soon; Abdallah, Andaleeb Ahmad
During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate…
Cameron, B A; Brown, D M; Carson, D K; Meyer, S S; Bittner, M T
60 children in Grades 3 through 6 from two schools were administered the Farnsworth Munsell 100-Hue Test and teachers provided a measure of different aspects of each child's creative thinking on the Williams Scale of Children's Divergent Thinking. Fluency and imagination scores were positively associated with color discrimination. While other dimensions of creative thinking did not correlate with color discrimination, some correlations suggested thematic connections between color discrimination and other manifestations of creative thinking as evaluated by teachers. Color discrimination was also positively associated with age, as older children differentiated between small differences in colors better than younger children. As intelligence or other variables may be relevant, further study is needed. PMID:8483673
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of future thinking, and the fit between future thinking and future orientation on creative thinking. In Study 1, 83 undergraduates were randomly assigned to three groups: 50-year future thinking, 5-year future thinking, and the present-day thinking. First, the priming tasks, in which…
Al-Ali Khaled Mokaram; Ahmad Mohammad Al-Shabatat; Soon Fook Fong; Ahmad Abdallah Andaleeb
During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate students. A total number of 50 subjects, 25 in an experimental group and 25 in a control group were selected and a design of pre and post-test with an expe...
Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko
It is reasonable to assume that people are creative, but the degree of creativity is different. The Idea of the level of student's creative thinking has been expressed by experts, such as Gotoh (2004), and Krulik and Rudnick (1999). The perspective of the mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which…
Waks, Shlomo; Merdler, Moti
Addresses variations in creative thinking during various stages of a design project and the relationship between creative thinking and motivation factors. Based on a study of Israeli practical engineering students. Appendix includes survey instrument. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/NB)
Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono
Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree of creativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has been discussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is based on intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focused on flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving and problem posing. As students have various backgrounds and diffe...
Klieger, Aviva; Sherman, Guy
Creativity can be viewed from different perspectives, such as the creative thinking process, the product, the creative environment and the individual. The physics domain, which is based on experiments, research, hypotheses and thinking outside the box, can serve as an excellent grounding for creativity development. This article focuses on creative thinking in physics textbooks. Creative thinking includes divergent thinking, which consists of four core components: fluency, flexibility, novelty and elaboration. The purpose of our study is to understand whether and how physics textbooks (such as the Israeli high-school book Newtonian Mechanics) enable the promotion and development of creative thinking. Findings indicate that they do not, so there is a need to raise physics teachers’ awareness of the importance of creative thinking in learning materials. It is advisable for physics teachers to engage in professional development courses in appropriate teaching strategies for the development of this creativity.
Klieger, Aviva; Sherman, Guy
Creativity can be viewed from different perspectives, such as the creative thinking process, the product, the creative environment and the individual. The physics domain, which is based on experiments, research, hypotheses and thinking outside the box, can serve as an excellent grounding for creativity development. This article focuses on creative…
Park, Haeme R P; Kirk, Ian J; Waldie, Karen E
Empirical studies indicate a link between creativity and schizotypal personality traits, where individuals who score highly on schizotypy measures also display greater levels of creative behaviour. However, the exact nature of this relationship is not yet clear, with only a few studies examining this association using neuroimaging methods. In the present study, the neural substrates of creative thinking were assessed with a drawing task paradigm in healthy individuals using fMRI. These regions were then statistically correlated with the participants' level of schizotypy as measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), which is a questionnaire consisting of four dimensions. Neural activations associated with the creativity task were observed in bilateral inferior temporal gyri, left insula, left parietal lobule, right angular gyrus, as well as regions in the prefrontal cortex. This widespread pattern of activation suggests that creative thinking utilises multiple neurocognitive networks, with creative production being the result of collaboration between these regions. Furthermore, the correlational analyses found the Unusual Experiences factor of the O-LIFE to be the most common dimension associated with these areas, followed by the Impulsive Nonconformity dimension. These correlations were negative, indicating that individuals who scored the highest in these factors displayed the least amount of activation when performing the creative task. This is in line with the idea that 'less is more' for creativity, where the deactivation of specific cortical areas may facilitate creativity. Thus, these findings contribute to the evidence of a common neural basis between creativity and schizotypy. PMID:25979607
Zhu, Chang; Zhang, Li-Fang
This research aims to understand university students' thinking styles and the relationship with their views of creativity. The Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II was used to measure 13 thinking styles as defined in Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and the Conceptions of Creativity Scales was used to inquire students' views about the…
Matthews, Marsha Little
Creativity is the central source of meaning for humans and is inseparable from critical thinking. Creativity and critical thinking are required in the fields of communication, public relations, and advertising. Most college students know the "rules" of the "game" of schooling, but for the majority, creativity has been all but extinguished by the…
Chang, Yulin; Li, Bei-Di; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chiu, Fa-Chung
The relationship lying between critical thinking and creative thinking is opposite or complementary, results of previous relevant researches have not yet concluded. However, most of researches put the effort to compare the respective effect of the thinking methods, either the teaching of creative thinking or that of critical thinking. Less of them…
Johnson, R A
30 mentally retarded deaf adolescents were matched with 30 mentally retarded hearing adolescents to evaluate (a) differences in creative thinking as a function of hearing status, (b) the effect of severity of mental retardation on hearing status, and (c) interaction between hearing status and intelligence. A multivariate factorial analysis of variance indicated that the mentally retarded deaf adolescents differed significantly from hearing adolescents on Fluency and Originality. The deaf youth scored higher on Fluency while the hearing scored higher on Originality. No other effects in the analysis reached significance. PMID:2385710
Koray, Özlem; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory method on prospective primary teachers’ creative and logical thinking abilities. This research was conducted with 90 prospective elementary school teachers who were enrolled in two classes of education faculty during the spring semester of the 2004–2005 academic year. Creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications were conducted in the experimental group, and traditional labora...
Goldstein, Abraham; Revivo, Ketty; Kreitler, Michal; Metuki, Nili
Following the notion of relative importance of the right hemisphere (RH) in creative thinking, we explored the possibility of enhancing creative problem solving by artificially activating the RH ahead of time using unilateral hand contractions. Participants attempted to complete the Remote Associates Test after squeezing a ball with either their left or right hand. As predicted, participants who contracted their left hand (thus activating the RH) achieved higher scores than those who used their right hand and those who did not contract either hand. Our findings indicate that tilting the hemispheric balance toward the processing mode of one hemisphere by motor activation can greatly influence the outcome of thought processes. Regardless of the specific mechanism involved, this technique has the potential for acting as a therapeutic or remedial manipulation and could have wide applications in aiding individuals with language impairments or other disorders that are believed to be related to hemispheric imbalances. PMID:21169586
Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono
Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree of creativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has been discussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is based on intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focused on flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving and problem posing. As students have various backgrounds and different abilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns, imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have different levels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order to develop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking in mathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe the characteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviews were conducted to collect data with ten 8th grade junior secondary school students. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking, namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level. These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty in mathematical problem solving and problem posing.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews theories and empirical examples that help us unpack each of these dimensions and above all, articulate them into a novel and meaningful conception of creativity as a simultaneously psychological and socio-material process. The volume concludes by examining the practical implications in adopting this perspective on creativity.
Ku, Ya-Lie; Chang, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Chien-Lin; Sheu, Sheila
Nursing education is increasingly expected to cultivate nursing student creative abilities in line with general Ministry of Education promotion of greater creativity within education and the greater leeway for creativity won domestically for nurses by professional nursing organizations. Creative thinking has been named by education experts in the United States as the third most important goal of nursing education. However, nursing students in Taiwan have been shown to test lower in terms of creativity than students enrolled in business management. Leaders in nursing education should consider methods by which to improve the creative thinking capabilities of nursing students. Articles in the literature indicate that courses in creative studies are concentrated in the field of education, with few designed specifically for nursing. The teaching of constructing creative thinking is particularly weak in the nursing field. The purpose of this article was to review literature on education and nursing in order to explore current definitions, teaching strategies, and evaluation approaches related to creativity, and to develop a foundation for teaching creativity in nursing. The authors hope that an appropriate creative thinking course for nursing students may be constructed by referencing guidance provided in this in order to further cultivate creative thinking abilities in nursing students that will facilitate their application of creative thinking in their future clinical practicum. PMID:20401872
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the development of children's creative thinking through the technique of textile col-lage. The author describes the basic concepts of creative thinking, gives examples of implementation of collage techniques, describes fabrics and methods of their application.
Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria
This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…
Wegerif, Rupert; McLaren, Bruce M.; Chamrada, Marian; Scheuer, Oliver; Mansour, Nasser; Miksatko, Jan; Williams, Mriga
This paper reports on an aspect of the EC funded Argunaut project which researched and developed awareness tools for moderators of online dialogues. In this study we report on an investigation into the nature of creative thinking in online dialogues and whether or not this creative thinking can be coded for and recognized automatically such that…
The quantitative evaluation of creative responses in TCT (Test for Creative Thinking) has elucidated various problems. In order to evaluate responses qualitatively, four basic categories were set up. They were constructed according to the degree of freedom of responses from the task-setting. The category, Td (Task-dependence) refers to responses that are entirely influenced by the task-setting. Tm (Task-modification) is for responses which are produced more flexibly than Td, but still influenced by the task-setting. Responses which are made by attending to only a part of the task-setting and neglecting the rest are judged Ho (Homomorphosis). Moreover, responses which are quite free from the task-setting are called He (Heteromorphosis). This He is thought to be the most creative response, and if it appears rarely. When 123 junior high-school students were tested using TCT, He responses appeared least, in four (only 20.3% of the subjects), while Td's were produced by 99.2% of the subjects. Ho's were lower than Tm's and Td's in frequency. However, the validity of these categories is still to be pursued. PMID:2796036
Koray, Ozlem; Koksal, Mustafa Serdar
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory method on prospective primary teachers' creative and logical thinking abilities. This research was conducted with 90 prospective elementary school teachers who were enrolled in two classes of education faculty during the spring semester of the…
This study investigates the relationship between creative thinking ability and creative personality of preschoolers. Prior research showed that the correlation coefficient between creative thinking ability and creative personality of teenagers was very low (Hah, 1999), so this research was undertaken to validate the test and to examine how…
Full Text Available Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals towards a strongly focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed by creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking, this predicts that high-proficient bilinguals should outperform low-proficient bilinguals in convergent thinking, while low-proficient bilinguals might be better in divergent thinking. Comparing low- and high-proficient bilinguals on convergent-thinking and divergent-thinking tasks indeed showed a high-proficient bilingual advantage for convergent thinking but a low-proficient bilingual advantage for fluency in divergent thinking. These findings suggest that bilingualism should not be related to “creativity” as a unitary concept but, rather, to the specific processes and mechanisms that underlie creativity.
Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S; Fischer, Rico; Christoffels, Ingrid K
Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals toward a relatively focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed by creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking, this predicts that high-proficient bilinguals should outperform low-proficient bilinguals in convergent thinking, while low-proficient bilinguals might be better in divergent thinking. Comparing low- and high-proficient bilinguals on convergent-thinking and divergent-thinking tasks indeed showed a high-proficient bilingual advantage for convergent thinking but a low-proficient bilingual advantage for fluency in divergent thinking. These findings suggest that bilingualism should not be related to "creativity" as a unitary concept but, rather, to the specific processes and mechanisms that underlie creativity. PMID:22084634
Majed Mohammad AL-khayat
Full Text Available
This study is aimed at investigating the levels of creative and metacognitive thinking skills among students as well as the effect of student’s gender on creative and metacognitive thinking skills in the intermediate stage at Al-Balqa Province in Jordan. The method of stratifi ed sampling was selected for the purpose of this study. The metacognitive inventory consisted of (52 items, and Torrance test (Figure B, has been Applied on (372 students.The results showed that there were statistical signifi cant differences between the average performance of males and females on the creative and metacognitive thinking for the benefit of males as well as a high level of Metacognitive thinking from the viewpoint of the students. The researcher recommended that further studies should be focus on training programs for students on metacognitive skills and impact on educational achievement and creative thinking.
Key words: Metacognitive thinking skills; Creative thinking skills; Education; Gender
Glassner, Amnon; Schwarz, Baruch B.
Creative and critical thinking have been traditionally considered as involving independent skills and dispositions. However the definition of critical thinking has been gradually reconsidered to include skills and dispositions through which one opens new links instead of scrutinizing existing links in a closed analysis. Experimental studies have…
Gould, J. Christine; Schoonover, Patricia F.
Creative and critical thinking have been identified by Isaksen, Dorval, and Treffinger (2000) as the ability to "perceive gaps, challenges, or concerns; think of many varied or unusual possibilities; or elaborate and extend alternatives," as well as make meaningful connections that include analyzing, evaluating, and developing options. Business…
Liu, Hui; Wang, Fei-xue; Yang, Xiao-yang
People use dialectical thinking to be holistic, reconcile contradictions, and emphasize changes when processing information and managing problems. Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style. Undergraduates majoring in different subjects and adults in different professions were surveyed. The results showed that 1) compared with undergraduates majoring in art and adults from the design industry, undergraduates majoring in other disciplines significantly showed the least creative personality; 2) the highest score for dialectical thinking was found in the group of undergraduates who majored in other disciplines, followed by the adult group, and the undergraduates majoring in art had the lowest score; and 3) A negative relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality was found mostly in the UMA group. The limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25856372
Liu, Hui; Wang, Fei-xue; Yang, Xiao-yang
People use dialectical thinking to be holistic, reconcile contradictions, and emphasize changes when processing information and managing problems. Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style. Undergraduates majoring in different subjects and adults in different professions were surveyed. The results showed that 1) compared with undergra...
Tannehill, Rhonda L.
Creative thinking styles of Native American students were investigated to determine the existence of creativity as a homogeneous trait among this culture. Seventy-nine Cherokee students in grades 4 and 6, attending a small rural school in eastern Oklahoma, were administered the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking--Figural Form A. Thirty-eight…
Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens
In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory method on prospective primary teachers’ creative and logical thinking abilities. This research was conducted with 90 prospective elementary school teachers who were enrolled in two classes of education faculty during the spring semester of the 2004–2005 academic year. Creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications were conducted in the experimental group, and traditional laboratory applications were conducted in the control group. As a result of the investigation, it was determined that the experimental group was more successful than the control group in terms of the logical thinking ability and creativity. Implications for science education at the teacher education level were discussed.
Pervin Oya Taneri
Since creative thinking is an essential requirement in today’s societies, educational institutions have to make some reforms in order to prepare next generation according to the needs of the societies such as giving more emphasis on creative thinking. The main aims of this paper are to reveal the parents’ opinions about the creative thinking skills, to teach parents the meaning of creative thinking, and to teach parents to create home environments that enhance creative thinking skills. A comb...
Mölle, M; Marshall, L; Lutzenberger, W; Pietrowsky, R; Fehm, H L; Born, J
This study shows that divergent thinking, considered the general process underlying creative production, can be distinguished from convergent, analytical thought based on the dimensional complexity of ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. EEG complexity over the central and posterior cortex was higher while subjects solved tasks of divergent than convergent thinking, and also higher than during mental relaxation. Over the frontal cortex, EEG complexity was comparable during divergent thinking and mental relaxation, but reduced during convergent thinking. Results indicate that the basic process underlying the generation of novel ideas expresses itself in a strong increase in the EEG's complexity, reflecting higher degrees of freedom in the competitive interactions among cortical neuron assemblies. Frontocortical EEG complexity being comparable with that during mental relaxation, speaks for a loosened attentional control during creative thinking. PMID:8731175
Jeon, Kijeong; Cotner, Teresa L.
Art and art education are open to broader definitions in the twenty-first century. It is time that teachers seriously think about including built environment design in K-12 art education. The term "built environment" includes interior design, architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning. Due to increased exposure to built environment…
Kolloff, Penny Britton; Feldhusen, John F.
An enrichment program based on the Purdue Three-Stage Model (creative thinking abilities, creative problem solving, and independent study and research skills) resulted in no significant differences in self-concept scores for 199 gifted elementary participants compared to control Ss. Participants did, however, show significant differences in…
Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias; Grabner, Roland H; Staudt, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C
The psychometric assessment of different facets of creative abilities as well as the availability of experimental tasks for the neuroscientific study of creative thinking has replaced the view of creativity as an unsearchable trait. In this article we provide a brief overview of contemporary methodologies used for the operationalization of creative thinking in a neuroscientific context. Empirical studies are reported which measured brain activity (by means of EEG, fMRI, NIRS or PET) during the performance of different experimental tasks. These tasks, along with creative idea generation tasks used in our laboratory, constitute useful tools in uncovering possible brain correlates of creative thinking. Nevertheless, much more work is needed in order to establish reliable and valid measures of creative thinking, in particular measures of novelty or originality of creative insights. PMID:17434417
Majed Mohammad AL-khayat
This study is aimed at investigating the levels of creative and metacognitive thinking skills among students as well as the effect of student’s gender on creative and metacognitive thinking skills in the intermediate stage at Al-Balqa Province in Jordan. The method of stratifi ed sampling was selected for the purpose of this study. The metacognitive inventory consisted of (52) items, and Torrance test (Figure B), has been Applied on (372) students.The results showed that there were s...
Full Text Available This research was done on 41 subjects consisted of 6th year students at Mehmet Çelik Primary School in Bolu, Yeniça?a. According to ANCOVA results, pre-test values of the students from different instruction systems compared to the corrected post-test values andcreative thinking average values showed a significant difference in favor of education in which creative course activities were used. In research, two-factored ANNOVA was used for complex measurements for the research question about whether the learners’ cognitiveachievement scores, related to learning environment, change or not, according to groups. According to the findings, cognitive achievement scores showed a significant difference in favor of experimental group.
Combs, Liesl Baum; Cennamo, Katherine S.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary
Critical and creative thinking skills are essential for students who plan to work and excel in the 21st-century workforce. This goal of the project reported in this article was to define critical and creative thinking in a way that would be useful for classroom teachers charged with developing such skills in their students. To accomplish their…
Waks, Shlomo; Merdler, Moti
Creativity in engineering design had become an economic necessity and not merely the privilege of unique individuals. The search for new, innovative and effective ideas in engineering design stands in center of daily creative performance. This search requires sensitivity to gaps of knowledge and information, and the ability to evoke numerous, different and unique ideas about engineering problems. The source of such information or knowledge can be either extrinsic-such as provided by an instructor or expert or intrinsic, which might involve transformation from one field or context to another. Furthermore, interaction with an exterior source as well as developing an inherent drive, have an impact on the motivation to perform creatively. This article, which is based on a study conducted among Israeli practical engineering students, deals with the variations in creative thinking during various stages of a design project and the relation between creative thinking and motivation factors.
Cotton, John; Scarlise, Randall
The ``scientific method'' is not just for scientists! Combined with critical thinking, the scientific method can enable students to distinguish credible sources of information from nonsense and become intelligent consumers of information. Professors John Cotton and Randall Scalise illustrate these principles using a series of examples and demonstrations that is enlightening, educational, and entertaining. This lecture/demonstration features highlights from their course (whose unofficial title is ``debunking pseudoscience'' ) which enables students to detect pseudoscience in its many guises: paranormal phenomena, free-energy devices, alternative medicine, and many others.
Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V
Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures. PMID:17434420
Vet, A.J. de
This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on the effects of thinking in silence on creativity and innovation. In these studies I use a social psychology and cognitive psychology lens to study creativity and innovation at the individual and at the team level of analysis, using randomized experiments to test hypothesized causal relationships. In the first study I find that when the ability to modify self-presentation is low and the sensitivity to expressive behavior of others is hig...
Xi-wen, Liu; Chun-ping, Ni; Rui, Yang; Xiu-chuan, Li; Cheng, Cheng
Chinese nursing education levels have developed fast over the past few years. Many nursing educators are devoted to the research of nursing teaching. How to cultivate nursing students, creative thinking is one of the principle researches and has received increasing attention. In the course of nursing teaching, we renewed the teaching design based…
Infusing creative thinking competence through the design process of authentic projects requires not only changing the teaching methods and learning environment, but also adopting new assessment methods, such as portfolio assessment. The participants in this study were 128 high school pupils who have studied MECHATRONICS from 10th to 12th grades…
This paper shows how the design thinking skills of students learning at a distance can be consciously developed, and deliberately applied outside of the creative industries in what are termed 'embedded' contexts. The distance learning model of education pioneered by The Open University is briefly described before the technological…
Newton, Douglas P.
When planning and teaching, attention is generally given to cognition while the effect of mood and emotion on cognition is ignored. But students are not emotionless thinkers and the effect can make a difference to their thought. This is particularly evident when attempting to foster creative thinking. This article draws on research to describe…
Sarsani, Mahender Reddy
The present study was aimed to explore the relationships between orgainsational or school variables, students' personal background variables, and cognitive and motivational variables. The sample for the survey included 373 students drawn from nine Government schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. Students' creative thinking abilities were measured by…
Storm, Benjamin C; Patel, Trisha N
Four experiments examined the interplay of memory and creative cognition, showing that attempting to think of new uses for an object can cause the forgetting of old uses. Specifically, using an adapted version of the Alternative Uses Task (Guilford, 1957), participants studied several uses for a variety of common household objects before attempting to generate new uses for half of those objects. As revealed by performance on a final cued-recall task, attempting to generate new uses caused participants to forget the studied uses. This thinking-induced forgetting effect was observed regardless of whether participants attempted to generate unusual uses or common uses, but failed to emerge when participants used the studied uses as hints to guide their generation of new uses. Additionally, the forgetting effect correlated with individual differences in creativity such that participants who exhibited more forgetting generated more creative uses than participants who exhibited less forgetting. These findings indicate that thinking can cause forgetting and that such forgetting may contribute to the ability to think creatively. PMID:24773286
The paper presents the author's views on inspiring creative thinking among students through a folktale. The mbira metaphor is this author's interpretation of a unique African (Shona) folktale that has the potential to enrich the pedagogy of giftedness. The mbira metaphor is an informative and thought-provoking folktale originating from previous…
Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.
Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…
Daskolia, Maria; Dimos, Athanasios; Kampylis, Panagiotis G.
Creative thinking in Environmental Education (EE) remains greatly under researched topic. Research on teachers' conceptions of creative thinking within EE context is also limited, although their role in facilitating creative thinking in students is well documented. The small-scale qualitative study presented here investigates Greek secondary…
Mumford, Michael D.; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Partlow, Paul J.
Creative achievements are the basis for progress in our world. Although creative achievement is influenced by many variables, the basis for creativity is held to lie in the generation of high-quality, original, and elegant solutions to complex, novel, ill-defined problems. In the present effort, we examine the cognitive capacities that make…
Increased international recognition of the value of supporting creative thinking suggests the value of development of approaches to its identification in children. Development of an observation-led framework, the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) framework, is described, and a case made for the validity of inferring creative…
Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly; Black, Sheila R.; Mccown, Steven M.
Age-related differences in cognitive processes were used to understand age-related declines in creativity. According to the Geneplore model (Finke, Ward, & Smith, 1992), there are two phases of creativity--generating an idea and exploring the implications of the idea--each with different underlying cognitive processes. These two phases are…
Aysun Öztuna Kaplan; Serhat Ercan
The study was derived from an action research on the use of synectics in creative thinking methods in science and technology teaching. There were three main application steps in the action research, which was designed to help students in gaining creative thinking skills. In the research, which had lasted for one teaching semester, the teacher firstly fulfilled two different applications to make the students get used to the synectics technique. First of these applications was to redefine the c...
Barak, Moshe; Doppelt, Yaron
Describes the Creative Thinking in Technology (CTT) program in which creative thinking is presented as a synthesis between lateral thinking and vertical thinking. Analyzes student projects in light of this definition of creativity, and explores the role technology can play in developing students' higher order thinking skills. (Contains 37…
This article takes the design and study of the experiment which is related to the relationship between the stretch and outer force of rubber band as example in order to discuss the task on small-scale physics experiment. By designing and studying the task, students are expected to develop such ability as making observations, doing experiments, asking questions, thinking scientifically, analyzing and solving problems. The task also aims at training students' creativity and developing their con...
Hua Cen; Chuandong Ma
This paper probes into the source of “originality” in developing the creative thinking of the science students majoring in industrial design. The authors believe that the critical factors for the source of “originality” lie in not only the internal cause, but also the external cause. Whether the science students take a great consideration of art and humanity courses, in other words, whether they are aware of the relationship between artistical thought and industrial design or not, it is very...
Sak, Ugur; Oz, Ozge
A research study using one-group pretest-posttest design was carried out on the effectiveness of the Creative Reversal Act (CREACT) on creative thinking. The CREACT is a new, teaching technique developed based on the theory of the janusian process. The research participants included 34 students who were attending 10th grade at a social studies…
Silvia, Paul J; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Eddington, Kari M; Kwapil, Thomas R
Executive approaches to creativity emphasize that generating creative ideas can be hard and requires mental effort. Few studies, however, have examined effort-related physiological activity during creativity tasks. Using motivational intensity theory as a framework, we examined predictors of effort-related cardiac activity during a creative challenge. A sample of 111 adults completed a divergent thinking task. Sympathetic (PEP and RZ) and parasympathetic (RSA and RMSSD) outcomes were assessed using impedance cardiography. As predicted, people with high creative achievement (measured with the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) showed significantly greater increases in sympathetic activity from baseline to task, reflecting higher effort. People with more creative achievements generated ideas that were significantly more creative, and creative performance correlated marginally with PEP and RZ. The results support the view that creative thought can be a mental challenge. PMID:25063471
Zhanar E. Sarsekeeva
Full Text Available This article is about actual problems of schoolchildren’s creative thinking development. The changes happening in our society show absolutely different requirements to the younger generation than they were before which will become not only an active component of the state, but also the leading force in its further development in the closest future. Pedagogy of ideological dogmas, reproductive training, compounding and regulation of teacher and pupils’ activity corresponded to the society of totalitarian consciousness, priority of a political and ideological orientation in full measure. Nowadays pedagogical technologies differ in the rigid organization of school life, suppression of pupils’ initiative and independence, application of requirements and coercions. The personal focused technologies which gained new development at present moment are characterized by anthropocentricity, humanistic and psychotherapeutic orientation. They are aimed at versatile, free and creative development of the child. Only such active, creative personality is capable to realize in difficult social relationship of modern society. From the carried-out analysis of psychology and pedagogical literature it is possible to note that schoolchildren’s creative thinking development is becoming the priority direction.
Full Text Available The paper acquaints the reader with the status of critical and creative thinking in tertiary education, particularly in the professional preparation of social pedagogues. The authors present the reader with the results of a grant project which focused on examining the level of critical and creative thinking in students of social pedagogy. The paper is complemented by research examining the personality factors of an individual and their relation to the level of critical and creative thinking.
Hannetjie Meintjes; Mary Grosser
To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation...
Kuan Chen Tsai; Matthew Shirley
It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any) of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate ...
Chalit Kangvaravoot; Panita Wannapiroon
The objective of this research was to develop model of Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including: 1) to synthesize the tentative model for Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology, 2) to develop the tentative model for Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including, and 3...
Full Text Available This article takes the design and study of the experiment which is related to the relationship between the stretch and outer force of rubber band as example in order to discuss the task on small-scale physics experiment. By designing and studying the task, students are expected to develop such ability as making observations, doing experiments, asking questions, thinking scientifically, analyzing and solving problems. The task also aims at training students' creativity and developing their consciousness and spirit of innovation.
Hannetjie, Meintjes; Mary, Grosser.
Full Text Available To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context [...] assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA) and a Partial Least Squares (PLS) exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.
Full Text Available To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA and a Partial Least Squares (PLS exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.
Hartman, John K.
A study examined the status of women in the creative departments of advertising agencies. In November 1987, questionnaires were sent to the creative directors of the 196 member agencies of the Adcraft Club of Detroit (the largest advertising club in the nation). Sixty-four questionnaires were returned. Answers and comments from the directors…
Saeki, Noriko; Fan, Xitao; Van Dusen, Lani
Cross-cultural differences in creative thinking were assessed for 51 American and 54 Japanese college students. The American students showed significantly higher scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) figural test than the Japanese students. No gender differences were found in either culture. TTCT performance did not correlate…
Ransdell, Marlo Evelyn
This study examined the creative thinking of interior design graduate students in an online learning community. This study considered potential changes in creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration) about design research resulting from peer-led online discussions. It further studied the learner characteristics of…
This study focuses on comparing the creative thinking and reasoning abilities of deaf and hearing children. Two groups of deaf (N = 210) and hearing children (N = 200) were chosen based on specific criteria. Two instruments were used in the study: the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural, Form A and Matrix Analogies Test. Canonical…
Oppezzo, Marily; Schwartz, Daniel L.
Four experiments demonstrate that walking boosts creative ideation in real time and shortly after. In Experiment 1, while seated and then when walking on a treadmill, adults completed Guilford's alternate uses (GAU) test of creative divergent thinking and the compound remote associates (CRA) test of convergent thinking. Walking increased 81% of…
The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of early computer experience, using quasi-experimental design, on creative thinking among Jordanian kindergarten children. It intended to answer two main research questions. First, does adding a computer to a kindergarten environment enhance children's creative thinking? Second, does…
Shoop, Barry L.
A desirable goal of engineering education is to teach students how to be creative and innovative. However, the speed of technological innovation and the continual expansion of disciplinary knowledge leave little time in the curriculum for students to formally study innovation. At West Point we have developed a novel upper-division undergraduate course that develops the critical thinking, creativity and innovation of undergraduate science and engineering students. This course is structured as a deliberate interactive engagement between students and faculty that employs the Socratic method to develop an understanding of disruptive and innovative technologies and a historical context of how social, cultural, and religious factors impact the acceptance or rejection of technological innovation. The course begins by developing the background understanding of what disruptive technology is and a historical context about successes and failures of social, cultural, and religious acceptance of technological innovation. To develop this framework, students read The Innovator's Dilemma by Clayton M. Christensen, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn, The Discoverers by Daniel J. Boorstin, and The Two Cultures by C.P. Snow. For each class meeting, students survey current scientific and technical literature and come prepared to discuss current events related to technological innovation. Each student researches potential disruptive technologies and prepares a compelling argument of why the specific technologies are disruptive so they can defend their choice and rationale. During course meetings students discuss the readings and specific technologies found during their independent research. As part of this research, each student has the opportunity to interview forward thinking technology leaders in their respective fields of interest. In this paper we will describe the course and highlight the results from teaching this course over the past five years.
Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Wu, Junbin
The study examined the effects of gender and item content of domain-general and domain-specific creative-thinking tests on four subscale scores of creative-thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration). Chinese tenth-grade students (234 males and 244 females) participated in the study. Domain-general creative thinking was measured…
Hu, Weiping; Wu, Baojun; Jia, Xiaojuan; Yi, Xinfa; Duan, Chunyan; Meyer, Winter; Kaufman, James C.
The "Learn to Think" (LTT) Intervention Program was developed for raising thinking abilities of primary and secondary school students. It has been implemented in more than 300 schools, and more than 200,000 students took part in the experiment over a 10"year span. Several longitudinal intervention studies showed that LTT could promote the…
Chen, Qun-Lin; Xu, Ting; Yang, Wen-Jing; Li, Ya-Dan; Sun, Jiang-Zhou; Wang, Kang-Cheng; Beaty, Roger E; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Qiu, Jiang
There have been many structural and functional imaging studies of creative thinking, but combining structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations with respect to creative thinking is still lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations among inter-individual verbal creative thinking and both regional homogeneity and cortical morphology of the brain surface. We related the local functional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity to verbal creative thinking and its dimensions--fluency, originality, and flexibility--by examining these inter-individual differences in a large sample of 268 healthy college students. Results revealed that people with high verbal creative ability and high scores for the three dimensions of creativity exhibited lower regional functional homogeneity in the right precuneus. Both cortical volume and thickness of the right precuneus were positively associated with individual verbal creativity and its dimensions. Moreover, originality was negatively correlated with functional homogeneity in the left superior frontal gyrus and positively correlated with functional homogeneity in the right occipito-temporal gyrus. In contrast, flexibility was positively correlated with functional homogeneity in the left superior and middle occipital gyrus. These findings provide additional evidence of a link between verbal creative thinking and brain structure in the right precuneus--a region involved in internally--focused attention and effective semantic retrieval-and further suggest that local functional homogeneity of verbal creative thinking has neurobiological relevance that is likely based on anatomical substrates. PMID:26150204
Mölle, M; Marshall, L; Wolf, B; Fehm, H L; Born, J
The electroencephalogram (EEG) was used because of its dimensional complexity to establish a differentiation of divergent versus convergent thought, considered fundamental modes of cortical processing. In 28 men, the EEG was recorded while solving tasks of divergent and convergent thinking and during mental relaxation. The EEG during divergent thought was compared between subjects achieving high versus low performance scores on this type of task. The dimensional complexity of the EEG was greater during divergent thinking than during convergent thinking. While solving tasks of divergent thinking, subjects with high performance scores had a lower EEG dimension than did subjects with low scores, in particular over frontal cortical areas. The changes were not reflected in single frequency bands of conventional EEG analysis. Based on Hebb's view of neuron assemblies as functional processing units, the higher EEG complexity during divergent than convergent thinking could be the result of the concurrent activation of a greater number of independently oscillating processing units. PMID:10098384
Sowden, Paul; Pringle, Andrew; Gabora, Liane
Dual process models of cognition suggest there are two kinds of thought: rapid, automatic Type 1 processes, and effortful, controlled Type 2 processes. Models of creative thinking also distinguish between two sets of processes: those involved in the generation of ideas, and those involved with their refinement, evaluation and/or selection. Here we review dual process models in both these literatures and delineate the similarities and differences. Both generative and evaluati...
Mijares-Colmenares, B E; Masten, W G; Underwood, J R
This work assessed the effect of trait anxiety (measured on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and the Scamper technique on figural creative thinking, measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. An analysis of covariance with 52 gifted students in a summer camp gave no significant main effect of treatment for trait anxiety, or their interaction. Scamper may not effectively improve figural creativity and anxiety may not influence figural creativity the same way it influences verbal creativity, at least as measured. PMID:8332693
Aysun Öztuna Kaplan
Full Text Available The study was derived from an action research on the use of synectics in creative thinking methods in science and technology teaching. There were three main application steps in the action research, which was designed to help students in gaining creative thinking skills. In the research, which had lasted for one teaching semester, the teacher firstly fulfilled two different applications to make the students get used to the synectics technique. First of these applications was to redefine the concept of creativity. This was followed by the activity of designing a dynamometer. In the third stage, these students were asked to develop a creative project in three or four-person groups in one semester. The researcher continued synectics activities with the project group one by one in the same period. In the redefinition of the concept of creativity, which was the first stage of the action research, synectics methods were used. The research was made along the moment and action unit, which is the second unit of 7th grade science and technology class, in 2009-2010 teaching year. The population of the research was composed of 43 seventh graders in a public school in Istanbul. In the research, in which the students define the concept of creativity, “making the strange familiar” method (Hummell, 2004, which is one of the two basic implementations and is composed of six stages, was used. The students reached their own definitions of creativity at the end of this process, which started with building direct analogies and ended with creating original end-products. It was seen that the students began to see creativity in a different way and to perceive it as a process at the end of the synectics applications, rather than just an activity aiming at creation of an original product.
Madore, Kevin P; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L
People produce more episodic details when imagining future events and solving means-end problems after receiving an episodic-specificity induction-brief training in recollecting details of a recent event-than after receiving a control induction not focused on episodic retrieval. Here we show for the first time that an episodic-specificity induction also enhances divergent creative thinking. In Experiment 1, participants exhibited a selective boost on a divergent-thinking task (generating unusual uses of common objects) after a specificity induction compared with a control induction; by contrast, performance following the two inductions was similar on an object association task thought to involve little divergent thinking. In Experiment 2, we replicated the specificity-induction effect on divergent thinking using a different control induction, and also found that participants performed similarly on a convergent-thinking task following the two inductions. These experiments provide novel evidence that episodic memory is involved in divergent creative thinking. PMID:26205963
Riga, Vassiliki; Chronopoulou, Elena
The purpose of this study was to identify certain strategies and conditions that should be used by teachers in kindergarten so as to foster creative thinking and creative behaviours to children. We used a quasi-experimental research design for 6 months in a public kindergarten in a suburban area of Greece, and we developed a creative music and…
The importance of creative thinking in science cannot be overstated. Creativity is integral to the development of knowledge about the natural world and the knowledge, skills and abilities that support it are in need of greater understanding. The Next Generation Science Standards (2012) include practices that implicitly emphasize the creative…
Akbari Chermahini, Soghra; Hommel, Bernhard
Increasing evidence suggests that emotions affect cognitive processes. Recent approaches have also considered the opposite: that cognitive processes might affect people's mood. Here we show that performing and, to a lesser degree, preparing for a creative thinking task induce systematic mood swings: Divergent thinking led to a more positive mood, whereas convergent thinking had the opposite effect. This pattern suggests that thought processes and mood are systematically related but the type of relationship is process-specific. PMID:21695470
Akbari Chermahini, Soghra; Hommel, Bernhard
Increasing evidence suggests that emotions affect cognitive processes. Recent approaches have also considered the opposite: that cognitive processes might affect people’s mood. Here we show that performing and, to a lesser degree, preparing for a creative thinking task induce systematic mood swings: Divergent thinking led to a more positive mood, whereas convergent thinking had the opposite effect. This pattern suggests that thought processes and mood are systematically related but the type o...
Logical thinking of students should be enhanced at all levels of their studies. There are many possibilities how to achieve it. In the paper one possible way within the subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization” dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be presented. These mathematical disciplines are powerful tools for teachers allowing them to develop logical thinking of students, increase their imagination and make them familiar with solutio...
Antink-Meyer, Allison; Lederman, Norman G.
The divergent thinking skills in science of 282 US high school students were investigated across 16 weeks of instruction in order to determine whether typical academic time periods can significantly influence changes in thinking skills. Students' from 6 high school science classrooms completed the Scientific Structures Creativity Measure (SSCM)…
Missett, Tracy C.
This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted studies, linked by investigation into the development of thinking skills deemed necessary for the 21st Century. While educators and policy makers advocate teaching students creative and critical thinking skills to address an increasingly global and complex world, they simultaneously…
This essay offers two novel thinking-modes, “body thinking” and “story thinking,” both intrinsically interrelated, as alternative reasoning to usual analytical logic, and claims that they facilitate understanding “religion” as our ultimate living in the Beyond. Thus body thinking, story thinking, and religion naturally gather into a threefold thinking synonymy. This essay adumbrates in story-thinking way this synonymy in four theme-stages, one, appreciating body thinking primal at our root, t...
Kuan Chen Tsai
Full Text Available It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate that creative thinking, assessed by RAT, and learning preferences, evaluated by ILS, are not highly correlated. Over all, students in this study show a balanced learning preference across four dimensions. In summary, this study directs a possible path for future researchers to investigate this phenomenon.
Cherylene De Jager; Anton Muller; Gert Roodt
Orientation: An important evaluation function is to determine whether creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed through training and to assess whether these skills, on their own, are sufficient to ignite innovation in organisations.Research purpose: The evaluation question that the present study aimed to address is whether employees in a corporate context, such as a financial services organisation, can develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-sol...
Aysenur Yontar Togrol
This paper explains the results of multi-year applications of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production in a Turkish context with Turkish participants. The purpose of the study is to present the results of several empirical studies conducted by different Turkish samples, using the instrument which was developed by Jellen and Urban for measuring the creative thinking potentials of individuals. The number of the subjects of all the studies described here totaled to 1529. These participa...
Garaigordobil, Maite; Berrueco, Laura
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a play program in the creative thinking of preschool children. The study used a repeated measures experimental pretest-posttest design with control groups. The sample included 86 participants aged 5 to 6 years (53 experimental and 33 control participants). Before and after administering the program, two evaluation instruments were applied: The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1990) and Behaviors and Traits of Creative Personality Scale (Garaigordobil & Berrueco, 2007). The program consisted of a weekly 75-minute play session throughout the school year. ANOVA results showed that the program significantly increased the verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility, originality), graphic creativity (elaboration, fluency, originality), and behaviors and traits of creative personality. In the pretest phase, there were no differences in the creativity of boys and girls, and the program stimulated a similar level of change in both sexes. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing creative programs with preschool children. PMID:22059307
Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would en...
Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would en...
De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Sagone, Elisabetta
This study examined the relations of creative thinking with Big Five factors of personality and the differences by sex and age on creativity. A sample of Italian schoolchildren (56 boys, 56 girls), between 8 to 10 years of age, completed the Test of Creative Thinking and the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Analysis of results indicated that older children obtained significantly higher scores than the younger ones on Elaboration and Production of titles. Girls obtained significantly higher scores than boys on Originality and Elaboration. The results suggested a modest and negative relation of Flexibility with Conscientiousness and Production of titles with Emotional instability. These findings support the need to explore the connection between creativity and personality with developmental age by means of multiple tasks for evaluating creative thinking. PMID:20099541
Full Text Available Ayudar a los estudiantes a pensar de forma creativa suele considerarse uno de los objetivos clave de la educación. Sin embargo, muchas universidades de todo el mundo muestran cierta preocupación al respecto que sugiere que los estudiantes no están preparados para un mundo en el que necesitarán resolver problemas desordenados y desestructurados que no tienen fácil solución. Este artículo presenta el «design thinking» como una metodología para la innovación centrada en las personas, que se ha implementado en un programa para la innovación en el diseño de la Universidad de Stanford, así como en una de las consultoras de diseño más exitosas. Después de un breve resumen del concepto de design thinking, se ilustran los elementos clave de esta pedagogía para la innovación a través de su aplicación en una universidad en Colombia. Rendida cuenta del elevado potencial de esta metodología para la construcción de confianza y capacidad creativa en los estudiantes de todas las disciplinas, y del evidente poder de la próxima generación de tecnologías de la información y la colaboración, así como de los medios sociales, el autor propone nuevos proyectos de investigación y desarrollo que aportarán más creatividad a los programas de educación a distancia y semipresenciales gracias a la aplicación del «design thinking».Helping students think creatively is consistently cited as one of the key goals of education. Yet, across universities around the world, alarms have been sounding off suggesting that students are not prepared for a world where they are expected to solve messy, unstructured problems that don't have easy answers. This paper introduces design thinking, a human-centered innovation methodology that has been implemented in a design innovation program at Stanford University as well as at one of the most successful design consultancies. After a brief overview of design thinking, the author illustrates the key elements of this innovation pedagogy through its implementation at a university in Colombia. Realizing the potential of this methodology for building creative competence and confidence among students from all disciplines, and recognizing the power of the next generation of information and collaboration technologies and social media, the author proposes new research and development projects that will bring more creativity to traditional distance and blended learning programs through an infusion of design thinking.
Pervin Oya Taneri
Full Text Available Since creative thinking is an essential requirement in today’s societies, educational institutions have to make some reforms in order to prepare next generation according to the needs of the societies such as giving more emphasis on creative thinking. The main aims of this paper are to reveal the parents’ opinions about the creative thinking skills, to teach parents the meaning of creative thinking, and to teach parents to create home environments that enhance creative thinking skills. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed. Pretest- posttest experimental design was used and qualitative data were collected by an open-ended questionnaire. A 10-hour parent education seminar was used as an intervention for the experimental group. The participants of the research were 80 parents (40 parents in the experimental group, 40 parents in the control group from a primary school in Ankara, Turkey. Content analysis was applied to analyze the qualitative data. The pretest results have indicated that there were no differences between parents groups according to the knowledge level about the creative thinking. According to posttest results, the knowledge levels of parents in the experimental group who were given 10-hour parent education seminar were increased. However, the knowledge levels of the parents who have not given any education in the control group, were remained the same. Besides, experimental group parents have more information about creating home environments that enhance creativity rather than control group parents. According to the findings, parents' perspectives in the experimental group on the creative thinking skills have changed after the parent education seminar. However, the perspectives of the parent in the control group have not changed.
Demonstrates how Japanese cultural and social factors influence ways of thinking about science and carrying on technological activities. Suggests that nonlinear modes of thought using pattern-recognition rather than Western "digital" approaches and a highly formalized education contribute to the Japanese scientific method. (SK)
Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.
This study continues the effort to investigate the possible influence of bilingualism on an individual's creative potential. The performances of Farsi-English bilinguals living in the UAE and Farsi monolinguals living in Iran were compared on the Culture Fair Intelligence Test battery and two creativity tests: divergent thinking test (the…
Miller, Angie L.; Dumford, Amber D.
Previous research has suggested that several different aspects of one's environment can impact creativity. Using data from the Strategic National Arts Alumni Project (SNAAP), this study explored whether satisfaction with aspects of the institutional experience contributed to the perceived development of creative thinking in arts alumni, and…
Systemicity is receiving wider attention thanks to its evident paradox. On the one hand, it occurs as a problem with complex symptoms. On the other, it is sought after as an approach for dealing with the non-linear reality of the world. At once problem and prize, systemicity continues to confound. This book details the mechanics of this paradox as they arise from human epistemological engagement with the world. Guided by an original analysis of the fundamental idea of emergent property, Thinking Through Systems Thinking uncovers the distinct significance, but also inc
Elena Chronopoulou; Vassiliki Riga
As interest in creativity is rising, kindergarten teachers are looking for ways to strengthen the creative potential of young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music and movement activities to creative thinking in preschool children. A three month educational programme was designed and implemented, using an experimental research method. The effect on fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of thought of 5 year old children, as well as how the programme...
Anna Yurievna Kuvarzina
Full Text Available Teachers of the gifted students should not only make an enrichment and acceleration program for them but also pay attention to the development of analytical, critical and creative thinking skills. Despite great interest for this issue in the last years, the topic of analytical and creative thinking is poorly considered in the textbooks for the gifted. In this article some methods, materials and programs of analytical, critical and creative thinking skills development, which are used in the USA, are described. The author analyses and systematize the methods and also suggests some ways of their usage in the Russian educational system.Purpose: to analyze and systematize methods, materials and programs, that are used in the USA for teaching gifted children analytical, critical and creative thinking, for development of their capacities of problem-solving and decision-making. Methods and methodology of the research: analysis, comparison, principle of the historical and logical approaches unity.Results: positive results of employment of analytical, critical and creative thinking development methods were shown in the practical experience of teaching and educating gifted children in the USA educational system.Results employment field: the Russian Federation educational system: schools, special classes and courses for the gifted children.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-42
This document summarizes five studies that offer insight into the nature of higher-order thinking skills and the most effective methods for teaching them to students. The reviews outline the conclusions, definitions, recommendations, specific methods of teaching, instructional strategies, and programs detailed in the documents themselves.…
Wen-Cheng Wang; Chung-Chieh Lee; Ying-Chien Chu
Mind mapping is a presentation form of radiant thinking, utilizing lines, colors, characters, numbers, symbols, image, pictures or keywords, etc. to associate, integrate and visualize the learned concept and evoke brain potential. Through mind maps, one’s attention, coordination ability, logic, reasoning, thinking, analyzing, creativity, imagination, memory, ability of planning and integration, speed reading, character, number, visuality, hearing, kinesthetic sense, sensation, etc. are signif...
Teplaya Naila Aligasanovna
Full Text Available The article discusses methods to improve the information culture in the development of research and creative abilities of students on the basis of creative thinking. The purpose: consider ways to improve the information culture in the development of research and creative abilities of students on the basis of creative thinking. Method or methodology of carrying out of job: theoretical analysis of the psychological and educational literature. Results: The essence of the methods to improve the information culture, which leads to the development of abilities to work in a multi-factor systems in the face of uncertainty, to the construction of more complex hierarchical structures of their own activities, updating combinatorial abilities, that improve the development process of research and creativity, to generate the highest level IV information Culture - Professionally. Scope of results: preparation of the information for University students.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of the visual materials’ usage in Social Sciences on students’ academic achievement, creative thinking skills and their attitudes towards the course. The study was based on the Social Sciences unit titled ‘’Geography and Our World’’ and conducted with a total number of 38 students, (18 of them were in the experimental group and 20 of them were in the control group. The participants were 6th grade students of Koç Primary School in Bolu. For data collection, Social Sciences Achievement Test, Torrance Creative Thinking Test and Attitude Scale were used as instruments. In the statistical analysis of data, Mean, Standard Deviation levels and Mann Whitney-U Test were used. The results of the study revealed that the program designed for the experimental group, increased the participants’ academic achievement and creative thinking skills and had a positive impact on their attitudes towards the course.© 2013 IOJES. All rights reserved
Full Text Available Today it is necessary to develop an education model that is special to creative individuals and their creativeness. It is also required to discover children and young people who have creative qualities at an early stage and improve creative thinking in their minds. For this aim, it is very important to determine the high-level thinking skills, especially creative thinking levels of children at primary education period. Therefore, there are considerable duties available for the teachers.In this study, the creative thinking levels of two distinct student groups from different primary schools who study at sixth class of primary education are explored and a comparison is made between their levels. The goal of this research is to find out how the fluency, flexibility and originality dimensions of these students differ. In the way of this purpose, there are fourty-three sixth class of primary education students, who study at two different primary schools in ?zmir, formed the research sampling. Twenty-six of these students are female while seventeen students are male. The Torrance Creative Thinking Test Linguistic –A Form is used as a data collecting tool in the study. The application and form evaluation periods have done by the researchers. At the end of the research, there are meaningful differences obtained between the two schools about the fluency, flexibility and originality levels of students attended to the research. When it is considered in terms of total creative levels, it is seen that the fluency points of those two schools attended to this study are the highest while the flexibility points are the lowest. This situation betrays that the students participated in this study can not use their skill of producing many ideas in terms of handling cases from all points of views.
Full Text Available Logical thinking of students should be enhanced at all levels of their studies. There are many possibilities how to achieve it. In the paper one possible way within the subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization” dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be presented. These mathematical disciplines are powerful tools for teachers allowing them to develop logical thinking of students, increase their imagination and make them familiar with solutions to various problems. Thanks the knowledge gained within the subjects students should be able to describe various practical situations with the aid of graphs, solve the given problem expressed by the graph, and translate the solution back into the initial situation. Student engagement is crucial for successful education. Practical tasks and puzzles attract students to know more about the explained subject matter and to apply gained knowledge. There are an endless number of enjoyable tasks, puzzles and logic problems in books like “Mathematics is Fun”, in riddles magazines and on the Internet. In the paper, as an inspiration, four puzzles developing logical thinking appropriate to be solved using graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be introduced. On these puzzles of different level of difficulty the students’ ability to find out the appropriate graph-representation of the given task and solve it will be discussed as well. The author of the paper has been prepared with her students various multimedia applications dealing with objects appropriate to subject matter for more than 15 years. In the paper we also discuss a benefit of multimedia applications used as a support of subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization”.
Gothler, A M; Hanner, M B
The process of triangulation was used to develop an instrument to measure thinking, learning, and creativity in the nursing workplace. A TLC instrument consisting of five components was systematically developed as part of this study. In this descriptive correlative study, we investigated nurses' perceptions of their ability to think, learn, and be creative in their work life. The results of the investigation showed that TLC is significantly related to the perceived quality of work life of practicing registered professional nurses supporting Naisbett and Aburdene's (1985) idea that TLC is essential to attract and retain employees in the workplace. PMID:1788069
Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson
As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss
Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…
Full Text Available Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s. None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants’ real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.
Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok
Design theory lies at the heart of information systems design science research. One concern in this area is the potential to limit the designer’s creativity by over-specifying the meta-design or the design process. This paper explains how design research encapsulates a two-person design team consisting of the design theorist and the artifact instance designer. Design theory embodies a creativity passdown effect in which the creative design thinking is partly executed by the design theorist and the completion of this thinking is deferred to the artifact instance designer. In fact, rather than limiting the instance designer’s creativity, the design theorist may create an opportunity for the instance designer to be creative by passing down a design theory. Further, the artifact instance designer operates within the problem domain defined by design theorist, and engages in design thinking to achieve an innovative design by merging theoretical knowledge with experiential knowledge of a design artifact that is being built. The creativity passdown effect was examined through a case that involved developing a tool for multi-outsourcing decision making. The case provides empirical support for the creativity passdown effect.
Zabelina, Darya L; Condon, David; Beeman, Mark
Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s). None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants' real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed. PMID:25278919
This case study evaluated creative thinking of RN-BSN students in the course of clinical case study and practicum. Study design used quantitative and qualitative evaluations of creative thinking of RN-BSN students by triangulation method in the course of clinical case study and practicum. Sixty RN-BSN students self-perceived the changing levels of…
Baum, Liesl M.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary
The role of critical and creative thinking has been debated within the field of instructional design. Through an instructional design and development project we have identified how critical and creative thinking are essential to the instructional design process. This paper highlights a recent project focused on a virtual Native American village…
Yasar, Munevver Can; Aral, Neriman
This study aims to identify six-year-old pre-school children's creative thinking skill levels and to establish whether there is a difference between the creative thinking skills of children who received drama education and those who did not. The population of the study consisted of six-year-old children who were attending pre-school classes of…
This paper presents the attempt to explore theoretically the nature of creativity in negotiation process in order to find out what is the biggest challenge for creativity there. Negotiation process as a context for exercising creativity has been presented and some challenges for creativity there have been pointed out. Further, theories of creativity have been reviewed and their implications or negotiation process have been discussed. It has been found that the main problem with creativity and...
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This article invites us to think about the role of dichotomies in the psychology of creativity and how they can sometimes lead to a misrepresentation of the phenomenon. Especially when turned into oppositions, which is often the case with dichotomies, distinctions such as those between individual and society, Big C and little c creativity, evolutionary and revolutionary creation, domain generality and domain specificity, product and process, can have detrimental effects on our understanding of the nature and characteristics of creative expression. In contrast, the article advocates for a relational type of logic, supported by socio-cultural and pragmatist sources, one that encourages us to observe the interdependence between categories and the ways in which they are embedded into each other. Examples are given from the five “debates” mentioned above and some consequences of adopting a new way of thinking about creativity discussed towards the end.
Christophe Vetterli; Walter Brenner; Falk Uebernickel
The challenge banks face to gain advantage over their competitors is being placed under pressure by the ever increasing speed of development which arises from the pace of innovation in computer technology, rapid changes in industry regulation and fast-changing customer needs. Banks have creative heads but the pursuing of efficient customer-centric creative work within an organization is often challenging. This paper presents a design thinking role model which was iteratively designed over nin...
Dream reports of highly creative male high school students were rated by clinical psychologists as exhibiting greater primary process thinking than the dream reports of matched controls; their dream protocols also included a significantly greater proportion of symbolism, condensations, and unusual combinations but a smaller proportion of…
Sener, Nilay; Türk, Cumhur; Tas, Erol
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a science education project implemented in different learning environments on secondary school students' creative thinking skills and their attitudes to science lesson. Within this scope, a total of 50 students who participated in the nature education project in Samsun City in 2014 make up the…
Alferova Olga Ivanovna
Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of speech situations created at the English lessons. The purpose is to study one of the most efficient methods to involve pupils into the active speech activity through their imagination and creative thinking and show the essential condition which is pupils’ interest in the topic of speech situations.
Rucinski, Terrance T.; Arredondo, Daisy E.
As part of a larger investigation into workshop approach teaching, this study looked at how the workshop approach affected student creativity in project development and how the use of reflective journals impacted student project work. The workshop approach causes students to engage in metacognitive thinking during work on their class projects.…
Ausherman, Judith A.; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Kowalski, Jacqueline
This strategy is to provide health education teacher candidates with critical and creative thinking tools to explore gardening as a vehicle to integrate health education content with other subjects. According to the Competency-Based Framework for the Health Education Specialist (2010a), entry-level health educators should have skills and…
A paradox is a statement or situation that involves two or more contradictory, mutually exclusive elements that operate at the same time. This article examines a number of findings in motor-learning and motor-control research and categorizes them into six paradoxes. Based on those research findings, the concept of creative paradoxical thinking is…
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop model of Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including: 1 to synthesize the tentative model for Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology, 2 to develop the tentative model for Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including, and 3 to evaluate for certifying the tentative model for Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including, by using revision technique from experts called Expert review through the Opinion Survey, Interview, and Focus group discussion in order to synthesize as conceptual framework of design. Data were analyzed by using statistic of Percentage, Mean, and Standard Deviation, and interview tape deciphering. Then, the obtained data were explained, interpreted, and concluded. The research findings found that: 1 the appropriateness of details in tentative model found that the appropriateness was in “the Highest” level, 2 the appropriateness of details in tentative model in the steps and instructional activities by the research methodology including, found that the appropriateness was in “High” level.
Pukdeewut, Sutinan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Satapornwong, Pattananusorn
The objectives of this research were: to design a creative thinking development program for learning activity management of secondary school teachers, and to study the program's efficiency and effectiveness of usage. The results of the study were as follows: the program includes the vision, principles, objectives, content, program development…
The purpose of this study was to investigate methods of enhancing kindergarteners' artistic creative thinking and expressive drawing through an activity that involved appreciation of picture books. The study was conducted in a public kindergarten in southern Taiwan, with 27 children aged between 4 and 5. The researcher conducted the study in 16…
Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A
We examined developmental trajectories of creative cognition across adolescence. Participants (N = 98), divided into four age groups (12/13 yrs, 15/16 yrs, 18/19 yrs, and 25-30 yrs), were subjected to a battery of tasks gauging creative insight (visual; verbal) and divergent thinking (verbal; visuo-spatial). The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. On divergent thinking in the visuo-spatial domain, however, only 15/16-year-olds outperformed 12/13-year-olds; a model with peak performance for 15/16-years-old showed the best fit. The results for the different creativity processes are discussed in relation to cognitive and related neurobiological models. We conclude that mid-adolescence is a period of not only immaturities but also of creative potentials in the visuo-spatial domain, possibly related to developing control functions and explorative behavior. PMID:23278922
This small scale research project examines opportunities for creative thinking and imagination through den making in a rural private day nursery with its own woodland area on the borders of England and Wales in the UK. The research is underpinned by sociocultural theory and is an ethnographic study of non-participant observations of children aged…
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
Creativity and culture are inherently linked. Society and culture are part and parcel of creativity’s process, outcome, and subjective experience.Equally, creativity does not reside in the individual independent of culture and society. Vlad Petre Gl?veanu’s basic framework includes creators and community, from which new artifacts emerge and existing artifacts are developed. He points to a relationship between self and other, new and old, specific for every creative act. Using this multifaceted system requires that researchers employ ecological research in order to capture the heterogeneity and social dimensions of creativity. Gl?veanu uses an approach based on cultural psychology to present creativity in lay terms and within everyday settings. He concludes with a unitary cultural framework of creativity interrelating actors, audiences, actions, artifacts, and affordances.
Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals toward a relatively focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed...
Vivian M. Y. CHENG
In response to the recent school creativity reforms in Asian places, this paper studied three different approaches of integrating creative thinking training into regular science lessons. They include developing creative thinking through science process, science content and science scenario. Three teacher case studies were conducted to examine the potentials and obstacles of implementing these approaches in classroom of Hong Kong. This study found that all the approaches were useful in develop...
Elnetthra Folly Eldy
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to report andprovide evidence of positive development on physics students’ thinking style focally on their critical thinking at early implementation of an integrated problem-based learning (PBL approach. This study was performed on a cohort of 28 Physics with Electronics students from School of Science and Technology at University Malaysia Sabah. The sample was trained by the integrated PBL method for 1 semester (i.e., 14 weeks in a Physics course (i.e., Thermodynamics. The YanPiaw Creative-Critical Thinking (YCreative-Critical Thinking Test developed by Chua (2004 was used to identify students’ level of thinking style (i.e.,balanced thinking, criticalthinking etc. before and after the early implementation. Theresults show positive development in students’ thinking style before to after the implementation. Additionally the relations of these thinking styles with student’s age were also analysed.
Cherylene De Jager
Full Text Available Orientation: An important evaluation function is to determine whether creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed through training and to assess whether these skills, on their own, are sufficient to ignite innovation in organisations. Research purpose: The evaluation question that the present study aimed to address is whether employees in a corporate context, such as a financial services organisation, can develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills through an intervention such as a workshop. Motivation for the study: A financial services organisation commissioned the primary author of this article to design a workshop with the intent to develop the creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of their employees in order to ignite innovation and competitiveness. Research design, approach and method: This study employed mainly qualitative research. Utilisation-focused evaluation (UFE was employed and findings from the literature review, questionnaires, pen-and-paper tests and interviews were used. The unit of analysis was a niche business unit in a South African financial services organisation.Main findings: From this study’s point of view, the most critical finding related to the confirmation that individuals can acquire creative and innovative thinking and problemsolving skills. The acquisition of these skills, however, is not sufficient on its own to establish a culture supportive of creativity and sustainable innovation. Practical/managerial implications: The development of creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of employees is not sufficient on its own to support sustainable innovation. Managers should consciously establish determinants on an organisational as well as an individual level to create an environment supportive of sustainable innovation. Contribution/value-add: The present study indicated how a workshop can assist individuals to develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills. The acquisition of these skills is not sufficient on its own to ignite sustainable innovation.
Jun Hong; Haifeng Chen
Creativity is an essential element of success in contemporary organizations, yet much remains to be discovered about how creativity happens. Based on the system approach, this paper tries to explore how the creativity happens in the minds of individuals. Then it gives three cases to discuss the process of an idea for new product or new technology. And finally, it shows the result of creating knowledge is not an individual’s activity but continual interaction standing in individuals or between...
Abraham, Anna; Windmann, Sabine; Siefen, Rainer; Daum, Irene; Güntürkün, Onur
A widened attentional focus, that is typically associated with ADHD, has been postulated to be accompanied by enhanced creative ability. However, creativity has been only limitedly examined in ADHD. Performance across several creativity measures were investigated in three groups: adolescents with ADHD, those with conduct disorder, and a healthy control sample. The ADHD group exhibited selective cognitive advantages and disadvantages by demonstrating an enhanced ability in overcoming the const...
Abraham, Anna; Windmann, Sabine; Siefen, Rainer; Daum, Irene; Güntürkün, Onur
A widened attentional focus, that is typically associated with ADHD, has been postulated to be accompanied by enhanced creative ability. However, creativity has been only limitedly examined in ADHD. Performance across several creativity measures were investigated in three groups: adolescents with ADHD, those with conduct disorder, and a healthy control sample. The ADHD group exhibited selective cognitive advantages and disadvantages by demonstrating an enhanced ability in overcoming the constraining influence of examples, but a reduced capacity to generate a functional invention during an imagery task. These findings are interpreted with reference to inhibitory control mechanisms and the contextual modulation of creative cognition. PMID:16754532
Canesi, Margherita; Rusconi, Maria Luisa; Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Pezzoli, Gianni
Background and purpose: Creative drive and enhanced artistic-like production may emerge in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during dopaminergic therapy. However, it has not been described to date whether this artistic-like production results from dopaminergic drugs triggering innate skills or it could be considered as a repeated behavior possibly associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs). Methods: We investigated creative drive in a cohort of cognitively preserved patients wit...
Huang, Peiyu; Qiu, Lihua; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Song, Zhe; Qi, Zhiguo; Gong, Qiyong; Xie, Peng
As a complex mental process, creativity requires the coordination of multiple brain regions. Previous pathological research on figural creativity has indicated that there is a mechanism by which the left side of the brain inhibits the activities of the right side of the brain during figural creative thinking, but this mechanism has not been directly demonstrated. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the existence of this inhibitory mechanism in young adults (15 women, 11 men, mean age: 22 years) that were not artists. By making comparisons between brain activity during creative and uncreative tasks, we found increased activity in the left middle and inferior frontal lobe and strong decreases in activity in the right middle frontal lobe and the left inferior parietal lobe. As such, these data suggest that the left frontal lobe may inhibit the right hemisphere during figural creative thinking in normal people. Moreover, removal of this inhibition by practicing artistry or through specific damage to the left frontal lobe may facilitate the emergence of artistic creativity. PMID:22522783
Oliveira, Ema; Almeida, Leandro; Ferrándiz, Carmen; Ferrando, Mercedes; Sainz, Marta; Prieto, María Dolores
The aim of this work is to study the unidimensional and multidimensional nature of creativity when assessed through divergent thinking tasks, as proposed in Torrance's battery (Torrance Creative Thinking Test, TTCT). This battery is made up of various tasks with verbal and figurative content, aimed at estimating the level of creativity according to the dimensions or cognitive functions of fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of the individuals' ideas. This work used a sample of 595 Portuguese students from 5th and 6th grade. The results of confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the unidimensional model (a general factor of creativity) and the model of factors as a function of the cognitive dimensions of creativity, based on task content, do not fit well. The model with the best fit has a hierarchical factor structure, in which the first level comprises the factors for each of the subtests applied and the second level includes verbal or figurative content. The difficulty to verify the structural validity of the TTCT is noted, and the need for further studies to achieve, in practice, better individual creativity scores. PMID:19861099
Williams, Frank E.
The results of this study do not indicate any relationship between a child's performance on a creativity test and certain personality factors contributing to creativity, as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking and the CPQ. At both third and fourth grade levels, scores for the same child on the two tests were independent of each…
Jaracz, Jan; Patrza?a, Amelia; Rybakowski, Janusz K
The aim of this study was to investigate selected measures of creativity in schizophrenic patients and their relationship with neurocognitive executive functions Forty-three inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia who were in symptomatic remission (a total of 60) and 45 healthy control participants were included. Creativity was assessed using the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS) and the inventiveness part of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Test (BIS). Executive functions were measured by means of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Schizophrenic patients gave responses on the BWAS, had lower total score on the BIS and in the figural test, and performed worse on all domains of the WCST compared with control subjects. Their lower scores on the BIS correlated with lower scores on the WCST. Our results indicate that remitted schizophrenic patients perform worse on selected measures of creativity than healthy subjects and that executive dysfunctions may partially explain these deficits. PMID:22759935
Rabanos, Natalia Larraz; Torres, Pedro Allueva
Introduction: The aim of this study is to present an intervention program for creative skills development applied to a group of students of lower Secondary Education. Method: This program was applied in a school in Zaragoza (Spain) during the 2008-09 academic year. The study used a repeated-measures, quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent…
This paper outlines a project to develop and track "design thinking" skills within groups of students in late primary and early secondary years of schooling in order to strengthen their creative skills and innovative mindsets. The outcome of the research will be the development of a model for the broad-based implementation of design thinking in…
Priti Srinivas Sajja; Rajendra Akerkar; David Camacho
Creativity is a tool that helps in effective problem solving utilizing optimum scarce resources in anybusiness. This paper presents a conceptual framework of a multilayer evolutionary system that supportscreative thinking. The system evolves, using a genetic algorithm, new ideas from a set of basic ideas thatare casually provided through an interactive editor or selected from past transaction records. Thearchitecture proposed here encompasses three layers called system layer, database layer, ...
Sutinan Pukdeewut; Chalard Chantarasombat; Pattananusorn Satapornwong
The objectives of this research were: to design a creative thinking development program for learning activity management of secondary school teachers, and to study the program’s efficiency and effectiveness of usage. The results of the study were as follows: the program includes the vision, principles, objectives, content, program development process, evaluation of performance and effectiveness. The process development had 5 stages and 8 activities of construction. The efficiency of the devel...
Age-related changes in divergent thinking and creative objects production were investigated in 150 native Italian speakers, divided into six age groups, each one comprised 25 participants: young (20-29), young adult (30-39), middle aged (40-49), adult-old (50-59), old (60-69), and old-old (70-80). Two tasks were used: the alternative uses task,…
Tarasova, I V; Vol'f, N V; Razumnikova, O M
Gender-related differences in EEG patterns during creative visual thinking were investigated in 10 men and 10 women. The spectral power density was analyzed in the range of 4-30 Hz. Gender differences in the hemispheric asymmetry of theta1-rhythm desynchronization were found: females demonstrated greater desynchronization in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere, whereas no asymmetry was revealed in males. Only in women numerous negative correlations between creativity indices and task-induced theta1 desynchronization were found. PMID:16396482
Full Text Available The purpose of this study to examine effect of collaborative studies on prospective teachers? creative thinking skills while designing computer based materials. One group pre-test and post-test design of the pre-experimental model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. This experimental study have been applied to 34 prospective teachers who studied at Artvin Coruh University Facult of Education Primary Education Department in 2009-2010 spring term within the context of “Computer-II” course. “Creative Thinking Skill Scale” was applied at two different stages as pre-test and post-test and opinions of students were gathered about the method in research via interview forms. As a result, it was found that there was a significant difference between the prospective teachers? creative thinking skills and scores taken from scale were increased in favor of post-test. Collaborative group works have a great importance in occurrence of this increase was revealed from student views.
Storm, Benjamin C; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found that attempting to generate a novel common associate to 3 cue words caused the forgetting of other strong associates related to those cue words. This problem-solving-induced forgetting effect occurred even when participants failed to generate a viable solution, increased in magnitude when participants spent additional time problem solving, and was positively correlated with problem-solving success on a separate set of RAT problems. These results implicate a role for forgetting in overcoming fixation in creative problem solving. PMID:21707211
Foster, Jamie S; Lemus, Judith D
Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology. PMID:25474292
The analysand's capacity for making use of psychoanalytic treatment has been a subject of importance since the beginning of psychoanalysis. The author addresses an aspect of the difficulty encountered by analysands in achieving a psychic state that allows the creative use of free association, dreams, parapraxes and other spontaneous phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. He suggests that a very specific state of mind is essential to both the psychoanalytic process and the creative process. Using theoretical concepts derived from Freud, Klein and Bion, he develops the idea of an internal object relationship, 'the collaboration with the unconscious other', which forms the basis for both creative thinking and the psychoanalytic function of the personality. Creative thinking is distinguished from artistic endeavour and discussed as a universal potential, on which growth in psychoanalysis depends. The term 'unconscious other' is meant to signify the subjective experience of a foreign presence within oneself from which both spontaneous creative inspiration and involuntary psychic phenomena are felt to emanate. The author presents clinical material to suggest that paranoid-schizoid and depressive anxieties form obstacles to collaborating with the unconscious other, and must be worked through in order to achieve an analytic process. PMID:11436250
Rykov Kirill Nikolaevich
Full Text Available The present-day postindustrial or information-oriented society features an ever growing role of creative and intellectual abilities. This trend facilitates transformation of the workforce, as the portion of manual labor is reduced, while the one of intellectual labor goes up. As a result, architectural placemaking has to meet the new requirements driven by the specific nature of social and physiological constituents of the headwork. The aim of the article is the identification of new challenges that the high-quality architecture has to meet in its efforts to service the intellectual labour environment. For illustrative purposes, the author has chosen research and technology parks as the most typical postindustrial facilities. According to the author, intellectual constituents of the architectural practice represent systematic and research components. This division is the result of the analysis of research and technology parks. The author has made an attempt to identify special conditions of effective creativity in architectural practice. They include comfort, availability, information system development, calm, sociality, significance and variability. The list of conditions and general methods of their implementation presented by the author can be used in a wide range of project goals connected with the architectural design of research and technology parks and stimulation of creative potential of the people involved.
West, Donna; Sutton-Spence, Rachel
This article discusses a new way of thinking about analyzing sign-language poetry. Rather than merely focusing on the product, the method involves observing the process of its creation. Recent years have witnessed increasing literary and linguistic analysis of sign-language poetry, with commentaries on texts and performances being set within and…
Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang
Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to iden...
Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. “Conceptual expansion” refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while “overcoming knowledge constraints” refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.
Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. "Conceptual expansion" refers to the ability to widen one's conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while "overcoming knowledge constraints" refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition. PMID:24605098
Abraham, Anna; Thybusch, Kristin; Pieritz, Karoline; Hermann, Christiane
Gender differences in creativity have been widely studied in behavioral investigations, but this topic has rarely been the focus of neuroscientific research. The current paper presents follow-up analyses of a previous fMRI study (Abraham et al., Neuropsychologia 50(8):1906-1917, 2012b), in which behavioral and brain function during creative conceptual expansion as well as general divergent thinking were explored. Here, we focus on gender differences within the same sample. Conceptual expansion was assessed with the alternate uses task relative to the object location task, whereas divergent thinking was assessed in terms of responses across both the alternate uses and object location tasks relative to n-back working memory tasks. While men and women were indistinguishable in terms of behavioral performance across all tasks, the pattern of brain activity while engaged in the tasks in question was indicative of strategy differences between the genders. Brain areas related to semantic cognition, rule learning and decision making were preferentially engaged in men during conceptual expansion, whereas women displayed higher activity in regions related to speech processing and social perception. During divergent thinking, declarative memory related regions were strongly activated in men, while regions involved in theory of mind and self-referential processing were more engaged in women. The implications of gender differences in adopted strategies or cognitive style when faced with generative tasks are discussed. PMID:23807175
Full Text Available The aim of this research is determining the effectiveness of teaching methods based on creative drama activities performed at the “Design Studies-1” studio on creative thinking and design skills. The research’s work group consisted of 67 students who attended the 15-week Design Studies-1 studio (45 female, 22 male. The research is a one-group pretest-posttest experimental design. The theoretical basis of the research is cognitive creativity. The practices stimulating the imagination and flexible thinking skills with the basis of creative drama were used as the creativity-improving techniques. Based on the assumption that creative thinking is teachable, the hypothesis that the “Design Studies-1” program conducted by the first researcher will improve the students’ creative thinking skills was accepted. The data were collected through Creative Thinking Tests (Form A and B, which was developed by Torrance (1974 and 1984 and whose Turkish version was composed by Aslan (1999, 2006. For the data analysis, SPSS 13 program was used. In data analysis, related group t-test and Mann-Whitney U statistical test were applied. The pretest and posttest scores mean of the students were compared and significant positive results were found in favor of posttest between the means of figural fluency, figural originality, abstractness of the titles, expressiveness of the titles, intrinsic visualization, liveliness of imagery, richness of imagery, fantasy, verbal fluency, verbal flexibility and verbal originality.
Vol'f, N V; Tarasova, I V; Razumnikova, O M
The study was aimed to explore the features of interaction between cortical areas during figural creative task performance in high- and low-creative men and women. We divided the participants into two groups with high and low creativity by the median of originality score. EEG was recorded at rest and during task performance (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking "Incomplete figures"). The EEG coherence was computed in six frequency bands from theta1 to beta2. We analyzed the total values of coherence for each of 16 sites, calculated separately for intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connections. In the theta2, alphal, and alpha2 bands, coherence values decreased in task performance as compared to baseline in subjects with lower originality scores, whereas in subjects with higher scores, they increased in the theta2 and alpha1 bands. The decrease in the alpha2 band in the higher-creativity group was significantly lower in comparison with the decrease in the lower-score group. In the alpha2 band, the interaction of gender, creativity, laterality, and electrode position factors was also found during analysis of task-induced coherence changes. Further examination of the interaction showed the similarity of EEG coherence patterns in men and women with opposite creative abilities and higher values of task-induced coherence changes in the anterior regions of the left hemisphere and posterior regions of the right hemisphere in high-creative in comparison with low-creative men. The findings are discussed in terms of different cognitive strategies used by men and women that may have the same results in creative problem solving. PMID:19795805
Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard; Vallett, David
Introduction: Creativity is the production of the new, original, unique, and divergent products and ideas mediated through lateral thinking. Evidence suggests that high levels of creativity and fluency are important in the continued development of student interest, efficacy and ultimately career impact in the sciences. Method: In this study, 559…
Full Text Available Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Empathizing is the drive to identify the mental status of other individuals and respond to it with an appropriate emotion; systemizing is the drive to analyze a system. Recently, it has been proposed that low empathizing and high systemizing characterize individuals with autistic spectrum conditions (ASCs. It has been proposed that this higher systemizing underlies the academic achievement of these individuals, suggesting the possible positive association between creativity and systemizing. However, previous findings on the association between ASCs and creativity were conflicting. Conversely, previous studies have suggested an association between prosocial traits and creativity, indicating the possible association between empathizing and systemizing. Here we investigated the association between creativity measured by divergent thinking (CDT and empathizing, systemizing, and the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing, which is called D score. CDT was measured using the S-A creativity test and the score of empathizing (EQ and that of systemizing (SQ, and D score was measured via a validated questionnaire. The results showed that higher CDT was significantly and positively correlated with both the score of empathizing and the score of systemizing but not with D score. These results suggest that CDT is positively associated with one of the characteristics of ASCs (analytical aspects, while exhibiting a negative association with another (lower social aspects. Therefore, the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing, which is strongly associated with autistic tendency, was not associated with CDT.
Bunt, Byron John
The nurturing of creative thinking skills is one of the cornerstones of Outcomes-Based Education (OBE). This study investigated to what extent teachers nurture the development of creative thinking through the choice of teaching methods, which include the application of teaching strategies and the utilization of resources, in the Grade 9 Social Sciences classroom. A literature study was undertaken to highlight the importance and nature of the development of creative thinking skills, and to est...
Sajjadi-Bafghi, Seyed Hossein
The relations of sex and grade with verbal originality of 407 boys and 479 girls (M age= 12.7 yr., SD=.9) in Iranian middle schools (Grades 6 through 8) were investigated. The Sounds and Images test, one of the components of Thinking Creatively with Sounds and Words, was administered to measure verbal originality. Analysis showed boys scored significantly higher than girls on verbal originality and Grade 6 children scored significantly higher than Grade 7 children. The results were discussed in terms of sociocultural factors. PMID:17688090
Creativity is a complex construct involving several different mental operations. Neurophysiological studies on creativity have seldom fully considered this fact and have instead approached creativity as a single entity. Furthermore, most neurophysiological studies of creativity face methodological problems. The present studies follow a novel approach to investigate the neural underpinnings of creativity by focusing on one creative mental operation, namely conceptual expansion. Conceptual expa...
Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrándiz, Carmen; Bermejo, María R; Sánchez, Cristina; Parra, Joaquín; Prieto, María D
The present work sets out to study the internal structure of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) and to establish standardised scores that will enable the test to be used in both a diagnostic and educational context. 649 students (319 girls and 330 boys), aged 5 to 12 years from various schools in Murcia and Alicante (SE Spain), took part in the study. The findings suggest that the psychometric characteristics of TTCT are satisfactory, and its internal structure can be attributed to three factors that are responsible for a high percentage of the variance (73.8%). The standardised score tables, which are provided for first time in this context, will be useful in the evaluation of creativity and the identification of students with high intellectual abilities. PMID:17617990
Franklin, K W; Cornell, D G
Highly intelligent and creative persons have long posed interpretation difficulties for users of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. This study examined Exner's (1993) Schizophrenia, Depression, and Coping Deficit indices as adjustment measures in a sample of 43 female adolescents enrolled in an early college entrance program and a comparison group of 19 girls enrolled in public high school gifted programs. Contrary to conventional interpretation, higher scores on the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index among the accelerants were correlated with healthy emotional adjustment on both the California Psychological Inventory and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Further analyses offered support for the hypothesis that among accelerants, elevated scores on the Rorschach constellations did not indicate psychopathology, but rather their creative thinking style. PMID:9018850
Vivian M. Y. CHENG
Full Text Available In response to the recent school creativity reforms in Asian places, this paper studied three different approaches of integrating creative thinking training into regular science lessons. They include developing creative thinking through science process, science content and science scenario. Three teacher case studies were conducted to examine the potentials and obstacles of implementing these approaches in classroom of Hong Kong. This study found that all the approaches were useful in developing student creative thinking, yet teachers experienced different tensions and dilemmas in different approaches. This paper suggests that the science content approach may be more readily accepted by teachers and students in an educational system which is dominated by knowledge content and examinations. However, with the limited skills and experience in creativity, teachers and students may feel that the science process and science scenario approach are easier to start with, as they are less constrained by the rigid content in the syllabus. Among various hindering factors, the most crucial one was found to be the original heavy knowledge-content, which in fact is a common characteristic of secondary science curriculum in many Asian places. In our future research and educational reforms, the dilemma between creative thinking and content learning needs to be seriously considered and solved at both individual and system levels.
Full Text Available This study set out to investigate the association among English language learners' Autonomy (AU, Creativity (CR, Critical Thinking (CT, and Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS. The participants of this study were 202 randomly selected male and female undergraduate (English as a Foreign Language EFL learners, between the ages of 19 and 26 (Mage = 22 years. These participants filled out four questionnaires estimating their AU, CR, CT, and VLS. The characteristics of the collected data legitimated running Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. The results suggested that there is a significant and positive relationship between EFL learners' AU and CR, AU and CT, AU and VLS, CR and CT, CR and VLS, as well as their CT and VLS. Considering AU as the predicted variable for this study, it was confirmed that CT is the best predictor of AU. The article concludes with some pedagogical implications and some avenues for future research.Keywords: creativity, critical thinking, foreign language learning, learning autonomy, vocabulary learning strategies
Takamura, Koji; Yoshimoto, Ken-Ichi
Specialist knowledge and creative ability are important for engineers to solve various problems in manufacturing products. Creative ability cannot be acquired without real experiences and much knowledge. This paper discusses the educational effects of “instruction for thinking” in fundamental experiments in electrical and electronic engineering. An experiment was conducted in which students were required not only to use their previous knowledge but also to think by themselves in order to enhance creative ability. In this experiment, the present authors encouraged students to find out problems on their own, and waited until they worked out the solution. After the experiment, we conducted a questionnaire on students to the motivation for studying the technical subjects. As a result, it was confirmed that the practical ability for thinking was improved.
Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that there is moderate to strong correlation between creative thinking and empathy with self-awareness as three important skills in human life and the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between these three aspects of life skills. The participants in the study contained of 96(54 males and 42 females 10 grade of high school students from Mysore in India. Life skill questionnaire - India (LSQI, carried out on the group sample and date analyzed through Pearson correlation and multiple regression using SPSS soft ware.The results revealed that self-awareness significantly has positive correlation with creative thinking (r=31, p<.01 and empathy(r=36, p<.01. Analysis of regression also shows that multiple relationships between three variables is significant (MR=0.36 and RS = .12, p<.01 and 12 percent of variation of self-awareness can be predicts by empathy and creative thinking.
Colombo, Barbara; Bartesaghi, Noemi; Simonelli, Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro
The role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in influencing creative thinking has been investigated by many researchers who, while succeeding in proving an effective involvement of PFC, reported suggestive but sometimes conflicting results. In order to better understand the relationships between creative thinking and brain activation in a more specific area of the PFC, we explored the role of dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). We devised an experimental protocol using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). The study was based on a 3 (kind of stimulation: anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham) × 2 (priming: divergent vs. convergent) design. Forty-five healthy adults were randomly assigned to one stimulation condition. Participants' creativity skills were assessed using the Product Improvement subtest from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). After 20 min of tDCS stimulation, participants were presented with visual images of common objects. Half of the participants were instructed to visualize themselves using the object in an unusual way (divergent priming), whereas the other half were asked to visualize themselves while using the object in a common way (convergent priming). Priming was aimed at inducing participants to adopt different attitudes toward the creative task. Afterwards, participants were asked to describe all of the possible uses of the objects that were presented. Participants' physiological activation was recorded using a biofeedback equipment. Results showed a significant effect of anodal stimulation that enhanced creative performance, but only after divergent priming. Participants showed lower skin temperature values after cathodal stimulation, a finding which is coherent with studies reporting that, when a task is not creative or creative thinking is not prompted, people show lower levels of arousal. Differences in individual levels of creativity as assessed by the Product Improvement test were not influential. The involvement of DLPFC in creativity has been supported, presumably in association to shift of attention modulated by priming. PMID:26236219
Fink, Andreas; Graif, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C
Neuroscientific research on creativity has revealed valuable insights into possible brain correlates underlying this complex mental ability domain. However, most of the studies investigated brain activity during the performance of comparatively simple (verbal) type of tasks and the majority of studies focused on samples of the normal population. In this study we investigate EEG activity in professional dancers (n=15) who have attained a high level of expertise in this domain. This group was compared with a group of novices (n=17) who have only basic experience in dancing and completed no comprehensive training in this field. The EEG was recorded during performance of two different dancing imagery tasks which differed with respect to creative demands. In the first task participants were instructed to mentally perform a dance which should be as unique and original as possible (improvisation dance). In the waltz task they were asked to imagine dancing the waltz, a standard dance which involves a sequence of monotonous steps (lower creative demands). In addition, brain activity was also measured during performance of the Alternative Uses test. We observed evidence that during the generation of alternative uses professional dancers show stronger alpha synchronization in posterior parietal brain regions than novice dancers. During improvisation dance, professional dancers exhibited more right-hemispheric alpha synchronization than the group of novices did, while during imagining dancing the waltz no significant group differences emerged. The findings complement and extend existing findings on the relationship between EEG alpha activity and creative thinking. PMID:19269335
Full Text Available Neste breve artigo, com base em uma análise dos recentes discursos acadêmicos e políticos sobre a criatividade, apresenta-se uma reflexão teórica sobre a necessária articulação dialética do pensamento crítico e criativo em estudos de Comunicação. Em uma primeira etapa, são questionados os pressupost [...] os com o objetivo de construir um novo paradigma social e econômico baseado na criatividade. Coloca-se em dúvida, em particular, as hipóteses teóricas e metodológicas de Richard Florida sobre a emergência de uma classe criativa. Em uma segunda etapa, é mostrado como é fácil para os políticos que promovem a criatividade como um valor positivo tornar-se uma pedra angular no desenvolvimento da sociedade da informação. Como conclusão, destaca-se a renovação do pensamento crítico como um complemento necessário da valorização do processo criativo nos estudos de Comunicação. Abstract in spanish Este breve artículo, basado en un análisis de los recientes discursos académicos y políticos en la creatividad, presenta una reflexión teórica sobre la necesaria articulación dialéctica del pensamiento creativo y crítico en los estudios sobre Comunicación. En una primera etapa, los supuestos son cue [...] stionados con el fin de construir un nuevo paradigma basado en la creatividad social y económica. El pone en duda, en particular, los supuestos teóricos y metodológicos Richard Florida en el surgimiento de una clase creativa. En un segundo paso, se muestra lo fácil que es para los políticos que promueven la creatividad como un valor positivo para convertirse en una piedra angular en el desarrollo de la sociedad de la información. En conclusión, es expuesta una renovación del pensamiento crítico como un complemento necesario de la apreciación del proceso creativo en los estudios sobre comunicación. Abstract in english In this short paper, based on an analysis of recent academic and political discourses on creativity, is develops a theoretical reflexion on the necessary dialectical articulation of creative and critical thinking in communication studies. In a first step, are questions the assumptions aiming to buil [...] d a new social and economic paradigm based on creativity. It doubts, in particular, Richard Florida's theoretical and methodological hypotheses regarding the emergence of a creative class. In a second step, is showing how it is easy for politicians to promote creativity as a positive value making it a corner stone in the development of the information society. As a conclusion, it is showing that the renovation of critical thinking as a necessary complement of the promotion of creative process in communication studies.
Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.
Paulo Gomes de, Sousa Filho; Eunice M. L. Soriano, Alencar.
Full Text Available Este estudo examinou diferenças em habilidades de pensamento criativo entre 25 crianças institucionalizadas e 30 crianças não institucionalizadas, sendo 23 do sexo masculino e 32 do sexo feminino. Todas responderam a um teste de natureza verbal da Bateria Torrance de Pensamento Criativo (Torrance, 1 [...] 974) e ao Teste de Pensamento Criativo - Produção Divergente (Urban & Jellen, 1996). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas medidas de pensamento criativo entre crianças institucionalizadas e não institucionalizadas. Diferença significativa entre gêneros foi observada no Teste de Pensamento Criativo - Produção Divergente, a favor do gênero masculino, paralelamente a uma interação entre gênero e instituição neste teste. Observou-se também uma relação positiva entre os escores dos dois testes utilizados. Abstract in english This study investigated the differences in creative thinking abilities among 25 institutionalized children and 30 non-institutionalized children, being 23 male and 30 female. These children answered a verbal test of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1974) and the Test of Creative Th [...] inking - Divergent Production (Urban & Jellen, 1996). No significant differences were observed among male and female children in the creative thinking abilities. However, a significant difference between gender was observed in the Test of Creative Thinking - Divergent Production, to the advantage of the male gender as far as an interaction between gender and institutionalization in the same test. It was observed also, a positive relation among the scores of the tests.
Full Text Available The role of prefrontal cortex (PFC in influencing creative thinking has been investigated by many researchers who, while succeeding in proving an effective involvement of PFC, reported suggestive but sometimes conflicting results. In order to better understand the relationships between creative thinking and brain activation in a more specific area of the PFC, we explored the role of dorsolateral PFC. We devised an experimental protocol using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. The study was based on a 3 (kind of stimulation: anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham X 2 (priming: divergent vs. convergent design. Forty-five healthy adults were randomly assigned to one stimulation condition. Participants’ creativity skills were assessed using the Product Improvement subtest from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. After 20 minutes of tDCS stimulation, participants were presented with visual images of common objects. Half of the participants were instructed to visualize themselves using the object in an unusual way (divergent priming, whereas the other half were asked to visualize themselves while using the object in a common way (convergent priming. Priming was aimed at inducing participants to adopt different attitudes toward the creative task. Afterwards, participants were asked to describe all of the possible uses of the objects that were presented. Participants’ physiological activation was recorded using a biofeedback equipment. Results showed a significant effect of anodal stimulation that enhanced creative performance, but only after divergent priming. Participants showed lower skin temperature values after cathodal stimulation, a findings which is coherent with studies reporting that, when a task is not creative or creative thinking is not prompted, people show lower levels of arousal. The involvement of dorsolateral PFC in creativity has been supported, presumably in association to shift of attention modulated by priming.
DeSchryver, Michael D.; Yadav, Aman
For too long, creativity in schools has been almost solely associated with art, music, and writing classes. Now, creative thinking skills are increasingly emphasized across the disciplines. At the same time, technological progress has brought about calls for the integration of new literacies and computational thinking to prepare students as…
Ishii, Norio; Miwa, Kazuhisa
Recently, some educational courses focusing on creativity, hereafter called ``creativity education'' has been conducted in engineering education. We believe that such creativity education is crucial not only in engineering education, but also in general education. In this study, we designed a learning environment that enables participants to experience some common creative activities, and evaluated its effectiveness in a university class. Our educational program consists of the following three phases: (1) introduction (the participants learned the basics of Mindstorms using the instructional manuscript, and subsequently constructed and modified a moving car with four wheels using Mindstorms), (2) creative activities (they produced creative playground equipment that can move using Mindstorms), and (3) self-reflective activities on the creative processes (they reflected on their creative processes and added the information to a diagram, and they discussed advantages and disadvantages while referring to the diagram). We evaluated the effectiveness of our educational program based on comparisons of the pre- and post-tests and the contents of the participants' discussions. In particular, we confirmed the following three learning activities: (1) the participants discussed their creative activities from various viewpoints, (2) they also discussed the viewpoints considered to be important for creative activities, and (3) they realized the importance of idea generation, idea embodiment, and collaboration in creative activities.
Medved’, Jakub; Matisovsk?, Tomá?; Suijkerbuijk, Maico
1. What does Critical Thinking mean? 2. Critical Thinking as defined by EVE and other authors 3. Analysing and evaluating the questionnaire 4. Developing critical thinking with the strategies 5. Problems and solutions while developing critical thinking
I discuss features that are important for creative and critical thinking which should be recreated in e-learning applications. Anonymity maximizes chances for development of creativity and for objective and accurate assessment. I also describe a ‘quadruple anonymity’ system implemented at Nowy Sacz Business School – National-Louis University in Poland, the goal of which is to improve objectivity of thesis evaluation by referees. E-learning environment is ideal for implementing functionalities...
Delane Ingalls Vanada
Full Text Available Art and design education hold a unique role in preparing the kinds of innovative, balanced, synthetic creators and thinkers needed in the 21st century. This paper sheds shed light on how learner-centered art classrooms, that incorporate design thinking as a balanced process, can better develop the overall learning capacity of students. In a mash-up between mixed model research involving the impact of learner-centered pedagogies on visual art students’ balanced intelligence and reviews of literature surrounding the promotion of depth and complexity of knowledge, new conceptual frameworks and assessments are offered. Towards a vision of fostering deep, connected, and independent thinkers, the author—as designer, artist, and art educator-- explores design thinking as an aesthetic, inquiry based process that integrates complex intelligence theories.Keywords: Design thinking, critical, creative, practical thinking, learner-centered, learner-centeredpedagogy
Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang
Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control. PMID:24223921
Miron-Spektor, Ella; Efrat-Treister, Dorit; Rafaeli, Anat; Schwarz-Cohen, Orit
The authors examine whether and how observing anger influences thinking processes and problem-solving ability. In 3 studies, the authors show that participants who listened to an angry customer were more successful in solving analytic problems, but less successful in solving creative problems compared with participants who listened to an emotionally neutral customer. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors further show that observing anger communicated through sarcasm enhances complex thinking and solving of creative problems. Prevention orientation is argued to be the latent variable that mediated the effect of observing anger on complex thinking. The present findings help reconcile inconsistent findings in previous research, promote theory about the effects of observing anger and sarcasm, and contribute to understanding the effects of anger in the workplace. PMID:21574675
Kim, Junghee; Michael, William B.
For 92 male and 101 female Korean 11th graders, creativity as measured by the Torrance Tests of Creativity, showed little relationship to school performance. Females tended to be more creative than males, but, irrespective of gender, students with right-brain associated thinking and learning style earned high creativity scores. (SLD)
Holographic thinking is everywhere although we do not realize it. Turn on your TV and you will see many representations of holographic images. It is in many science fiction movies, as well as in books and the news. Now, start your computer and search the Web. What do you see, a screen with plenty of little boxes or frames, each one containing information. You can choose to go deeper by clicking here and there, but ultimately all the little boxes are related to each other. What do you have? A holographic principle where each point stands by itself, containing the whole entity while composing part of it at the same time. The following paragraphs, discussing and evaluating the characteristics of holographic thinking can be read in any order you wish. Each paragraph contributes an understanding of just one aspect of all the ideas which cannot be limited to this paper alone.
Ibrahim, Mohamed; Bridges, Alan; Chase, Scott Curland; Bayoumi, Samir; Taha, Dina
This paper describes a teaching experience conducted and carried out as part of the coursework of first year students of architecture at Strathclyde University. The workshop is the Third of three workshops planned to take place during the course of the first year studio, aimed at introducing new ways of thinking and introducing students to a new pattern of architectural education. The experiment was planned under the theme of “Evaluation” during the Final stage. A grammatical approach was chosen...
Priti Srinivas Sajja
Full Text Available Creativity is a tool that helps in effective problem solving utilizing optimum scarce resources in anybusiness. This paper presents a conceptual framework of a multilayer evolutionary system that supportscreative thinking. The system evolves, using a genetic algorithm, new ideas from a set of basic ideas thatare casually provided through an interactive editor or selected from past transaction records. Thearchitecture proposed here encompasses three layers called system layer, database layer, and queryproducer and user interface layer. Besides the general architecture, the paper also describes the detailedmethodology, genetic procedure to evolve ideas, reproduction operators like modified mutation, crossover and selection; and fitness functions to evolve suitable and strong ideas. The system layer furtherdescribes algorithm of stimulus-generation process. The proposed architecture is easy to develop,generic, domain independent and works with databases, which increases scope and usability of thesystem. Above all, the interactive user interface makes the system friendly and easy to operate.
In this writing it is my intention to show how using philosophy and creative thinking with junior school children has enabled me to identify gifts and talents of which I might otherwise have been unaware and to show the impact this has had on the children concerned in terms of their own awareness of themselves as learners. I will also question…
Liu, Z. K.; He, J.; Li, B.
Fostering and enabling critical and creative thinking of students is considered an important goal, and it is assumed that in particular, talented students have considerable potential for applying such high-level cognitive processes for learning in classrooms. However, Chinese students are often considered as rote learners, and that learning…
Koutsoupidou, Theano; Hargreaves, David J.
This article reports a quasi-experimental study of the effects of improvisation on the development of children's creative thinking in music. The study was conducted in a primary school classroom with two matched groups of 6-year-old children over a period of six months. The music lessons for the experimental group were enriched with a variety of…
Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Adler, N; Aharon-Peretz, J; Perry, D; Mayseless, N
Although creativity has been related to prefrontal activity, recent neurological case studies postulate that patients who have left frontal and temporal degeneration involving deterioration of language abilities may actually develop de novo artistic abilities. In this study, we propose a neural and cognitive model according to which a balance between the two hemispheres affects a major aspect of creative cognition, namely, originality. In order to examine the neural basis of originality, that is, the ability to produce statistically infrequent ideas, patients with localized lesions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and posterior parietal and temporal cortex (PC), were assessed by two tasks involving divergent thinking and originality. Results indicate that lesions in the mPFC involved the most profound impairment in originality. Furthermore, precise anatomical mapping of lesions indicated that while the extent of lesion in the right mPFC was associated with impaired originality, lesions in the left PC were associated with somewhat elevated levels of originality. A positive correlation between creativity scores and left PC lesions indicated that the larger the lesion is in this area the greater the originality. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between originality scores and lesions in the right mPFC. It is concluded that the right mPFC is part of a right fronto-parietal network which is responsible for producing original ideas. It is possible that more linear cognitive processing such as language, mediated by left hemisphere structures interferes with creative cognition. Therefore, lesions in the left hemisphere may be associated with elevated levels of originality. PMID:21126528
Ogden, Thomas H
The author believes that contemporary psychoanalysis has shifted its emphasis from the understanding of the symbolic meaning of dreams, play, and associations to the exploration of the processes of thinking, dreaming, and playing. In this paper, he discusses his understanding of three forms of thinking-magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking-and provides clinical illustrations in which each of these forms of thinking figures prominently. The author views magical thinking as a form of thinking that subverts genuine thinking and psychological growth by substituting invented psychic reality for disturbing external reality. By contrast, dream thinking--our most profound form of thinking-involves viewing an emotional experience from multiple perspectives simultaneously: for example, the perspectives of primary process and secondary process thinking. In transformative thinking, one creates a new way of ordering experience that allows one to generate types of feeling, forms of object relatedness, and qualities of aliveness that had previously been unimaginable. PMID:20496835
Full Text Available On being promoted to a personal chair in 1993 I chose the title of Professor of Informatics, specifically acknowledging Donna Haraway’s definition of the term as the “technologies of information [and communication] as well as the biological, social, linguistic and cultural changes that initiate, accompany and complicate their development” . This neatly encapsulated the plethora of issues emanating from these new technologies, inviting contributions and analyses from a wide variety of disciplines and practices. (In my later work Thinking Informatically  I added the phrase “and communication”. In the intervening time the word informatics itself has been appropriated by those more focused on computer science, although why an alternative term is needed for a well-understood area is not entirely clear. Indeed the term is used both as an alternative term and as an additional one—i.e. “computer science and informatics”. [...
Reflections upon what it might mean to think, and about what inherited presuppositions or images might influence what thinking is thought to consist of, are not readily considered in the mental health care literature. However, the work of the 20th century French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and, in particular, his account of 'the dogmatic image of thought' can be employed to illustrate how such considerations can be of relevance to the theoretical and practical concerns of mental health professionals. In doing so, Deleuze's work can be understood as seeking to sensitize mental health professionals to the dangers of unreflectively adopting a restrictive notion of what it means to think, as well as an exhortation to develop critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions that moves beyond the bounds of the traditional, dogmatic image of thought. Considerations about what it might mean to think, and about what inherited presuppositions determine what thinking is thought to consist of, are not readily reflected upon in the mental health care literature. However, this paper will propose that such considerations are of relevance to, and possess important implications for, the mental health professions, and it will do so within the context of the work of the 20th century philosopher Gilles Deleuze. In particular, the paper will provide an accessible exposition of what Deleuze refers to as the 'dogmatic image of thought', along with an examination of his suggestion that this traditional image, and its associated presuppositions, not only determine what is considered to be the ostensible 'nature' of thought, but also delineate what the activity of thinking ought to be concerned with. Moreover, it will be argued that Deleuze's exposition and critique of the image of thought can be understood as seeking to sensitize mental health professionals to the dangers of unreflectively perpetuating a restrictive notion of what it means to think, as well as being an exhortation to develop critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions that moves beyond the bounds of that traditional, dogmatic image of thought. PMID:23786235
Förster, Jens; Epstude, Kai; Ozelsel, Amina
This article examines cognitive links between romantic love and creativity and between sexual desire and analytic thought based on construal level theory. It suggests that when in love, people typically focus on a long-term perspective, which should enhance holistic thinking and thereby creative thought, whereas when experiencing sexual encounters, they focus on the present and on concrete details enhancing analytic thinking. Because people automatically activate these processing styles when in love or when they experience sex, subtle or even unconscious reminders of love versus sex should suffice to change processing modes. Two studies explicitly or subtly reminded participants of situations of love or sex and found support for this hypothesis. PMID:19690153
Baars, Daniela; Bajzík, Michal; Pisar?ík, Stanislav; Weiser, Ines
1. What does critical thinking mean? 2. Critical thinking in school 3. Critical thinking as a process 4. Analysing and evaluating the questionnaire 5. Interview with one of the students 6. Analysis and evaluation of the assignments 7. Conclusion
Shahin Valia; Faramarzmalekian; Mehrnaz Foroughinia
The aim of this study is description and analysis of educational facilities design criteria based on creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists. Study's method is descriptive-surveyand it is polling type. Method description - is a survey of surveys. Population consists of full-time faculty members in the field of educational technology at the University of Tehran that are 36 persons. Tools for data collection are questionnaire responses depending on the rese...
Judith Jiménez Díaz
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.
S. Iranzadeh; H. Emari; Bevrani, H
The purpose of this study is to design an applied framework for strategic thinking which can be applied in all managerial levels and all types of organizational environments. No especial applied frame has been presented for this thinking. This study presents a theoretical framework for the thinking type of a manager by making a historical research and studying the scientific documents about the thinking of a strategist. In the new theoretical framework, we have tried suggest the best type of ...
Nørgård, Rikke Toft
This paper suggest that the import and implementation of creative, innovative and entrepreneurial design processes within formal informal educational settings carry inherent potentials and pitfalls within them in relation to educational design, pedagogical practice and design agency. More specifically, a clash between educational organization and design thinking paradigms emerges, tensions between goal-oriented education and vision-driven design build, and unproductive war on what education thro...
Abusaleh, Sumaya; Abdelfattah, Eman; Alabadi, Zain; Sharieh, Ahmad
This paper investigates the role of the scientific signs in the holy Quran in improving the creative thinking skills for the deaf children using multimedia. The paper investigates if the performance made by the experimental group's individuals is statistically significant compared with the performance made by the control group's individuals on Torrance Test for creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality and the total degree) in two cases:
Comparing the scientific reports of brain researchers such as Sperry, Bogen, Diamond, Geschwind, and Hoppe with the subjective reports of high achievers in various fields of the arts, sciences, and industry reveals that there is a correlation between creative thinking and right hemisphere specialization. Learning how to stimulate right hemisphere activity can be of great benefit to high achievers in fields that require one to be internally focused, to be sensitive to the intonations of voice and body-language, to comprehend symbols and metaphors, to think visually and holistically, to work constructively with affect, or to enhance imaginative thinking. This report is a subjective study of how five writers and six psychotherapists experienced one three-hour session of Inner Vision techniques, which I developed to stimulate creative thinking and inner focusing by enhancing right hemisphere activity. During the session, all of the psychotherapists and all but one of the writers reported that these mental imagery exercises produced a significant increase in the flow of creative ideas and enabled them to gain insights into important personal issues. One writer experienced resistance; two psychotherapists reported feelings of solace; two writers and two psychotherapists indicated that they have gained new perspectives on professional issues--one writer solved a major problem regarding the central character in his book; six psychotherapists and three writers gained new perceptions on important personal issues; five psychotherapists and four writers reported feelings of intense joy, even liberation, during the session. All eleven participants indicated that they had experienced vivid and imaginative imagery. The constructive use of imagination is essential for creative work and mental health. Writers who have the skill to program their imaginations to gain creative insights at times of their own choosing obviously will be more productive than writers who sit around waiting for the benevolent muse. Psychotherapists who use Inner Vision techniques in their own lives find that it is a valuable tool for interior focusing; those who use it with their patients have reported that this is a practical, effective technique for helping patients attain greater psychologic integration. An important way in which this program differs from other imagery techniques is that the vivid imagery of the right-hemisphere work is followed by left-brain analysis and evaluation. The ultimate goal is the transformational intercallosal process of symbollexia--the "magic synthesis" of right-brain and left-brain specialization for an enhanced ability to live and work creatively. PMID:3226966
In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…
Full Text Available Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces reasoning. System-I can help see novel solutions and associations instantaneously, but is prone to error. System-II has other biases, but can help checking and modifying the system-I results. Although thinking is the core business of science, the accepted ways of doing our work focus almost entirely on facilitating system-II. We discuss the role of system-I thinking in past scientific breakthroughs, and argue that scientific progress may be catalyzed by creating conditions for such associative intuitive thinking in our academic lives and in education. Unstructured socializing time, education for daring exploration, and cooperation with the arts are among the potential elements. Because such activities may be looked upon as procrastination rather than work, deliberate effort is needed to counteract our systematic bias.
Senra, Michael; Fogler, H. Scott
In their collegiate studies, students are given a wide range of concepts, theories, and equations to assist them in their future endeavors. However, students have not been sufficiently exposed to practical critical thinking methodologies that will benefit them as they encounter open-ended problems. A course developed at the University of Michigan…
Teaching reasoning and judgment to children under the auspices of philosophy is an idea that has emerged recently in the modern era. It is theorized that, through practice in logic and ethics, children will begin to apply reasoning skills to their own life situations, think for themselves, and become better critical thinkers, all in a context that…
Isaeva E. A.
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Isaeva E. A.
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Proudfoot, Devon; Kay, Aaron C; Koval, Christy Z
We propose that the propensity to think creatively tends to be associated with independence and self-direction-qualities generally ascribed to men-so that men are often perceived to be more creative than women. In two experiments, we found that "outside the box" creativity is more strongly associated with stereotypically masculine characteristics (e.g., daring and self-reliance) than with stereotypically feminine characteristics (e.g., cooperativeness and supportiveness; Study 1) and that a man is ascribed more creativity than a woman when they produce identical output (Study 2). Analyzing archival data, we found that men's ideas are evaluated as more ingenious than women's ideas (Study 3) and that female executives are stereotyped as less innovative than their male counterparts when evaluated by their supervisors (Study 4). Finally, we observed that stereotypically masculine behavior enhances a man's perceived creativity, whereas identical behavior does not enhance a woman's perceived creativity (Study 5). This boost in men's perceived creativity is mediated by attributions of agency, not competence, and predicts perceptions of reward deservingness. PMID:26386015
Ayatollah Karimi; Venkatesh Kumar, G
Previous studies revealed that there is moderate to strong correlation between creative thinking and empathy with self-awareness as three important skills in human life and the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between these three aspects of life skills. The participants in the study contained of 96(54 males and 42 females) 10 grade of high school students from Mysore in India. Life skill questionnaire - India (LSQI), carried out on the group sample and date analyzed th...
Ku, Ya-Lie; Kao Lo, Chi-Hui; Wang, Jing-Jy; Lee Hsieh, Jane; Chen, Kuei-Min
Because of changes in the medical environment, nurses must maintain the ability of divergent thinking to solve the health problems of patients. However, many nurses whose work in clinical practice has become routine have lost the ability of creativity. To cultivate nurses creativity should be a goal of nursing education. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a nursing concepts teaching protocol by utilizing teaching strategies directed toward creativity to promote creativity in two-year RN-BSN students. This study design is a time series and one group experiment utilizing multiple instances of treatment. Teaching strategies for creativity were applied to a teaching unit and 52 two-year RN-BSN students were tested for creativity before the end of each semester. This study was conducted from March, 1999 to May, 2000, but only 30 students completed all tests and reached a 58% return rate. Torrance s (1974) definitions of creativity includ fluency, flexibility, and uniqueness were followed and the instrument, a questionnaire on Creativity in the application of the Nursing Process Tool (CNPT), was designed based on Emerson (1988). The content validity of Chinese-version CNPT was.79. The inter-coder reliability between two researchers was.84 following a coding guide that ten nursing education experts had established. The results indicated that 30 two-year RN-BSN students had improved fluency and flexibility. The improvements reached a significant level after the third semester. Only uniqueness declined. It is suggested that nursing faculty apply teaching strategies uniqueness more often in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts. By utilizing teaching strategies of creativity in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts, it is expected that two-year RN-BSN students can acquire characteristics of creativity for problem-solving skills in clinical settings. PMID:12119595
'Geometry is often given less time in the teaching timetable than other aspects of mathematics. This book encourages practitioners to think about and raise its profile, indeed achieving what its title suggest' - Primary Practice `This creative, innovative and fascinating book/CD package is one you ""MUST BUY"". All prospective, new and experienced teachers of mathematics can use it to transform their teaching. All readers can use it to reignite their fascination with mathematics' - Professor Sylvia Johnson, Sheffield Hallam University 'This book exudes activity and interactivity. Moreov
Wing, Jeannette M.
Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing.
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research des...
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether the epistemological beliefs, creativity levels and thinking styles of pre-school teachers are significant predictors of their problem solving skills and in accordance with this purpose, a correlational survey design was used. The sample of this study consists of 155 pre school teachers working in Isparta in the school year 2011-2012. As data collection tools, “Problem Solving Inventory”, “Epistemological Beliefs Scale, “How Creative Are You?” and lastly, “Thinking Styles Inventory” were used. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. In this study, it has been found that problem solving skills of the teachers are a significant predictor of preschool teachers’ perceptions of their creativity levels positively and perceptions of their conventional thinking styles negatively in the belief that learning depends on ability.
Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.
"Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…
With English primary schools being encouraged to be creative we need to ask what the practicalities are for school leaders. It is not a question of "creative leadership" but more to do with the leadership of creativity and creative colleagues.
de Manzano, Örjan; Cervenka, Simon; Karabanov, Anke; Farde, Lars; Ullén, Fredrik
Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic liability to schizophrenia. Scores on divergent thinking tests (Inventiveness battery, Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Te...
There is an ongoing debate about the components and processes of creativity. Within the subfield of creative insight, which is often considered to be the first measurable part of creativity, the role of working memory is discussed. Since creative insight appears to happen without conscious planning, the involvement of working memory appears to be limited; a hypothesis supported by several studies. However, there are several studies that support an opposing hypothesis. Namely, that creativity,...
Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed
This study aims at investigating the effect of Blended Learning approach compared to the traditional learning approach on fifth grade students' achievement in My Beautiful Language Textbook and the development of their verbal creative thinking. The study consisted of 49 students among which 25 are males in the Experimental Group and 24 females in…
Slatter, Christopher John
It can be rationalised that the education of high ability students is of immense importance to society, based on the principle that many of tomorrow's pioneers within the field of science will originate from this group of individuals. Consequently, these students must be equipped with critical and creative thinking skills to fulfil their…
Erdogan, Tolga; Akkaya, Recai; Celebi Akkaya, Sibel
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the Van Hiele model based instruction process on the creative thinking levels of 6th grade primary school students. Pre test-post test matching control group quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Fifty five students enrolled in sixth grades during the 2005-2006 educational year formed…
Full Text Available The aim of this study is description and analysis of educational facilities design criteria based on creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists. Study's method is descriptive-surveyand it is polling type. Method description - is a survey of surveys. Population consists of full-time faculty members in the field of educational technology at the University of Tehran that are 36 persons. Tools for data collection are questionnaire responses depending on the research questions that the research was conducted on the Likert scale. Questionnaire's reliability obtained based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient that was 74%. To analyze data in statistical methods frequency distribution, percentage, frequency, mean, and statistical tables were used. Results of one-sample z-test were used for statistical analysis. Based on the results, obtained z for standard colors equals to 8.98, because the subjects' average (27.38 and compare it with the hypothetical average of (15 it can be said that obtained average by hypothetical population mean has significant difference. For sound scale (phoneme equals 3.52 based on testees' mean (27.77 and to compare it with society's hypothetical average (17.5 it can be said that that obtained average has significant difference with society's hypothetical average. For thermal condition scale (heat it was equal to 2,.26 because regarding testee's average ( 14.77 and to compare with society's hypothetical average (10 it can be said that obtained average has significant difference with society's hypothetical mean. Therefore it can be concluded that there is a significant relationshipbetween design criteria of educational facilities and increase in students' creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists at the 5% level.
Mehmet Cüneyt Birkök
Full Text Available "In this study, the technique of thinking sociologically has been searching by utilizing methodology and philosophy. The main purpose is to conduct a practical scientific thinking methodology to understand whole social phenomena with its ties to all references. There is another matter we must stress that the methodology is beyond any given study techniques and as important as the research itself. Sociological thinking would be very useful for social researchers both as a thinking way and methodology. Thus, social phenomena will be commented very easily, meaningful and as is in reality. "This study is conducted as four main chapters that are thinking and sociology, perspectives and methods, thinking and research, and the structure of scientific work."
Ness, Roberta B
Innovation is the engine of scientific progress, yet we do not train public health students to think creatively. I present the key concepts within an evidence-based method currently taught at the University of Texas. Habitual thought patterns involve deeply held framed expectations. Finding alternatives generates originality. Because frame breaking is difficult, a series of innovation heuristics and tools are offered including enhancing observation, using analogies, changing point of view, juggling opposites, broadening perspective, reversal, reorganization and combination, and getting the most from groups. Gaining cognitive attributes such as nonjudgment, willingness to question, mindfulness, and plasticity is also emphasized. Students completing the class demonstrate substantial increases on a standardized test of idea fluency and originality, more joyful attitudes toward science, and more pluralistic approaches. PMID:25706005
Villaveces, José L.; Guillermo Restrepo
Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffro...
This study aimed to explore the relationship between thinking styles and emotions among university students in Hong Kong. Participants were 99 2nd-year students (23 men and 76 women) who responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised (TSI-R), based on R. J. Sternberg's (1988) theory of mental self-government, and to the Iowa Managing Emotions Inventory (IMEI), based on A. Chickering's (1969) theory of psychosocial development. Results indicated not only that thinking styles were associated with emotions but also that thinking styles had predictive power for emotions beyond age. The author discusses implications of these findings for faculty members and student-development educators. PMID:18959222
Piciacchia, F R
The author describes a creative approach to visualize and document your organization's ideas for the future. Visioneering is a proven methodology used to unleash the creative potential of people, the most valuable asset of any organization. PMID:10159798
Tarasova, I V; Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V
Features of EEG pattern during verbal creative thinking depending on experimental instruction were studied in men and women. Spectral power density was analyzed in six frequency bands (4-30 Hz). Performance of a creative task produced an increase in the power of theta (4-6 Hz) and beta2 (20-40 Hz) components and decrease in the power of alpha (8-13 Hz) and betal (13-20 Hz). Changes in the alpha and betal bands were observed, predominantly, in the posterior areas, whereas power of the thetal and beta2 bands increased in the anterior areas. Independently of instruction, women demonstrated greater synchronization in the theta1 band than men, whereas in men the desynchronization in the alpha2 band (10-13 Hz) was more pronounced. When the subjects were instructed to create original sentences, a widespread decrease in the EEG power was observed in the band of 8-30 Hz as compared to instruction "to create sentences". Thus, the instruction-related changes in EEG power were not gender-specific. They may reflect neural activity mediating selective attention. PMID:17147202
Jorge Montalvo Castro
Full Text Available Para resolver una adivinanza hay que asociar ideas, analizar metáforas, descubrir analogías. Por eso, impulsar esta forma de entretenimiento infantil es un modo de ejercitar el pensamiento creativo. Sin embargo, existe un problema: las adivinanzas tradicionales son formas literarias que corresponden a una época pre-digital. ¿Cómo lograr, entonces, que tengan mayor aceptación entre los nativos digitales? Una posible solución sería crear adivinanzas audiovisuales diseñadas especialmente para YouTube. En esta investigación se realizaron cinco prototipos de adivinanzas audiovisuales con características creativas diferentes y se validaron con estudiantes de tercero a sexto grado de educación primaria. Los resultados de la validación permitieron identificar las actitudes, reacciones, interpretaciones y modos de razonamiento de los niños y niñas cuando intentan resolver este tipo de adivinanzas. También se identificaron los recursos de lenguaje y formatos creativos que funcionan mejor en una adivinanza audiovisual. En las conclusiones se destaca la necesidad de formular correctamente los enunciados de las adivinanzas audiovisuales y sus respectivas «pistas» para que los niños y niñas tengan la satisfacción intelectual y emocional de resolverlas. Se precisa, además, que leer o escuchar una adivinanza tradicional representa una experiencia cognitiva y sensorial muy distinta que interactuar con esa misma adivinanza en un lenguaje multimedia. Finalmente, se discute y analiza el rol mediador del docente y la importancia del aprendizaje colaborativo en los proyectos educativos que emplean tecnologías digitales.Solving riddles involves association of ideas, analysis of metaphors, and discovery of analogies. Therefore, promoting this type of children’s entertainment is a way to develop creative thinking. However, there is a problem: traditional riddles are literary forms that correspond to a pre-digital era. How can we increase its acceptance among the digital natives? One way might be creating audiovisual riddles specially designed for YouTube. In this research we made five prototypes of audiovisual riddles with different creative characteristics and validated them among 8-12 years old students. The validation results helped us to identify the attitudes, reactions, interpretations and ways of thinking of children when they try to solve such riddles. We also identified the resources of language and creative formats that fit best in audio-visual riddles. The outcome of this research emphasizes the need to correctly formulate the audiovisual riddle statements and their «clues» for children; this way we assure an intellectual and emotional satisfaction when solving them. It also concludes that reading or listening to traditional riddles are cognitive and sensory experiences that are very different from interacting with the same riddle in a multimedia language. Finally, we discuss and analyze the mediating role of the teacher and the importance of collaborative learning in educational projects using digital technologies.
Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…
When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…
Creativity can be experienced in many roles of musicianship: performing, improvising, and composing. Yet, activities that encourage creative thought in our music classrooms can be a challenge to implement. A strong music education curriculum for middle school general music is important; as this may be the last time we reach students who do not…
Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomani...
Zabelina, Darya L.; Condon, David; BEEMAN, MARK
Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomani...
According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.
Elnetthra Folly Eldy; FauziahSulaiman
The purpose of this paper was to report andprovide evidence of positive development on physics students’ thinking style focally on their critical thinking at early implementation of an integrated problem-based learning (PBL) approach. This study was performed on a cohort of 28 Physics with Electronics students from School of Science and Technology at University Malaysia Sabah. The sample was trained by the integrated PBL method for 1 semester (i.e., 14 weeks) in a Physics course (i.e., Thermo...
Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to compose the activities about how creative drama teaching method and six thinking hats teaching technique can be used in “Lausanne Peace Treaty” subject in Turkish Republic Revolution History and Kemalism lesson; describe and research whether the composed activities increase the students’ learning levels or not. For this aim, the Lausanne Peace Treaty-related activities were applied on an experiment group and traditional teaching techniques were applied on a checking group. In this study, which is an experimental and descriptive, it was attempted to show the use of creative drama teaching method and six thinking hats teaching technique in Turkish Republic Revolution History and Kemalism lesson and an answer was searched for the question “Is there any meaningful difference between the learning level and attitudes of experiment group and checking group?”
MANN, JOHN S.
THE EFFECTS OF TWO TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CHILDREN'S LITERATURE TO SAMPLES OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN WERE INVESTIGATED. THE EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT WAS BASED ON LAWRENCE KUBIE'S MODEL OF THE CREATIVE PROCESS. THE CONTROL GROUP RECEIVED THE CONVENTIONAL PRESENTATION OF CHILDREN'S LITERATURE WITHOUT KUBIE'S EMPHASIS ON METAPHORICAL AND PRECONSCIOUS…
A makerspace is a physical place in the library where informal, collaborative learning can happen through hands-on creation, using any combination of technology, industrial arts, and fine arts that is not readily available for home use. The underlying goal of a makerspace is to encourage innovation and creativity through the use of technology-to…
Almeida, Leandro S.; Prieto, Lola Prieto; Ferrando, Mercedes; Oliveira, Emma; Ferrandiz, Carmen
Some cognitive dimensions are internationally considered by psychologists to describe and to assess creativity. For example, (Guilford, P. (1976). Creatividad y Educacion. Buenos Aires. Ed. Paidos) and (Torrance, E. P. (1977). Discovery and nurturance of giftedness in the culturally different. Reston, VA: Council on Exceptional Children) suggested…
Fletcher, Tina Sue
Spurred on by explosive technological developments and unprecedented access to information, leaders in the fields of business, industry, and education are all calling for creative, innovative workers. In an atmosphere of high-stakes testing and global competitiveness, educators around the world are examining their teaching methods to determine…
Thomas Babalis; Nektarios A. Stavrou; Yota Xanthacou
Innovative-creative thinking and tolerance towards uncertain situations concern the field of the present study. Through scenarios and alternative proposals that concern views about the presence (university) or the future as well (professional career after the university), the research focuses on undergraduate students in Greek universities. The research took place in2011 ina sample of 836 students, using the questionnaire as an instrument, in a difficult financially and socially conjuncture ...
Shleifer, Andrei; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua
We present a model of uninformative persuasion in which individuals “think coarsely”: they group situations into categories and apply the same model of inference to all situations within a category. Coarse thinking exhibits two features that persuaders take advantage of: (i) transference, whereby individuals transfer the informational content of a given message from situations in a category where it is useful to those where it is not, and (ii) framing, whereby objectively useless information ...
This paper deals with two epistemic stance markers ‘I think’ and ‘you know’, and how workshop participants can employ such markers in an innovation process. The analysis shows that both epistemic stance markers can be used as resources to reach overall progression of the activity or to reach common ground. However, ‘I think’ is used as a resource by participants to display their individual and personal stance to one or other topic of negotiation during the workshop activity, whereas ‘you know’ i...
Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas, and it plays a key role in scientific achievement. Moreover, individuals with autistic spectrum conditions (ASCs) tend to achieve in scientific fields. Recently, it has been proposed that low empathizing and high systemizing characterize individuals with ASCs. Empathizing is the drive to identify the mental status of other individuals and respond to it with an appropriate emotion; systemizing is the drive to analyze ...
This paper reviews the state of art in knowledge and preferences elicitation techniques. The purpose of the study was to evaluate various cognitive mapping techniques in order to conclude with the identification of the optimal technique for the NetSyMod methodology. Network Analysis ? Creative System Modelling (NetSyMod) methodology has been designed for the improvement of decision support systems (DSS) with respect to the environmental problems. In the paper the difference is made between ex...
Stege BjØrndahl, Johanne; Fusaroli, Riccardo
How do material representations such as models, diagrams and drawings come to shape and aid collective, epistemic processes? This study investigated how groups of participants spontaneously recruited material objects (in this case LEGO blocks) to support collective creative processes in the context of an experiment. Qualitative micro-analyses of the group interactions motivate a taxonomy of different roles that the material representations play in the joint epistemic processes: illustration, elaboration and exploration. Firstly, the LEGO blocks were used to illustrate already well-formed ideas in support of communication and epistemic alignment. Furthermore, the material concretization of otherwise abstract ideas in LEGO blocks gave rise to elaboration: discussions, requests for clarification and discovery of unnoticed conceptual disagreements. Lastly, the LEGO blocks were used for exploration. That is, the material representations were experimented on and physical attributes were explored resulting in discoveries of new meaning potentials and creative solutions. We discuss these different ways in which material representations do their work in collective reasoning processes in relation to ideas about top-down and bottom-up cognitive processes and division of cognitive labor.
Coffman, Diane M.
Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…
Discussing various perspectives of artists' influences and experiences can develop students' divergent thinking skills. Fostering students' divergent thinking skills is integral to developing creativity, and the Arts are a ripe forum for this. In contrast to convergent thinking, which focuses in on one "correct"…
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nouchi, Rui; Sassa, Yuko; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Iizuka, Kunio; Nakagawa, Seishu; Nagase, Tomomi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Recent investigations revealed mean diffusivity (MD) in gray matter and white matter areas is correlated with individual cognitive differences in healthy subjects and show unique properties and sensitivity that other neuroimaging tools donot have. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the MD in the dopaminergic system is associated with individual differences in verbal creativity measured by divergent thinking (VCDT) and novelty seeking based on prior studies suggesting associations between these and dopaminergic functions. We examined this issue in a large sample of right-handed healthy young adults. We used analyses of MD and a psychological measure of VCDT, as well as personality measures of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Our results revealed associations between higher VCDT and lower MD in the bilateral globus pallidus. Furthermore, not only higher novelty seeking, but also lower harm avoidance, higher self-directedness, and higher self-transcendence were robustly associated with lower MD in the right globus pallidus, whereas higher persistence was associated with lower MD in the left globus pallidus. These personality variables were also associated with VCDT. The globus pallidus receives the dopaminergic input from the substantia nigra and plays a key role in motivation which is critically linked to dopamine. These results suggested the MD in the globus pallidus, underlie the association between VCDT and multiple personalities in TCI including novelty seeking. PMID:25627674
In his landmark bestseller The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell redefined how we understand the world around us. Now, in Blink, he revolutionizes the way we understand the world within. Blink is a book about how we think without thinking, about choices that seem to be made in an instant-in the blink of an eye-that actually aren't as simple as they seem. Why are some people brilliant decision makers, while others are consistently inept? Why do some people follow their instincts and win, while others end up stumbling into error? How do our brains really work-in the office, in the classroom, in the kitchen, and in the bedroom? And why are the best decisions often those that are impossible to explain to others?In Blink we meet the psychologist who has learned to predict whether a marriage will last, based on a few minutes of observing a couple; the tennis coach who knows when a player will double-fault before the racket even makes contact with the ball; the antiquities experts who recognize a fake at a glance. Her...
Gurudeo Anand Tularam
Full Text Available This study focuses on students in first year environmental science degree programs where traditionally mathematical emphasis has been much less than the strict science or math majors. The importance now placed in applied mathematics means that students need to gain more conceptual and quantitative knowledge in not only the environmental degree programs but also in most if not all non-mathematical majors. In this study, the authors attempt to gain insights into why students fail in mathematical courses where the mathematical requirements are not as demanding as other strict math degree programs. This is done by examining student conceptual thinking patterns and strategies as evident in student prepared scripts. A total of 133 students were requested to prepare a focus sheet to summarize their knowledge on topics learned but they were also told that the focus sheets could be used in exams for notes. This motivated their sheet preparation. The students prepared weekly summaries and later revised and summarized them for later use. Detailed examination of such sheets allowed researchers to study studentsâ?? knowledge in terms procedural work, math skills, strategies and conceptual knowledge. A study of linear, quadratic and limit sections led to interesting insights not only regarding revision strategies, knowledge of content, but also conceptual and procedural knowledge base and higher order skills such as problem solving focus. Logical and creative competencies were assessed in terms of how and what student focused upon or linked to in order to facilitate application of knowledge. The results show average levels of procedural and conceptual competence but rather low levels in logical and creative competence in preparation of scripts. Almost 50% lacked competency in procedural work while around 54% lacked conceptual competency. Given the emphasis placed procedural skills by students, the levels were lower than expected. However, the lack of structure in their work and deeper levels of understanding of links between the topics learned was concerning. These findings have implications for the first year mathematics teaching teams at universities especially the non-specialist mathematical majors.
José L. Villaveces
Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.
Rosa, Pérez del Viso de Palou.
Full Text Available Proyecto de investigación que analiza las representaciones educativo-laborales sobre las atribuciones de valor a la creatividad, motivación e innovación en jóvenes de la educación formal y no formal que se preparan para el mundo del trabajo. La desarticulación educativa entre oferta, demanda y neces [...] idad, exige búsquedas que complementen la didáctica homogénea de un pensamiento convergente con otras vertientes que favorecen el pensamiento divergente. Se asume la creatividad como un concepto teórico, no observable, que difícilmente se da en forma espontánea y se reconoce solo como atributo exclusivo de artistas, siendo necesario generarla en todos los sujetos y disciplinas para una construcción de valores y desarrollo a escala humana. Avanza sobre nuevas aristas didácticas integradoras que cubren un extenso espectro de pertenencias culturales, con disimilitudes de conocimientos, de abstracción, de lenguajes e ideologías. Se opta por una integración metodológica para ampliar las posibilidades de los contextos de descubrimiento y validación priorizando el primero. La metodología comprensivista apunta más directamente a las metas propuestas con los aportes de la etnografía, interaccionismo simbólico y la etnometodología. Los primeros resultados parciales evidencian que las actitudes y motivaciones de los jóvenes, dentro y fuera de las aulas e instituciones, cambian radicalmente, apareciendo estrategias creativas e innovadoras para actividades que responden a intereses diferentes a los contenidos curriculares. En jóvenes alumnos de posgrado en educación, se relevan dificultades para enseñar y desconocimiento de didácticas orientadas al pensamiento divergente, pero interés por interiorizarse en la teoría e instrumentación de las mismas. Abstract in english This research project analyzes the education-labour representations on value attributions to creativity, motivation and innovation in youth with formal and non-formal education that are training for the job world. The educational detachment between offer, demand and need, requests a search that can [...] complement the homogeneous didactics of a converging line of thought with other currents that favour divergent thinking. Creativity is considered a theoretical concept, non observable, that can hardly happen in a spontaneous way and is solely an attribute of artists, but also necessary to be generated in all individuals and disciplines for a construction of values and development at a human scale. It makes progress over new integrating didactic aspects that cover a wide spectrum of cultural belongings, with dissimilar knowledge, of abstraction, of languages and ideologies. A methodological integration is chosen to enlarge the possibilities of the discovery and validation contexts prioritizing the former. The comprehensive methodology aims more directly to intended goals with contributions from ethnography, symbolic interaction and ethnomethodology. The first partial results show that attitudes and motivation in youngsters, inside and outside classrooms and institutions, change radically, giving rise to creative and innovative strategies that respond to different interests to those in curricular contents. Among young postgraduate students in education, difficulties in teaching and both an ignorance but also an interest in didactics oriented to diverging thought are shown.
Watson, Andrew D.
According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…
Mazzei, Lisa A.
In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…
Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo
The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking-when wishes influence beliefs-in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children-a subgroup of the 5-year-olds-did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults. PMID:26293002
Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt
Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…
The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors associated with the radioactive materials they contain. Packages for fissile materials are the most robust ones. However, very low quantities of fissile material, relative to the overall volume of material in which it is contained, do not pose a realistic criticality hazard. More realistic provisions for these fissile-excepted materials would improve safety, reduce dose uptake, and provide significant financial benefits to both industry and the regulator. It is a basic principle of transport safety regulation that safety is vested primarily in the package, and not the mode of conveyance. Safety standards for packages are set internationally by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Packages designs are subject to a rigorous internationally-established test regime; a test regime that takes account both of normal and conceivable realistic accident conditions to demonstrate conclusively that the package will provide adequate protection. Packages will only be licensed for use by national competent authorities on the basis of a convincing safety case. Looking outside the box - when confronted by uncertainty about the safety of radioactive materials transports, it is suggested industry not limit itself to reassuring words about the undeniably excellent safety record of transport over decades but, it should present the safety features of the packages, the rigorous international safety test criteria to ensure the package would survive realistic regulate and accident conditions of transport, and the need to present a convincing safety case to competent authorities before a licence would be issued. While the very low statistical possibility of transport accident cannot be denied attention also should be paid to the consequences of accidents. The communications theme will also be addressed as the 'new media' push the bounds of possibility of how best to increase understanding about nuclear packaging and transport. The world has evolved in a more sceptical age, a permanent full time communications age when people increasingly rely on very short key messages for thei
Dhliwayo, S.; Van Vuuren, Jurie Jansen
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that strategic entrepreneurial thinking is a unitary concept which should be viewed as a standalone construct. DESIGN / METHODOLOGY / APPROACH: The concept strategic entrepreneurial thinking is modelled from an analysis of strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking from available literature. The strategic entrepreneurial mindset imperative is then emphasised and confirmed. FINDINGS: This paper's finding is that there is no differen...
This past year, Baylor University created a program to reward some of its best teachers and challenge them to do something truly daring: teach their students how to think--not just how to think "about" course material, but rather how to think "through" the material. The idea is to help students learn how teachers, as practitioners of their…
Rosenbaum, Janet N.; Carty, Laurie
A "Healthy Thinking" group, based on a modified Aaron Beck Cognitive Therapy model, teaches depressed clients to realistically appraise their experiences by monitoring and changing distorted thinking. Clients learn that situational stress activates long held assumptions (negative beliefs) leading to distorted thinking and ultimately depression.…
The main purpose of the author's research was to investigate whether thinking styles significantly contribute to critical thinking dispositions. Two samples of Chinese university students, one from Beijing and the other from Nanjing, participated in the study. The participants responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and to the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (P. Facione & N. Facione, 1992), which assessed the 7 dimensions of the critical thinking construct as defined in The Delphi Report (see P. Facione, N. Facione, & C. Giancarlo, 2001). Results from both samples supported the prediction that thinking styles statistically contribute to individual differences in critical thinking dispositions. These findings have implications not only for classroom instruction and assessment but also for academic and nonacademic program development. PMID:14992346
Zhang Shutao; Jianning Su; Chibing Hu; Peng Wang
The research on cognitive thinking is important to construct the efficient intelligent design systems. But it is difficult to describe the model of cognitive thinking with reasonable mathematical theory. Based on the analysis of design strategy and innovative thinking, we investigated the design cognitive thinking model that included the external guide thinking of "width priority - depth priority" and the internal dominated thinking of "divergent thinking - convergent thinking", built a reaso...
Introduction We often know that we are thinking, and what we are thinking about. Here ‘thinking’ is not supposed to be an umbrella term for cognition in general, but should be taken in roughly the sense of ‘a penny for your thoughts’: mental activities like pondering, ruminating, wondering, musing and daydreaming all count as thinking. In the intended sense of ‘thinking’, thinking is not just propositional: in addition to thinking that p, there is thinking of (or about) x. Beli...
Anecdotal literature suggests that creative people sometimes use bodily movement to help overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration. Several studies have shown that physical exercise may sometimes enhance creative thinking, but the evidence is still inconclusive. In this study we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is affected by acute moderate and intense physical exercise in athletes (n = 48) and non-athletes (n = 48). Exercise interfered with div...
Kelly, James G.
The article proposes a journey on the ecological premises or attributes of ecological thinking. Identifies its four main qualities and probes to demonstrate how at present there is some empirical evidence upon which such premises may be anchored. The first is focused on the interdependencies of persons and social environments, the second is that research methodologies may be congruent with the culture of place, the third that to the community psychologist is required t...
A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning
Science, medicine and ophthalmology have all evolved and progressed through varied but powerful influences over the centuries. While the tremendous technological advances in ophthalmology in the past 20 years are readily appreciated, many clinicians fail to grasp the impact of the several clinical trials that have contributed to better patient care. This article briefly traces the history of science, medicine and ophthalmology, and explains how scientific thinking could be applied to the clin...
Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.
Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there i...
Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Dombernowsky, Per
This paper adresses the theme of thinking construction in a changing world. In more specific terms it adresses two topics. The first being the necessary competences and skills in construction, that can be expected in the profile of the future architect after graduation. The second, being the acquired educational methods and pedagogic strategies, necessary to meet this demand. The paper summarizes the answers and reflections related to these topics by giving an example of a construction workshop ...
Bravos, Cynthia; Adler, Isabel K.
This paper aims at presenting how a Brazilian innovation consultancy guided a collaborative development of a mobile solution using the Design Thinking approach (Vianna et al, 2012) and Lean principles (Ries, 2011). It will describe tools and methods used and how it was applied to requirement gathering, analysis and specification a solution to improve the assembly service of a retail company. This case aims at shedding the light at how those approaches can be applied in other companies that have ...
Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous the...
??? Pin-Chun Wu
Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????113??????????????????—????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? This paper explores the impact of the sufficiency and timing of physical exercise on physical fitness, creative thinking, and mathematics achievement. A pretestposttest quasi-experimental design involved 113 tenth grade students from three senior high school classes in the Taipei metropolitan area to investigate the effects of three instructional strategies-traditional physical education (comparison group, sufficient exercise earlier in the day (experimental group 1, and sufficient exercise immediately before mathematics class (experimental group 2. The collected data were analyzed by ANCOVA and MANCOVA to evaluate any differences among total and sub-scale scores for the three research groups. Our findings demonstrate: (1 Total physical fitness scores were higher for both experimental groups than for the comparison group. Both experimental groups’ subscales scores for muscular endurance, power, and cardiorespiratory endurance outperformed those of the comparison group. (2 Total creative thinking scores for experimental group 2 were higher than those of experimental group 1 and the comparison group. Both experimental groups’ subscale scores for fluency, abstractness of titles, elaboration and resistance to premature closure were higher than those of the comparison group. (3 Math achievement scores, including the lower level cognitive domain subscales of knowledge and comprehension, were higher for experimental group 2 than experimental group 1 and the comparison group. However, no differences were found among the three groups for higher level cognitive domain subscales, including analysis and synthesis. Based these findings, suggestions for further implementation of educational policies and research are proposed.
Gabriela L. Krumm
Full Text Available On the basis of a previous study carried out with Spanish-speaking children which indicates that the Creativity construct, operationalized by means of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT-Figural, consists of two factors –Innovation and Adaptation– (Krumm, Lemos & Arán Filippetti, in press, the objective of the present work was to prove whether this structure is invariant across age. A sample of 652 Spanish-speaking children and adolescents aged 9-17 years of both sexes was tested. It was in turn divided into three age groups: (a 9-10, (b 11-13 and (c 16 -17 years. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA showed that in each group of the sample, the structure of the TTCT is composed of two correlated factors, namely Innovation and Adaptation. In addition, Multigroup CFA demonstrated that the two-factor solution was actually invariant (configural and metric across age, meaning that children and adolescents equally conceptualize the Creativity construct. Finally, MANOVA showed a significant age effect on every subscale. These data suggest the relevance of considering the age factor when assessing the creative potential through the TTCT-Figural.
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges the view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate that competitive strategies will become more common in the future.
What do school leaders think while performing their jobs? What is the nature of these thinking processes? And what is their function, with regard to the day-to-day leadership in the school? These questions are central to the research reported in this book. A naturalistic, interpretive research approach has been taken, to gain more insight in the 'how' of daily leadership. Three approaches to studying the thinking processes of school leaders are explored: tacit knowledge (explored using cogni...
Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy
In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change. PMID:18647948
Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele
Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice. PMID:26285997
Full Text Available The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assumed by each participant: function of generating ideas, the function of selection (review and evaluation of information, functions of sense transfer and function of implementation. Thinking of adult, acting as a complex self-organizing system, combines the same functions: generation, selection, sense transfer and implementation. In this connection, we believe that the thinking style is defined as a characteristic set of functions actualized by a person in different situations of the problem solving. Domination of generation function determines the development of initiative thinking style, selection - critical, sense transfer - administrative, implementation - practical. The results of testing the reliability and validity of a new questionnaire for the thinking style diagnostics on a representative sample of Russians are given. The author’s version of the questionnaire is presented.
Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.
Design thinking is about using design to improve the human experience. It combines collaboration, systems thinking, and a balance of creative and analytical habits. It also fuels what the students want for themselves: making an impact on the real world in real time and having adults take their passions seriously. The process essentially comes down…
Huang, Yu-Hsien; Lin, Mei-Feng; Ho, Hsueh-Jen; Chang, Lu-Na; Chen, Shiue
Lack of knowledge and experience is prevalent in undergraduate students who are taking their clinical practicum for mental-health nursing. This issue negatively affects the learning process. This article shares an experience of implementing a practicum-teaching program. This program was developed by the authors to facilitate the cooperative learning and clinical care competence of students. A series of multidimensional teaching activities was designed by integrating the strategies of peer cooperation and creative thinking to promote group and individual learning. Results indicate that the program successfully encouraged the students to participate more actively in the learning process. Additionally, the students demonstrated increased competence in empathetic caring toward patients, stronger friendship relationships with peers, and improved self-growth. The authors hope this teaching program provides a framework to increase the benefits for students of participating in clinical practicums and provides a teaching reference for clinical instructors. PMID:25854950
Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web
Holmes, N G; Bonn, D A
The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and while it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics lab course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the...
Kuan Chen Tsai
According to the literature, empirical links between play and divergent thinking in children were found. However, the potential effects of play in adults in terms of promoting creativity are underestimated. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible benefits of play behavior in adult classrooms in order to facilitate creativity. The results of the present study lend some support for the effects of play on divergent thinking in adults. In respect to ideas g...
The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…
Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan
Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages…
Goethe, Susan E. A. M.
The development and use of intuitive thinking, at all levels of education, have been of concern to scholars in recent years. This paper discusses the findings and theories of various scholars about intuitive thinking and learning, including the work of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Richard Jones, and Robert Ornstein. The paper also explores the use…
Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.
Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…
Bishop, Bradley Wade; Johnston, Melissa P.
Geospatial thinking skills inform a host of library decisions including planning and managing facilities, analyzing service area populations, facility site location, library outlet and service point closures, as well as assisting users with their own geospatial needs. Geospatial thinking includes spatial cognition, spatial reasoning, and knowledge…
Full Text Available In the learning process which aim is developing original creativity, has its central role complex thinking. This is important for the sensibilisation and intensification of the individual creative abilities. Multidisciplinary approach, various mind strategies and techniques of creating and resolving problems encourage by the individual and the group creativity, innovation, teamwork and critical thinking. The article represents four examples of the process in which new creative ideas, translated into complex graphical compositions representing the combination of architectural and fine arts contents, experience, ethical and esthetical sensitivity, existential self-awareness and the holistic personal development, are born.
The main purpose of the research was to determine the contributions of the teachers' thinking styles to critical thinking dispositions. Hence, it is aimed to determine whether thinking styles are related to critical thinking dispositions and thinking styles measure critical thinking dispositions or not. The research was designed in relational…
Agypt, Brett; Rubin, Beth A.; Spivack, April J.
The turbulence of the new economy puts demands on organizations to respond rapidly, flexibly and creatively to changing environments. Meetings are one of the organizational sites in which organizational actors "do" creativity; interaction in groups can be an important site for generating creative ideas and brainstorming. Additionally, Blount…
Nusbaum, Emily C.; Silvia, Paul J.
Contemporary creativity research views intelligence and creativity as essentially unrelated abilities, and many studies have found only modest correlations between them. The present research, based on improved approaches to creativity assessment and latent variable modeling, proposes that fluid and executive cognition is in fact central to…
Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.
This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…
This essay is devoted to calling global attention to body thinking neglected yet routinely practiced by us all, especially in China for millennia. This essay, one, responds to the feature, universality, of disembodyied thinking, by paralleling it with Chinese body thinking, two, shows how basic body thinking is to disembodied thinking, and three, shows how body thinking in China elucidates bodily matters, time, contingency, and bodily death, what Western disembodied cannot handle.
"We know that progress depends on discovery, inventions, creativity and design, but we have simply supposed that it happens anyway," de Bono (1999 p. 43). Technology education is ostensibly a foundation for future designers and creative thinking. However evidence of good design or creative thinking in outcomes displayed in school…
Anny, Castillo Rojas.
Full Text Available El sistema educativo no escapa a la renovación de las técnicas para incentivar el pensamiento innovador. El objetivo de esta reflexión monográfica es mostrar la relación entre el desarrollo de la creatividad y los usos de los softwares educativos. Las técnicas seleccionadas son, el mapa mental y el [...] de conceptos, el mandala y las supernotas. Y los softwares empleados, son el Mind Manager, el Inspiración y el CMap Tool. El procedimiento hace referencia a los fundamentos teóricos argumentados por los autores y, a una descripción de las bondades de los tres softwares seleccionados. Como reflexión final se puede decir que los softwares seleccionados cumplen la función de herramienta mental-tecnológica, al desarrollar habilidades para procesar información de forma creativa. Abstract in english The educational system does not escape to renewing the techniques to motivate innovative thinking. The goal of this monographic reflection is to show the relation between creativity development and education software uses. The chosen techniques are, mental and concept map, the mandala and super note [...] -taking. The software used is the Mind Manager, Inspiration, and the CMap Tool. The procedure refers to the theoretical fundaments argued by the authors and, to a description of the goodness of the software used. As a final reflection it can be said that the software work as a mental-technological tool, by developing skills to process information in a creative way.
Zabramski, Stanislaw; Gkouskos, Dimitrios; Lind, Mats
This paper presents the results of an experiment comparing mouse, pen- and touch-inputs in computerized figural creativity test. The results show no statistically significant differences in creativity scores obtained by participants using mentioned devices as computer input methods. The results indicate that creativity testing can be introduced to a variety of modern computer devices with insignificant influence of the three most popular input devices tested. That also shows that the differen...
Be aware of what attachments you open and what Internet programs you agree to download, the simple click of a mouse can be enough to introduce a virus at CERN and cause widespread damage. Modern viruses are a serious threat to our computers and networks. CERN limits the security risks that these programs pose through the use of its firewall, by constantly updating its anti-virus software, by detecting un-patched security holes, and by blocking many dangerous attachments as they pass through e-mail gateways, but these defenses do not guarantee 100% security. Our habits of clicking "ok" automatically on the Internet and opening attachments without thinking, are the behaviors that modern viruses are using to get past our security protections. Viruses can sit on the Internet waiting for us to activate them as we surf the web. Many of us simply click 'ok' when presented with dialogue boxes and this is exactly what the virus wants: clicking can be enough to download and infect our computers. Viruses can travel as...
Researchers seem to be stuck reiterating the now-familiar argument that barren boxes are bad for welfare and that rodents are due ethical consideration. But the prerequisites for real progress are new kinds of arguments, new types of data, and removal of very real practical and cultural obstacles to implementation of meaningful enrichment. We must discover what we have to do to effectively change the practices of people who have care and control of rodents in the laboratory, not just husbandry staff but those who develop the institution's protocols, job descriptions, and resourcing. Researchers are inventers of information, and like any inventor we should experience no satisfaction until our ideas are fully implemented-and we must be an active participant in that process. If we are asking animal caretakers to make deep, paradigmatic changes in their thinking, it is imperative that we in turn develop an emotionally positive understanding of areas important to them. For unless the welfare advocates truly understand the issues such as budgets, biosecurity, and branding, why should the people responsible for those subjects listen to us? PMID:20017050
This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)
Full Text Available Critical thinking, rooted in critical philosophy, has long been an influential part and parcel of Western education. The present study is an attempt to sketch the concept of critical thinking as a viable cornerstone in language education. First, a number of the definitions of the concept as posited by different scholars are put forth. Second, the typical features of critical thinkers are introduced from the perspectives of education scholars. Third, different standpoints on the teachability of the ability to think critically are reviewed. And finally, a number of classroom techniques, including debates, media analyses, problem-solving tasks, self-assessment and peer-assessment, likely to foster critical thinking skills in language classrooms are proposed.
Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive Director Chris Lewis will work with the audience on an interactive basis to outline answers to the following questions: - To what extent was there agreement world-wide on the major communications challenges facing the nuclear industry prior to September 11th, and how to address them locally? - How (and how much) has the nuclear communications agenda changed since then? Are the new challenges the same world-wide? - To what extent is communications strategy - like strategy generally - a question not only of what to do, but also of what not to do? When is lack of transparency justified? - Are the new issues all negative, or do recent global developments also offer nuclear communicators world-wide a new opportunity to 'put across' the key messages they have been trying to communicate for many years past - in particular, the 'place' of nuclear energy in the broader 'energy picture'? (author)
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri; Arcavi, Abraham
The observation that the human mind operates in two distinct thinking modes – intuitive and analytical – has occupied psychological and educational researchers for several decades now. Cognitive and social psychologists have done an extensive experimental and theoretical work on the two modes of thinking, much of it under the umbrella of the so-called Dual-Process Theory, where the intuitive and analytical modes has been called System 1 and System 2, respectively. (Gilovich et al, 2002; Kahneman...
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, t...
To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs), i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thi...
Many students are capable of reading a chapter, doing the end-of-chapter questions, studying a little bit, and passing the chapter test. Many teachers are in the habit of using a textbook as a crutch to fall back on when creativity is lacking. Others are capable of teaching incredibly creative lessons based on state standards but are bound by the…
Razzouk, Rim; Shute, Valerie
Design thinking is generally defined as an analytic and creative process that engages a person in opportunities to experiment, create and prototype models, gather feedback, and redesign. Several characteristics (e.g., visualization, creativity) that a good design thinker should possess have been identified from the literature. The primary purpose…
Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.
Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…
Chen, Guo-Hai; Liu, Yong
A hypothesis was examined, that gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at) was negatively related to Type I thinking styles and positively related to Type II thinking styles as defined in Sternberg's theory of mental self-government. 431 university students (250 women, 181 men; M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.2) completed self-report measures of gelotophobia (GELOPH ) and thinking styles (Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised). Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that gelotophobia was negatively and significantly related to four Type I thinking styles (legislative, judicial, liberal, and hierarchical thinking styles) and a Type III thinking style (external), while it was positively and significantly related to a Type II thinking style (conservative). Thinking styles uniquely explained 18% of the total variance in gelotophobia scores. Possible interventions from the perspective of thinking styles in the treatment of gelotophobia were discussed. PMID:22489375
The significance of design thinking and systems thinking for design has gained much recognition in recent years. In comparison to design thinking, scholarly discussion about systems thinking has a much longer history and includes more multiple and divergent perspectives. This paper reviews and critiques the essence of design thinking and systems…
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Previous neuroscientific studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in creative potential measured by divergent thinking (CPMDT), emotional control, and motivational state. However, although associations between two of these four components have been previously established (e.g., the association between CPMDT and emotional control, the association between CPMDT and motivational state, etc.), the interactions between these four remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to reveal these interactions using path analyses. The Taq1A polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene was used for this purpose. For measuring emotional intelligence (EI), we used the Japanese version of the Emotional Intelligence Scale. CPMDT was measured using the S-A creativity test. Motivational state was measured using the Vigor subscale of the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS). Data from 766 healthy, right-handed individuals (426 men and 340 women; 20.7 ± 1.9 years of age) were used in this study. There were significant and robust positive relationships among measures of CPMDT, EI, and motivational state across sex. In addition, the polymorphism of the DRD2 gene was significantly associated with EI, specifically in females. Path analysis in females indicates that the model in which (a) the DRD2 polymorphism primarily facilitates EI, (b) EI in turn facilitates CPMDT and leads to a better motivational state, and (c) a better motivational state also directly facilitates CPMDT explains the data in the most accurate manner. This study suggested a comprehensive picture of the cascade of the associations among dopamine, EI, motivational state, and CPMDT at least in females. PMID:26217259
Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.
The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…
Martinez, Angel; Lasser, Jon
The process of creating child-developed board games in a counseling setting may promote social, emotional, and behavioral development in children. Using this creative approach, counselors can actively work with children to address referred concerns and build skills that may generalize outside of counseling sessions. A description of the method is…
Hechter, Richard P.; Guy, Mark
This article reports the phases of design and use of video editing technology as a medium for creatively expressing science content knowledge in an elementary science methods course. Teacher candidates communicated their understanding of standards-based core science concepts through the creation of original digital movies. The movies were assigned…
The skills most often mentioned in definitions of critical thinking are the ability to think creatively, make decisions, solve problems, visualize, reason, analyze, interpret, and know how to learn. Vocational education should be involved in developing thinking skills for the following reasons: occupations are becoming more reliant on cognitive…
Efectos directos e indirectos entre estilos de pensamiento, estrategias metacognitivas y creatividad en estudiantes universitarios / Direct and indirect effects between thinking styles, metacognitive strategies and creativity in college students
Calixto, Gutierrez-Braojos; Purificación, Salmeron-Vilchez; Ana, Martín-Romera; Honorio, Salmerón.
Full Text Available Desde la psicología educativa se han generado estudios que relacionan los estilos de pensamiento con las estrategias metacognitivas y la creatividad. Aunque existe un cuerpo empírico que explicita relaciones de dependencia y/o predictivas entre estos constructos, no hemos hallado estudios que analic [...] en los efectos directos e indirectos que se establecen entre ellos. Así, el objetivo en este estudio fue probar un modelo teórico mediante modelización con ecuaciones estructurales para estudiar dichos efectos. Participaron 197 estudiantes universitarios. Los instrumentos usados fueron: i) el Inventario de Estilos de Pensamiento (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner y Zhang, 2003) para medir los estilos de pensamiento; ii) La Escala de Estrategias de Aprendizaje (ACRA) (Román y Gallego, 2001) para medir las estrategias metacognitivas; iii) El Test de Inteligencia Creativa (CREA) (Corbalán Berná et al., 2003) para medir la creatividad. Los resultados obtenidos indican que: i) Los estilos de pensamiento judicial y legislativo (Sternberg, 1998) contribuyen de manera positiva y directamente al uso de estrategias metacognitivas e indirecta y positivamente a la creatividad; ii) las estrategias metacognitivas contribuyen de manera directa y positivamente a la creatividad. Sin embargo, no se ha encontrado una relación directa entre los estilos de pensamiento y la creatividad. Abstract in english Previous studies from the field of Educational Psychology have indicated that thinking styles are related to metacognitive strategies and creativity. Although, there is a body of empirical studies which explains the relationship and/ or predictive relations between these constructs, we have not foun [...] d studies examining the direct and indirect effects that arise between them. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling to study these effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling to study these effects. Participants in the present study were 197 university students. Instruments used were: i) the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner & Zhan, 2003) to measure thinking styles; ii) The Learning Strategies Scale (ACRA) (Roman & Gallego, 2001) to measure the metacognitive strategies, iii) The Test of Creative Intelligence (CREA) (Corbalan Berna et al., 2003) to measure creativity. The results indicate that: i) The judicial and legislative thinking styles (Sternberg, 1998) contribute to the use of metacognitive strategies directly and in a positive way, and these styles contribute to the creativity indirectly and in a positive way; ii) metacognitive strategies contribute to the creativity directly and in a positively way. However, not found a direct relationship between thinking styles and creativity.
Leung, Shukkwan S.; Silver, Edward A.
A Test of Arithmetic Problem Posing was developed by the authors to examine the arithmetic problem-posing behaviours of sixty-three prospective elementary school teachers. Results of analysis were then used to examine task format (i.e., the presence or absence of specific numerical information) on subjects' problem posing and the relationship between subjects' problem posing and their mathematics knowledge and verbal creativity. The major findings were that the test effectively evaluated arithmetic problem posing, and that most subjects were able to pose solvable and complex problems. In addition, problem-posing performance was better when the task contained specific numerical information than when it did not, and that problem-posing performance was significantly related to mathematical knowledge but not to verbal creativity.
The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.
Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is Vygotsky's thesis that the prerequisite of conceptual thinking and concepts in general is the systematic influence upon the child effectuated by his/her inclusion into the process of education. The aim of this work is to examine characteristics of conceptual thinking of people who have not attended school, by which they have been devoid of formative role of education. Four different methods for examination of conceptual development have been used on the sample consisting of seventeen respondents who have not attended school. The results state that the majority of respondents have not demonstrated that they master the concepts on the highest level of development in none of these four methods. However, some respondents in some tests and some individual tasks within the tests show some characteristics of the high level of the conceptual thinking development.
Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel
Information and knowledge workers as well as other employees who are not part of a research or product development team are barely exposed to innovation creation processes. Design Thinking as an innovation method is typi- cally used in R&D. This research analyses whether a short-cycled Design Think- ing method can be developed, so employees outside R&D can be taken out of their daily jobs and innovate without falling too much behind with their opera- tional work. Alongside with short-cycled DT s...
Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Plummer, Julia; Sadler, Philip M.; Johnson, Erin; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Helen; Dussault, Mary E.
Critical breakthroughs in science (e.g., Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, and Watson & Crick's discovery of the structure of DNA), originated with those scientists' ability to think spatially, and research has shown that spatial ability correlates strongly with likelihood of entering a career in STEM. Mounting evidence also shows that spatial skills are malleable, i.e., they can be improved through training. We report early work from a new project that will build on this research to create a series of middle schools science labs called "Thinking Spatially about the Universe" (ThinkSpace), in which students will use a blend of physical and virtual models (in WorldWide Telescope) to explore complex 3-dimensional phenomena in space science. In the three-year ThinkSpace labs project, astronomers, technologists, and education researchers are collaborating to create and test a suite of three labs designed to improve learners' spatial abilities through studies of: 1) Moon phases and eclipses; 2) planetary systems around stars other than the Sun; and 3.) celestial motions within the broader universe. The research program will determine which elements in the labs will best promote improvement of spatial skills within activities that emphasize disciplinary core ideas; and how best to optimize interactive dynamic visualizations to maximize student understanding.
The Internet, in the memorable words of EDGE founder John Brockman, is 'the infinite oscillation of our collective consciousness interacting with itself. It's not about computers. It's not about what it means to be human - in fact, it challenges, renders trite, our cherished assumptions on that score. It is about thinking'. In How is the Internet Changing the Way you Think?, the latest volume in Brockman's cutting-edge Edge questions series, 154 of the world's leading intellectuals - scientists, artists and creative thinkers - explore exactly what it means to think in the new age of the Inter
Price, John L.; Mann, George
This paper points out that one of the most appropriate and needed areas in which students should engage in critical thinking is in their everyday responses to messages aimed at them in attempts to persuade and convince them to buy or believe something. Ten commonly used tactics noted in the media are described. Examples are given of slanted or…
This paper discusses the organization of the Bradford Woods Conference in Indiana that began optometry think tank meetings in 1954, the Allenberry Conference held annually for many years starting in 1967, and the Blue Sky Conference in Michigan that started concurrently with Allenberry. These were freewheeling meetings with enthusiastic exchange of often visionary ideas. PMID:20973331
Stich, Amy E.; Colyar, Julia E.
In this paper, the authors argue that despite a resurgence of elite studies, the majority of existing scholarship works to reify and legitimize social inequality through its language and method. In particular, the authors utilize Pierre Bourdieu's concept of relational thinking to review and critique contemporary research on elite education and…
Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda
In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…
Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...
1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the students thought of were; a rise in the sea level because of melting ice at the north and south poles, floods, the increase of typhoons and cyclones, the increase of droughts, the progression of desertification, etc. Lastly, I asked them to think about what we can do to prevent global warming. The students suggested: saving energy to decrease carbon dioxide emissions, developing further public transportation, using bikes instead of cars, promoting recycling, and decreasing the output of garbage. 3.Conclusion It is very effective to let them think about being sustainable earth after studying Geography, History and Civics at the end of Junior high school to raise awareness concerning sustainable region on the earth, on which we live.
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Full Text Available La investigación que acá se reseña puso a prueba los mapas mentales en grupos de estudiantes. Metodológicamente se apeló a un diseño cuasi-experimental intragrupos, con el ánimo de establecer si con el uso de mapas mentales los sujetos de investigación mejoraban o no su nivel de originalidad y eficacia con respecto a ideas que se derivaran de procesos creativos que no utilizaran la cartografía mental. Los investigadores obtuvieron un total de 64 ideas, 32 resultantes del uso de mapas mentales y otras 32 provenientes de procesos que no involucraron al mapa mental. Para hacer los comparativos del caso se apeló a evaluaciones cualificadas de la originalidad y la eficacia mediante la utilización de un diferencial semántico que permitió valorar estadísticamente los puntajes dados a cada una de las ideas realizadas por los sujetos de investigación. La hipótesis que se planteó en el sentido de que los mapas mentales mejoran la originalidad de los estudiantes se confirmó, más no otra hipótesis que sugería que con los mapas mentales se incrementaba el nivel de eficacia de las propuestas. No obstante, dependiendo del tipo de mapa mental utilizado, la eficacia puede no verse disminuida, en tanto que la originalidad se incrementa, con toda seguridad, independientemente del tipo de mapa mental utilizado en el proceso. El mapa mental, debidamente utilizado, potencializa en los estudiantes el pensamiento divergente, la flexibilidad espontanea, las jerarquías planas y, en general, su creatividad. The research that is outlined here did tests the metal maps on a group of students. Methodologically the study appealed to a semi-experimental design within groups, with the intention to establish if by using mental maps people’s level of originality and efficacy as to the ideas that came from creative processes were higher than those who didn’t use mental maps. The researchers obtained a total of 64 ides, 32 came from the use of mental maps and the other 32 came from processes that did not involve mental maps at all. In order to compare the study the evaluation qualified the originality and assertiveness by means of a semantic differential that allowed to statistically value the scores given to each of the ideas that came from the students subject to the tests. The proposed hypothesis leading towards the idea that mental maps would enhance the students’ originality was confirmed, yet not a second hypothesis that suggested that with the use of mental maps the level of efficacy would be higher. Regardless, depending on the type f mental map used, efficacy may not be reduced while the originality is sure to be enhanced while using any type of mental map. Such maps, if used adequately promotes diverging though processes in students, spontaneous flexibility, flat hierarchies and creativity in general.
André Mata; Tiago Almeida
Three studies tested whether people use cues about the way other people think---for example, whether others respond fast vs. slow---to infer what responses other people might give to reasoning problems. People who solve reasoning problems using deliberative thinking have better insight than intuitive problem-solvers into the responses that other people might give to the same problems. Presumably because deliberative responders think of intuitive responses before they think o...
Ahern, Aoife; Mac Ruairc, Gerry; McNamara, Martin; O'Connor, Tom
This paper describes a multi-qualitative study undertaken to examine the issue of critical thinking as a graduate attribute. Critical thinking is a graduate attribute that many courses claim to produce in students. However, it is important to understand how academics define and describe critical thinking and whether their understandings of critical thinking differ, depending on their discipline or subject area. The paper describes a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with aca...
Russo, Thomas J.; And Others
This project sought to focus on elements of critical thinking and reflective judgement specific to the college classroom experience using the Reflective Judgment (RJ) Model developed by P. M. King and K. M. Strohm-Kitchener. The project included an exploration of college instructors' assumptions and beliefs about college students, and an…
Ku, Kelly Y. L.; Ho, Irene T.
The need to cultivate students' use of metacognitive strategies in critical thinking has been emphasized in the related literature. The present study aimed at examining the role of metacognitive strategies in critical thinking. Ten university students with comparable cognitive ability, thinking disposition and academic achievement but with…
Latchaw, Joan S.
Because it has been overworked, underanalyzed, and undefined, critical thinking has come to mean anything or nothing. The best work on critical thinking imagines it as an act of composing and revising. Definitions of critical thinking have undergone a historical evolution--from general problem-solving "skills" to a complex of higher-order…
Rud, Anthony G., Jr.
The paper examines a debate recently at the fore of the philosophical and educational literature on "critical thinking," namely, the claim that critical thinking consists of a set of discrete skills which can be taught separately versus the claim that critical thinking is "field dependent" and is thus part of learning a discipline. The works of…
Monroe, Martha C.; Plate, Richard R.; Colley, Lara
This research study investigated the learning outcomes of a brief systems thinking intervention at the undergraduate level. A pre/post experimental design (n = 50) was used to address two primary questions: (1) Can a brief introduction to systems thinking improve students' understanding of systems thinking? and (2) Which teaching method (of…
Salmon, Angela K.; Lucas, Teresa
A growing body of evidence supports the importance of nurturing children's thinking. This article reports on an investigation of the influence of teachers' implementation of the Visible Thinking approach developed within the Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero on very young children's concepts of thinking, as measured by the…
??? Hsueh-Chin Chen
Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????1,200 ????????????????????????????????????? The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of creative cognition which would enable educators to more accurately and objectively measure the development of creativity in Taiwanese high school students. The instrument was designed to measure the constructs of divergent-thinking and insight, as previous research has suggested that these are the only two dimensions of creativity which can be measured objectively. To overcome problems encountered in previous attempts to measure these two abilities, and to combine the strengths of separate measures of both, a test was developed which involves having students subtract strokes from the Chinese characters “?” to form another legal Chinese character. Responses are scored for fluency (the number of legal responses, flexibility (the variety of perspectives represented in the responses, and originality (statistical infrequency. The stroke-subtraction test offers advantages compared to other measures of creativity in that it emphasizes the novelty and appropriateness of the responses simultaneously. Further, use of the three score indexes simplifies the scoring process. The test was piloted with 1,200 Taiwanese high school students, and this sample was used to establish a norm for the purpose of norm-referenced score interpretations. The results were also compared with those from several other measurements to provide evidence supporting the criterion-related validity of the instrument. Based on the findings, implications for educational administrators, schools, teachers are discussed. Finally, suggestions for future research are offered.
Assaf, Mohammad Ahmad
The purpose of this literature review was to study some of the most famous works in teaching thinking skills. Teaching thinking is an arguable issue in the UAE. Some teachers are in favour of teaching thinking skills implicitly while others support the view that students have to learn thinking skills explicitly. The study aimed at answering two…
"Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…
The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March. Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...
Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Yukalov, V I
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The industrial milieu is a traditional area for hard systems analysis, and the optimization of processes using reductionist approaches.
Soft Systems Thinking, with its powerful use of conceptual modelling, has been neglected in the West, but has been applied by the Japanese - with some very surprising results.
It is suggested that South African industry could benefit from an injection of soft systems thinking.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die bedryfsomgewing is h tradisionele gebied vir die toepassing van hardestelselontleding, en die optimalisering van prosesse deur die gebruik van benaderings wat die probleme maklik kan herlei.
Sagtestelselontleding, met die klem op konsepsuele modulering, word min in Westerse lande gebruik, maar het in Japan verbasende resultate opgelewer.
Dit word voorgestel dat ondernemings in Suid Afrika sal kan baat deULgebruik te maak van die sagtestelselbenadering.
Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Assaf, Dorit; Benker, Emanuel
This article describes an exemplary robot exercise which was conducted in a class for mechatronics students. The goal of this exercise was to engage students in scientific thinking and reasoning, activities which do not always play an important role in their curriculum. The robotic platform presented here is simple in its construction and is customizable to the needs of the teacher. Therefore, it can be used for exercises in many different fields of science, not necessarily ...
The “question of the animal,” as it has become known, is central—both strategically and in-itself—to contemporary philosophy and politics, and in my thesis, Zoogenesis: Thinking Encounter with Animals, I seek to further explore the ongoing deconstruction of the human-animal dichotomy. Therein I argue that, if we are to stall the genocidal machine by which various bodies are reproduced as “killable,” the reinscription of other animals within the domains of philosophy, ethics, and politics rema...
The social negotiation maintains that the main roles of the environment are to offer alternative views, to develop knowledge, to seek knowledge that is compatible with students’ own construction and understanding of the world. It also enhances critical thinking skills such as studying a subject or problem with openmindedness, determining the facts of a new situation or subject without prejudice, placing these facts and information in a pattern so that students can understand th...
Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Hove Henriksen, Morten; Frier, Claus; Søby, Jeanette; Jennings, Vernon
Purpose – The objective of the paper is to describe and discuss how the biotech company Novozymes integrates stakeholder thinking into everyday sustainability practices. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on first-hand experiences as well as secondary information from Novozymes' stakeholder-oriented sustainability activities. Findings – The paper illustrates how a company is striving to transform the general stakeholder principles into concrete, manageable actions. Moreover, the pa...
The article discusses creative practices that in aesthetical-technical ways intervene into the computer networked communication systems.I am interested in artist practices that use networks in different ways to make us aware about the possibilities to rethink media-cultural environments. I use the example of the Japanese art-architectural group Double Negative Architecture to give an example of creatively thinking in networks.Yvonne Spielmann (Ph.D., Dr. habil.) is presently Research Professo...
Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P; Buchner, Axel
Rating the relevance of words for the imagined situation of being stranded in the grasslands without survival material leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. This survival processing effect has received much attention because it promises to elucidate the evolutionary foundations of memory. However, the proximate mechanisms of the survival processing effect have to be identified before informed speculations about its adaptive function are possible. Here, we test and contrast 2 promising accounts of the survival processing effect. According to the 1st account, the effect is the consequence of the prioritized processing of threat-related information. According to the 2nd account, thinking about the relevance of items for survival stimulates thinking about object function, which is a particularly elaborate form of encoding. Experiment 1 showed that the emotional properties of the survival scenario, as manipulated by the negative or positive framing of the scenario, did not influence recall. A focus on threat at encoding led to worse recall than a focus on function. The latter finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which further showed that focusing on threat did not lead to a memory advantage over a pleasantness control condition. The beneficial effect of inducing a functional focus at encoding even surpasses that of the standard survival processing instruction. Together, the results support the theory that thinking about function is an important component of the survival processing effect. PMID:25419817
Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata
The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed. PMID:21171729
Full Text Available The critical aspect of cultivating mathematical ability is the training of mathematics thinking. In the process of mathematics education, it should coach the creative thinking continually, and College mathematics will play an important role in training students’ thinking ability. As the matter of fact, mathematics can explain many phenomena simply and accurately. Through the living feeling, leading students to study these things, which can form the habit of being happy to analyze mathematics and communicate with each other. It could strengthen students’ awareness of applying mathematics and improve the ability of using mathematics. According to three effective ways of coaching students, in order to apply mathematic knowledge in all kinds of social topics, the author will study how to train student’s mathematical thinking from the perspective of college mathematical teaching in this topic.
Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.
This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The most important principles in an organization are continuous development and survival. Nowadays, creativity and innovation are vital for survival in a competitive world. The thinking style of a manager in an organization is an important factor in his/her creativity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between thinking style and organizational innovation in 84 senior and junior managers of Shiraz educational hospitals in 2008.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 84 top and mid-level managers of Shiraz teaching hospitals were selected by the census method. Data were collected using two standard questionnaires, one for thinking style and one for innovation, the content validity and reliability of which had been confirmed. A preliminary test showed the Cronbachs alpha for the thinking style and organizational questionnaires to be 0.83 and 0.72, respectively. Data analysis was performed using Spearman correlation test. Results: The Spearman correlation analysis showed a statistically significant, although weak, relationship between thinking style of senior and junior managers of Shiraz teaching hospitals and their organizational innovation. A pragmatic thinking style had the strongest association with organizational innovation.Conclusion: The thinking style of a teaching hospital manager plays a vital role in his/her creativity. No thinking style is particularly preferred; any thinking style may give desirable results as regards creativity of a manger, depending on the circumstances and conditions.
Barrouillet, Pierre Noël; Gauffroy, Caroline
Thinking and reasoning are key activities for human beings. In this book a distinguished set of contributors provides a wide readership with up-to-date scientific advances in the developmental psychology of thinking and reasoning, both at the theoretical and empirical levels. The first part of the book illustrates how modern approaches to the study of thinking and reasoning have gone beyond the Piagetian legacy: through the investigation of avenues previously not explored, and by demonstratin...
Mansoor Fahim; Maryam Pezeshki
Critical thinking ability is a difficult concept to define. It involves reasoning and active consideration of what is received rather than a forthright acceptance of the ideas. It has been argued that when the focus of testing is the examination itself, the critical thinking ability of the learners cannot be boosted. However, different types and formats of tests can engage the learners in an active critical thinking when they are appropriately prepared. In this paper some of these tests used...
Oreskes, N.; Conway, E. M.
In our book, Merchants of Doubt, we documented how deliberate disinformation campaigns served to confuse the American people about the reality and significance of climate change over more than two decades. We showed how a variety of strategies were used to persuade the public that the scientific "jury was still out" on climate change, including deliberate mispresentation of facts, cherry-picking of evidence, and personal attacks on scientists. And we documented the links, both conceptual and actual, between doubt-mongering about climate change and the rejection of scientific evidence of the harms of tobacco, acid rain, the ozone hole, nuclear winter, and DDT. These tactics are still in use today, but they are now reinforced by a new problem, the problem of wishful thinking. Increasingly, we see commentators who accept the reality of climate change assuring us that the problem can be solved by natural gas, or even by some as yet unknown and uninvented technological innovations. In this paper we argue that these forms of wishful thinking, while not malicious in the same way that previous doubt-mongering campaigns have been, contribute substantially to scientific illiteracy and misunderstanding both of the character of the challenges that we face and of the history of technological innovation.
Murray, Brendan D.; Muscatell, Keely A.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.
Recent studies have demonstrated that young adults can voluntarily suppress information from memory when directed to. After learning novel word pairings to criterion, participants are shown individual words and instructed either to “think” about the associated word, or to put it out of mind entirely (“no-think”). When given a surprise cued recall test, participants typically show impaired recall for “no-think” words relative to “think” or “control” (un-manipulated) words. The present study in...
Glassey, Olivier; Morin, Jean-Henry
ThinkData is an interactive service for raising awareness on data protection and transparency in the organisational context. Originating from a study carried out by an interdisciplinary work group as part of a think tank on services science and innovation (ThinkServices). ThinkData allows its users to become familiar with the concepts of data protection and transparency through short stories, situations involving employees, managers, HR managers and information systems professionals. In this ...
Choy, S. Chee; Oo, Pou San
The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to…
Kuo, Ming-Shiou; Chuang, Tsung-Yen
The teaching of 3D digital game design requires the development of students' meta-skills, from story creativity to 3D model construction, and even the visualization process in design thinking. The characteristics a good game designer should possess have been identified as including redesign things, creativity thinking and the ability to…
Robertson, William Haviland
The Critical Thinking Curriculum Model (CTCM) utilizes a multidisciplinary approach that integrates effective learning and teaching practices with computer technology. The model is designed to be flexible within a curriculum, an example for teachers to follow, where they can plug in their own critical issue. This process engages students in collaborative research that can be shared in the classroom, across the country or around the globe. The CTCM features open-ended and collaborative activities that deal with current, real world issues which leaders are attempting to solve. As implemented in the Critical Issues Forum (CIF), an educational program administered by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the CTCM encompasses the political, social/cultural, economic, and scientific realms in the context of a current global issue. In this way, students realize the importance of their schooling by applying their efforts to an endeavor that ultimately will affect their future. This study measures student attitudes toward science and technology and the changes that result from immersion in the CTCM. It also assesses the differences in student learning in science content and problem solving for students involved in the CTCM. A sample of 24 students participated in classrooms at two separate high schools in New Mexico. The evaluation results were analyzed using SPSS in a MANOVA format in order to determine the significance of the between and within-subjects effects. A comparison ANOVA was done for each two-way MANOVA to see if the comparison groups were equal. Significant findings were validated using the Scheffe test in a Post Hoc analysis. Demographic information for the sample population was recorded and tracked, including self-assessments of computer use and availability. Overall, the results indicated that the CTCM did help to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills for students, thereby positively effecting critical thinking. No matter if the students liked science or not, enjoyed computers or not, the CTCM approach helped to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills. The CTCM clearly provides an educational framework that can aid all students in the development of critical thinking skills.
Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation
Kastens, Kim A.; Manduca, Cathryn A.; Cervato, Cinzia; Frodeman, Robert; Goodwin, Charles; Liben, Lynn S.; Mogk, David W.; Spangler, Timothy C.; Stillings, Neil A.; Titus, Sarah
Decades ago, pioneering petroleum geologist Wallace Pratt pointed out that oil is first found in the human mind. His insight remains true today: Across geoscience specialties, the human mind is arguably the geoscientist's most important tool. It is the mind that converts colors and textures of dirt, or blotches on a satellite image, or wiggles on a seismogram, into explanatory narratives about the formation and migration of oil, the rise and fall of mountain ranges, the opening and closing of oceans. Improved understanding of how humans think and learn about the Earth can help geoscientists and geoscience educators do their jobs better, and can highlight the strengths that geoscience expertise brings to interdisciplinary problem solving.
Paiva, Luis Manuel Vilardouro; Costa, Marco; Barra, Sergio; Providencia, Rui
A 56-year-old female patient was referred to our institution for atypical chest pain and palpitations. Physical examination, resting ECG and transthoracic echocardiogram were unremarkable. Stress perfusion scintigraphy was positive for anterior and apical myocardial ischaemia. A subsequent coronary angiogram showed no signs of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease; however, it revealed a coronary arteriovenous fistula and multiple other fistulous connections between the proximal segment of the left coronary artery and the pulmonary artery trunk. We present a rare case of a symptomatic coronary fistula that was percutaneously closed using an Amplatzer Vascular Plug, which resulted in clinical improvement and late fistula occlusion. This case report underlines the importance of thinking beyond atherosclerosis in the evaluation of chest pain syndromes. Moreover, it describes some of the angiogram caveats in assessing the coronary fistula number and morphology, as well as the cardiac-catheter potential for multiple pathway coronary artery fistulae closure. PMID:23595197
To many outsiders, mathematicians appear to think like computers, grimly grinding away with a strict formal logic and moving methodically--even algorithmically--from one black-and-white deduction to another. Yet mathematicians often describe their most important breakthroughs as creative, intuitive responses to ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox. A unique examination of this less-familiar aspect of mathematics, How Mathematicians Think reveals that mathematics is a profoundly creative activity and not just a body of formalized rules and results
Strohm, Susan; Baukus, Robert A.
Posits that as faculty search for teaching strategies to foster critical-thinking skills, teachers of advertising may find their discipline well suited to this type of curricular innovation. Describes the process of reflective thought and tactics for fostering critical-thinking skills. Concludes that students' decision-making abilities are…
Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian
Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. PMID:25217762
Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David
This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…
Hatcher, Donald; Brown, Tony; Gariglietti, Kelli P.
Notes limitations of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Suggests that should these weaknesses be addressed, teachers of critical thinking would do well to incorporate REBT into their critical thinking courses. Relates that A. Ellis has suggested that the future of REBT is in integrating it into the educational curriculum as a way of…
Higgins, Paul; Zhang, Li-fang
Purpose: Drawing upon Sternberg's theory of mental self-government, this paper aims to investigate the thinking styles and workplace experiences of 152 human resource (HR) practitioners pursuing Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) membership. It seeks to explore whether their thinking styles complemented their jobs and consider…
Panofsky, Carolyn P.
Explores critical thinking as it has been constructed in schooling and in dominant traditions of psychological theory, presenting a dialectical view of critical thinking suggested in the social and philosophical writings of critical theorists (e.g., Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse) and supported by the sociohistorical or cultural-historical…
Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle
For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…
Ercikan, Kadriye; Seixas, Peter
Similar to educators in mathematics, science, and reading, history educators around the world have mobilized curricular reform movements toward including complex thinking in history education, advancing historical thinking, developing historical consciousness, and teaching competence in historical sense making. These reform movements, including…
Xie, Qiuzhi; Gao, Xiangping; King, Ronnel B.
This study investigated whether individual differences in thinking styles influence explicit and implicit learning. Eighty-seven university students in China participated in this study. Results indicated that performance in the explicit learning condition was positively associated with Type I thinking styles (i.e. legislative and liberal styles)…
Two studies have explored how teachers in the Netherlands think about value stimulation and how teachers combine stimulating the development of specific values with teaching skills that enable students to adopt critical thinking or to analyze various opinions. The results of an investigation into the importance attached by teachers to stimulating…
Reid, Joanne R.; Anderson, Phyllis R.
A minicourse in critical thinking was implemented to improve student outcomes in two sessions of a senior-level business course at a Midwestern university. Statistical analyses of two quantitative assessments revealed significant improvements in critical thinking skills. Improvements in student outcomes in case studies and computerized business…
Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova
Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process.
Roland, P E; Friberg, L
These experiments were undertaken to demonstrate that pure mental activity, thinking, increases the cerebral blood flow and that different types of thinking increase the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in different cortical areas. As a first approach, thinking was defined as brain work in the form of operations on internal information, done by an awake subject. The rCBF was measured in 254 cortical regions in 11 subjects with the intracarotid 133Xe injection technique. In normal man, changes in the regional cortical metabolic rate of O2 leads to proportional changes in rCBF. One control study was taken with the subjects at rest. Then the rCBF was measured during three different simple algorithm tasks, each consisting of retrieval of a specific memory followed by a simple operation on the retrieved information. Once started, the information processing went on in the brain without any communication with the outside world. In 50-3 thinking, the subjects started with 50 and then, in their minds only, continuously subtracted 3 from the result. In jingle thinking the subjects internally jumped every second word in a nine-word circular jingle. In route-finding thinking the subjects imagined that they started at their front door and then walked alternatively to the left or the right each time they reached a corner. The rCBF increased only in homotypical cortical areas during thinking. The areas in the superior prefrontal cortex increased their rCBF equivalently during the three types of thinking. In the remaining parts of the prefrontal cortex there were multifocal increases of rCBF. The localizations and intensities of these rCBF increases depended on the type of internal operation occurring. The rCBF increased bilaterally in the angular cortex during 50-3 thinking. The rCBF increased in the right midtemporal cortex exclusively during jingle thinking. The intermediate and remote visual association areas, the superior occipital, posterior inferior temporal, and posterior superior parietal cortex, increased their rCBFexclusively during route-finding thinking. We observed no decreases in rCBF. All rCBF increases extended over a few square centimeters of the cortex. The activation of the superior prefrontal cortex was attributed to the organization of thinking. The activation of the angular cortex in 50-3 thinking was attributed to the retrieval of the numerical memory and memory for subtractions. The activation of the right midtemporal cortex was attributed to the retrieval of the nonverbal auditory memory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
This study investigated the effect of amusement and task-framing on measures of divergent (fluency, average creativity and creativity x usefulness) and convergent thinking (insight). To expand existing literature on the mood-creativity paradigm, the effect of a discrete positive emotion (amusement) on the remote associates (RAT) and alternative uses tasks (AUT) was investigated in comparison to a neutral control group. The effect of task-framing on creative performance was also examined. Amus...
Wang, Li-Ping; qing-shan LI; Ya-qin HAO; Zhu-bai LIU
The cognition was spread from creation-energetics to creation-dynamics and thinking innovation-dynamics by study on trinal-creation theory in the creation and thinking innovation. This article expounded the importance of bringing up person with ability, and had importance on development of human being society.
Keywords: thinking innovation, thinking innovation education, creation-energetics, thinking innovation-thermodynamics, thinking innovation -dynamics
Examining different critical thinking definitions, one thing is agreed upon by most researchers: that is critical thinking includes not only critical thinking skills (containing both a process of thinking and thinking ability), involving analysis, interpretation, inference, explanation, evaluation and self-regulation but also critical thinking dispositions including clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, fairness. So a new way to te...
Mohammad Reza Hashemi
Full Text Available This study explored the effect of Iranian EFL learners’ critical thinking abilities on their receptive English language proficiency skills. With this purpose in mind, the researchers administered the Persian version of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA and the Interchange Objective Placement Test (Lesley, Hansen, & Zukowski-Faust, 2005 to 96 Intermediate EFL learners, and correlated the scores obtained from the two tests to see whether there is any significant relationship between critical thinking and proficiency. Results from Pearson product-moment correlation showed significant correlations between WGCTA subscales and proficiency scores. Furthermore, while logical interpretation was the only important variable in predicting both reading and listening comprehension scores, a stepwise multiple regression consisting of Watson-Glaser subscales 1 (drawing inferences, 2 (recognizing assumptions, and 4 (logical interpretation successfully predicted total proficiency test scores (R = .43. To see to what extent total scores for critical thinking may affect English language proficiency, three groups of High, Mid, and Low were formed based on critical thinking scores. The mean proficiency scores of the three groups were compared. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in the mean proficiency scores among the three groups. The results of the post-hoc Scheffe test revealed that there was a significant difference between the proficiency scores of the high creative group and those of the two other groups. The implications of the results were discussed.
Any ambitious construction project requires architects for its design and engineers who apply the design to the real world. As scientific research shifts towards large groups which focus on the engineering aspects of linking data to existing models, architectural skills are becoming rare among young theorists. Senior researchers should mentor qualified students and postdocs to think creatively about the big picture without unwarranted loyalty to ancient blueprints from past generations of architects.
Loeb, Abraham(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA)
Any ambitious construction project requires architects for its design and engineers who apply the design to the real world. As scientific research shifts towards large groups which focus on the engineering aspects of linking data to existing models, architectural skills are becoming rare among young theorists. Senior researchers should mentor qualified students and postdocs to think creatively about the big picture without unwarranted loyalty to ancient blueprints from past ...
Full Text Available This study investigates eight TEFL pre-service teachers’ reflective thinking on their classroom discourse in a middle school in China. The data comes from reflective journals, interviews and classroom observations. Three major themes emerge from the journals: physiological aspect, interpersonal aspect and pedagogical aspect of discourse. Moreover, the features of their reflective thinking on classroom discourse are explained. It is concluded that conceptualization is the most prominent feature. Additionally, the study finds out three influential factors on the focuses and features of pre-service teachers’ reflective thinking: lack of teaching experience, lack of knowledge on students and teachers’ identity dilemma.
Ofelia Contreras Gutiérrez
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify the strategies of constructive thinking that are used by university students. Constructive thinking is the automatic representation of the world, ourselves, and the future, it direct our actions to solve everyday problems. Results show that, there are no significant differences in global constructive thinking between male and female students. Although, exist differences in the copy style: men are better at emotional copies, they diminish the emotional cost of the events, and overcame faster negative experiences, they also show higher self-esteem. Women, on the other hand, show better strategies in order to solve problems (behavioral copy.
This chapter is about how we might assess the difference between human minds and machine minds. It is divided into two parts. The first briefly explores how machines might decide whether humans are intelligent, and parallels Turing's 1950 article closely. The second explores a hypothetical legal case in somewhat more detail, looking at Turing's Test in a more legal setting. Both explore sources of variation implicit in the format of the test. The two main parts of the chapter are written in different voices, to escape the assumption that the Turing Test is necessarily scientific and philosophical, and to make it possible to explore the implications of positions that cannot be my own - for one reason or another. There are three main players in the imitation game: the machine, the control, and the interrogator or judge. Each plays an active role in the test, and Turing's article (as most that followed) the background and aims of these players deliberately vague. This added strength to the Turing Test - but a strength that makes pinning down the actual nature and intent of the test remarkably hard. In some ways, anybody can do anything in the Turing Test - that is its strength, but also its weakness. This chapter will try to pin down the elusive Turing Test - developing a more elaborate and complete protocol, by drawing on philosophical, scientific, technical, legal, and commonsense assessments of what thinking is, and how we might test for it in practice.
Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.
Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.
This is a book for people who want to know what the future is going to look like and for people who want to know how to create the future. Gershenfeld offers a glimpse at the brave new post-computerized world, where microchips work for us instead of against us. He argues that we waste the potential of the microchip when we confine it to a box on our desk: the real electronic revolution will come when computers have all but disappeared into the walls around us. Imagine a digital book that looks like a traditional book printed on paper and is pleasant to read in bed but has all the mutability of a screen display. How about a personal fabricator that can organize digitized atoms into anything you want, or a musical keyboard that can be woven into a denim jacket? Gershenfeld tells the story of his Things that Think group at MIT's Media Lab, the group of innovative scientists and researchers dedicated to integrating digital technology into the fabric of our lives.
Maintenance optimization problem could not always settled mathematically and was obliged to use quasi-optimum solution with omitting non-formulated limiting condition or neglecting part of optimization object. In such a case knowledge engineering thinking was encouraged. Maintenance of complicated plant and artificial system should be considered from artificial object (equipment/facility hardware and system), technical information and knowledge base, and organizational and human aspect or society and institution. Comprehensive management system in organization and society was necessary not only for assuring integrity of equipment but also for attaining higher performance, reliability and economics of system. For better judgment it was important to share mechanism to make use of more information with organization or whole society. It was required to create database and data mining for knowledge base management system of maintenance. Maintenance was called 'last fortress' to assure quality such as reliability and safety of required function of equipment. Strategic approach to develop maintenance technology under cooperation was considered. Life extension R and D road map was launched in 2005. (T. Tanaka)
Computational thinking, the creative thought process behind algorithmic design and programming, is a crucial introductory skill for both computer scientists and the population in general. In this thesis I perform an investigation into introductory computer science education in the United States and find that computational thinking is not effectively taught at either the high school or the college level. To remedy this, I present a new educational system intended to teach computational thinking called Genost. Genost consists of a software tool and a curriculum based on teaching computational thinking through fundamental programming structures and algorithm design. Genost's software design is informed by a review of eight major computer science educational software systems. Genost's curriculum is informed by a review of major literature on computational thinking. In two educational tests of Genost utilizing both college and high school students, Genost was shown to significantly increase computational thinking ability with a large effect size.
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Ambrosio, Ana Paula; Almeida, Leandro S.; Macedo, Joaquim; Franco, Amanda Helena Rodrigues, coord.
Although still innovative and not largely disseminated, Computational Thinking is being considered as a critical skill for students in the 21st century. It involves many skills, but programming abilities seem to be a core aspect since they foster the development of a new way of thinking that is key to the solution of problems that require a combination of human mental power and computing power capacity. This paper presents an exploratory study developed to select psychological assessm...
Humans are animals that specialize in thinking and knowing, and our extraordinary cognitive abilities have transformed every aspect of our lives. In contrast to our chimpanzee cousins and Stone Age ancestors, we are complex political, economic, scientific and artistic creatures, living in a vast range of habitats, many of which are our own creation. Research on the evolution of human cognition asks what types of thinking make us such peculiar animals, and how they have been generated by evolu...
A study has been conducted into improving construction design through the application of the lean thinking paradigm. Its objective was to identify the issues relating to design efficiency and how a lean thinking approach might address these issues. The investigation consisted of examining work already undertaken in the field by other researchers"to identify the state of the art. The change order request system was examined to gain first insights into waste in construction de...
Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich; Furnham, Adrian
Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Resul...
Because the criteria for success differ across various domains of life, no single normative standard will ever work for all types of thinking. One method for dealing with this apparent dilemma is to propose that the mind is made up of a large number of specialized modules. This review describes how this multi-modular framework for the mind overcomes several critical conceptual and theoretical challenges to our understanding of human thinking, and hopefully clarifies what are (and are not) so...
Gary L. Brase
Because the criteria for success differ across various domains of life, no single normative standard will ever work for all types of thinking. One method for dealing with this apparent dilemma is to propose that the mind is made up of a large number of specialized modules. This review describes how this multi-modular framework for the mind overcomes several critical conceptual and theoretical challenges to our understanding of human thinking, and hopefully clarifies what are (and are not) som...
The method of teaching with help of four elementary skills - reading, speaking, writing and listening is definitely inconceivable to teaching any foreign language. But automatic answers following the exercise and students passive memorising does not make speaking language and its learning very natural. This has forced me to find and create the way how to make learners think and realise the point and meaning of learning itself. My paper is about special skill I have tried to apply –thinking sk...
Gad, Christopher; Douglas-Jones, Rachel
Proponents of computational thinking use the concept to account for what they perceive as important generalizable aspects of human thought (Wing 2011, National Research Council USA 2010, 2011). Simultaneously, the concept is employed to designate an ambitious pedagogical programme, in which computational thinking can be taught as a skill for the digitally literate 21st century (ibid.). As such, CT is seen both as an innate human capacity and a programme for developing future oriented skills - bo...
Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.
van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse; Admiraal, Wilfried; van Drie, Jannet; Rijlaarsdam, Gert
Background: The main purposes of visual arts education concern the enhancement of students' creative processes and the originality of their art products. Divergent thinking is crucial for finding original ideas in the initial phase of a creative process that aims to result in an original product. Aims: This study aims to examine the effects…
Full Text Available Modern technology has opened up many new possibilities in learning. Unfortunately, technology's uncritical use can also be damaging. In promoting productive and comprehensive IT learning the essential issue lies within the capability of the teacher and IT material to use computer to promote the basic cognitive aspects of learning and not only to manipulate the learner to remain motivated. Motivation is productive only if used with a focus towards knowledge and understanding. Especially in mathematics the concepts, we try to teach, are simple and logical, but often abstract. Smart use of computers can motivate this abstract concepts through intuitive simulations and animations as well as provide a sophisticated but simple insight into the causality of mathematical thinking. Thus, we argue that preparation of good e-Learning materials requires an almost contemplative focus on what we want to communicate in order not to overwhelm the student with too many effects that the technology offers. The concept and the vision of E-um project has been based on the above premises with a comprehensive system of simple technical, mathematical and didactical guidelines, together with a dynamic and creative system of permanent self evaluation and control. To support those premises new software package based on the Exe open source system has been developed. In order to provide an adequate technical framework for our conceptual ideas new emerging technologies with an emphasis on writing mathematical texts had been used.
Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.
Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…
This paper develops a dialogic theory of thinking and of learning to think that has implications for education. The theory is offered as a contrast to theories that are based on both Piaget and Vygotsky. The paper proceeds by unpacking and interweaving three key concepts: dialogue, thinking and learning in order to argue that learning to think can…
Thomas, Ruth G., Ed.
This publication shares current thinking, research, and practice in the area of higher order thinking skills with home economics educators, including teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators. The first three articles provide general discussions of thinking skills. They are "Introduction" (Ruth Pestle); "Can Higher Order Thinking Skills Be…
Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking is a valuable way of thinking about the viable enterprise and how to architect it.
Wolberg, Rochelle Ibanez; Goff, Allison
This article describes thinking routines as tools to guide and support young children's thinking. These learning strategies, developed by Harvard University's Project Zero Classroom, actively engage students in constructing meaning while also understanding their own thinking process. The authors discuss how thinking routines can be used in both…
Elmira A. Isaeva
The thinking which encompasses both reasoning-in-itself and reasoning-for-itself, called "aprioristic thinking" by Hegel, is the freest form of thinking. This form of thinking is imparted to the physical sciences by philosophy. Only under this condition can physics obtain deeper scientific knowledge.
Groves, Kevin S.; Vance, Charles M.
Building upon previously developed and more general dual-process models, this paper provides empirical support for a multidimensional thinking style construct comprised of linear thinking and multiple dimensions of nonlinear thinking. A self-report assessment instrument (Linear/Nonlinear Thinking Style Profile; LNTSP) is presented and…
Alper, Ayfer; Ankara Üniversitesi E?itim Bilimleri Fakültesi Bilgisayar ve Ö?retim Teknolojileri E?itimi Bölümü
Critical thinking has received increasing attention as an educational goal. Critical thinking refers to the use of cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome (Halpern,1999). The desire or inclination to use critical thinking is reflected in a number of personal attributes, known as critical thinking dispositions (Jin, G., Bierma, T. J., Broadbear, J.T., 2004). This paper explores the critical thinking disposition of freshman and senior students from th...
Basawapatna, Ashok Ram
Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.
Chatzichristou, E. T.; Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Giannakis, O.
MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) was an FP7- funded project, involving monitoring of the geospace environment through space and ground-based observations, in order to understand various aspects of the radiation belts (torus-shaped regions encircling the Earth, in which high-energy charged particles are trapped by the geomagnetic field), which have direct impact on human endeavors in space (spacecraft and astronauts exposure). Besides interesting science, the MAARBLE outreach team employed a variety of outreach techniques to provide the general public with simplified information concerning the scientific objectives of the project, its focus and its expected outcomes. An outstanding moment of the MAARBLE outreach experience was the organization of an international contest of musical compositions inspired by impressive sounds of space related to very low and ultra-low frequency (VLF/ULF) electromagnetic waves. The MAARBLE international contest of musical composition aspired to combine scientific and artistic ways of thinking, through the science of Astronomy and Space and the art of Music. It was an original idea to provide scientific information to the public, inviting people to "feel" the science and to think about art. The leading concept was to use the natural sounds of the Earth's magnetosphere in order to compose electroacoustic music. Composers from all European countries were invited to take part at the contest, using some (or all) of the sounds included in a database of magnetospheric sounds compiled by the MAARBLE outreach team. The results were astonishing: the contest was oversubscribed by a factor of 19 (in total 55 applications from 17 countries) and the musical pieces were of overall excellent quality, making the selection of winners a very difficult task. Ultimately, the selection committee concluded on the ten highest ranked compositions, which were uploaded on the MAARBLE website. Furthermore, the three winning compositions received important awards and they were officially presented in a dedicated event during the international conference "Geospace revisited: a Cluster/MAARBLE/Van Allen Probes Conference" in September 2014. The awe inspiring music was deeply felt by the public as it was uniquely combined with the projection of related space images and videos. The artists themselves described what feelings the music generated in them and how these inspired their compositions, characterizing this as an exhilarating experience, a "time capsule of sounds", a "cosmic wind of music" and, ultimately, a creative path of discovery. As one of the winners put it: "It was like a myth about evolution, randomness, and mysteries,but ultimately the fragility of life and our existence".
Macpherson, Robyn; Stanovich, Keith E.
This study examined the predictors of belief bias in a formal reasoning paradigm (a syllogistic reasoning task) and myside bias in two informal reasoning paradigms (an argument generation task and an experiment evaluation task). Neither cognitive ability nor thinking dispositions predicted myside bias, but both cognitive ability and thinking…
Tallent, Rebecca J.; Barnes, Justin J.
Critical thinking skills are crucial in the public relations profession, but teaching these skills to the Millennial Generation is vastly different from previous generations. How can a professor get past No Child Left Behind's dependence on test review guides and "everybody wins" in getting students to think for themselves? Using the…
Full Text Available This article focuses as a survey on the qualities of Critical Thinking on reviewing its definitions in recent history of academic research and compared to other intellectual processes. On the one hand we will compare the basic characteristic qualities of Critical Thinking with other types of thinking. On the other hand we will give examples how Critical Thinking is a part of the decision making processes both in personal human issues and institutional decision making processes. Since Critical Thinking is an intellectual skill, we show the applications of this intellectual skill within contemporary life. Critical Thinking has several academic roots of philosophy, rhetorical argumentation, logic and social science, but also is an auxiliary tool in other academic disciplines. Coming from these roots Critical Thinking also finds its applications in contemporary private and professional life. Based on this historical and exemplifying discourse of criticism, we will argue for a general importance of Critical Thinking contrary to contemporary predominance as an applied skill and educational tool.
At the tertiary level today, courses on design thinking can be found in diverse programs in and beyond the realm of traditional design disciplines. Across Canada, design thinking courses feature in communication, culture and information technology, and business and engineering. This paper reports findings from a study that investigated the…
Incikabi, Lutfi; Tuna, Abdulkadir; Biber, Abdullah Cagri
This study aimed to investigate the existence of the relationship between mathematics teacher candidates' critical thinking skills and their logical thinking dispositions in terms of the variables of grade level in college, high school type, and gender. The current study utilized relational survey model and included a total of 99 mathematics…
Barnett, Jerrold E.; Francis, Alisha L.
To determine if quizzes containing higher order thinking questions are related to critical thinking and test performance when utilised in conjunction with an immersion approach to instruction and effort-based grading, sections of an "Educational Psychology" course were assigned to one of three quizzing conditions. Quizzes contained factual…
Pieter van Veuren
Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to explore the concept of thinking skills in three different contexts, i.e. Formal Logic, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking. The essay traces some contemporary historical connections between these approaches and illustrates differences and overlap between them by referring to the content pages of textbooks which are representative of the different approaches. In evaluating the historical developments sketched in the essay, the conclusion is reached that the open and pragmatic way in which Critical Thinking handles the topic of thinking skills has advantages for interdisciplinary contact and cooperation. However, this pragmatic approach also has a possible downside: the concept of thinking skills can become so vague as to be of no use.
Design thinking is fundamentally about how designers think and what tools and methods they use in their profession. During the past decade, design thinking has become a popular topic within design and especially business communities. Business leaders and managers have adapted design thinking as a part of their companies’ innovation process and the business community has given a new flavour to the term. Design thinking has become an exceedingly discussed phenomenon in business and design-relat...
Susan Marie Zvacek
Full Text Available Engineering education is facing a changing world in which how one thinks is becoming more important than what one thinks; that is, our course content is important but constantly changing and we need to help students learn how to think about that content.Today’s students have grown accustomed to immediate rewards, multi-channel stimuli, and rapid-fire communications. As a result, they are often impatient and suffer a lack of focus. When reflection is called for in the learning process - a time consuming practice - students may find it difficult to overcome the conflict between their typically speedy management of priorities and the focused, time-intensive thinking required to acquire a strong foundation of declarative knowledge.Therefore, the exploration of tools to facilitate the formation of deep knowledge structures is essential. One instructional strategy that shows promise is the use of concept mapping, a learning activity that requires students to explain their understanding of important ideas and the relationships among those ideas. This paper describes a pilot project to integrate concept mapping into a Mechanical Engineering Course and the preliminary results of that project.This project has been established within the Working Group of “Tools for Developing High Order Thinking Skills”, of the Portuguese Society for Engineering Education, in which the first author is the leader and the other two co-authors, are working group members
Michael F. Reber
Full Text Available In the US a dismal truth exists about the citizenry’s lack of understanding of economic fundamentals whether it is amongst our political leaders or our university graduates. This then leads one to ask, “What can be done to help people become literate in economics?” Perhaps the answer lies in the area of systems thinking, which is a way of thinking about the interconnections between the parts of a system and their synthesis into a unified view of the whole system. More specifically, this means incorporating systems thinking and design in primary, secondary, and tertiary curricula. In this paper, the author gives a cursory review of General Systems Theory (GST as developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy and extended by others in the systems thinking field to illustrate the confluences of thought among Ludwig von Mises and systems scientists. From this the author argues the need for systems thinking and design in curricula and makes reference to non-prescriptive teaching and learning applications for the fostering of economic literacy.
Wang, Danli; Liu, Zhen
Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575
Full Text Available The significance of ability to think differently and explore many possible solutions to generate creative ideas has been well recognized in the present competitive world. Although there are many factors affecting development of divergent thinking ability in children, parental approval is one of the important factors in the development of divergent thinking ability in children. The present study was carried out to assess the divergent thinking ability of children in the setting selected and analyze it with reference to academic grades and gender. Further, the relationship of parental approval with the development of divergent thinking was assessed. The sample comprised 102 school children (51 boys and 51 girls in the age group 6-9 years and their parents (either father or mother.The entire sample was selected from different schools of urban areas of Jammu (J&K.
Full Text Available This study examines whether the shortage of females in science and engineering is linked to possible gender-based differences in school-aged children’s divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a direct measure of creativity and an important characteristic in science and engineering. A survey instrument designed to measure divergent thinking was administered to 8th and 11th graders in a mid-western United States school district. Results showed that there were no difference between girls and boys on the three measures of divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, and originality. These results indicate little reason as to why participation in science and engineering is male dominated, and support the notion that additional exposure to science and engineering through divergent-thinking activities will provide girls with the self-knowledge that they are capable of solving open-ended problems and engineering tasks.
This study extends the investigation of the validity of Sternberg's theory of mental self-government to mainland Chinese secondary school students and their parents. The assumption of a 'socialization effect' underlying the theory was subjected to broader investigation. 232 students and their parents responded to a range of demographic questions and to the Thinking Styles Inventory which is based on Sternberg's theory. The two major findings are that (1) Sternberg's theory is valid with both samples, and (2) students' thinking styles are related not only to their personal factors, e.g., sex, grade, and self-rated abilities, but also to their parents' thinking styles. These findings have implications for school teachers and counselors as well as for parents. PMID:14650696
Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F
Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...
Kruger, J.; van der Merwe, L
Innovative thinking is an innate human capacity geared towards adaptation and survival. Theories of education accordingly aim at developing teaching-learning strategies that promote creative, problem-solving reasoning referred to as higher order thinking. This essay briefly explains some of the assumptions underlying this concept, and then suggests how they may be reconfigured in a strategy suitable for education in and through music. The strategy involves a basic process of analysis...
Walter, Katherine Ott; Baller, Stephanie L.; Kuntz, Aaron M.
Increasing student critical thinking and active engagement with course content is an ongoing challenge in tertiary education. The present article explores the use of photography in two health sciences courses as a catalyst for the encouragement of critical thinking, creativity, engagement, and problem solving. The authors adapted photography…
Daniel Kahneman, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology challenging the rational model of judgment and decision making, is seen by many as one of the world’s most important thinkers. His ideas have had a profound impact on many fields – including business, medicine, and politics – and in Thinking, Fast and Slow he takes readers on a tour of the mind, explaining the two systems that drive the way we think and make choices. Joel Suss feels that the ...
Michael F. Reber
In the US a dismal truth exists about the citizenry’s lack of understanding of economic fundamentals whether it is amongst our political leaders or our university graduates. This then leads one to ask, “What can be done to help people become literate in economics?” Perhaps the answer lies in the area of systems thinking, which is a way of thinking about the interconnections between the parts of a system and their synthesis into a unified view of the whole system. More specifically, this means...
Full Text Available Critical Thinking encompasses a set of skills including the ability to assess reasons properly, probe into pertinent evidence and figure out fallacious arguments in educational settings. Developing critical thinking or promoting the ability to think critically is a prime goal of education (Birjandi and Bagherkazemi, 2010; Bailin et al., 1991a,. A key factor to improving educational standards is training teachers into employing classroom strategies that encourage critical thinking. This paper wishes to take a fundamental look at the application of critical thinking to education in an Iranian context through analyzing its scope, significance, the need for, and strategies employed to enhance critical thinking (CT in educational contexts.
Russo, Lindsey H.
The learning experiences of young children cannot be conveniently separated into the areas of cognitive, social/emotional and physical development. They are integrated and interdependent. This balance can be achieved through creative, interactive play that supports and scaffolds all developmental and content areas of the curriculum. Despite the…
Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon
Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant opportunity for learning and…
We can expect, then, a conference such as this in fifty years ( a hundred years, no need to frame it precisely) to feature as its centerpiece a panel discussion among computers on the fascinating topic of whether humans can really be said to think. Picture three computers, named for no particular reason, Edward, Marvin and Seymour, debating before a learned group such as yourselves.
Davenport, K. D.; Milks, Kirstin Jane; Van Tassell, Rebecca
Interpreting cladograms is a key skill for biological literacy. In this lesson, students interpret cladograms based on familial relationships and language relationships to build their understanding of tree thinking and to construct a definition of "common ancestor." These skills can then be applied to a true biological cladogram.
Bishop, Carolyn; Foster, Christopher
Internet supported teacher education programs at the university are increasing, as is the need for qualified teachers in rural areas and inner cities. This study focused on the thinking styles of online learners in a post baccalaureate teacher education program. In order to more effectively meet students individual learning needs, 184 students…
Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.
As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …
Fadjo, Cameron Lawrence
Two studies were conducted to examine the use of grounded embodied pedagogy, construction of Imaginary Worlds (Study 1), and context of instructional materials (Study 2) for developing learners' Computational Thinking (CT) Skills and Concept knowledge during the construction of digital artifacts using Scratch, a block-based programming…
Rude, Harvey; Gorman, Roxanne
This paper describes systemic thinking in support of the recently established Navajo Nation Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI). The RSI aims to create a standards-based student-centered teaching and learning environment in mathematics, science, and technology in the 173 elementary and secondary schools on or near the Navajo Nation, including public,…
Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert
A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…
Mussweiler, Thomas; Posten, Ann-Christin
Comparison is one of the most ubiquitous and versatile mechanisms in human information processing. Previous research demonstrates that one consequence of comparative thinking is increased judgmental efficiency: Comparison allows for quicker judgments without a loss in accuracy. We hypothesised that a second potential consequence of comparative…
Mashhadi, Azam; Han, Christine
Western culture's sense of reality has been shaped to a large extent by a mechanistic science world view. Such a viewpoint still dominates the thinking promoted by school science. Quantum theory is the most successful physical theory that has been conceptualized, yet Newtonian thought is still one of the main pillars on which the present-day…
Black, Anne C.; McCoach, D. Betsy
This article examines the psychometric properties of the 104-item Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI; Sternberg & Wagner, 1992) using responses from 789 students from 4 high schools in Connecticut. Twelve of the 13 subscales identified in mental self-government (MSG) theory (Sternberg, 1988, 1997) were included in all analyses. Both subscale- and…
This paper focuses on the changes in thinking involved in the transition from school mathematics to formal proof in pure mathematics at university. School mathematics is seen as a combination of visual representations, including geometry and graphs, together with symbolic calculations and manipulations. Pure mathematics in university shifts…
The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…
Young, Lynne E.
Despite problems of skill definition and implementation, educators are now being urged to incorporate higher order thinking skills and instruction into their classrooms. A primary barrier is teachers' orientation toward covering or dispensing knowledge, rather than working with it. The current teacher-dominated format must change to a more…
McEwen, Beryl C.
A survey of 67 North Carolina high school business teachers (41% response) identified the best methods of teaching critical thinking: case studies, problem solving, simulations, projects, and group discussion. The best testing methods were practical task completion, case studies, and argumentative essays. (SK)
The Bunkum Awards are a sort of beauty contest for ugly people. Bestowed by the National Education Policy Center housed at the University of Colorado at Boulder, they reward the most "nonsensical, confusing, and disingenuous" studies of education published each year. Contestants are drawn from reports critiqued by the Think Tank Review Project, a…
Levin, Daniel M.; Hammer, David; Coffey, Janet E.
Stage-based views of teacher development hold that novice teachers are unable to attend to students' thinking until they have begun to identify themselves as teachers and mastered classroom routines, and so the first emphases in learning to teach should be on forming routines and identity. The authors challenge those views, as others have done,…
Verhoosel, K.S.; Leuvenink, A.; Oosterhuis, T.; Mostert, R.H.
On Wednesday 19 September 2012, Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR together with SNV organised a full-day seminar to discuss the application of the now widely used Theory of Change (ToC) thinking in Multi-Stakeholder Processes. This is a report of the seminar.
The aim of this paper is to reconceive safety as a form of relation embedded in particular ways of speaking, listening and thinking. Moving away from safety as a relation that is achieved once and for all and afterwards remains safe avoids some of the disappointments of discourses of safety that seem to promise once a risk is taken or a gap is…
Thomas, Michael O. J.
The papers in this issue describe recent collaborative research into the role of inhibition of intuitive thinking in mathematics education. This commentary reflects on this research from a mathematics education perspective and draws attention to some of the challenges that arise in collaboration between research fields with different cultures,…
As part of the author's doctoral program at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, she conducted a study to determine whether and how former sixth-grade students at Waikiki School were using the thinking processes and strategies they were taught in elementary school when they were in middle school. In order to find this out, she interviewed eight…
Katz, Lori S.; Epstein, Seymour
The upper and lower 5% of 456 undergraduate students who completed the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) were subjected to a laboratory stress test. In support of the hypothesis, poor constructive thinkers reacted to the stress with a greater increase in negative thoughts and negative emotions, and exhibited a greater increase in blood…
The study of trigonometric functions in terms of the unit circle offer an example of how students can learn algebraic relations and operations while using visually oriented thinking. Illustrations are included. (MNS)
Tamara L. Salova
Full Text Available The article considers the peculiarities of the formation of a culture of thinking in the modern information society and the ratio of the culture of thinking, information and intellectual culture
Ehring, T.; Zetsche, U; Weidacker, K; Wahl, K.; Schönfeld, S; Ehlers, A
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been found to be involved in the maintenance of several types of emotional problems and has therefore been suggested to be a transdiagnostic process. However, existing measures of RNT typically focus on a particular disorder-specific content. In this article, the preliminary validation of a content-independent self-report questionnaire of RNT is presented. The 15-item Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was evaluated in two studies (total N = 1832), com...
Ramazan Arslan; Hakan Gulveren; Erhan Aydin
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between critical thinking tendencies and levels and thefactors that affect the critical thinking tendencies of higher education students. In the study, critical thinkingtendencies of freshman and senior students were analyzed depending on demographic features, faculties anddepartments.The research was done on the students of U?ak University. In the study, the data collected through surveys wereanalyzed through regression analysis in order...
Nooraini Othman; Khairul Azmi Mohamad
This paper intends to highlight the issues in thinking skills development and efforts made in addressing these issues in Malaysia. The education system in Malaysia has undergone a huge transformational progress particularly in the field related to the development of thinking skill. Traditionally, thinking skill was not specifically cultivated in the education syllabus. What moved as a global agenda in the realm of education, thinking skill was embraced as an important subject matter that need...
Shirin Iranfar; Vida Sepahi; Ahmad Khoshay; Farahnaz Keshavarzi
Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sec...
Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very conditi...