It is internationally recognized that teachers play a significant role in developing suitable values in their pupils. Students also learn strategies for identifying problems, making decisions, and finding solutions both in and out of school. Among them creative thinking skills play a prominent role in their learning process. Techniques developed specifically to teach creative thinking and examine how they may be applied to the classroom, are precise things to be considered. Awareness with ...
The aim of this study was to reveal correlation between motivation and creative professional thinking. Four hundred and seventy-one Russians of different trades participated in the study. It was supposed that motivational structure and level of creative professional thinking were interrelated. The connection between motivational components and professional thinking was revealed. Tendencies of transition form situational level of thinking to oversituational one were determined. It was found ou...
Kashapov, Mergal??s M.; Leybina, Anna V.
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the notion of creativity in the contexts of science and science education. In doing so, we consider and reflect on some taken-for-granted ideas associated with school science creativity, such as inquiry science, and integrating art and science, while we search for a notion of scientific creativity that is compatible with both the nature of science and the general notion of creativity, and also realistic in the context of school science education. We then propose a number of activities/strategies that encourage creativity, and more specifically imaginative/creative thinking, through the learning of school science.
Full Text Available During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate students. A total number of 50 subjects, 25 in an experimental group and 25 in a control group were selected and a design of pre and post-test with an experimental and a control group was employed in this study. Torrance Test for creative thinking (TTCT form (A was applied on both groups. The experimental group was taught to design electronic instructional slides using Microsoft PowerPoint. After six weeks, both groups were given the TTCT form (A again. Using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups favoring the experimental group over the control in the total creative thinking scores. Designing electronic slides can enhance the creative thinking skills for students, and the expansion of using computer applications in promoting thinking and learning skills is recommended.
Al-Ali Khaled Mokaram
While it is important to nurture creativity in young children, it is popularly associated more with the arts than the sciences. This paper reports on a series of studies designed to explore teachers' conceptions of creative thinking in primary school science. Study #1 examines pre-service primary teachers' ideas of what constitutes creativity in…
Newton, Lynn; Newton, Douglas
Creative thinking is a critical link in the teaching-learning process, one that enhances problem solving in nursing practice. This article describes a conceptualization of creativity based on focus groups with 12 post-RN students and two nurse educators. Inherent within the major theme, striving for balance, were three subthemes-enhancing self-esteem, working within structure, and making time for reflection (i.e., process). When participants achieved balance, both personally and professionally, they experienced increased creative energy that resulted in creative expression, subsequently displayed in educational endeavors and clinical practice (i.e., product). Strategies for fostering creativity and criteria for evaluating creativity are offered, and implications for nurse educators, managers, and practitioners are examined. PMID:12180769
Kalischuk, Ruth Grant; Thorpe, Karran
Creativity is the central source of meaning for humans and is inseparable from critical thinking. Creativity and critical thinking are required in the fields of communication, public relations, and advertising. Most college students know the "rules" of the "game" of schooling, but for the majority, creativity has been all but extinguished by the…
Matthews, Marsha Little
This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews theories and empirical examples that help us unpack each of these dimensions and above all, articulate them into a novel and meaningful conception of creativity as a simultaneously psychological and socio-material process. The volume concludes by examining the practical implications in adopting this perspective on creativity.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals toward a relatively focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed by creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking, this predicts that high-proficient bilinguals should outperform low-proficient bilinguals in convergent thinking, while low-proficient bilinguals might be better in divergent thinking. Comparing low- and high-proficient bilinguals on convergent-thinking and divergent-thinking tasks indeed showed a high-proficient bilingual advantage for convergent thinking but a low-proficient bilingual advantage for fluency in divergent thinking. These findings suggest that bilingualism should not be related to "creativity" as a unitary concept but, rather, to the specific processes and mechanisms that underlie creativity. PMID:22084634
Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S; Fischer, Rico; Christoffels, Ingrid K
Full Text Available Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals towards a strongly focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed by creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking, this predicts that high-proficient bilinguals should outperform low-proficient bilinguals in convergent thinking, while low-proficient bilinguals might be better in divergent thinking. Comparing low- and high-proficient bilinguals on convergent-thinking and divergent-thinking tasks indeed showed a high-proficient bilingual advantage for convergent thinking but a low-proficient bilingual advantage for fluency in divergent thinking. These findings suggest that bilingualism should not be related to “creativity” as a unitary concept but, rather, to the specific processes and mechanisms that underlie creativity.
Creative and critical thinking have been identified by Isaksen, Dorval, and Treffinger (2000) as the ability to "perceive gaps, challenges, or concerns; think of many varied or unusual possibilities; or elaborate and extend alternatives," as well as make meaningful connections that include analyzing, evaluating, and developing options. Business…
Gould, J. Christine; Schoonover, Patricia F.
People use dialectical thinking to be holistic, reconcile contradictions, and emphasize changes when processing information and managing problems. Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style. Undergraduates majoring in different subjects and adults in different professions were surveyed. The results showed that 1) compared with undergraduates majoring in art and adults from the design industry, undergraduates majoring in other disciplines significantly showed the least creative personality; 2) the highest score for dialectical thinking was found in the group of undergraduates who majored in other disciplines, followed by the adult group, and the undergraduates majoring in art had the lowest score; and 3) A negative relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality was found mostly in the UMA group. The limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25856372
Liu, Hui; Wang, Fei-xue; Yang, Xiao-yang
Since creative thinking is an essential requirement in today’s societies, educational institutions have to make some reforms in order to prepare next generation according to the needs of the societies such as giving more emphasis on creative thinking. The main aims of this paper are to reveal the parents’ opinions about the creative thinking skills, to teach parents the meaning of creative thinking, and to teach parents to create home environments that enhance creative thinking skills. A ...
Pervin Oya Taneri
Art and art education are open to broader definitions in the twenty-first century. It is time that teachers seriously think about including built environment design in K-12 art education. The term "built environment" includes interior design, architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning. Due to increased exposure to built environment…
Jeon, Kijeong; Cotner, Teresa L.
This study was an attempt to examine the relationship between readiness (as measured by the Metropolitan Readiness Test) and creativity (as measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking). The sample was 277 economically deprived kindergarten children in a city school system in the Southeastern United States. Scoring was carried out in terms…
Bashaw, W. L.; White, William F.
Creativity in engineering design had become an economic necessity and not merely the privilege of unique individuals. The search for new, innovative and effective ideas in engineering design stands in center of daily creative performance. This search requires sensitivity to gaps of knowledge and information, and the ability to evoke numerous, different and unique ideas about engineering problems. The source of such information or knowledge can be either extrinsic-such as provided by an instructor or expert or intrinsic, which might involve transformation from one field or context to another. Furthermore, interaction with an exterior source as well as developing an inherent drive, have an impact on the motivation to perform creatively. This article, which is based on a study conducted among Israeli practical engineering students, deals with the variations in creative thinking during various stages of a design project and the relation between creative thinking and motivation factors.
Waks, Shlomo; Merdler, Moti
The ``scientific method'' is not just for scientists! Combined with critical thinking, the scientific method can enable students to distinguish credible sources of information from nonsense and become intelligent consumers of information. Professors John Cotton and Randall Scalise illustrate these principles using a series of examples and demonstrations that is enlightening, educational, and entertaining. This lecture/demonstration features highlights from their course (whose unofficial title is ``debunking pseudoscience'' ) which enables students to detect pseudoscience in its many guises: paranormal phenomena, free-energy devices, alternative medicine, and many others.
Cotton, John; Scarlise, Randall
This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on the effects of thinking in silence on creativity and innovation. In these studies I use a social psychology and cognitive psychology lens to study creativity and innovation at the individual and at the team level of analysis, using randomized experiments to test hypothesized causal relationships. In the first study I find that when the ability to modify self-presentation is low and the sensitivity to expressive behavior of others is hig...
Vet, A. J.
Infusing creative thinking competence through the design process of authentic projects requires not only changing the teaching methods and learning environment, but also adopting new assessment methods, such as portfolio assessment. The participants in this study were 128 high school pupils who have studied MECHATRONICS from 10th to 12th grades…
This paper shows how the design thinking skills of students learning at a distance can be consciously developed, and deliberately applied outside of the creative industries in what are termed 'embedded' contexts. The distance learning model of education pioneered by The Open University is briefly described before the technological…
Chinese nursing education levels have developed fast over the past few years. Many nursing educators are devoted to the research of nursing teaching. How to cultivate nursing students, creative thinking is one of the principle researches and has received increasing attention. In the course of nursing teaching, we renewed the teaching design based…
Xi-wen, Liu; Chun-ping, Ni; Rui, Yang; Xiu-chuan, Li; Cheng, Cheng
This interview with David Perkins, codirector of Harvard's Project Zero and author of "The Mind's Best Work," focuses on the links between creative and critical thinking styles. Exercises in Venezuela's Project Intelligence are also discussed, along with possible curricular approaches to teaching skills. (11 references) (MLH)
Brandt, Ronald S.
Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…
Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.
Creative achievements are the basis for progress in our world. Although creative achievement is influenced by many variables, the basis for creativity is held to lie in the generation of high-quality, original, and elegant solutions to complex, novel, ill-defined problems. In the present effort, we examine the cognitive capacities that make…
Mumford, Michael D.; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Partlow, Paul J.
In this paper we discuss the notion of creativity in the contexts of science and science education. In doing so, we consider and reflect on some taken-for-granted ideas associated with school science creativity, such as inquiry science, and integrating art and science, while we search for a notion of scientific creativity that is compatible with both the nature of science and the general notion of creativity, and also realistic in the context of school science education. We then propose a num...
Yannis Hadzigeorgiou; Persa Fokialis; Mary Kabouropoulou
The study was derived from an action research on the use of synectics in creative thinking methods in science and technology teaching. There were three main application steps in the action research, which was designed to help students in gaining creative thinking skills. In the research, which had lasted for one teaching semester, the teacher firstly fulfilled two different applications to make the students get used to the synectics technique. First of these applications was to redefine the c...
Aysun Öztuna Kaplan; Serhat Ercan
This paper probes into the source of “originality” in developing the creative thinking of the science students majoring in industrial design. The authors believe that the critical factors for the source of “originality” lie in not only the internal cause, but also the external cause. Whether the science students take a great consideration of art and humanity courses, in other words, whether they are aware of the relationship between artistical thought and industrial design or not, it...
Hua Cen; Chuandong Ma
Full Text Available This paper probes into the source of “originality” in developing the creative thinking of the science students majoring in industrial design. The authors believe that the critical factors for the source of “originality” lie in not only the internal cause, but also the external cause. Whether the science students take a great consideration of art and humanity courses, in other words, whether they are aware of the relationship between artistical thought and industrial design or not, it is very important. In addition, creative capacity cannot be taught, and it only results from inspiration and guidance of teachers from multidisciplinary.
Executive approaches to creativity emphasize that generating creative ideas can be hard and requires mental effort. Few studies, however, have examined effort-related physiological activity during creativity tasks. Using motivational intensity theory as a framework, we examined predictors of effort-related cardiac activity during a creative challenge. A sample of 111 adults completed a divergent thinking task. Sympathetic (PEP and RZ) and parasympathetic (RSA and RMSSD) outcomes were assessed using impedance cardiography. As predicted, people with high creative achievement (measured with the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) showed significantly greater increases in sympathetic activity from baseline to task, reflecting higher effort. People with more creative achievements generated ideas that were significantly more creative, and creative performance correlated marginally with PEP and RZ. The results support the view that creative thought can be a mental challenge. PMID:25063471
Silvia, Paul J; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Eddington, Kari M; Kwapil, Thomas R
Full Text Available This article is about actual problems of schoolchildren’s creative thinking development. The changes happening in our society show absolutely different requirements to the younger generation than they were before which will become not only an active component of the state, but also the leading force in its further development in the closest future. Pedagogy of ideological dogmas, reproductive training, compounding and regulation of teacher and pupils’ activity corresponded to the society of totalitarian consciousness, priority of a political and ideological orientation in full measure. Nowadays pedagogical technologies differ in the rigid organization of school life, suppression of pupils’ initiative and independence, application of requirements and coercions. The personal focused technologies which gained new development at present moment are characterized by anthropocentricity, humanistic and psychotherapeutic orientation. They are aimed at versatile, free and creative development of the child. Only such active, creative personality is capable to realize in difficult social relationship of modern society. From the carried-out analysis of psychology and pedagogical literature it is possible to note that schoolchildren’s creative thinking development is becoming the priority direction.
Zhanar E. Sarsekeeva
Use of metacognitive strategies, creative problem solving, and creative thinking techniques in intermediate grade writing instruction can promote students' thinking and creativity. Metacognitive strategies can help students attack the writing task in an orderly fashion. Answering specific questions for descriptive, expository, narrative, or…
Laney, James D.
To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation...
Hannetjie Meintjes; Mary Grosser
It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any) of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate ...
Kuan Chen Tsai; Matthew Shirley
Full Text Available To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA and a Partial Least Squares (PLS exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.
Full Text Available To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context [...] assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA) and a Partial Least Squares (PLS) exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.
Hannetjie, Meintjes; Mary, Grosser.
Full Text Available Recent studies have emphasized group creativity within a socio-cultural context rather than at an individual level, but not many researchers reported strategies for developing group creativity. This paper aims to explore strategies to enhance group creativity based on the theoretical basis of thinking styles by Sternberg. The hypothesis was that groups with members of diverse thinking styles would show greater gains in creative performance. In this study, the participants (n=72 were divided into 24 three-person groups. Each group was given the task to create a game using Scratch programming language. Among the 24 groups, eleven groups (n=33 consisted of heterogeneous thinking styles, and the other thirteen groups (n=39 consisted solely of homogeneous thinking styles. All divided groups performed same creative task. The empirical results supported the hypothesis that group formation of diverse thinking style shows better group creativity.
This study examined the creative thinking of interior design graduate students in an online learning community. This study considered potential changes in creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration) about design research resulting from peer-led online discussions. It further studied the learner characteristics of…
Ransdell, Marlo Evelyn
The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of early computer experience, using quasi-experimental design, on creative thinking among Jordanian kindergarten children. It intended to answer two main research questions. First, does adding a computer to a kindergarten environment enhance children's creative thinking? Second, does…
Development of problem-solving and creative thinking ability was examined through administration of experimental tasks to 240 gifted children (grade 2 to grade 6). Different patterns of development were noted: problem-solving skills grew steadily from grade 2 through grade 6; while creative thinking increased from grade 2 through grade 4, with no…
Rosenfield, Sylvia; Houtz, John C.
Investigates the effect of parental separation on the divergent thinking abilities and creativity potential of 116 single- and two-parent family children in grades three through five. Findings indicate a comparable level of divergent thinking between both groups; single-parent children scored significantly higher on creativity potential.…
Jenkins, Jeanne E.; And Others
A desirable goal of engineering education is to teach students how to be creative and innovative. However, the speed of technological innovation and the continual expansion of disciplinary knowledge leave little time in the curriculum for students to formally study innovation. At West Point we have developed a novel upper-division undergraduate course that develops the critical thinking, creativity and innovation of undergraduate science and engineering students. This course is structured as a deliberate interactive engagement between students and faculty that employs the Socratic method to develop an understanding of disruptive and innovative technologies and a historical context of how social, cultural, and religious factors impact the acceptance or rejection of technological innovation. The course begins by developing the background understanding of what disruptive technology is and a historical context about successes and failures of social, cultural, and religious acceptance of technological innovation. To develop this framework, students read The Innovator's Dilemma by Clayton M. Christensen, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn, The Discoverers by Daniel J. Boorstin, and The Two Cultures by C.P. Snow. For each class meeting, students survey current scientific and technical literature and come prepared to discuss current events related to technological innovation. Each student researches potential disruptive technologies and prepares a compelling argument of why the specific technologies are disruptive so they can defend their choice and rationale. During course meetings students discuss the readings and specific technologies found during their independent research. As part of this research, each student has the opportunity to interview forward thinking technology leaders in their respective fields of interest. In this paper we will describe the course and highlight the results from teaching this course over the past five years.
Shoop, Barry L.
The "Learn to Think" (LTT) Intervention Program was developed for raising thinking abilities of primary and secondary school students. It has been implemented in more than 300 schools, and more than 200,000 students took part in the experiment over a 10"year span. Several longitudinal intervention studies showed that LTT could promote the…
Hu, Weiping; Wu, Baojun; Jia, Xiaojuan; Yi, Xinfa; Duan, Chunyan; Meyer, Winter; Kaufman, James C.
Empirical studies of creativity have focused on the importance of divergent thinking, which supports generating novel solutions to loosely defined problems. The present study examined creativity and frontal cortical activity in an externally-validated group of creative individuals (trained musicians) and demographically matched control…
Gibson, Crystal; Folley, Bradley S.; Park, Sohee
Logical thinking of students should be enhanced at all levels of their studies. There are many possibilities how to achieve it. In the paper one possible way within the subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization” dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be presented. These mathematical disciplines are powerful tools for teachers allowing them to develop logical thinking of students, increase their imagination and make them familiar with...
In a world plagued by enormous, complex problems requiring long-range vision and interdisciplinary insights, the need to attend to the influence of dogmatic thinking on the development of high ability and creative intelligence is pressing. This volume introduces the problem of dogmatism broadly, explores the nature and nuances of dogmatic thinking…
Ambrose, Don, Ed.; Sternberg, Robert J., Ed.
To study the effects of guided fantasy on the creative thinking of students, 51 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students were assigned to one of two groups (relaxation techniques and guided fantasy or an arithmetic lesson). (PHR)
Hershey, Myrliss; Kearns, Phyllis
Full Text Available It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate that creative thinking, assessed by RAT, and learning preferences, evaluated by ILS, are not highly correlated. Over all, students in this study show a balanced learning preference across four dimensions. In summary, this study directs a possible path for future researchers to investigate this phenomenon.
Kuan Chen Tsai
This essay offers two novel thinking-modes, “body thinking” and “story thinking,” both intrinsically interrelated, as alternative reasoning to usual analytical logic, and claims that they facilitate understanding “religion” as our ultimate living in the Beyond. Thus body thinking, story thinking, and religion naturally gather into a threefold thinking synonymy. This essay adumbrates in story-thinking way this synonymy in four theme-stages, one, appreciating body thinking primal at...
Full Text Available Ayudar a los estudiantes a pensar de forma creativa suele considerarse uno de los objetivos clave de la educación. Sin embargo, muchas universidades de todo el mundo muestran cierta preocupación al respecto que sugiere que los estudiantes no están preparados para un mundo en el que necesitarán resolver problemas desordenados y desestructurados que no tienen fácil solución. Este artículo presenta el «design thinking» como una metodología para la innovación centrada en las personas, que se ha implementado en un programa para la innovación en el diseño de la Universidad de Stanford, así como en una de las consultoras de diseño más exitosas. Después de un breve resumen del concepto de design thinking, se ilustran los elementos clave de esta pedagogía para la innovación a través de su aplicación en una universidad en Colombia. Rendida cuenta del elevado potencial de esta metodología para la construcción de confianza y capacidad creativa en los estudiantes de todas las disciplinas, y del evidente poder de la próxima generación de tecnologías de la información y la colaboración, así como de los medios sociales, el autor propone nuevos proyectos de investigación y desarrollo que aportarán más creatividad a los programas de educación a distancia y semipresenciales gracias a la aplicación del «design thinking».Helping students think creatively is consistently cited as one of the key goals of education. Yet, across universities around the world, alarms have been sounding off suggesting that students are not prepared for a world where they are expected to solve messy, unstructured problems that don't have easy answers. This paper introduces design thinking, a human-centered innovation methodology that has been implemented in a design innovation program at Stanford University as well as at one of the most successful design consultancies. After a brief overview of design thinking, the author illustrates the key elements of this innovation pedagogy through its implementation at a university in Colombia. Realizing the potential of this methodology for building creative competence and confidence among students from all disciplines, and recognizing the power of the next generation of information and collaboration technologies and social media, the author proposes new research and development projects that will bring more creativity to traditional distance and blended learning programs through an infusion of design thinking.
This study continues the effort to investigate the possible influence of bilingualism on an individual's creative potential. The performances of Farsi-English bilinguals living in the UAE and Farsi monolinguals living in Iran were compared on the Culture Fair Intelligence Test battery and two creativity tests: divergent thinking test (the…
Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.
The Schmerenbeck Multi-Racial Educational Centre (South Africa) implemented "Integrated Arts Workshops" to develop the creative thinking of gifted/talented children. Professional artists and teachers are brought together with groups of children, and ideas are explored through sensory stimulation, creative problem-solving, and reflection.…
Eriksson, Gillian I.
Tasks graded in terms of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of responses were administered to fourth graders in order to identify relationships between these measures of creativity, intelligence, and evaluation skills. With intelligence controlled, the relationship between creative thinking scores and evaluation ability was near…
Houtz, John C.; And Others
The importance of creative thinking in science cannot be overstated. Creativity is integral to the development of knowledge about the natural world and the knowledge, skills and abilities that support it are in need of greater understanding. The Next Generation Science Standards (2012) include practices that implicitly emphasize the creative thinking in science that students should develop by the 12th grade. These science practices were utilized in a framework to explore a group of secondary science classrooms in order to investigate potential relationships between classroom variables and student creative thinking in science. A measure of scientific creative thinking (Hu & Adey, 2002) was used with 284 student participants from 21 different classes, six different schools and from seven different teachers. Students' performance on a pre to post-administration of the measure was compared against case studies that were developed of each classroom to determine trends. Those case studies were developed across one semester using 2-3 observations per class per semester and the collection and analysis of teachers' labs and other instructional materials. The outcomes of a pre to post-administration of the measure, when coupled with the case studies, suggested three distinct trends in relationships between classroom variables and students' scientific creative thinking. These trends: originality in the use of scientific tools, originality and variety in the development of scientific questions, and the role of context in the development of original, engineering-type design tasks are discussed in the context of research on creative thinking in science and in the science practices in the Next Generation Science Standards (NRC, 2012).
Full Text Available Orientation: An important evaluation function is to determine whether creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed through training and to assess whether these skills, on their own, are sufficient to ignite innovation in organisations.Research purpose: The evaluation question that the present study aimed to address is whether employees in a corporate context, such as a financial services organisation, can develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills through an intervention such as a workshop.Motivation for the study: A financial services organisation commissioned the primary author of this article to design a workshop with the intent to develop the creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of their employees in order to ignite innovation and competitiveness.Research design, approach and method: This study employed mainly qualitative research. Utilisation-focused evaluation (UFE was employed and findings from the literature review, questionnaires, pen-and-paper tests and interviews were used. The unit of analysis was a niche business unit in a South African financial services organisation.Main findings: From this study’s point of view, the most critical finding related to the confirmation that individuals can acquire creative and innovative thinking and problemsolving skills. The acquisition of these skills, however, is not sufficient on its own to establish a culture supportive of creativity and sustainable innovation.Practical/managerial implications: The development of creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of employees is not sufficient on its own to support sustainable innovation. Managers should consciously establish determinants on an organisational as well as an individual level to create an environment supportive of sustainable innovation.Contribution/value-add: The present study indicated how a workshop can assist individuals to develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills. The acquisition of these skills is not sufficient on its own to ignite sustainable innovation.
Cherylene De Jager
Systemicity is receiving wider attention thanks to its evident paradox. On the one hand, it occurs as a problem with complex symptoms. On the other, it is sought after as an approach for dealing with the non-linear reality of the world. At once problem and prize, systemicity continues to confound. This book details the mechanics of this paradox as they arise from human epistemological engagement with the world. Guided by an original analysis of the fundamental idea of emergent property, Thinking Through Systems Thinking uncovers the distinct significance, but also inc
Full Text Available Today it is necessary to develop an education model that is special to creative individuals and their creativeness. It is also required to discover children and young people who have creative qualities at an early stage and improve creative thinking in their minds. For this aim, it is very important to determine the high-level thinking skills, especially creative thinking levels of children at primary education period. Therefore, there are considerable duties available for the teachers.In this study, the creative thinking levels of two distinct student groups from different primary schools who study at sixth class of primary education are explored and a comparison is made between their levels. The goal of this research is to find out how the fluency, flexibility and originality dimensions of these students differ. In the way of this purpose, there are fourty-three sixth class of primary education students, who study at two different primary schools in ?zmir, formed the research sampling. Twenty-six of these students are female while seventeen students are male. The Torrance Creative Thinking Test Linguistic –A Form is used as a data collecting tool in the study. The application and form evaluation periods have done by the researchers. At the end of the research, there are meaningful differences obtained between the two schools about the fluency, flexibility and originality levels of students attended to the research. When it is considered in terms of total creative levels, it is seen that the fluency points of those two schools attended to this study are the highest while the flexibility points are the lowest. This situation betrays that the students participated in this study can not use their skill of producing many ideas in terms of handling cases from all points of views.
Full Text Available Logical thinking of students should be enhanced at all levels of their studies. There are many possibilities how to achieve it. In the paper one possible way within the subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization” dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be presented. These mathematical disciplines are powerful tools for teachers allowing them to develop logical thinking of students, increase their imagination and make them familiar with solutions to various problems. Thanks the knowledge gained within the subjects students should be able to describe various practical situations with the aid of graphs, solve the given problem expressed by the graph, and translate the solution back into the initial situation. Student engagement is crucial for successful education. Practical tasks and puzzles attract students to know more about the explained subject matter and to apply gained knowledge. There are an endless number of enjoyable tasks, puzzles and logic problems in books like “Mathematics is Fun”, in riddles magazines and on the Internet. In the paper, as an inspiration, four puzzles developing logical thinking appropriate to be solved using graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be introduced. On these puzzles of different level of difficulty the students’ ability to find out the appropriate graph-representation of the given task and solve it will be discussed as well. The author of the paper has been prepared with her students various multimedia applications dealing with objects appropriate to subject matter for more than 15 years. In the paper we also discuss a benefit of multimedia applications used as a support of subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization”.
Design theory lies at the heart of information systems design science research. One concern in this area is the potential to limit the designer’s creativity by over-specifying the meta-design or the design process. This paper explains how design research encapsulates a two-person design team consisting of the design theorist and the artifact instance designer. Design theory embodies a creativity passdown effect in which the creative design thinking is partly executed by the design theorist and the completion of this thinking is deferred to the artifact instance designer. In fact, rather than limiting the instance designer’s creativity, the design theorist may create an opportunity for the instance designer to be creative by passing down a design theory. Further, the artifact instance designer operates within the problem domain defined by design theorist, and engages in design thinking to achieve an innovative design by merging theoretical knowledge with experiential knowledge of a design artifact that is being built. The creativity passdown effect was examined through a case that involved developing a tool for multi-outsourcing decision making. The case provides empirical support for the creativity passdown effect.
Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok
Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s). None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants' real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed. PMID:25278919
Zabelina, Darya L; Condon, David; Beeman, Mark
Full Text Available Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s. None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants’ real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.
The role of critical and creative thinking has been debated within the field of instructional design. Through an instructional design and development project we have identified how critical and creative thinking are essential to the instructional design process. This paper highlights a recent project focused on a virtual Native American village…
Baum, Liesl M.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary
The challenge banks face to gain advantage over their competitors is being placed under pressure by the ever increasing speed of development which arises from the pace of innovation in computer technology, rapid changes in industry regulation and fast-changing customer needs. Banks have creative heads but the pursuing of efficient customer-centric creative work within an organization is often challenging. This paper presents a design thinking role model which was iteratively designed over nin...
Christophe Vetterli; Walter Brenner; Falk Uebernickel
Full Text Available Mind mapping is a presentation form of radiant thinking, utilizing lines, colors, characters, numbers, symbols, image, pictures or keywords, etc. to associate, integrate and visualize the learned concept and evoke brain potential. Through mind maps, one’s attention, coordination ability, logic, reasoning, thinking, analyzing, creativity, imagination, memory, ability of planning and integration, speed reading, character, number, visuality, hearing, kinesthetic sense, sensation, etc. are significantly enhanced. “Picture” is not limited by nationality and language and is the best tool for young children to explore new things and learning. Because pictorial representation is one of the most primal human traits and drawing ability is better than writing ability in young children, learning and expressing through mind mapping prevents difficulties of writing, grammar and long description in children. Thus, this study reviews related researches to figure out whether mind mapping can be applied by young children to develop their creative thinking.
This small scale research project examines opportunities for creative thinking and imagination through den making in a rural private day nursery with its own woodland area on the borders of England and Wales in the UK. The research is underpinned by sociocultural theory and is an ethnographic study of non-participant observations of children aged…
A new program of teacher training in a dialogical spirit in order to prepare them towards working in the field of philosophy with children combines cultivating creativity and self-reflective thinking had been operated as a part of cooperation between the academia and the education system in Israel. This article describes the program that is a part…
A practicum was conducted to develop critical thinking and improve expression through creative written language utilizing precision teaching as an evaluation of student performance. Six students (grades second through sixth) with low idea generation and few organization skills were trained by three teachers and a teacher advisor using…
Goodman, Harriet E.
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop model of Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including: 1 to synthesize the tentative model for Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology, 2 to develop the tentative model for Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including, and 3 to evaluate for certifying the tentative model for Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including, by using revision technique from experts called Expert review through the Opinion Survey, Interview, and Focus group discussion in order to synthesize as conceptual framework of design. Data were analyzed by using statistic of Percentage, Mean, and Standard Deviation, and interview tape deciphering. Then, the obtained data were explained, interpreted, and concluded. The research findings found that: 1 the appropriateness of details in tentative model found that the appropriateness was in “the Highest” level, 2 the appropriateness of details in tentative model in the steps and instructional activities by the research methodology including, found that the appropriateness was in “High” level.
Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss
Creativity and culture are inherently linked. Society and culture are part and parcel of creativity’s process, outcome, and subjective experience.Equally, creativity does not reside in the individual independent of culture and society. Vlad Petre Gl?veanu’s basic framework includes creators and community, from which new artifacts emerge and existing artifacts are developed. He points to a relationship between self and other, new and old, specific for every creative act. Using this multifaceted system requires that researchers employ ecological research in order to capture the heterogeneity and social dimensions of creativity. Gl?veanu uses an approach based on cultural psychology to present creativity in lay terms and within everyday settings. He concludes with a unitary cultural framework of creativity interrelating actors, audiences, actions, artifacts, and affordances.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
A program designed to develop the creative potential of sixth, seventh and eighth grade students, incorporates ideas from a three-part model which conceptualizes the components of creativity as appropriate creative attitudes, various cognitive abilities, and idea-generating techniques. It attempts to increase students' awareness of, and…
Davis, Gary A.; And Others
Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals toward a relatively focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed...
In response to the recent school creativity reforms in Asian places, this paper studied three different approaches of integrating creative thinking training into regular science lessons. They include developing creative thinking through science process, science content and science scenario. Three teacher case studies were conducted to examine the potentials and obstacles of implementing these approaches in classroom of Hong Kong. This study found that all the approaches were useful in develop...
Cheng, Vivian M. Y.
This article draws on and extends a four-year investigation of creativity in music education with particular reference to the perceptions of six secondary school teachers (Odena & Welch, 2007; Odena, Plummeridge, & Welch, 2005). A comprehensive review of recent literature in musical creativity is provided, which complements and reinforces the theoretical framework of the original study. A qualitative approach was used for data gathering, including a video elicitation interview techniq...
Odena, O.; Welch, G
In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…
Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…
Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
This paper outlines a project to develop and track "design thinking" skills within groups of students in late primary and early secondary years of schooling in order to strengthen their creative skills and innovative mindsets. The outcome of the research will be the development of a model for the broad-based implementation of design thinking in…
Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology. PMID:25474292
Foster, Jamie S; Lemus, Judith D
Full Text Available The purpose of this study to examine effect of collaborative studies on prospective teachers? creative thinking skills while designing computer based materials. One group pre-test and post-test design of the pre-experimental model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. This experimental study have been applied to 34 prospective teachers who studied at Artvin Coruh University Facult of Education Primary Education Department in 2009-2010 spring term within the context of “Computer-II” course. “Creative Thinking Skill Scale” was applied at two different stages as pre-test and post-test and opinions of students were gathered about the method in research via interview forms. As a result, it was found that there was a significant difference between the prospective teachers? creative thinking skills and scores taken from scale were increased in favor of post-test. Collaborative group works have a great importance in occurrence of this increase was revealed from student views.
This article discusses a new way of thinking about analyzing sign-language poetry. Rather than merely focusing on the product, the method involves observing the process of its creation. Recent years have witnessed increasing literary and linguistic analysis of sign-language poetry, with commentaries on texts and performances being set within and…
West, Donna; Sutton-Spence, Rachel
Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. “Conceptual expansion” refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while “overcoming knowledge constraints” refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.
The study was aimed to explore the features of interaction between cortical areas during figural creative task performance in high- and low-creative men and women. We divided the participants into two groups with high and low creativity by the median of originality score. EEG was recorded at rest and during task performance (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking "Incomplete figures"). The EEG coherence was computed in six frequency bands from theta1 to beta2. We analyzed the total values of coherence for each of 16 sites, calculated separately for intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connections. In the theta2, alphal, and alpha2 bands, coherence values decreased in task performance as compared to baseline in subjects with lower originality scores, whereas in subjects with higher scores, they increased in the theta2 and alpha1 bands. The decrease in the alpha2 band in the higher-creativity group was significantly lower in comparison with the decrease in the lower-score group. In the alpha2 band, the interaction of gender, creativity, laterality, and electrode position factors was also found during analysis of task-induced coherence changes. Further examination of the interaction showed the similarity of EEG coherence patterns in men and women with opposite creative abilities and higher values of task-induced coherence changes in the anterior regions of the left hemisphere and posterior regions of the right hemisphere in high-creative in comparison with low-creative men. The findings are discussed in terms of different cognitive strategies used by men and women that may have the same results in creative problem solving. PMID:19795805
Vol'f, N V; Tarasova, I V; Razumnikova, O M
Full Text Available Floods that used to happen every hundred years are now occurring more frequently. Human influences on the damage inflicted by flooding need to be well-understood by future voters and property-owners. Therefore, the timely topic of flooding was used as the focus of a special multi-grade enrichment short course taught by two university education professors for 26 preK-8th grade high-achieving and creative students. During the course, students listened to guest speakers (city council member, meteorologist, and environmentalist, watched two flood-related videos, read books on floods, viewed electronic presentations related to dams and recent floods, discussed causes, effects, and mitigations of flooding, and devised creative games from recycled materials to teach peers about flood concepts. The de Bono CoRT Breadth thinking skill system was used to organize many of the course activities. The flood lesson activities were relevant to these students who had experienced a flood of the city’s river the previous year and challenged students more than their typical classroom activities, an important finding considering that many gifted students drop out of school because of irrelevant and non-demanding class work. The course broadened students’ knowledge of floods and assisted them in thinking beyond the immediate situation.
Audrey C. Rule
Full Text Available In response to the recent school creativity reforms in Asian places, this paper studied three different approaches of integrating creative thinking training into regular science lessons. They include developing creative thinking through science process, science content and science scenario. Three teacher case studies were conducted to examine the potentials and obstacles of implementing these approaches in classroom of Hong Kong. This study found that all the approaches were useful in developing student creative thinking, yet teachers experienced different tensions and dilemmas in different approaches. This paper suggests that the science content approach may be more readily accepted by teachers and students in an educational system which is dominated by knowledge content and examinations. However, with the limited skills and experience in creativity, teachers and students may feel that the science process and science scenario approach are easier to start with, as they are less constrained by the rigid content in the syllabus. Among various hindering factors, the most crucial one was found to be the original heavy knowledge-content, which in fact is a common characteristic of secondary science curriculum in many Asian places. In our future research and educational reforms, the dilemma between creative thinking and content learning needs to be seriously considered and solved at both individual and system levels.
Vivian M. Y. CHENG
This session, the first one in the Annenberg series "Patterns, Functions, and Algebra" enables the teacher to discover what it means to think algebraically, and to learn to use algebraic thinking skills to make sense of different situations. Topics covered include describing situations through pictures, charts, graphs, and words; interpreting and drawing conclusions from qualitative graphs; and creating graphs to match written descriptions of real-life situations. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, readings, and homework. The materials may be used on your own, in a study group, or as a facilitated online course for graduate credit, which is offered at a reasonable cost.
Evidence suggests that divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creativity, is associated with positive schizotypy and cannabis use. Given the high rates of cannabis use among those with schizotypy, it is unclear if the relation of DT to schizotypy is due to co-occurring cannabis use. In this study, we examined the relations between DT, schizotypy, and cannabis use among positive schizotypy (n=66), negative schizotypy (n=22), and non-schizotypy (n=60) groups. Results revealed that DT was greater in the positive schizotypy group, on the order of small to medium effects, compared to negative and non-schizotypy groups. Cannabis use and DT were associated in the non-schizotypy group, but not in the positive or negative schizotypy groups. Across all groups, positive schizotypy significantly predicted DT; however, cannabis use was not a significant predictor of DT. In line with previous findings, cannabis use and DT were only related in individuals low in creativity. This suggests that a ceiling effect may be present, with only cannabis users who are low in creativity receiving any increase in DT. Future research should aim to clarify the DT-cannabis relationship. PMID:25219611
Minor, Kyle S; Firmin, Ruth L; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Chun, Charlotte A; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S
Nancy Roper, Win Logan and Alison Tierney published their ground-breaking model of nursing in 1980, sparking the evolution of nursing theory from staid, biomedical thinking to an individualised, independent approach. Jane Salvage looks back at the lasting impact their research had on her and the profession as whole. PMID:16425763
I discuss features that are important for creative and critical thinking which should be recreated in e-learning applications. Anonymity maximizes chances for development of creativity and for objective and accurate assessment. I also describe a ‘quadruple anonymity’ system implemented at Nowy Sacz Business School – National-Louis University in Poland, the goal of which is to improve objectivity of thesis evaluation by referees. E-learning environment is ideal for implementing functiona...
Full Text Available Creativity is a tool that helps in effective problem solving utilizing optimum scarce resources in anybusiness. This paper presents a conceptual framework of a multilayer evolutionary system that supportscreative thinking. The system evolves, using a genetic algorithm, new ideas from a set of basic ideas thatare casually provided through an interactive editor or selected from past transaction records. Thearchitecture proposed here encompasses three layers called system layer, database layer, and queryproducer and user interface layer. Besides the general architecture, the paper also describes the detailedmethodology, genetic procedure to evolve ideas, reproduction operators like modified mutation, crossover and selection; and fitness functions to evolve suitable and strong ideas. The system layer furtherdescribes algorithm of stimulus-generation process. The proposed architecture is easy to develop,generic, domain independent and works with databases, which increases scope and usability of thesystem. Above all, the interactive user interface makes the system friendly and easy to operate.
Priti Srinivas Sajja
Full Text Available Art and design education hold a unique role in preparing the kinds of innovative, balanced, synthetic creators and thinkers needed in the 21st century. This paper sheds shed light on how learner-centered art classrooms, that incorporate design thinking as a balanced process, can better develop the overall learning capacity of students. In a mash-up between mixed model research involving the impact of learner-centered pedagogies on visual art students’ balanced intelligence and reviews of literature surrounding the promotion of depth and complexity of knowledge, new conceptual frameworks and assessments are offered. Towards a vision of fostering deep, connected, and independent thinkers, the author—as designer, artist, and art educator-- explores design thinking as an aesthetic, inquiry based process that integrates complex intelligence theories.Keywords: Design thinking, critical, creative, practical thinking, learner-centered, learner-centeredpedagogy
Delane Ingalls Vanada
Teaching critical thinking can be difficult, and it is nice to know that Professors Joe Lau and Jonathan Chan at the University of Hong Kong have created this site to help both teachers and students in this endeavor. Working with a grant from the government of Hong Kong's University Grants Committee, the two have created this website to provide access to over 100 free online tutorials on critical thinking, logic, scientific reasoning, and creativity. The homepage includes a brief introduction to critical thinking and access to the main modules, which are divided into thematic areas such as values and morality, strategic thinking, and basic logic. Visitors can also view the Chinese version of this site, download class exercises, and even take on "the hardest logic puzzle in the world."
Reflections upon what it might mean to think, and about what inherited presuppositions or images might influence what thinking is thought to consist of, are not readily considered in the mental health care literature. However, the work of the 20th century French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and, in particular, his account of 'the dogmatic image of thought' can be employed to illustrate how such considerations can be of relevance to the theoretical and practical concerns of mental health professionals. In doing so, Deleuze's work can be understood as seeking to sensitize mental health professionals to the dangers of unreflectively adopting a restrictive notion of what it means to think, as well as an exhortation to develop critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions that moves beyond the bounds of the traditional, dogmatic image of thought. Considerations about what it might mean to think, and about what inherited presuppositions determine what thinking is thought to consist of, are not readily reflected upon in the mental health care literature. However, this paper will propose that such considerations are of relevance to, and possess important implications for, the mental health professions, and it will do so within the context of the work of the 20th century philosopher Gilles Deleuze. In particular, the paper will provide an accessible exposition of what Deleuze refers to as the 'dogmatic image of thought', along with an examination of his suggestion that this traditional image, and its associated presuppositions, not only determine what is considered to be the ostensible 'nature' of thought, but also delineate what the activity of thinking ought to be concerned with. Moreover, it will be argued that Deleuze's exposition and critique of the image of thought can be understood as seeking to sensitize mental health professionals to the dangers of unreflectively perpetuating a restrictive notion of what it means to think, as well as being an exhortation to develop critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions that moves beyond the bounds of that traditional, dogmatic image of thought. PMID:23786235
The aim of this study is description and analysis of educational facilities design criteria based on creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists. Study's method is descriptive-surveyand it is polling type. Method description - is a survey of surveys. Population consists of full-time faculty members in the field of educational technology at the University of Tehran that are 36 persons. Tools for data collection are questionnaire responses depending on the rese...
Shahin Valia; Faramarzmalekian; Mehrnaz Foroughinia
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.
Judith Jiménez Díaz
This paper investigates the role of the scientific signs in the holy Quran in improving the creative thinking skills for the deaf children using multimedia. The paper investigates if the performance made by the experimental group's individuals is statistically significant compared with the performance made by the control group's individuals on Torrance Test for creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality and the total degree) in two cases:
Abusaleh, Sumaya; Abdelfattah, Eman; Alabadi, Zain; Sharieh, Ahmad
The purpose of this study is to design an applied framework for strategic thinking which can be applied in all managerial levels and all types of organizational environments. No especial applied frame has been presented for this thinking. This study presents a theoretical framework for the thinking type of a manager by making a historical research and studying the scientific documents about the thinking of a strategist. In the new theoretical framework, we have tried suggest the best type of ...
Iranzadeh, S.; Emari, H.; Bevrani, H.
In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes. PMID:18605031
Among the research results on the perceptions of 207 intermediate grade students was the indication that, while problem-solving performance related only to intelligence and math achievement scores, ideational fluency related significantly to student perceptions of emphasis on higher level thinking skills in the classroom and positive classroom…
Houtz, John C.; Denmark, Robert M.
Because of changes in the medical environment, nurses must maintain the ability of divergent thinking to solve the health problems of patients. However, many nurses whose work in clinical practice has become routine have lost the ability of creativity. To cultivate nurses creativity should be a goal of nursing education. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a nursing concepts teaching protocol by utilizing teaching strategies directed toward creativity to promote creativity in two-year RN-BSN students. This study design is a time series and one group experiment utilizing multiple instances of treatment. Teaching strategies for creativity were applied to a teaching unit and 52 two-year RN-BSN students were tested for creativity before the end of each semester. This study was conducted from March, 1999 to May, 2000, but only 30 students completed all tests and reached a 58% return rate. Torrance s (1974) definitions of creativity includ fluency, flexibility, and uniqueness were followed and the instrument, a questionnaire on Creativity in the application of the Nursing Process Tool (CNPT), was designed based on Emerson (1988). The content validity of Chinese-version CNPT was.79. The inter-coder reliability between two researchers was.84 following a coding guide that ten nursing education experts had established. The results indicated that 30 two-year RN-BSN students had improved fluency and flexibility. The improvements reached a significant level after the third semester. Only uniqueness declined. It is suggested that nursing faculty apply teaching strategies uniqueness more often in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts. By utilizing teaching strategies of creativity in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts, it is expected that two-year RN-BSN students can acquire characteristics of creativity for problem-solving skills in clinical settings. PMID:12119595
Ku, Ya-Lie; Kao Lo, Chi-Hui; Wang, Jing-Jy; Lee Hsieh, Jane; Chen, Kuei-Min
Previous studies revealed that there is moderate to strong correlation between creative thinking and empathy with self-awareness as three important skills in human life and the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between these three aspects of life skills. The participants in the study contained of 96(54 males and 42 females) 10 grade of high school students from Mysore in India. Life skill questionnaire - India (LSQI), carried out on the group sample and date analyzed th...
Ayatollah Karimi; Venkatesh Kumar, G.
This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…
Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John
Linguistic and psychological factors which bear on the concept of "intuitive thinking" are analyzed with respect to second language learning. Analytical thinking is considered as being logical, cognitive, and objective while intuitive thinking is considered to be creative, constructive, and non-analytical. Following a brief discussion of Piaget's…
Varela-Ibara, Jose L.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether the epistemological beliefs, creativity levels and thinking styles of pre-school teachers are significant predictors of their problem solving skills and in accordance with this purpose, a correlational survey design was used. The sample of this study consists of 155 pre school teachers working in Isparta in the school year 2011-2012. As data collection tools, “Problem Solving Inventory”, “Epistemological Beliefs Scale, “How Creative Are You?” and lastly, “Thinking Styles Inventory” were used. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. In this study, it has been found that problem solving skills of the teachers are a significant predictor of preschool teachers’ perceptions of their creativity levels positively and perceptions of their conventional thinking styles negatively in the belief that learning depends on ability.
Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing.
Wing, Jeannette M.
There is an ongoing debate about the components and processes of creativity. Within the subfield of creative insight, which is often considered to be the first measurable part of creativity, the role of working memory is discussed. Since creative insight appears to happen without conscious planning, the involvement of working memory appears to be limited; a hypothesis supported by several studies. However, there are several studies that support an opposing hypothesis. Namely, that creativity,...
Full Text Available In science we pay attention to some particular types of thinking, such as deductive and inductive logic, establishing causality through experimentation, analysis, and categorisation. There may be other types of thinking which we believe to be more typical of other fields such as literature (e.g. characterisation, sense of audience, art (e.g. form and composition, originality, or sport (e.g. whole-game strategies, anticipation but which do not play such as large part in science. So can we represent thinking in different domains as completely independent of one another, as represented in figure 1?
Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic liability to schizophrenia. Scores on divergent thinking tests (Inventiveness battery, Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Te...
Manzano, O?rjan; Cervenka, Simon; Karabanov, Anke; Farde, Lars; Ulle?n, Fredrik
Critical thinking alone is reactive, in that it lacks the creative elements necessary for social progress. Accordingly, the author has developed the CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) program to teach the two aspects of perception: breadth (developing a perceptual map) and change (using the map to discover solutions). (TE)
De Bono, Edward
The study investigated two levels of learning choice and control with 150 gifted South African students (grades 6-8) exposed to the Cognitive Research Trust (CORT) thinking skills program (prestructured) or the Integrated Education Model program (flexibly structured). Results suggested both programs affected locus of control and creativity but not…
Eriksson, Gillian I.
Innovation is the engine of scientific progress, yet we do not train public health students to think creatively. I present the key concepts within an evidence-based method currently taught at the University of Texas. Habitual thought patterns involve deeply held framed expectations. Finding alternatives generates originality. Because frame breaking is difficult, a series of innovation heuristics and tools are offered including enhancing observation, using analogies, changing point of view, juggling opposites, broadening perspective, reversal, reorganization and combination, and getting the most from groups. Gaining cognitive attributes such as nonjudgment, willingness to question, mindfulness, and plasticity is also emphasized. Students completing the class demonstrate substantial increases on a standardized test of idea fluency and originality, more joyful attitudes toward science, and more pluralistic approaches. PMID:25706005
Ness, Roberta B
Poetry writing is a simple yet effective way to encourage the development of cross-disciplinary connections, creativity, and critical thinking in science students. In other words, by mating ideas and methods from scientists like Charles Darwin with those of poets like Emily Dickinson, students discover new perspectives on scientific issues that are rich in both content and personal meaning because they arise from the student's own creativity. Creative poetry writing is thus one tool that can help achieve the goal of enhancing science literacy and constructing more efficient classroom learning environments.
Jerry A. Waldvogel
Creativity can be experienced in many roles of musicianship: performing, improvising, and composing. Yet, activities that encourage creative thought in our music classrooms can be a challenge to implement. A strong music education curriculum for middle school general music is important; as this may be the last time we reach students who do not…
When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…
Clinical medicine, a learned, rational, science-using practice, is labelled a science even though physicians have the good sense not to practise it that way. Rather than thinking like scientists - or how we think scientists think - physicians are engaged in analogical, interpretive reasoning that resembles Aristotle's phronesis, or practical reasoning, more closely than episteme, or scientific reasoning. In medicine, phronesis is clinical judgment; and while it depends on both a fund of information and extensive experience, somehow it is not quite teachable. This practical, clinical rationality relies on case narrative for teaching and learning about illness and disease, for recording and communicating about patient care and, inevitably, for thinking about and remembering the details, as well as the overarching rules of practice. At the same time, "anecdotal" remains the most pejorative word in medicine, and the tension between the justifiable caution this disdain expresses and the pervasive narrative structure of medical knowledge is characteristic of clinical knowing generally: a tug-of-war between apparent irreconcilables that can be settled only by an appeal to the circumstances of the clinical situation. Practical rationality in the clinical encounter is characterized by a productive circulation between the particular details of the patient's presentation and general information about disease stored as a taxonomy of cases. Evidence-based medicine can improve this negotiation between general knowledge and the patient's particulars, but it cannot replace it. In a scientific era, clinical judgment remains the quintessential intellectual strength of the clinician. Why, then, do we not teach the epistemology of medicine? Understanding the mis-description of physicians' thinking - and the accompanying claim that medicine is, in itself, a science - could mitigate the misplaced perfectionism that makes mistakes in medicine personal and unthinkable. PMID:19667768
A makerspace is a physical place in the library where informal, collaborative learning can happen through hands-on creation, using any combination of technology, industrial arts, and fine arts that is not readily available for home use. The underlying goal of a makerspace is to encourage innovation and creativity through the use of technology-to…
In this study, the author investigated factors underlying vocal improvisation achievement and relationships with the singers' musical background. Participants were 102 college students in Australia and the United States who performed 3 jazz improvisations and 1 free improvisation. Jazz improvisations were rated on rhythmic, tonal, and creative…
Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura
Spurred on by explosive technological developments and unprecedented access to information, leaders in the fields of business, industry, and education are all calling for creative, innovative workers. In an atmosphere of high-stakes testing and global competitiveness, educators around the world are examining their teaching methods to determine…
Fletcher, Tina Sue
This study investigated the relationship between cognitive development levels and creative performance among late adolescents from a post-Piagetian perspective. Participants were 386 college students, ranging in age from 19 to 26 years. The Social Paradigm Belief Scale was employed to measure the three cognitive styles of late adolescence: formal,…
Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin
Innovative-creative thinking and tolerance towards uncertain situations concern the field of the present study. Through scenarios and alternative proposals that concern views about the presence (university) or the future as well (professional career after the university), the research focuses on undergraduate students in Greek universities. The research took place in2011 ina sample of 836 students, using the questionnaire as an instrument, in a difficult financially and socially conjuncture ...
Thomas Babalis; Stavrou, Nektarios A.; Yota Xanthacou
Floods that used to happen every hundred years are now occurring more frequently. Human influences on the damage inflicted by flooding need to be well-understood by future voters and property-owners. Therefore, the timely topic of flooding was used as the focus of a special multi-grade enrichment short course taught by two university education professors for 26 preK-8th grade high-achieving and creative students. During the course, students listened to guest speakers (city council member, met...
Rule, Audrey C.; Jean Suchsland Schneider; Tallakson, Denise A.; Diane Highnam
How do material representations such as models, diagrams and drawings come to shape and aid collective, epistemic processes? This study investigated how groups of participants spontaneously recruited material objects (in this case LEGO blocks) to support collective creative processes in the context of an experiment. Qualitative micro-analyses of the group interactions motivate a taxonomy of different roles that the material representations play in the joint epistemic processes: illustration, elaboration and exploration. Firstly, the LEGO blocks were used to illustrate already well-formed ideas in support of communication and epistemic alignment. Furthermore, the material concretization of otherwise abstract ideas in LEGO blocks gave rise to elaboration: discussions, requests for clarification and discovery of unnoticed conceptual disagreements. Lastly, the LEGO blocks were used for exploration. That is, the material representations were experimented on and physical attributes were explored resulting in discoveries of new meaning potentials and creative solutions. We discuss these different ways in which material representations do their work in collective reasoning processes in relation to ideas about top-down and bottom-up cognitive processes and division of cognitive labor.
Stege BjØrndahl, Johanne; Fusaroli, Riccardo
Critical thinking is a socially constructed, contextual process not well measured by standardized tests. Better, locally grounded methods are pre/posttest (scenario building), experiential (critical practice audit), behavioral (critical debate), and conversational (storytellers and detectives). (SK)
Brookfield, Stephen D.
The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives. PMID:25005405
Reading involves an interactive process in which the reader actively produces meaning through a set of mental processes. There is obviously an ongoing interaction between the reader and the text. Critical reading is related to thinking and that is why we cannot read without thinking. Critical reading involves the following skills: predicting, acknowledging, comparing, evaluating and decision-making. Schemata can be seen as the organized background knowledge, which leads the reader to expect a...
Ibrahim Abu Shihab
Full Text Available This study focuses on students in first year environmental science degree programs where traditionally mathematical emphasis has been much less than the strict science or math majors. The importance now placed in applied mathematics means that students need to gain more conceptual and quantitative knowledge in not only the environmental degree programs but also in most if not all non-mathematical majors. In this study, the authors attempt to gain insights into why students fail in mathematical courses where the mathematical requirements are not as demanding as other strict math degree programs. This is done by examining student conceptual thinking patterns and strategies as evident in student prepared scripts. A total of 133 students were requested to prepare a focus sheet to summarize their knowledge on topics learned but they were also told that the focus sheets could be used in exams for notes. This motivated their sheet preparation. The students prepared weekly summaries and later revised and summarized them for later use. Detailed examination of such sheets allowed researchers to study studentsâ?? knowledge in terms procedural work, math skills, strategies and conceptual knowledge. A study of linear, quadratic and limit sections led to interesting insights not only regarding revision strategies, knowledge of content, but also conceptual and procedural knowledge base and higher order skills such as problem solving focus. Logical and creative competencies were assessed in terms of how and what student focused upon or linked to in order to facilitate application of knowledge. The results show average levels of procedural and conceptual competence but rather low levels in logical and creative competence in preparation of scripts. Almost 50% lacked competency in procedural work while around 54% lacked conceptual competency. Given the emphasis placed procedural skills by students, the levels were lower than expected. However, the lack of structure in their work and deeper levels of understanding of links between the topics learned was concerning. These findings have implications for the first year mathematics teaching teams at universities especially the non-specialist mathematical majors.
Gurudeo Anand Tularam
In his landmark bestseller The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell redefined how we understand the world around us. Now, in Blink, he revolutionizes the way we understand the world within. Blink is a book about how we think without thinking, about choices that seem to be made in an instant-in the blink of an eye-that actually aren't as simple as they seem. Why are some people brilliant decision makers, while others are consistently inept? Why do some people follow their instincts and win, while others end up stumbling into error? How do our brains really work-in the office, in the classroom, in the kitchen, and in the bedroom? And why are the best decisions often those that are impossible to explain to others?In Blink we meet the psychologist who has learned to predict whether a marriage will last, based on a few minutes of observing a couple; the tennis coach who knows when a player will double-fault before the racket even makes contact with the ball; the antiquities experts who recognize a fake at a glance. Her...
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Proyecto de investigación que analiza las representaciones educativo-laborales sobre las atribuciones de valor a la creatividad, motivación e innovación en jóvenes de la educación formal y no formal que se preparan para el mundo del trabajo. La desarticulación educativa entre oferta, demanda y neces [...] idad, exige búsquedas que complementen la didáctica homogénea de un pensamiento convergente con otras vertientes que favorecen el pensamiento divergente. Se asume la creatividad como un concepto teórico, no observable, que difícilmente se da en forma espontánea y se reconoce solo como atributo exclusivo de artistas, siendo necesario generarla en todos los sujetos y disciplinas para una construcción de valores y desarrollo a escala humana. Avanza sobre nuevas aristas didácticas integradoras que cubren un extenso espectro de pertenencias culturales, con disimilitudes de conocimientos, de abstracción, de lenguajes e ideologías. Se opta por una integración metodológica para ampliar las posibilidades de los contextos de descubrimiento y validación priorizando el primero. La metodología comprensivista apunta más directamente a las metas propuestas con los aportes de la etnografía, interaccionismo simbólico y la etnometodología. Los primeros resultados parciales evidencian que las actitudes y motivaciones de los jóvenes, dentro y fuera de las aulas e instituciones, cambian radicalmente, apareciendo estrategias creativas e innovadoras para actividades que responden a intereses diferentes a los contenidos curriculares. En jóvenes alumnos de posgrado en educación, se relevan dificultades para enseñar y desconocimiento de didácticas orientadas al pensamiento divergente, pero interés por interiorizarse en la teoría e instrumentación de las mismas. Abstract in english This research project analyzes the education-labour representations on value attributions to creativity, motivation and innovation in youth with formal and non-formal education that are training for the job world. The educational detachment between offer, demand and need, requests a search that can [...] complement the homogeneous didactics of a converging line of thought with other currents that favour divergent thinking. Creativity is considered a theoretical concept, non observable, that can hardly happen in a spontaneous way and is solely an attribute of artists, but also necessary to be generated in all individuals and disciplines for a construction of values and development at a human scale. It makes progress over new integrating didactic aspects that cover a wide spectrum of cultural belongings, with dissimilar knowledge, of abstraction, of languages and ideologies. A methodological integration is chosen to enlarge the possibilities of the discovery and validation contexts prioritizing the former. The comprehensive methodology aims more directly to intended goals with contributions from ethnography, symbolic interaction and ethnomethodology. The first partial results show that attitudes and motivation in youngsters, inside and outside classrooms and institutions, change radically, giving rise to creative and innovative strategies that respond to different interests to those in curricular contents. Among young postgraduate students in education, difficulties in teaching and both an ignorance but also an interest in didactics oriented to diverging thought are shown.
Rosa, Pérez del Viso de Palou.
Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…
Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt
The iDREAMS project aims to reinvent Computer Science education in K-12 schools, by using game design and computational science for motivating and educating students through an approach we call Scalable Game Design, starting at the middle school level. In this paper we discuss the use of Computational Thinking Patterns as the basis for our…
Ioannidou, Andri; Bennett, Vicki; Repenning, Alexander; Koh, Kyu Han; Basawapatna, Ashok
Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…
This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…
Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue
Thinking Together is a project that began at the Open University in the mid 1990s and grew out of research that showed that children benefit from explicit instruction on how to talk in groups. Its fundamental premise is that the ability to communicate effectively is a key skill that lies at the heart of educational success. A crucial goal arising…
In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…
Mazzei, Lisa A.
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that strategic entrepreneurial thinking is a unitary concept which should be viewed as a standalone construct. DESIGN / METHODOLOGY / APPROACH: The concept strategic entrepreneurial thinking is modelled from an analysis of strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking from available literature. The strategic entrepreneurial mindset imperative is then emphasised and confirmed. FINDINGS: This paper's finding is that there is no differen...
Dhliwayo, S.; Vuuren, Jurie Jansen
Full Text Available This paper argues that in the context of human activity systems, the concept of purpose is critically important and that giving purpose a central role in the development and management of human activity systems can lead to more flexible, effective and autonomous systems. The systems thinking literature is reviewed in order to consolidate and assess current thinking about purpose. The importance of intrinsic purpose is highlighted. Implications for practice in terms of information systems design are illustrated by contrasting two different approaches to the design of knowledge management systems. An analysis of corporations as purposeful systems highlights some of the benefits of a purposeful systems approach. Directions for future research with a focus on purpose are suggested.
Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there i...
Genne?-bacon, Elizabeth A.
Full Text Available On the basis of a previous study carried out with Spanish-speaking children which indicates that the Creativity construct, operationalized by means of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT-Figural, consists of two factors –Innovation and Adaptation– (Krumm, Lemos & Arán Filippetti, in press, the objective of the present work was to prove whether this structure is invariant across age. A sample of 652 Spanish-speaking children and adolescents aged 9-17 years of both sexes was tested. It was in turn divided into three age groups: (a 9-10, (b 11-13 and (c 16 -17 years. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA showed that in each group of the sample, the structure of the TTCT is composed of two correlated factors, namely Innovation and Adaptation. In addition, Multigroup CFA demonstrated that the two-factor solution was actually invariant (configural and metric across age, meaning that children and adolescents equally conceptualize the Creativity construct. Finally, MANOVA showed a significant age effect on every subscale. These data suggest the relevance of considering the age factor when assessing the creative potential through the TTCT-Figural.
Gabriela L. Krumm
The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities. PMID:19126073
Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary
This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges the view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate that competitive strategies will become more common in the future.
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
Lack of knowledge and experience is prevalent in undergraduate students who are taking their clinical practicum for mental-health nursing. This issue negatively affects the learning process. This article shares an experience of implementing a practicum-teaching program. This program was developed by the authors to facilitate the cooperative learning and clinical care competence of students. A series of multidimensional teaching activities was designed by integrating the strategies of peer cooperation and creative thinking to promote group and individual learning. Results indicate that the program successfully encouraged the students to participate more actively in the learning process. Additionally, the students demonstrated increased competence in empathetic caring toward patients, stronger friendship relationships with peers, and improved self-growth. The authors hope this teaching program provides a framework to increase the benefits for students of participating in clinical practicums and provides a teaching reference for clinical instructors. PMID:25854950
Huang, Yu-Hsien; Lin, Mei-Feng; Ho, Hsueh-Jen; Chang, Lu-Na; Chen, Shiue
Full Text Available Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term “critical thinking” (CT is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can classify critical thinking concept in a conceptual framework. A qualitative content analysis with deductive categorization was used to classify critical thinking concept in a conceptual framework .The research field (statistical population included all available digital and written sources related to critical thinking. The Research sample was a purposeful homogeneous sample. It is used to describe the sample that includes information based on the qualitative research goals. The results showed that critical thinking concept could be investigated in fields of both psychology and philosophy. While philosophers emphasis on the nature and quality of critical thinking, psychologists focus on cognitive process and components used to investigate the practical problems. So philosophers emphasize critical thinking attitudes while psychologists focus on critical thinking skills.
Ali Mohammad Siahi Atabaki
Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.
This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…
Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson
Design thinking is about using design to improve the human experience. It combines collaboration, systems thinking, and a balance of creative and analytical habits. It also fuels what the students want for themselves: making an impact on the real world in real time and having adults take their passions seriously. The process essentially comes down…
Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…
The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El sistema educativo no escapa a la renovación de las técnicas para incentivar el pensamiento innovador. El objetivo de esta reflexión monográfica es mostrar la relación entre el desarrollo de la creatividad y los usos de los softwares educativos. Las técnicas seleccionadas son, el mapa mental y el [...] de conceptos, el mandala y las supernotas. Y los softwares empleados, son el Mind Manager, el Inspiración y el CMap Tool. El procedimiento hace referencia a los fundamentos teóricos argumentados por los autores y, a una descripción de las bondades de los tres softwares seleccionados. Como reflexión final se puede decir que los softwares seleccionados cumplen la función de herramienta mental-tecnológica, al desarrollar habilidades para procesar información de forma creativa. Abstract in english The educational system does not escape to renewing the techniques to motivate innovative thinking. The goal of this monographic reflection is to show the relation between creativity development and education software uses. The chosen techniques are, mental and concept map, the mandala and super note [...] -taking. The software used is the Mind Manager, Inspiration, and the CMap Tool. The procedure refers to the theoretical fundaments argued by the authors and, to a description of the goodness of the software used. As a final reflection it can be said that the software work as a mental-technological tool, by developing skills to process information in a creative way.
Anny, Castillo Rojas.
Formal education and support is needed for nurse managers to effectively function in their role in the current health care environment. Many nurse managers assume their positions based on expertise in a clinical role with little expertise in managerial and leadership skills. Operating as a manager and leader requires ongoing development of critical thinking skills and the inclination to use those skills. Critical thinking can have a powerful influence on the decision making and problem solving that nurse managers are faced with on a daily basis. The skills that typify critical thinking include analysis, evaluation, inference, and deductive and inductive reasoning. It is intuitive that nurse managers require both the skills and the dispositions of critical thinking to be successful in this pivotal role at a time of transformation in health care. Incorporating critical thinking into education and support programs for the nurse manager is necessary to position the nurse manager for success. PMID:19492771
Zori, Susan; Morrison, Barbara
Nursing students must be prepared with skills to help them think for the future. Thinking for the future means that students have the ability to envision desired futures for nursing and health care, embrace change and complexity, and believe that they can make a difference. Readers are introduced to the field of futures studies along with strategies and tools to teach futures skills in the nursing curriculum. Basic ideas and assumptions underlying futures studies are presented, and an argument for the importance of futures thinking to nursing education is made. PMID:21834379
Freed, Patricia; McLaughlin, Dorcas E
"We know that progress depends on discovery, inventions, creativity and design, but we have simply supposed that it happens anyway," de Bono (1999 p. 43). Technology education is ostensibly a foundation for future designers and creative thinking. However evidence of good design or creative thinking in outcomes displayed in school…
Science projects can be a wonderful opportunity for learning and creativity, or a gigantic headache for teachers. After several years of implementation, experience, and revision, the author has put together a fun and engaging project centered on machines that is appropriate for middle school students. This project came to be known simply as "The Thinking Machine Project," which draws its origin from the national Rube Goldberg Machine competition held each year at Purdue University. Here is one way to bring technology, writing, drawing, creativity, and hands-on ingenuity together in a single fun and successful project.
Be aware of what attachments you open and what Internet programs you agree to download, the simple click of a mouse can be enough to introduce a virus at CERN and cause widespread damage. Modern viruses are a serious threat to our computers and networks. CERN limits the security risks that these programs pose through the use of its firewall, by constantly updating its anti-virus software, by detecting un-patched security holes, and by blocking many dangerous attachments as they pass through e-mail gateways, but these defenses do not guarantee 100% security. Our habits of clicking "ok" automatically on the Internet and opening attachments without thinking, are the behaviors that modern viruses are using to get past our security protections. Viruses can sit on the Internet waiting for us to activate them as we surf the web. Many of us simply click 'ok' when presented with dialogue boxes and this is exactly what the virus wants: clicking can be enough to download and infect our computers. Viruses can travel as...
Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive Director Chris Lewis will work with the audience on an interactive basis to outline answers to the following questions: - To what extent was there agreement world-wide on the major communications challenges facing the nuclear industry prior to September 11th, and how to address them locally? - How (and how much) has the nuclear communications agenda changed since then? Are the new challenges the same world-wide? - To what extent is communications strategy - like strategy generally - a question not only of what to do, but also of what not to do? When is lack of transparency justified? - Are the new issues all negative, or do recent global developments also offer nuclear communicators world-wide a new opportunity to 'put across' the key messages they have been trying to communicate for many years past - in particular, the 'place' of nuclear energy in the broader 'energy picture'? (author)
To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs), i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thi...
Critical thinking, rooted in critical philosophy, has long been an influential part and parcel of Western education. The present study is an attempt to sketch the concept of critical thinking as a viable cornerstone in language education. First, a number of the definitions of the concept as posited by different scholars are put forth. Second, the typical features of critical thinkers are introduced from the perspectives of education scholars. Third, different standpoints on the teachability o...
Saeed Rezaei; Ali Derakhshan; Marzieh Bagherkazemi
Design thinking is generally defined as an analytic and creative process that engages a person in opportunities to experiment, create and prototype models, gather feedback, and redesign. Several characteristics (e.g., visualization, creativity) that a good design thinker should possess have been identified from the literature. The primary purpose…
Razzouk, Rim; Shute, Valerie
Full Text Available The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. To address this dilemma, it is essential to integrate instructional strategies and techniques that can efficiently and effectively maximize student learning and critical thinking. Modern advances in educational technology have produced a range of online tools to assist instructors in meeting this instructional goal. This review will examine the theoretical foundations of critical thinking in higher education, discuss empirically-based strategies for integrating online instructional supplements to enhance critical thinking, offer techniques for expanding instructional opportunities outside the limitations of traditional class time, and provide practical suggestions for the innovative use of critical thinking strategies via online resources.
B. Jean Mandernach
The significance of design thinking and systems thinking for design has gained much recognition in recent years. In comparison to design thinking, scholarly discussion about systems thinking has a much longer history and includes more multiple and divergent perspectives. This paper reviews and critiques the essence of design thinking and systems…
Cannabis acutely increases schizotypy and chronic use is associated with elevated rates of psychosis. Creative individuals have higher levels of schizotypy, however links between cannabis use, schizotypy and creativity have not been investigated. We investigated the effects of cannabis smoked naturalistically on schizotypy and divergent thinking, a measure of creativity. One hundred and sixty cannabis users were tested on 1 day when sober and another day when intoxicated with cannabis. State ...
Schafer, G.; Feilding, A.; Morgan, C. J.; Agathangelou, M.; Freeman, T. P.; Valerie Curran, H.
This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…
Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.
Present standards include creative and critical thinking among dispositions essential for the teaching profession. While teaching introductory courses in educational psychology, I have noticed that even though students can easily describe critical thinking in the abstract, they rarely and reluctantly engage in thinking critically about their own…
The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.
The Internet, in the memorable words of EDGE founder John Brockman, is 'the infinite oscillation of our collective consciousness interacting with itself. It's not about computers. It's not about what it means to be human - in fact, it challenges, renders trite, our cherished assumptions on that score. It is about thinking'. In How is the Internet Changing the Way you Think?, the latest volume in Brockman's cutting-edge Edge questions series, 154 of the world's leading intellectuals - scientists, artists and creative thinkers - explore exactly what it means to think in the new age of the Inter
Creative movement is an ideal way to help young children develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Most young children are, by nature, extremely physical. They delight in exploring the world with their bodies and expressing their ideas and feelings through movement. During creative movement experiences, children learn to think before…
Marigliano, Michelle L.; Russo, Michele J.
Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…
Technology Teacher, 2004
In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…
Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda
Three experiments investigated use of vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena by 5- and 10-year-olds and by adults. Results replicated the original Japanese finding of vitalistic thinking among English-speaking 5-year-olds, identified the more active component of vitalism as a belief in the transfer of energy during biological processes,…
Morris, Suzanne C.; Taplin, John E.; Gelman, Susan A.
Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...
This paper describes a multi-qualitative study undertaken to examine the issue of critical thinking as a graduate attribute. Critical thinking is a graduate attribute that many courses claim to produce in students. However, it is important to understand how academics define and describe critical thinking and whether their understandings of critical thinking differ, depending on their discipline or subject area. The paper describes a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with aca...
Ahern, Aoife; Mac Ruairc, Gerry; Mcnamara, Martin; O Connor, Tom
The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March. Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...
This research study investigated the learning outcomes of a brief systems thinking intervention at the undergraduate level. A pre/post experimental design (n = 50) was used to address two primary questions: (1) Can a brief introduction to systems thinking improve students' understanding of systems thinking? and (2) Which teaching method (of…
Monroe, Martha C.; Plate, Richard R.; Colley, Lara
A growing body of evidence supports the importance of nurturing children's thinking. This article reports on an investigation of the influence of teachers' implementation of the Visible Thinking approach developed within the Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero on very young children's concepts of thinking, as measured by the…
Salmon, Angela K.; Lucas, Teresa
Students' exposure to the Taoist thinking pattern should have a significant meaning in their cognitive development and life enrichment. The thinking pattern reflected in Taoist discourse is in sharp contrast to what is demonstrated in Aristotelian rhetoric. The circular thinking pattern usually resided in a paradoxical and/or relativistic…
Asserts that the sudden insights that characterize intuitive thinking are as important in effectuating learning as analytical thinking. Claims that intuitive thinking enables students to comprehend complex relationships better, to put things into better perspective, to generate new ideas, and to perceive more ways to integrate facts, concepts, and…
Stewart, William J.
Full Text Available Anecdotal literature suggests that creative people sometimes use bodily movement to help overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration. Several studies have shown that physical exercise may sometimes enhance creative thinking, but the evidence is still inconclusive. In this study we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is affected by acute moderate and intense physical exercise in athletes (n=48 and non-athletes (n=48. Exercise interfered with divergent thinking in both groups. The impact on convergent thinking, the task that presumably required more cognitive control, depended on the training level: while in non-athletes performance was significantly impaired by exercise, athletes showed a benefit that approached significance. The findings suggest that acute exercise may affect both, divergent and convergent thinking. In particular, it seems to affect control-hungry tasks through exercise-induced “ego-depletion”, which however is less pronounced in individuals with higher levels of physical fitness, presumably because of the automatization of movement control, fitness-related neuroenergetic benefits, or both.
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The industrial milieu is a traditional area for hard systems analysis, and the optimization of processes using reductionist approaches.
Soft Systems Thinking, with its powerful use of conceptual modelling, has been neglected in the West, but has been applied by the Japanese - with some very surprising results.
It is suggested that South African industry could benefit from an injection of soft systems thinking.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die bedryfsomgewing is h tradisionele gebied vir die toepassing van hardestelselontleding, en die optimalisering van prosesse deur die gebruik van benaderings wat die probleme maklik kan herlei.
Sagtestelselontleding, met die klem op konsepsuele modulering, word min in Westerse lande gebruik, maar het in Japan verbasende resultate opgelewer.
Dit word voorgestel dat ondernemings in Suid Afrika sal kan baat deULgebruik te maak van die sagtestelselbenadering.
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
This presentation from Kip Richardson and Carolyn Forsyth was given at Portland Community College's 2010 Summer Sustainability Institute. The material presents the concept of systems thinking and looks at how this mindset may be effectively applied with an integrated design approach. The presentation is mostly images but does include some useful definitions and other text.This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.
According to regulatory fit theory (Higgins, 2000), when people make decisions with strategies that sustain their regulatory focus orientation, they ``feel right'' about what they are doing, and this ``feeling-right'' experience then transfers to subsequent choices, decisions, and evaluations. The present research was designed to link the concept of regulatory fit to functional accounts of counterfactual thinking. In the present study, participants generated counterfactuals about their anagra...
Markman, Keith D.; Mcmullen, Matthew N.; Elizaga, Ronald A.; Nobuko Mizoguchi
Wishful thinking (WT) implies the overestimation of the likelihood of desirable events. It occurs for outcomes of personal interest, but also for events of interest to others we like. We investigated whether WT is grounded on low-level selective attention or on higher level cognitive processes including differential weighting of evidence or response formation. Participants in our MRI study predicted the likelihood that their favorite or least favorite team would win a football game. Consisten...
Aue, Tatjana; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Cacioppo, John T.
Full Text Available According to regulatory fit theory (Higgins, 2000, when people make decisions with strategies that sustain their regulatory focus orientation, they ``feel right'' about what they are doing, and this ``feeling-right'' experience then transfers to subsequent choices, decisions, and evaluations. The present research was designed to link the concept of regulatory fit to functional accounts of counterfactual thinking. In the present study, participants generated counterfactuals about their anagram performance, after which persistence on a second set of anagrams was measured. Under promotion framing (i.e., find 90\\% or more of all the possible words upward counterfactual thinking in general elicited larger increases in persistence than did downward counterfactual thinking in general, but under prevention framing (i.e., avoid failing to find 90\\% or more of all the possible words upward evaluation (comparing reality to a better reality elicited larger increases in persistence than did upward reflection (focusing on a better reality, whereas downward reflection (focusing on a worse reality elicited larger increases in persistence than did downward evaluation (comparing reality to a worse reality. In all, the present findings suggest that the generation of counterfactuals enhances the likelihood that individuals will engage in courses of action that fit with their regulatory focus orientation.
Keith D. Markman
In reasoning about strategic interpersonal situations, such as in playing games, an individual's representation of the situation often includes not only information about the goals and rules of the game, but also a mental model of other minds. Often such mental models involve a hierarchy of reflexive reasoning commonly employed in social situations ("What do you think I think you think..."), and may be related to the developmental notion of 'theory of mind'. In two experiments, the authors formally investigate such interpersonal recursive reasoning in college-age adults within the context of matrix games. Participants are asked to predict the moves of another player (experimenter's confederate) in a two-choice, sequential-move game that may terminate at various stages with different payoffs for each player. Participants are also asked to decide optimally on their own moves based on the prediction made. Errors concerning the prediction, or translation of those predictions into decisions about one's action, were recorded. Results demonstrate the existence of a "default" mental model about the other player in the game context that is dynamically modified as new evidence is accumulated. Predictions about this other player's behavior are, in general, used consistently in decision-making, though the opponent tends to be modeled, by default, to behave in a myopic fashion not anticipating the participant's own action. PMID:12086711
Hedden, Trey; Zhang, Jun
Nudging is increasingly acknowledged as a way to encourage change in behavior. Research shows that through the use of persuasive techniques individuals can be steered towards more effective decision-making. Using explicit nudging strategies in entrepreneurship education may create awareness about choice patterns and change the way individuals think about their entrepreneurial potential. Nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring students beyond the unseen boundaries of the self towards the kind of learning (growth) that develops self-efficacy and an entrepreneurial mindset. Thus, nudging techniques may promote, strengthen and develop learning beyond the limitations of what we already do.
Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle
This paper declines the anthropological and philosophical background for understanding the less understandable: suicide. Though 'understanding' (in terms of the one who wants to understand) implies the rules of its own (i.e. rationalistic) casted beyond the reefs of knowing the author tries to find traces to make up a new perspective of the horizon. With examples from his therapeutical work, and quoting mythology, and historically famous cases thinking within the terms of suicide is delined, and consequences hereof are stated. PMID:3281176
Späte, H F
Creativity is valued increasingly in business and education. Humor, fun, and play take the brain from a cognitive, rule-bound state to a more fluid state where the whole body can work on a problem while the "thinking mind" is relaxed. Vignettes demonstrate how adventure education stimulates creativity through play, fun, humor, and whole-body…
Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". 9th Grade students taking a physics course that employed the Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the st...
Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Douglas, Scott S.; Burk, John B.; Scanlon, Erin M.; Thoms, Brian D.; Schatz, Michael F.
The purpose of this article is to discuss a cognitive approach to therapy with a language impaired adult. Two types of productive thinking are explored in this research: concept awareness and problem solving. These are dynamic and creative processes underlying the development and use of cognition and language. This single subject study follows an ABAB design and describes techniques used in therapy and methods for measuring productive thinking in a 66-yr-old moderately language impaired adult. Results indicate a sharp increase in the subject's thought productivity in a variety of contexts. A critical appraisal of reasons for therapy effectiveness are given. PMID:7263932
Jenning, E A; Lubinski, R B
ThinkData is an interactive service for raising awareness on data protection and transparency in the organisational context. Originating from a study carried out by an interdisciplinary work group as part of a think tank on services science and innovation (ThinkServices). ThinkData allows its users to become familiar with the concepts of data protection and transparency through short stories, situations involving employees, managers, HR managers and information systems professionals. In this ...
Glassey, Olivier; Morin, Jean-henry
The Critical Thinking Curriculum Model (CTCM) utilizes a multidisciplinary approach that integrates effective learning and teaching practices with computer technology. The model is designed to be flexible within a curriculum, an example for teachers to follow, where they can plug in their own critical issue. This process engages students in collaborative research that can be shared in the classroom, across the country or around the globe. The CTCM features open-ended and collaborative activities that deal with current, real world issues which leaders are attempting to solve. As implemented in the Critical Issues Forum (CIF), an educational program administered by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the CTCM encompasses the political, social/cultural, economic, and scientific realms in the context of a current global issue. In this way, students realize the importance of their schooling by applying their efforts to an endeavor that ultimately will affect their future. This study measures student attitudes toward science and technology and the changes that result from immersion in the CTCM. It also assesses the differences in student learning in science content and problem solving for students involved in the CTCM. A sample of 24 students participated in classrooms at two separate high schools in New Mexico. The evaluation results were analyzed using SPSS in a MANOVA format in order to determine the significance of the between and within-subjects effects. A comparison ANOVA was done for each two-way MANOVA to see if the comparison groups were equal. Significant findings were validated using the Scheffe test in a Post Hoc analysis. Demographic information for the sample population was recorded and tracked, including self-assessments of computer use and availability. Overall, the results indicated that the CTCM did help to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills for students, thereby positively effecting critical thinking. No matter if the students liked science or not, enjoyed computers or not, the CTCM approach helped to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills. The CTCM clearly provides an educational framework that can aid all students in the development of critical thinking skills.
Robertson, William Haviland
Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation
The teaching of 3D digital game design requires the development of students' meta-skills, from story creativity to 3D model construction, and even the visualization process in design thinking. The characteristics a good game designer should possess have been identified as including redesign things, creativity thinking and the ability to…
Kuo, Ming-Shiou; Chuang, Tsung-Yen
A 56-year-old female patient was referred to our institution for atypical chest pain and palpitations. Physical examination, resting ECG and transthoracic echocardiogram were unremarkable. Stress perfusion scintigraphy was positive for anterior and apical myocardial ischaemia. A subsequent coronary angiogram showed no signs of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease; however, it revealed a coronary arteriovenous fistula and multiple other fistulous connections between the proximal segment of the left coronary artery and the pulmonary artery trunk. We present a rare case of a symptomatic coronary fistula that was percutaneously closed using an Amplatzer Vascular Plug, which resulted in clinical improvement and late fistula occlusion. This case report underlines the importance of thinking beyond atherosclerosis in the evaluation of chest pain syndromes. Moreover, it describes some of the angiogram caveats in assessing the coronary fistula number and morphology, as well as the cardiac-catheter potential for multiple pathway coronary artery fistulae closure. PMID:23595197
Paiva, Luis Manuel Vilardouro; Costa, Marco; Barra, Sergio; Providencia, Rui
To many outsiders, mathematicians appear to think like computers, grimly grinding away with a strict formal logic and moving methodically--even algorithmically--from one black-and-white deduction to another. Yet mathematicians often describe their most important breakthroughs as creative, intuitive responses to ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox. A unique examination of this less-familiar aspect of mathematics, How Mathematicians Think reveals that mathematics is a profoundly creative activity and not just a body of formalized rules and results
Teachers at Mililani Mauka Elementary School in Honolulu, Hawaii are using technology to encourage higher-order thinking with a model of effective thinking developed at Harvard University (Massachusetts): being broad and adventurous, sustaining intellectual curiosity, clarifying and seeking understanding, planning strategically, being…
Harada, Violet H.; Yoshina, Joan
There is no more central issue to education than thinking and reasoning. Certainly, such an emphasis chimes with the rationalist and cognitive deep structure of the Western educational tradition. The contemporary tendency reinforced by cognitive science is to treat thinking ahistorically and aculturally as though physiology, brain structure and…
Peters, Michael A.
Formulates a framework for characterizing elementary children's (n=20) statistical thinking based on a review of research and a cognitive development model, and refines it through a validation process. Proposes four thinking levels which represent a continuum from idiosyncratic to analytic reasoning. Results confirm the four levels of children's…
Jones, Graham A.; Thornton, Carol A.; Langrall, Cynthia W.; Mooney, Edward S.; Perry, Bob; Putt, Ian J.
... 501c3 nonprofit organization. Benefit "ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation" when you surf or shop 1400+ retailers online. ... Involved Facebook Twitter YouTube ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation 1801 N. Mill Street, Suite F • Naperville, IL ...
Critical thinking is often a desired outcome in an introductory astronomy course, but it is often poorly defined. The model developed by Linda Elder and Richard Paul provides an internally consistent framework for both defining and implementing critical thinking. This article provides suggestions for using it in a typical introductory astronomy course.
For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…
Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle
A battery of problem solving and divergent thinking tasks was administered to 91 fifth graders to identify a factor that could be labeled problem solving and be distinct from divergent thinking. In several factor analyses, three factors consistently emerged: fluency, problem solving, and academic achievement. (Author/RD)
Houtz, John C.; Speedie, Stuart M.
A minicourse in critical thinking was implemented to improve student outcomes in two sessions of a senior-level business course at a Midwestern university. Statistical analyses of two quantitative assessments revealed significant improvements in critical thinking skills. Improvements in student outcomes in case studies and computerized business…
Reid, Joanne R.; Anderson, Phyllis R.
Explores critical thinking as it has been constructed in schooling and in dominant traditions of psychological theory, presenting a dialectical view of critical thinking suggested in the social and philosophical writings of critical theorists (e.g., Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse) and supported by the sociohistorical or cultural-historical…
Panofsky, Carolyn P.
Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. PMID:25217762
Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian
Full Text Available This study explored the effect of Iranian EFL learners’ critical thinking abilities on their receptive English language proficiency skills. With this purpose in mind, the researchers administered the Persian version of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA and the Interchange Objective Placement Test (Lesley, Hansen, & Zukowski-Faust, 2005 to 96 Intermediate EFL learners, and correlated the scores obtained from the two tests to see whether there is any significant relationship between critical thinking and proficiency. Results from Pearson product-moment correlation showed significant correlations between WGCTA subscales and proficiency scores. Furthermore, while logical interpretation was the only important variable in predicting both reading and listening comprehension scores, a stepwise multiple regression consisting of Watson-Glaser subscales 1 (drawing inferences, 2 (recognizing assumptions, and 4 (logical interpretation successfully predicted total proficiency test scores (R = .43. To see to what extent total scores for critical thinking may affect English language proficiency, three groups of High, Mid, and Low were formed based on critical thinking scores. The mean proficiency scores of the three groups were compared. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in the mean proficiency scores among the three groups. The results of the post-hoc Scheffe test revealed that there was a significant difference between the proficiency scores of the high creative group and those of the two other groups. The implications of the results were discussed.
Mohammad Reza Hashemi
Any ambitious construction project requires architects for its design and engineers who apply the design to the real world. As scientific research shifts towards large groups which focus on the engineering aspects of linking data to existing models, architectural skills are becoming rare among young theorists. Senior researchers should mentor qualified students and postdocs to think creatively about the big picture without unwarranted loyalty to ancient blueprints from past generations of architects.
Any ambitious construction project requires architects for its design and engineers who apply the design to the real world. As scientific research shifts towards large groups which focus on the engineering aspects of linking data to existing models, architectural skills are becoming rare among young theorists. Senior researchers should mentor qualified students and postdocs to think creatively about the big picture without unwarranted loyalty to ancient blueprints from past ...
Maintenance optimization problem could not always settled mathematically and was obliged to use quasi-optimum solution with omitting non-formulated limiting condition or neglecting part of optimization object. In such a case knowledge engineering thinking was encouraged. Maintenance of complicated plant and artificial system should be considered from artificial object (equipment/facility hardware and system), technical information and knowledge base, and organizational and human aspect or society and institution. Comprehensive management system in organization and society was necessary not only for assuring integrity of equipment but also for attaining higher performance, reliability and economics of system. For better judgment it was important to share mechanism to make use of more information with organization or whole society. It was required to create database and data mining for knowledge base management system of maintenance. Maintenance was called 'last fortress' to assure quality such as reliability and safety of required function of equipment. Strategic approach to develop maintenance technology under cooperation was considered. Life extension R and D road map was launched in 2005. (T. Tanaka)
In this paper I discuss whether there is a speci?c experience of thinking or not. I address this question by analysing if it is possible to reduce the phenomenal character of thinking to the phenomenal character of sensory experiences. My purpose is to defend that there is a specific phenomenality for at least some thinking mental states. I present Husserl's theory of intentionality in the Logical Investigations as a way to defend this claim and I consider its assumptions. Then I present t...
Full Text Available This study investigates eight TEFL pre-service teachers’ reflective thinking on their classroom discourse in a middle school in China. The data comes from reflective journals, interviews and classroom observations. Three major themes emerge from the journals: physiological aspect, interpersonal aspect and pedagogical aspect of discourse. Moreover, the features of their reflective thinking on classroom discourse are explained. It is concluded that conceptualization is the most prominent feature. Additionally, the study finds out three influential factors on the focuses and features of pre-service teachers’ reflective thinking: lack of teaching experience, lack of knowledge on students and teachers’ identity dilemma.
A study has been conducted into improving construction design through the application of the lean thinking paradigm. Its objective was to identify the issues relating to design efficiency and how a lean thinking approach might address these issues. The investigation consisted of examining work already undertaken in the field by other researchers"to identify the state of the art. The change order request system was examined to gain first insights into waste in construction de...
Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characteri...
Lukas Schoenenberger; Andrea Schenker-Wicki; Mathias Beck
Full Text Available Practice of Metaphorical thinking in understanding given information promotes the communication of the two hemispheres by a bundle of connecting fibres, the corpus callosum at neo cortex level and through hippocampus at the level of limbic system. Hence, metaphorical thinking helps learners to make connections and develop patterns and relationships in parallel to the language as well as symbols relevant to the given information.
Cittoor Girija Navaneedhan
Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011) say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada an...
Spatial methods that build upon Geographic Information Systems are spreading quickly across the social sciences. This essay points out that the appropriate use of spatial tools requires more careful thinking about spatial concepts. As easy as it is now to measure distance, it is increasingly important to understand what we think it represents. To interpret spatial patterns, we need spatial theories. We review here a number of key concepts as well as some of the methodological approaches that ...
Logan, John R.; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Hongwei
Most people support the idea that we live in a complex society and that complex evaluations and strategies are needed in order to effectively address most societal problems. However, little attention is generally paid to the degree of presence of complex thinking in youths' attitudes towards the most significant issues that characterize contemporary human societies. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the relationship between youths' "complex thinking" and their evaluations of and a...
Background: The main purposes of visual arts education concern the enhancement of students' creative processes and the originality of their art products. Divergent thinking is crucial for finding original ideas in the initial phase of a creative process that aims to result in an original product. Aims: This study aims to examine the effects…
van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse; Admiraal, Wilfried; van Drie, Jannet; Rijlaarsdam, Gert
Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.
Origami, the ancient Japanese art of paper folding, involves spatial thinking to both interpret and carry out its instructions. As such, it has the potential to provide spatial training (Taylor and Hutton under review). The present work uses cognitive discourse analysis to reveal the spatial thinking involved in origami and to suggest how it may be beneficial for spatial training. Analysis of think-aloud data while participants folded origami and its relation to gender, spatial ability measures, and thinking style suggest that one way that people profit from spatial training is through the possibility to verbalize concepts needed to solve-related spatial tasks. PMID:23400840
Taylor, Holly A; Tenbrink, Thora
The thinking which encompasses both reasoning-in-itself and reasoning-for-itself, called "aprioristic thinking" by Hegel, is the freest form of thinking. This form of thinking is imparted to the physical sciences by philosophy. Only under this condition can physics obtain deeper scientific knowledge.
Isaeva, Elmira A.
Full Text Available The thinking which encompasses both reasoning-in-itself and reasoning-for-itself, called "aprioristic thinking" by Hegel, is the freest form of thinking. This form of thinking is imparted to the physical sciences by philosophy. Only under this condition can physics obtain deeper scientific knowledge.
Elmira A. Isaeva
Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…
Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.
This paper explores methodological issues regarding the eliciting of teachers' views regarding creativity, with particular reference to the use of videotaped extracts of lessons during in-depth semi-structured interviews. The paper draws on a doctoral study focussed on English music schoolteachers' perceptions of creativity. Various research designs and results from previous studies were examined and the implications highlighted (Odena, 2001a). A qualitative research design was piloted with t...
This longitudinal case-study aimed at examining whether purposely teaching for the promotion of higher order thinking skills enhances students’ critical thinking (CT), within the framework of science education. Within a pre-, post-, and post-post experimental design, high school students, were divided into three research groups. The experimental group ( n = 57) consisted of science students who were exposed to teaching strategies designed for enhancing higher order thinking skills. Two other groups: science ( n = 41) and non-science majors ( n = 79), were taught traditionally, and acted as control. By using critical thinking assessment instruments, we have found that the experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement on critical thinking skills components and disposition towards critical thinking subscales, such as truth-seeking, open-mindedness, self-confidence, and maturity, compared with the control groups. Our findings suggest that if teachers purposely and persistently practice higher order thinking strategies for example, dealing in class with real-world problems, encouraging open-ended class discussions, and fostering inquiry-oriented experiments, there is a good chance for a consequent development of critical thinking capabilities.
Miri, Barak; David, Ben-Chaim; Uri, Zoller
At the tertiary level today, courses on design thinking can be found in diverse programs in and beyond the realm of traditional design disciplines. Across Canada, design thinking courses feature in communication, culture and information technology, and business and engineering. This paper reports findings from a study that investigated the…
Describes two classroom activities that introduce critical-thinking skills into social studies instruction. One is a debate, followed by position papers, on the contribution of Christopher Columbus. The other is a simulation of a Constitutional Amendment conference. Discusses which parts of the lessons specifically focus on critical-thinking…
Many times, college students are exposed to the communication discipline solely through the basic public speaking course, allowing limited opportunity to experience critical thinking and writing within the discipline. This paper examines the importance of teaching critical thinking and writing skills in the basic course, encouraging educators to…
Pawlowski, Donna R.
Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to explore the concept of thinking skills in three different contexts, i.e. Formal Logic, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking. The essay traces some contemporary historical connections between these approaches and illustrates differences and overlap between them by referring to the content pages of textbooks which are representative of the different approaches. In evaluating the historical developments sketched in the essay, the conclusion is reached that the open and pragmatic way in which Critical Thinking handles the topic of thinking skills has advantages for interdisciplinary contact and cooperation. However, this pragmatic approach also has a possible downside: the concept of thinking skills can become so vague as to be of no use.
Pieter van Veuren
Full Text Available In the US a dismal truth exists about the citizenry’s lack of understanding of economic fundamentals whether it is amongst our political leaders or our university graduates. This then leads one to ask, “What can be done to help people become literate in economics?” Perhaps the answer lies in the area of systems thinking, which is a way of thinking about the interconnections between the parts of a system and their synthesis into a unified view of the whole system. More specifically, this means incorporating systems thinking and design in primary, secondary, and tertiary curricula. In this paper, the author gives a cursory review of General Systems Theory (GST as developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy and extended by others in the systems thinking field to illustrate the confluences of thought among Ludwig von Mises and systems scientists. From this the author argues the need for systems thinking and design in curricula and makes reference to non-prescriptive teaching and learning applications for the fostering of economic literacy.
Michael F. Reber
Futures thinking involves a structured exploration into how society and its physical and cultural environment could be shaped in the future. In science education, an exploration of socio-scientific issues offers significant scope for including such futures thinking. Arguments for doing so include increasing student engagement, developing students' values discourse, fostering students' analytical and critical thinking skills, and empowering individuals and communities to envisage, value, and work towards alternative futures. This paper develops a conceptual framework to support teachers' planning and students' futures thinking in the context of socio-scientific issues. The key components of the framework include understanding the current situation, analysing relevant trends, identifying drivers, exploring possible and probable futures, and selecting preferable futures. Each component is explored at a personal, local, national, and global level. The framework was implemented and evaluated in three classrooms across Years 4-12 (8 to 16-year olds) and findings suggest it has the potential to support teachers in designing engaging science programmes in which futures thinking skills can be developed.
Jones, Alister; Buntting, Cathy; Hipkins, Rose; McKim, Anne; Conner, Lindsey; Saunders, Kathy
Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...
Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F
Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". 9th Grade students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than observational) terms tended to have more success in the programming exercise.
Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Douglas, Scott S.; Burk, John B.; Scanlon, Erin M.; Thoms, Brian D.; Schatz, Michael F.
Full Text Available This study examines whether the shortage of females in science and engineering is linked to possible gender-based differences in school-aged children’s divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a direct measure of creativity and an important characteristic in science and engineering. A survey instrument designed to measure divergent thinking was administered to 8th and 11th graders in a mid-western United States school district. Results showed that there were no difference between girls and boys on the three measures of divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, and originality. These results indicate little reason as to why participation in science and engineering is male dominated, and support the notion that additional exposure to science and engineering through divergent-thinking activities will provide girls with the self-knowledge that they are capable of solving open-ended problems and engineering tasks.
Innovative thinking is an innate human capacity geared towards adaptation and survival. Theories of education accordingly aim at developing teaching-learning strategies that promote creative, problem-solving reasoning referred to as higher order thinking. This essay briefly explains some of the assumptions underlying this concept, and then suggests how they may be reconfigured in a strategy suitable for education in and through music. The strategy involves a basic process of analysis...
Kruger, J.; Merwe, L.
In the US a dismal truth exists about the citizenry’s lack of understanding of economic fundamentals whether it is amongst our political leaders or our university graduates. This then leads one to ask, “What can be done to help people become literate in economics?” Perhaps the answer lies in the area of systems thinking, which is a way of thinking about the interconnections between the parts of a system and their synthesis into a unified view of the whole system. More specifically, this...
Reber, Michael F.
Critical thinking is a crucial skill that students need to develop while at university. It is important for a well-educated person to be able to make well-informed judgements, be able to explain their reasoning and be able to solve unknown problems. This paper proposes that critical thinking can and should be developed from the first year of university in order for students to cope with their future studies and to be of most use to future employers. The paper then describes four exercises tha...
Theda Ann Thomas
Full Text Available A pedagogical treatment was developed to teach critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies to college students. This treatment was implemented at a Midwestern University for a three-year period. Graduates were surveyed to determine the extent to which the treatment affected their personal, academic, and professional lives. Graduates reported that they had transferred the critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies they had acquired, and were using it in their personal, academic, or professional lives. The graduates also reported that this transfer was extremely beneficial to them in all aspects of their personal, academic, or professional lives, leading to high levels of satisfaction in their undergraduate education.
Joanne R. Reid
The Measure of Offender Thinking Styles (MOTS) was originally developed to examine the structure of dysfunctional thinking exhibited by criminal offenders. In the initial investigation, a three-factor model of criminal thinking was obtained using the MOTS. These factors included dysfunctional thinking characterized as Control, Cognitive Immaturity, and Egocentrism. In the present investigation, the stability of the three-factor model was examined with a confirmatory factor analysis of the revised version of the MOTS (i.e., MOTS-R). In addition, the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity of the MOTS-R were examined. Results indicated that the three-factor model of criminal thinking was supported. In addition, the MOTS-R demonstrated reliability and convergent validity with other measures of criminal thinking and attitudes. Overall, it appears that the MOTS-R may prove to be a valuable tool for use with an offender population, particularly because of the simple, intuitive structure of dysfunctional thinking that it represents. PMID:20660469
Mandracchia, Jon T; Morgan, Robert D
This article describes the Biology Critical Thinking (BCT) project in which carefully designed activities for developing specific critical thinking skills are incorporated into the biology curriculum. The objectives were to find out whether the BCT project contributes to the development of critical thinking skills in various biological and nonbiological topics and how it affects students' biological knowledge and classroom learning environment. The study consisted of 678 seventh graders who were assigned randomly into two groups that studied the same seventh-grade biology textbook. Only one group, the experimental, completed the BCT activities. The results indicate that the students in the experimental group improved their critical thinking skills compared to their own initial level and compared to their counterparts in the control group. Improved critical thinking skills were observed in a new biological context and nonbiological everyday topics, suggesting generalization of thinking skills across domains. The experimental students scored significantly higher than the control on a knowledge test, suggesting that knowledge of facts as one educational goal and learning to think as another, need not conflict, but rather can interact with each other. Finally, the results show that BCT involvement decreased the frequency of teacher-centered teaching and enhanced student-centered, more active learning.
Zohar, Anat; Weinberger, Yehudith; Tamir, Pinchas
Full Text Available Outcomes-Based Education (OBE brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content, to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from ‘transmission’ models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30. Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000. Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000. The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005.
In this reflective paper, we explore students' local and global thinking about informal statistical inference through our observations of 10- to 11-year-olds, challenged to infer the unknown configuration of a virtual die, but able to use the die to generate as much data as they felt necessary. We report how they tended to focus on local changes…
Pratt, Dave; Johnston-Wilder, Peter; Ainley, Janet; Mason, John
The perceptions of nursing faculty teaching critical thinking (CT) affective attributes and cognitive skills are described in this quantitative, descriptive study. The study sample consisted of nurse educators from the National League of Nursing database. The purpose of the study was to gain nursing faculty perception of which teaching strategies…
Clark, Doris A.
In addition to introducing students to the basic skills of public relations writing, a public relations course should move students toward public relations "thinking" and provide them with tangible evidence to demonstrate their writing talents to a prospective employer. One such course begins with a brainstorming exercise that lends itself ideally…
Fregly, Marilyn S.; Detweiler, John S.
On Wednesday 19 September 2012, Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR together with SNV organised a full-day seminar to discuss the application of the now widely used Theory of Change (ToC) thinking in Multi-Stakeholder Processes. This is a report of the seminar.
Verhoosel, K. S.; Leuvenink, A.; Oosterhuis, T.; Mostert, R. H.
This guide offers more than 100 games from around the world designed to help students explore the fun of learning while developing their higher-order thinking skills. The guide is a compilation of new and traditional games, most of which can be completed with paper and pencil. Each game is classroom tested and tailored to enhance the intelligences…
This essay describes my progress bringing the core ideas of economics into conversations with noneconomists about important public policy issues within my faith community, through local politics, and through interdisciplinary conversations in academia. Thinking like an economist is essential to conducting research and performing careful analysis…
Ross, David R.
The internet is the defining technology for an entire generation. It requires the student to be able to critically evaluate information. It also requires the student to think critically about what information is contained in the information retrieved. How do we prepare developmental education students for these tasks? This article discusses the…
Pachtman, Andrew B.
Stage-based views of teacher development hold that novice teachers are unable to attend to students' thinking until they have begun to identify themselves as teachers and mastered classroom routines, and so the first emphases in learning to teach should be on forming routines and identity. The authors challenge those views, as others have done,…
Levin, Daniel M.; Hammer, David; Coffey, Janet E.
Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…
Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa
This article explains and analyzes the practical application of the Socratic method in the context of inmate education, and identifies core critical thinking elements that emerge from four transcribed Socratic discussions with prison inmates. The paper starts with a detailed examination of the stages of the Socratic method as practiced by the…
Compares two groups of high school social studies teachers to determine how their attitudes and beliefs about instruction inform their practice in promoting higher order thinking among students. Measures teacher performance across 10 dimensions of classroom thoughtfulness based on Fred Newmann's work. Finds an important link between teachers'…
Onosko, Joseph J.
An informal discussion of Serre's conjecture on the modularity of odd irreducible representations of Gal(\\bar Q|Q) into GL_2(\\bar F_p), using Ramanujan's tau-function as an illustrative example. Also, a word about the importance of thinking locally.
Dalawat, Chandan Singh
This paper focuses on the changes in thinking involved in the transition from school mathematics to formal proof in pure mathematics at university. School mathematics is seen as a combination of visual representations, including geometry and graphs, together with symbolic calculations and manipulations. Pure mathematics in university shifts…
Recent research into the merits of online discussion (computer-mediated communication) has shown that it promotes active learning behaviors and enhances learner outcomes. Scholars have also shown that, when instructors employ effective questioning and moderating skills, students can show higher levels of critical thinking in online discussion. In…
Williams, Leonard; Lahman, Mary
There is a common assumption that hypermedia navigation is influenced by a learner's style of thinking, so people who are inclined to apply sequential and analytical strategies (left-thinkers) are thought to browse hypermedia in a linear way, whereas those who prefer holistic and intuitive strategies (right-thinkers) tend towards non-linear paths.…
Fiorina, Lorenzo; Antonietti, Alessandro; Colombo, Barbara; Bartolomeo, Annella
A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…
Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert
"Thinking About My School" (TAMS) is a 47-item inventory designed to measure student perceptions of the school environment. It was constructed for use with fourth, fifth, and sixth grade pupils in a "distressed" school. Subjects respond to statements about their school on a four-point scale ranging from "Not at all" to "All the time." The items…
Whitmore, Joanne Rand
Full Text Available This paper describes knowledge as an element of thinking styles, which are properties of thinking collectives. According to the theory outlined here, the choice of a thinking style to solve a certain problem is relative, but once the thinking has been chosen, realism prevails. This paper also describes the genesis and development of thinking styles and, with them, of facts. The theoretical concepts are illustrated with two examples of thinking styles: a description of the thinking styles of circuit theorists and circuit designers (theory vs. practice, and a comparison of the thinking styles of two closely related technical societies of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE. Applications of the theory are also presented in this paper; they include information management, documentation tools, and writing styles, and mainly draw from the author's own experience with these topics.
This article explores Ludwik Fleck’s concepts of collective thinking, style of thinking, esoteric and exoteric communication as precursors of the concepts of paradigm and incommensurability central in Thomas Kuhn’s thought.
Mónica Pérez Marín
Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condi...
Many authorities in higher education did not enthusiastically embrace the idea that college students should receive explicit instruction in how to think. Note that the academic community was opposed to good thinking, but many educators believed that it was a misguided effort. For example, Glaser (1984) cited abundant evidence of Critical Thinking failures in support of his argument that thinking skills are context-bound and do not transfer across academic domains. Glaser and other sceptics we...
Mansoor Fahim; Nima Shakouri Masouleh
Full Text Available Students entering the new millennium will encounter challenges not known to their seniors a decade ago. They must come fully equipped with skills that enable them to think for themselves and be self-initiating, self-modifying and self-directing. They will require skills that cannot be gained by learning content alone. Needed skills go beyond processing capabilities in just fixing problems. Rather they must be visionary and anticipate future challenges and search more consciously for more creative solutions. (Costa, 2001 The McREL researchers have identified six general thinking and reasoning skills in a majority of the content areas (Kendall and Marzano, 2000: 1. Identifying similarities and differences (found in all subjects 2. Problem-solving and trouble-shooting (found in 83 percent of the subjects 3. Argumentation (found in 83 percent of the subjects 4. Decision making (found in 75 percent of the subjects 5. Hypothesis testing and scientific inquiry (found in 58 percent of the subjects 6. Use of logic and reasoning (found in 50 percent of the subjects Of the twelve subjects covered in the McREL study, science tops in the share of reference to thinking and reasoning (27.2%. Science has a share of 8.3% for identifying similarities and differences, 11.8% for problem-solving and trouble-shooting, 22.9% for argumentation, 3.1% for decision making, 32.3% for hypotheses testing and scientific inquiry and 21.8% for the use of logic and reasoning. (Marzano and Pollock, 2001 There is an important emphasis on the study of science in all nations as science and technology lay the foundation for the development of industry, biotechnology, information technology and defence technology for a nation. In the book, Education for 1.3 Billion by the former Vice-Premier of China, Li Lanqing, special mention is made on the overhauling of the Chinese science and technology management system. Among all curricular subjects, science appears to the most suitable subject through which thinking and reasoning skills could be taught and applied. However, the traditional pedagogy of science teaching involving factual information, verification of scientific theories, and application of theories to problems would not foster and develop in students the higher order thinking skills needed to cope with the unpredictable challenges in the 21st century. It is necessary for teachers to make pedagogical changes and set thought-provoking tasks and higher-order assessment questions to promote and foster thinking in their students.
CHANG Shook Cheong Agnes
There are a number of views of the relationship between language and thinking. Two prominent figures in developmental psychology, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, proposed theories of language and thinking which also involve the notion of "communication." For Piaget, thinking develops first, and language comes along as an expression of thought. For…
This article presents research devoted to the issues of the collaborative thinking activity in preschool age. The approach to the study of the collaborative thinking activity as a system that operates on different levels is shown. There is a detailed analysis of the communicative sphere of preschool children collaborative thinking activity provided in the form of some of the characteristics of dialogue.
Alla Konstantinovna Belousova; Tatjana Vasiljevna Pavlova
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo sobre a Teoria da Forma concebida no início do século XX pelo artista plástico Paul Klee e publicado no livro O Pensamento Criativo (KLEE, 1920). A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é uma demonstração do pensamento artístico que adota pressupostos formais, previamente estabelecidos para resultar n [...] a prática da representação artística. Klee identificou as relações formais entre a música e as artes visuais, apresentando conexões entre a linha melódica e a linha no desenho; o ritmo e as seqüências de módulos e sub-módulos; os tempos dos compassos e as divisões da pintura; a métrica da música e a modulação da forma e da cor nas artes visuais. Klee também apresentou suas experiências com superposição de cores e texturas para representar visualmente a polifonia. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é um exemplo de estudo que pressupõe modelos formais para a elaboração artística e projetual. Abstract in english Study on the Theory of Form conceived in the early twentieth century by artist Paul Klee and published in the book The Creative Thinking (KLEE, 1920). The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is a demonstration of an artistic thought that adopts the previously established formal prerequisites that result in [...] the practice of artistic representation. Klee identified the formal relationship between music and the visual arts, providing connections between the melodic line and the line in the drawing, rhythm and sequence of modules and sub-modules, the pulses of the measures and the divisions of the painting, metrics in music and the modulation of shape and color in the visual arts. Klee also presented his experiences with overlapping colors and textures to visually represent polyphony. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is an example of a study that requires formal models for the artistic and design elaboration.
Rosana Costa Ramalho de, Castro.
Full Text Available This paper debates the new theories on philosophical and aesthetical discourse, by applying them to Nietzsche?s thinking on art. The article consists in four general subjects, each of them focussing on an essential part of Nietzsche?s special relationship to art: 1 Art generated by the philosophical text itself, through the form of the fragment; 2 The artistic relationship as an interdisciplinary ground for the philosophical knowledge of the world (especially applied in Nietzsche?s and Schopenhauer?s work; 3 A critical debate on Wolfgang Welsch?s theory about the interdisciplinary aspects of the philosophical and aesthetical discourse; 4 The backgrounds of Nietzsche?s aesthetical project explained in Claus Zittel?s theory on Nietzsche?s ?aesthetic turn?. Thus, Nietzsche?s thinking is defined as a relationist project, the ?self-destruction dynamic? of his aesthetical perspectivism.
Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.
This study investigates the critical thinking skills of 50 students currently enrolled in the Master's TEFL Programme at Yarmouk University, Jordan. The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level Z is utilised to test the students' use, or lack thereof, of the critical thinking skills of deduction, semantics, credibility, induction, definition and…
Bataineh, Ruba Fahmi; Zghoul, Lamma Hmoud
Both services and design have been studied extensively but the method of service design thinking (SDT) has not been covered as thoroughly. The SDT approach is relatively new and brought about by changes within the value creation process. The objective of this research is to study the field of SDT and the theories at work within the approach. Co-creation, prototyping and the evolution of the method became the central themes extensively examined and from which research questions developed....
Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social–ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and th...
Terry Chapin; Marten Scheffer; Brian Walker; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Carl Folke; Johan Rockström
This article focuses on some principles for understanding. By taking Anna Mikulak’s article “Mismatches between ‘scientific’ and ‘non-scientific’ ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science” (IPBS 2011) as a point of departure, the idea of demarcation criteria for scientific and non-scientific discourses is addressed. Yet this is juxtaposed with mythical thinking, which is supposed to be the most salient trait of non-scientific discourses. The auth...
Hroar Klempe, Sven
This essay describes my progress bringing the core ideas of economics into conversations with noneconomists about important public policy issues within my faith community, through local politics, and through interdisciplinary conversations in academia. Thinking like an economist is essential to conducting research and performing careful analysis of public policy issues. However, it can reduce the economists’ effectiveness in teaching and interacting with neighbors and political leaders. Eff...
Ross, David R.
Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premi...
Recent technological solutions for image-guided therapies focus on replacing the cognitive processes of physicians. However, there is a lack of knowledge in the field of cognitive ergonomics regarding radiology image thinking, such as image interpretation and 3D navigation. This paper addresses the need of studying mental models in this context. The goal is to be able to design better user interfaces for advanced technological solutions which match the cognitive processes of physicians. The u...
Varga, E.; Freudenthal, A.
Can machines think? Alan Turing's decades-old question still influences artificial intelligence because of the simple test he proposed in his article in Mind. In this article, "AI Magazine collects presentations about the first round of the classic Turing Test of machine intelligence, held November 8, 1991 at The Computer Museum, Boston. Robert Epstein, Director Emeritus, Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and an adjunct professor of psychology, Boston University, University of Massachu...
The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA). We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA) and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6). Overall, results from path analyse...
SonjaSorg; NadineFurka; AndreaHansMeyer
In the new business economy, project management has become a central way for undertaking several of the business activities. One of the increasing and most significant concerns with projects is that, projects are behind schedule, over budget and show unsatisfactory performance in terms quality and customer satisfaction. In the last few decades the manufacturing industry successfully improved quality and productivity, by using the concepts of lean thinking. The thesis explores the relevance of...
We shall examine the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Computer Science (CS) teachers concerning students’ Computational Thinking (CT) problem solving skills within the context of a CS course in Dutch secondary education and thus obtain an operational definition of CT and ascertain appropriate teaching methodology. Next we shall develop an instrument to assess students’ CT and design a curriculum intervention geared toward teaching and improving students’ CT problem solving skills ...
The phrase “think globally, act locally” was coined in the early 1970s and directed individuals to clean up their local environment with the ultimate goal of improving the health of the entire planet. Several recent studies indicate that similar considerations apply to the immune system, in which small numbers of leukocytes, such as pulmonary dendritic cells, can modify the local immune environment in the lung and promote a positive outcome for the organism.
Randall, Troy D.
We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others. PMID:25411839
Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny
Successful collaboration requires effective communication and collective problem solving. Regardless of the subject area --- environmental remediation, waste management, program planning and budgeting --- those involved must focus their efforts in an orderly and cooperative manner. A thinking tool is a technique used to get individuals to focus on specific components of the task at the same time and to eliminate the 'noise' that accompanies communications among individuals with different objectives and different styles of communicating. For example, one of these thinking tools is a technique which enables a working group to delineate its roles, responsibilities and communication protocols so that it can deliver the right information to the right people at the right time. Another enables a group to objectively and collectively evaluate and improve a policy, plan, or program. A third technique enables a group to clarify its purpose and direction while generating interest and buy-in. A fourth technique makes it possible for a group with polarized opinions to acknowledge their differences as well as what they have in common. A fifth technique enables a group to consider a subject of importance from all perspectives so as to produce a more comprehensive and sustainable solution. These thinking tools make effective communication and collective problem solving possible in radioactive waste management and remediation. They can be used by a wide spectrum of professionals including policy specialists, program administrators, program and project managers, and technical specialists. (author)
Boucher, Laurel A. [The Laurel Co., P.O. Box 218, Wetmore, MI (United States)
In order to support the development of learning progressions about central ideas and practices in different disciplines, we need detailed analyses of the implicit assumptions and reasoning strategies that guide students' thinking at different educational levels. In the particular case of chemistry, understanding how new chemical substances are produced (chemical synthesis) is of critical importance. Thus, we have used a qualitative research approach based on individual interviews with first semester general chemistry students (n = 16), second semester organic chemistry students (n = 15), advanced undergraduates (n = 9), first year graduate students (n = 15), and PhD candidates (n = 16) to better characterize diverse students' underlying cognitive elements (conceptual modes and modes of reasoning) when thinking about chemical synthesis. Our results reveal a great variability in the cognitive resources and strategies used by students with different levels of training in the discipline to make decisions, particularly at intermediate levels of expertise. The specific nature of the task had a strong influence on the conceptual sophistication and mode of reasoning that students exhibited. Nevertheless, our data analysis has allowed us to identify common modes of reasoning and assumptions that seem to guide students' thinking at different educational levels. Our results should facilitate the development of learning progressions that help improve chemistry instruction, curriculum, and assessment.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo propone un recorrido por las formas de pensar la técnica y sus relaciones con las sociedades. Recuerda contribuciones de autores que nos han sido útiles en hallar las palabras para afrontar este tema: la técnica que impacta la sociedad, la técnica como realidad humana y como construcción [...] social. También, hace énfasis en algunos de los desafíos que giran en torno al problema de pensar las articulaciones entre técnica y sociedad. Se pregunta por cómo hacer para no no pensar la técnica y la sociedad como dos objetos distintos, sino como una sola realidad. Abstract in english This paper proposes a journey through the ways of thinking about technology and its relationships to societies. It reminds us contributions of some authors useful in finding the words to address this issue: technology and its impacts on society; technical and human reality as a social construction. [...] Also it emphasizes some of challenges around the issue of thinking the very articulations between technology and society. It wonders about how to think of technology and society not as separate objects but as a single reality.
This paper explores what can be understood by learning based on agential realist thinking. An agential realist thinking about learning is sensitive to the complexity that characterizes learning as a phenomenon. Thus, learning, from an agential realist perspective, is a dynamic and emergent phenomenon, characterized by constantly being in processes of becoming and by expanding the range of components involved in the constitutive processes thereto. This paper focuses on material-discursivity, spatiality and temporality. The meta-theoretical position which lies behind agential realism is post human, which means that it is not only the human and the discursive possessing empowerment in relation to learning; the non-human also is woven into - and makes constitutive difference to - human learning processes. An excerpt from a field note will be used to illustrate these mutual shaping processes. This paper argues that intra-activity and 'leaps' are characteristics of learning. Thereby, transfer will be addressed and explained. Re-configurations are pivotal for this thinking about learning, and the concept of re-configurations breaks the tendency to understand learning as either more of the same or a radical change in the sense of 'penny dropped'. For although learning processes that are not recognized as 'aha moments' do not call much attention to themselves, this is how they occur most often.
Full Text Available Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well being in the 21st century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.
Full Text Available The advent of the information diffusion emanating from the information technology of the third millennium along with the revamped concept of literacy and intellectual understanding, and the demand for accountability as one of the prerequisites of modern societies has given birth to a movement resting on the idea that schools should be less concerned with imparting information and requiring the memorization of empirical data. Dealing with the extraordinary challenges of today's information society requires autonomous citizens equipped with "critical competence" (Feuerstein, 1999 whose meta-knowing is to be ameliorated through curriculum. The present study is an attempt to sketch the concept of critical thinking as a viable alternative in language education in Iranian EFL context. First, a number of definitions, along with the dimensions, of the concept from various scholars' viewpoints are put forward. Second, the typical features of critical thinkers and what resources they need are introduced. Third, the relation between critical thinking and learner autonomy is examined. Fourth, the relation between critical thinking and the instructional process is investigated. And finally, the issue from both theoretical and pedagogical standpoints in the contemporary Iranian EFL context is reviewed.
Full Text Available The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA. We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6. Overall, results from path analyses supported the assumptions of the TMDA, in that negative affectivity was a non-specific predictor for both depression and anxiety whilst lack of positive affectivity was related to depression only. Unexpectedly, perseverative thinking had an effect on the dependency of negative and positive affectivity. Worry was a significant moderator for the path NA – anxiety. All other hypothesized associations were only marginally significant. Alternative pathways as well as methodological implications regarding similarities and differences of the two types of perseverative thinking are discussed.
The quality of care that nurses provide to patients is strongly influenced by the nurses' ability to think critically and to solve problems. In response to the dynamic changes in healthcare and rapid technological advancements, nursing educators must prepare nursing students to meet the challenges. Baccalaureate nursing students must be taught to utilize critical thinking skills for problem solving during the application of the nursing process. Nursing students who use critical thinking skills will provide high quality and efficient patient care in the acute care and community settings. During the simulated laboratory experience, incorporating creative teaching strategies to promote critical thinking and enhance problem-solving skills can enable nursing graduates to enter the workforce feeling confident and competent. PMID:12016668
Peterson, M J; Bechtel, G A
Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation and its reactivity is therefore important to the quality of evaluation results. This study investigates whether thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at levels 1 and 2) affects the behaviour of users who perform tasks that involve interruptions and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participants’ fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend longer responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. Our results inform practitioners faced with the decision to either restrict verbalizations in usability evaluation to thinking aloud to avoid reactivity or relax the constraints on verbalization to obtain additional information.
Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due
When people try not to think about a certain item, they can accomplish this goal by using a thought substitution strategy and think about something else. Research conducted with the think/no-think (TNT) paradigm indicates that such strategy leads subsequently to forgetting the information participants tried not to think about. The present study pursued two goals. First, it investigated the mechanism of forgetting due to thought substitution, contrasting the hypothesis by which forgetting is due to blocking caused by substitutes with the hypothesis that forgetting is due to inhibition (using an independent cue methodology). Second, a boundary condition for forgetting due to thought substitution was examined by creating conditions under which the generation of appropriate substitutes would be impaired. In two experiments, participants completed a TNT task under thought substitution instructions in which either words or pseudo-words were used as original cues and memory was assessed with original and independent cues. The results revealed forgetting in both original and independent cue tests, supporting the inhibitory account of thought substitution, but only when cues were words, and not when they were non-words, pointing to the ineffectiveness of a thought substitution strategy when original cues lack semantic content. PMID:24758404
Del Prete, Francesco; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Mazzoni, Giuliana
Full Text Available ‘Soglitude’ is an invitation to acknowledge the existence of thresholds in thought. A threshold in thought designates the indetermination, the passage, the evolution of every state the world is in. The creation we add to it, and the objectivity we suppose, on the border of those two ideas lies our perceptive threshold. No state will ever be permanent, and in order to stress the temporary, fluent character of the world and our perception of it, we want to introduce a new suitable method to think change and transformation, when we acknowledge our own threshold nature. The contributions gathered in this special issue come from various disciplines: anthropology, philosophy, critical theory, film studies, political science, literature and history. The variety of these insights shows the resonance of the idea of threshold in every category of thought. We hope to enlarge the notion in further issues on physics and chemistry, as well as mathematics. The articles in this issue introduce the method of threshold thinking by showing the importance of the in-between, of the changing of perspective in their respective domain. The ‘Documents’ section named INTERSTICES, includes a selection of poems, two essays, a philosophical-artistic project called ‘infraphysique’, a performance on thresholds in the soul, and a dialogue with Israel Rosenfield. This issue presents a kaleidoscope of possible threshold thinking and hopes to initiate new ways of looking at things.For every change that occurs in reality there is a subjective counterpart in our perception and this needs to be acknowledged as such. What we name objective is reflected in our own personal perception in its own personal manner, in such a way that the objectivity of an event might altogether be questioned. The absolute point of view, the view from “nowhere”, could well be the projection that causes dogmatism. By introducing the method of thinking thresholds into a system, be it philosophical, artistic or scientific, it tends to free itself from rigid or fixed models and accepts change and development as the fundamental nature of things. Thinking thresholds as a method of thought progress cannot be done in a single process and therefore asks for participation in its proper nature. The soglitude springs namely from the acceptance of a multitude of points of view, as it is shown by the numerous contributions we present in this issue ‘Seuils, Thresholds, Soglitudes’ of Conserveries mémorielles.
Synchronization of EEG alpha activity has been referred to as being indicative of cortical idling, but according to more recent evidence it has also been associated with active internal processing and creative thinking. The main objective of this study was to investigate to what extent EEG alpha synchronization is related to internal processing…
Benedek, Mathias; Bergner, Sabine; Konen, Tanja; Fink, Andreas; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.
Visual literacy encompasses the ability to generate and make use of visual images to develop or clarify ideas, as a tool both for conveying information and for creative expression. The usefulness of visual thinking in study skills, problem solving, and living in an increasingly visual society is stressed. (Author/JDD)
One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…
Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai
Full Text Available Integrating the arts into higher education pedagogy provides an opportunity for cultivating rich ideas and high-level thinking, capitalizing on the creativity that every person already possesses and uses (Livingston, 2010. As Newton and Plummer (2009 note “the use of the creative arts as pedagogical strategy enables individuals to better understand themselves, [and] to stimulate thinking” (p. 75.We extend that premise to examine the impact of an arts activity on scholarly thinking. Our exploratory study examines academics’ (graduate students and educators identity and role constructs (Kelly, 1955 to understand to what extent engaging in arts-based activities supports meaning-making and conceptualizing research questions. We asked participants to reflect on collages they created, how the collage process supported their research conceptualization, challenges they encountered, and their overall reflections on the process as an adjunct to written scholarly work. We show that the process of creating collages supported participants in making their tacit knowledge explicit, in reflecting at meta-cognitive levels, and in transforming their thinking, often in ways they anticipated would affect their future practice.L’intégration des arts dans la pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur offre l’occasion de cultiver de riches idées et rend possible une réflexion d’ordre supérieur qui permet de capitaliser sur la créativité que chaque personne possède déjà et utilise (Livingston, 2010. Comme le font remarquer Newton et Plummer (2009, « l’usage des arts créatifs en tant que stratégies pédagogiques permet aux gens de mieux se comprendre et de stimuler la réflexion. » (p. 75Nous élargissons cette prémisse pour examiner l’impact d’une activité artistique sur la pensée savante. Notre étude exploratoire examine l’identité d’universitaires (étudiants de cycles supérieurs et éducateurs et les constructions de rôles (Kelly, 1955 pour comprendre la mesure dans laquelle le fait de s’engager dans des activités artistiques appuie la conceptualisation de questions qui portent sur la recherche de la signification. Nous avons demandé aux participants de réfléchir aux collages qu’ils avaient créés, à la manière dont le processus de création de ces collages avait appuyé leur conceptualisation de la recherche, aux défis auxquels ils avaient été confrontés et à leur réflexion générale sur le processus en tant qu’activité d’appoint à leurs travaux académiques écrits. Nous montrons que le processus de création de collages a aidé les participants à rendre explicites leurs connaissances tacites, à réfléchir à des niveaux méta-cognitifs et à transformer leur pensée d’une manière qui allait souvent, comme ils l’avaient anticipé, affecter leur pratique future.
This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application. PMID:24814353
Wagner, Elissa A
Full Text Available
This paper was investigated the teachers rating of the six different aspects of mathematical thinking developed by the researcher: Searching for patterns , Induction, Deduction, symbolism, Logical thinking and Mathematical proof in relation to level of importance, level of difficulty, and time spent in teaching each aspect. This paper was also aimed to examine any possible consistencies and inconsistencies between teacher opinions about the level of importance of mathematical thinking aspects to mathematics achievement, level of difficulty and test data collected. Also, it was examined if the students were familiar with solving specific problems (such as rice problem logical ways like searching for patterns rather than more traditional approaches and if they also applying the fourth step in problem solving according to Polya, (1990 (i.e., looking back (a checking the answer.
Key words: Mathematical thinking; Teacher perceptions; Students performance
Ce document a étudié la notation des six aspects différents de la pensée mathématique des enseignants développé par le chercheur: la recherche de modèles, à induction, déduction, le symbolisme, la pensée logique et mathématique la preuve par rapport au niveau d'importance, le niveau de difficulté et le temps passé dans l'enseignement de chaque aspect. Ce document visait également à examiner toute consistances et des incohérences éventuelles entre les opinions des enseignants sur le niveau d'importance des aspects la pensée mathématique à la réussite en mathématiques, niveau de difficulté et les données recueillies lors des essais. En outre, il a été examiné si les élèves ont été familiarisés avec la résolution de problèmes spécifiques (tels que les problèmes du riz façons logiques, tels que la recherche de modèles plutôt que des approches plus traditionnelles, et si ils ont également l'application de la quatrième étape dans la résolution de problèmes en fonction de Polya, (1990 (à savoir, en regardant en arrière (une vérification de la réponse.
Mots clés: Pensée mathématique; Les perceptions des enseignants et le rendement des étudiants
Mamoon. M. Mubark
The Science Museum of Minnesota offers the extensive Welcome to the Thinking Fountain educational Web site. The many science activities provided on the site include: Bubbles, chromatography, density, friction, inventions, optics, light, recycling, and more. Visitors to the site can browse the activities alphabetically or by theme cluster, or can click on the interactive graphic on the main page. This site does a good job of providing quality lessons for science students in various grade levels; lessons that, besides being fun to complete, also help explain some of the more confusing science topics students confront.
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed randomly into 3 groups (KPMs1, KPMs2 and KKv). Two hypotheses have been tested. The ANOVA procedure was applied to detect whether there are significant dif...
Khoo Yin Yin; Abdul Ghani Kanesan Abdullah; Naser Jamil Alazidiyeen
This paper aims to reflect about the next steps and challenges to gain sustainably to our Institutional Repositories (IR’s). We first reference the earlier stage of creating and getting start in the IR: what was needed to do, how we make it and how we are right now. As most of the universities have an IR, now we are starting to think about what is going next. The objective is to reflect, in a practical and objective way, what we need to do. And we purpose to present a brief a...
Pinto, Maria Joa?o; Fernandes, Sofia
The intention of this work is to do the mapping of the many problems that critical thinking (CT) is confronted with in the inside of law schools, taking these in their institutional role as well as tangible manifestations of legal culture. I address the significance of CT, reflecting on its philosophical origins and its possibility in our time, a time that is marked by a crisis of paradigms. We will move from theory to a more pragmatic approach based on skills, only to find different sets of ...
Raquel Medina Plana
Full Text Available In 21st century, advanced countries as well as Asian countries are changing curriculums. According to UNESCO, the characteristics of the change are paradigmatic. The term for paradigmatic change is used; this means the change that knowledge of previous paradigm is completely unusable in new paradigm (Khun 1977.In a word, the major concern of education is changed from teaching consumers of knowledge to teaching producer of knowledge. Critical thinking ability and creative thinking ability is required for educated person . For it is rapidly reduced the cycle of knowledge in our society in the present. For example, in case of cellular phone, new phone would be released about six months. Current elementary, middle and high school students should live in the society ten and twenty years from now. So, the education should prepare the time ten and twenty years from this time and go ahead to lead the future society. Thus, teachers should understand the changes of curriculum and develop educational method for the future society.
Jin Whan Park
The discipline of Child Computer Interaction has been steadily growing and as a community it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC conference and its own Journal whilst also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant contributor to the ACM CHI conference. Having recently been given status as an IFIP TC13 working group, the community now needs to make plans around its academic themes and its coherence as a developing academic community. The CCI SIG at CHI aims to use a mixture of facilitated creative thinking and a world café approach to bring the community together to tackle these two key challenges. The CCI SIG will be the natural meeting place for members of this community at CHI and will disseminate its discussion to the CCI and CHI communities through the production of visual and interactive materials at the CHI conference.
Read, Janet; Iversen, Ole Sejer
Over the past several years, educators have been exploring the potential of immersive interactive simulations, or video games for education, finding that games can support the development of disciplinary knowledge, systemic thinking, the production of complex multimodal digital artifacts, and participation in affinity spaces or sites of collective…
DeVane, Ben; Durga, Shree; Squire, Kurt
This article describes two studies concerning the development of a new measure of criminal thinking, the CriminogenicThinking Profile (CTP), influenced by the construct of psychopathy, and traditional models of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). An experimental item pool based on verbalizations from offenders served as the pilot version of the instrument. Principal components analysis of the items resulted in a 62-item, eight-factor scale that was internally consistent. In terms of content, six of the resulting factors were conceptually related to psychopathy, one to CBT, and one to neutralization theory. The factor structure and internal reliability was supported by a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. Initial support for the CTP's convergent validity was indicated by its positive correlations with psychopathy and personality disorders associated with criminal, aggressive, and impulsive behaviors. The CTP's divergent validity was supported by its inverse correlations with indices of healthy personality functioning. The CTP offers a somewhat different constellation of thinking patterns than those found on previously published criminal thinking instruments. The utility of the CTP to identify relevant cognitive targets for offender treatment is a recommended area of future research. PMID:21791460
Mitchell, Damon; Tafrate, Raymond Chip
This essay performs a number of our collaborative responses to thinking (differently) with Deleuze in educational philosophy and curriculum inquiry. Deleuze "and Guattari" have inspired each of us in distinctive ways. Single-authored products include a series of narrative experiments or "rhizosemiotic play" in writing educational philosophy and…
Sellers, Warren; Gough, Noel
Full Text Available The cognition was spread from creation-energetics to creation-dynamics and thinking innovation-dynamics by study on trinal-creation theory in the creation and thinking innovation. This article expounded the importance of bringing up person with ability, and had importance on development of human being society.
Keywords: thinking innovation, thinking innovation education, creation-energetics, thinking innovation-thermodynamics, thinking innovation -dynamics
Résumé: Le présent article applique la théorie de création à la connaissance de la thermodynamique « trois innovations » et la dynamique de l’innovation idéologique. L’innovation idéologique revêt une grande signification pour le développement de la société humaine.
Mots-clés: innovation idéologique, éducation visant à trois innovations, thermodynamique de l’innovation idéologique, dynamique de l’innovation dynamique
Full Text Available Teacher-student discourse is increasingly mediated through, by and with information and communication technologies: in-class discussions have found new, textually-rich venues online; chalk and whiteboard lectures are rapidly giving way to PowerPoint presentations. Yet, what does this mean experienti [...] ally for teachers? This paper reports on a phenomenological study investigating teachers' lived experiences of PowerPoint in post-secondary classrooms. As teachers become more informed about the affordances of information and communication technology like PowerPoint and consequently take up and use these tools in their classrooms, their teaching practices, relations with students, and ways of interpreting the world are simultaneously in-formed - conformed, deformed and reformed - by the given technology-in-use. The paper is framed in light of Martin Heidegger's "Building Dwelling Thinking" (1951) and "The Thing" (1949). In these writings, Heidegger shows how a thing opens a new world to us, revealing novel structures of experience and meaning, and inviting us to a different style of being, thinking and doing.
Catherine A., Adams.
Combining the teaching of thinking skills and a second language seems a plausible way to promote language acquisition. The teaching of thinking is explained, with an example from the curriculum of de Bono. Arguments supporting the thinking-L2 combination come from theory, practice, its benefits to teaching skills, national needs, and successful implementation. Research literature is reviewed, and a major study in South Africa is summarized. Die kombinasie van die onderrig van denkvaardighede ...
Puhl, Carol A.
Full Text Available This article presents research devoted to the issues of the collaborative thinking activity in preschool age. The approach to the study of the collaborative thinking activity as a system that operates on different levels is shown. There is a detailed analysis of the communicative sphere of preschool children collaborative thinking activity provided in the form of some of the characteristics of dialogue.
Alla Konstantinovna Belousova
Critical thinking is a western concept and as its history points out developed and flourished in the western world because the conditions were favorable. Developing critical thinking in non-western societies cannot be pursued unless the local exigencies are carefully considered. Fostering critical thinking in Iran as an Islamic country has its own obstacles and problems. Considering such limitations, this paper tries to offer practical ideas and viable strategies for developing and actualizin...
Mansoor Fahim; Bagheri, Mohammad B.
This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have o...
Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi; Abbass Mokhtari
Full text: Decommissioning is different from operating a nuclear plant.While both involve a reactor, the priorities and activities differ. This summary will address the keys to successful decommissioning as learned from decommissioning Fermi 1. This project shows that plants can be decommissioned after a safe storage period. Fermi 1 was a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor that was permanently shut down in 1972. Decommissioning is under way now following a safe storage period. The four keys to successful decommissioning are: Thinking about the back end first; Planning where you are going; Evaluating how you will get there; Assessing the journey. The most important key is to think about the back end first: think about the waste that will be generated before work is started. This waste needs to be assessed from more than just the radiological standpoint. For example, some paints at Fermi 1 contain lead and/or PCBs. Work was stopped earlier this year when more paint was found to have PCBs than expected from earlier sampling. A hazards assessment programme was prepared and arrangements made for waste disposal of painted equipment, piping and structural members before dismantling resumed of any materials where the paint could contain PCBs. In planning the removal of sodium residues, the by-products from the reaction of the residues in situ needed to be addressed. Plans were made for contaminated hydrogen gas and caustic before starting the processing. Waste needs to be chating the processing. Waste needs to be characterized before it is produced for both radiological and hazardous constituents. Good planning that integrates waste management with activity planning is essential for success. To plan where the project is going, first the end state needs to be determined. Then steps to get the facility in the desired condition can be evaluated. The steps need to be communicated, then scheduled.The schedule needs to be communicated for success. Safety is the key to evaluating how the end state will be reached. Safety is more important during decommissioning than plant operation. There are more challenges and people are performing hazardous activities daily. The hazards need to be evaluated for each activity and work planned to minimize hazards. As decommissioning proceeds, what has been learned at the facility and by others needs to be assessed.Then, what should continue to be done and what should be changed to be safer or more efficient can be identified. The biggest lesson from the Fermi 1 decommissioning project is that hazardous materials and conditions need to be considered first before starting work activities to ensure that waste can be disposed of and people will go home safely at the end of every day. (author)
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Critical thinking is a necessary and important component of nursing profession. Since nurses are not limited to work under predetermined roles and need to meet various needs of patients, they should have critical thinking skills. This study aimed to determine the role of emotional intelligence and its components in critical thinking disposition . Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 118 female nurses working in educational hospitals of Qazvin were selected using quota sampling method. They completed the Trait Metal Mood Scale (TMMS and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, standards deviation and Pearson correlation coefficient and inferential statistics (Multiple Regression in the SPSS-16 . Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the total score of emotional intelligence with the total score of disposition toward critical thinking (r=0.385. There were also positive relationships between the total score of disposition toward critical thinking with the two subscales of emotional clarity (r=0.459 and emotional healing (r=0.220. There was no statistically significant relationship between the subscale of attention to emotion and total critical thinking score (r=0.117. The subscale of emotional clarity significantly predicted 21% of changes in critical thinking . Conclusion: Nurses who were more aware of their emotions and emotional transparency had higher critical thinking tendency. Empowering critical thinking can directly affect patients’ conditions. Given the major role of emotional intelligence in critical thinking, teaching nurses such skills could result in better performance and improving the quality of nursing care.
Full Text Available This essay describes my progress bringing the core ideas of economics into conversations with noneconomists about important public policy issues within my faith community, through local politics, and through interdisciplinary conversations in academia. Thinking like an economist is essential to conducting research and performing careful analysis of public policy issues. However, it can reduce the economists’ effectiveness in teaching and interacting with neighbors and political leaders. Effective pedagogy requires that faculty be present as good economists to their neighbors, their fellow citizens, in daily conversations and public policy debates. Our continuing education as teachers of economics requires that we enter those conversations as committed students as well--committed to learning how our neighbors process economic facts and principles and how their insights into public policy debates might alter our own understanding.
David R. Ross
Ever increasing computational power will require methods for automatic programming. We present an alternative to genetic programming, based on a general model of thinking and learning. The advantage is that evolution takes place in the space of constructs and can thus exploit the mathematical structures of this space. The model is formalized, and a macro language is presented which allows for a formal yet intuitive description of the problem under consideration. A prototype has been developed to implement the scheme in PERL. This method will lead to a concentration on the analysis of problems, to a more rapid prototyping, to the treatment of new problem classes, and to the investigation of philosophical problems. We see fields of application in nonlinear differential equations, pattern recognition, robotics, model building, and animated pictures.
Becker, J D
Full Text Available Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) provides a systematic approach to structure complex decisions for subsequent analysis. It is a powerful complement to decision analysis and its application has been growing in recent years. This paper discusses the application of VFT in Brazil to three problems in differ [...] ent contexts: water management, information system/information technology (IS/IT) strategic planning, and the disposal of plaster waste. This article describes how the VFT approach was used to structure these decision problems and identify alternatives to stall them, which led to developing qualitative and quantitative models for evaluating the alternatives, and discusses how such structures can be used in other similar problems.
Danielle C., Morais; Luciana H., Alencar; Ana Paula C.S., Costa; Ralph L., Keeney.
The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.
Ford Motor Company
Physics Education Research (PER) applies a scientific approach to the question, "How do our students think about and learn physics?" PER allows us to explore such intellectually engaging questions as, "What does it mean to understand something in physics?" and, "What skills and competencies do we want our students to learn from our physics classes?" To address questions like these, we need to do more than observe student difficulties and build curricula. We need a theoretical framework -- a structure for talking about, making sense of, and modeling how one thinks about, learns, and understands physics. In this paper, I outline some aspects of the Resources Framework, a structure that some of us are using to create a phenomenology of physics learning that ties closely to modern developments in neuroscience, psychology, and linguistics. As an example of how this framework gives new insights, I discuss epistemological framing -- the role of students' perceptions of the nature of the knowledge they are learning a...
Redish, Edward F
This paper argues that sex education must move beyond a focus on compliance so that we may risk the uncertain work of thinking. How might we understand the work of thinking in sex education if we begin from the assumptions that learning is conflicted, that sexuality resists being educated even as it inspires curiosity, and that the subject of sex…
In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking…
Waterson, Robert A.
This paper describes the chess program for elementary school students in the Daviess County School District, Kentucky. The Critical Thinking committee of the school system's Graduation 2010 initiative explored various ways to promote critical thinking in the classroom and arrived at a program to put chess boards in the classrooms and to encourage…
Englehardt, Cathy Willis; Hauser, Brenda Bennett
Argues that base-level critical thinking, attendance, and notetaking differentially predicted performance measures in a large human development course. Multiple regression analyses showed that critical thinking was the strongest indicator of multiple-choice examination performance, while notetaking was the best predictor of total course…
Williams, Robert L.; Worth, Stephen L.
Growing numbers of educational researchers are using rhizoanalytic approaches based on the work of Deleuze and Guattari to think differently in their research practices. However, as those engaging in debates about post-qualitative research suggest, thinking differently is not without its challenges. This paper uses three complex challenges…
In this commentary, I discuss how the design thinking concepts of empathy, related worlds, prototyping, ethnography, and story could enhance Ascension Health’s organizational design and ultimately its delivery of healthcare services. When organization design integrates a design thinking lens, more meaningful and innovative processes are developed both internally among organizational actors and externally with end users.
Nixon, Natalie W.
Design thinking can be a powerful way to engage the world, allowing interactive understandings that are both analytic and experiential. When fully functioning, design thinking necessarily calls upon faculties often considered a-rational, a-causal and a-logical. Unfortunately, such faculties often give rise to academic suspicion. That is to say,…
This paper explores student experiences of learning to think critically. Twenty-six zoology undergraduates took part in the study for three years of their degree at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Vygotsky's developmental model of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provided a framework as we examined how critical thinking was developed.…
Wass, Rob; Harland, Tony; Mercer, Alison
This article traces the early and medieval Islamic scholarship to the development of critical and scientific thinking and how they contributed to the development of an Islamic theory of epistemology and scientific thinking education. The article elucidates how the Qur'an and the Sunna of Prophet Muhammad have also contributed to the…
The mathematics education community values using student thinking to develop mathematical concepts, but the nuances of this practice are not clearly understood. The authors conceptualize an important group of instances in classroom lessons that occur at the intersection of student thinking, significant mathematics, and pedagogical…
Leatham, Keith R.; Peterson, Blake E.; Stockero, Shari L.; Van Zoest, Laura R.
Gaming is purported to hold promise for education, in part, because it is thought to develop 21st century skills such as critical thinking. To date, there has been a dearth of generalisable research investigating the relationship between gaming and critical thinking. Results of a survey of 121 adults found that gamers and non-gamers do not differ…
Gerber, Sue; Scott, Logan
This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…
Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara
The short form of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal was completed by 233 nursing and 131 management students, yielding four clusters of critical thinking types. Discriminant analysis using cluster membership and subtest scores showed 96% were correctly classified. (Contains 40 references) (SK)
Thorpe, Karran; Loo, Robert
The abilities of past and future episodic thinking develop hand in hand across the preschool years and are intimately connected in adults. Little is known, however, about the development of episodic thinking in middle childhood and how it is influenced by sociocultural factors. In the present study, one hundred sixty-seven 7- to 10-year-old…
Wang, Qi; Capous, Diana; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Hou, Yubo
The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure…
Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke
The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…
Notgarnie, Howard M.
A study was conducted to examine the validity of the Learning-Thinking Style Inventory (LTSI) and to investigate the learning and thinking styles of college students in relation to their major and academic performance. Generated out of the framework of personality model and information processing theory, the 49-item LTSI embraces a broad spectrum…
Zhang, Zhicheng; RiCharde, R. Stephen
Full Text Available The emphasis on the use of the nursing process in both nursing education and clinical practice would lead one to expect that the process of critical thinking is well understood and applied in nursing situation. But this is not the case. There is a substantial body of evidence to show that tasks, ward routines and rituals and procedures socialization of neophytes in nursing are strong obstacles to use of critical thinking skills in nursing. Rapid technological changes and increase consumer demand for health services dictate the need for professionally prepared nurses who are competent and capable of critical thinking abilities to process complex data and make and intelligent decision. But the question is, is nursing education and practice promoting critical thinking? This paper examines critical thinking in relation to other modes of thinking used by clinical nurses and issues in providing quality nursing care. In addition, thought processes that can influence nurse’s ability to provide safe, high-quality care are explored. The importance of exploring these thought process is to offer the reader a context in which to judge the appropriateness of nursing actions. Implications to nursing are discussed. Keywords: Critical thinking, nursing, disposition to critical thinking, evidence-based practice, uncertainty in nursing.
Clara Oniovokoyubu Aagbedia
Documents how to plan and teach critical thinking skills within the framework of a 15-lesson wellness unit for secondary students, discussing theoretical rational and unit development and offering sample lesson plans, describing a four-step format for introducing thinking skills, which involves: introducing the skill, practicing the skill,…
McBride, Ron E.; Carrillo, Deanna
An inservice consultation program between teachers and a school psychologist was designed to establish classroom conditions to improve 7th- and 8th-grade students' (N=233) thinking skills. Inservice training conducted by the psychologist emphasized encouragement of ideas, modeling thinking skills, opportunities for practice, and support of diverse…
Singer, Elaine; Houtz, John C.
150 students at McKinley Technology High School in Washington, DC have engaged the Harvard Model for creating a culture of thinking. This Tishman, Perkins, and Jay framework introduced them to four forces of enculturation and six dimensions of a thinking classroom in combination with African American Literature and Future Studies as specific…
Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.; Fluellen, Ingrid
Discusses audiographic conferencing in Western Australia and describes research that investigated telematics classrooms, with a focus on changing the teaching/learning environment to develop higher-order thinking skills. Results indicate that higher-order thinking increased with the scaffolding role of the teacher and social interaction and…
McLoughlin, Catherine; Oliver, Ron
Describes a project that features a video in the form of a documentary built around a series of six case studies in mathematical thinking: geometry, number, measurement, algebra, chance and data, functions, and calculus. Chooses an example from each area to illustrate inductive and deductive thinking-patterns and proof. (ASK)
Petocz, Peter; Petocz, Dubravka
This study sought to examine calculus students' mathematical performances and preferences for visual or analytic thinking regarding derivative and antiderivative tasks presented graphically. It extends previous studies by investigating factors mediating calculus students' mathematical performances and their preferred modes of thinking. Data were…
Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Chicken, Eric
Student performance on critical-thinking applications on standardized tests in a southwestern U.S. state has been low for several years. The purpose of this instrumental case study was to explore how one school district prepared students for critical-thinking applications on standardized tests. The study was informed by cognitivism and…
Hendricks, Jacquelyn Kaye
This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed…
Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas
The purpose of the study was to investigate how to scaffold students' critical thinking skills in the process of co-writing and co-reflection of wikibooks in formal learning contexts. To observe critical thinking skills in wiki collaborations under different levels of instructional guidance, two graduate wikibook projects were selected: an…
"FACTC Focus" is a publication of Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges (FACTC) with the purpose of presenting diverse views on faculty issues. Included in this issue are: (1) LOL: The Easy ROUTE TO Critical Thinking (Barbara B. Parsons); (2) Critical Thinking: We Know It When We (Don't) See It (Jared Anthony); (3) Critical…
Doerr, Mark, Ed.
This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert
The present paper takes it as an indisputable fact that subjective-behavioral thinking leads, for deeper methodological reasons, with inner necessity to inconclusive filibustering about the agents’ economic conduct and therefore has to be replaced by something fundamentally different. The key argument runs as follows: (a) the subjective-behavioral approach can not, as a matter of principle, afford a correct profit theory, (b) without a correct profit theory it is impossibl...
Would people choose what they think would maximize their subjective well-being (SWB)? We present survey respondents with hypothetical scenarios and elicit both choice and predicted SWB rankings of two alternatives. While choice and predicted SWB rankings usually coincide in our data, we find systematic reversals. We identify factors—such as predicted sense of purpose, control over one’s life, family happiness, and social status—that help explain hypothetical choice controlling for predi...
Benjamin, Daniel J.; Kimball, Miles S.; Heffetz, Ori; Rees-jones, Alex
To promote higher-order thinking in college students, we undertook an effort to learn how to assess critical-thinking skills in an introductory biology course. Using Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives to define critical thinking, we developed a process by which (a) questions are prepared with both content and critical-thinking skills in mind, and (b) grading rubrics are prepared in advance that specify how to evaluate both the content and critical-thinking aspects of an answer. Using this methodology has clarified the course goals (for us and the students), improved student metacognition, and exposed student misconceptions about course content. We describe the rationale for our process, give detailed examples of the assessment method, and elaborate on the advantages of assessing students in this manner.
Ahrash N. Bissell (Duke University; )
Whether you’re an academic or a practitioner, a sociologist, a manager, or an engineer, one can benefit from learning to think systemically. Problems (and messes) are everywhere and they’re getting more complicated every day. How we think about these problems determines whether or not we’ll be successful in understanding and addressing them. This book presents a novel way to think about problems (and messes) necessary to attack these always-present concerns. The approach draws from disciplines as diverse as mathematics, biology, and psychology to provide a holistic method for dealing with problems that can be applied to any discipline. This book develops the systemic thinking paradigm, and introduces practical guidelines for the deployment of a systemic thinking approach.
Hester, Patrick T
With the discovery of fire, humankind started changing the composition of the atmosphere. Beginning with the industrial revolution, this has led to significant environmental problems, mainly air pollution and climate change. While climate change has been recognized as one key challenge of the Anthropocene, air pollution contributes to the top causes of global premature mortality. Air pollution also plays a key role in contamination of ecosystems and bio-magnification of toxins along food chains. Even though emissions leading to air pollution and climate change often originate from the same sources, they are generally perceived and regulated separately. Climate change impacts are global and hence are tackled at an international level. Conversely, air pollution has local to regional impacts and is thus a matter of national or regional legislation. This legislative and policy divide is generally useful, since full integration could lead, for example, to detrimental delays in action against air pollution through protracted international climate negotiations. However, the separation obscures the fact that almost any kind of human activity leads to the simultaneous emission of air pollutants, toxins and long-lived greenhouse gases. The atmosphere functions as a "dump" for human generated gaseous waste, which is then dispersed and transformed, partly chemically and partly micro-physically, perturbing natural processes in the atmosphere and leading to manifold impacts. In addition, air pollutants affect the Earth's radiative balance directly and indirectly, hence affecting climate change, while a changing climate in turn affects air pollution. Current policies often neglect these linkages and favor mitigation in one arena, which sometimes has detrimental effects on the other. One example is domestic wood burning, which though nearly carbon neutral, deteriorates air quality. Moreover, the design of appliances, machinery, or infrastructure generally does not attempt to minimize atmospheric release, but rather only complies with either climate or air quality requirements. Nor do current narratives promote behavioral change for the overall reduction of emissions (e.g., you can drive your diesel SUV as long as it has a low fuel consumption). This divide and thinking has not only been manifested in policy and regulations and hence media coverage, but has also shaped the public's general perception of this issue. There is no public conceptual understanding regarding humanity's modification of the atmosphere through the continuously and simultaneously released substances by almost any kind of activity and resulting impacts. Here, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a new perspective on the coupled human-atmosphere-system. It makes tangible the inherent linkages between the socio-economic system, the atmospheric physico-chemical changes and impacts, and legal frameworks for sustainable transformations at all levels. To implement HAS-thinking in decision and policy making, both salient disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and comprehensive science-society interactions in the form of transdisciplinary research are necessary. Societal transformations for the sake of a healthy human-atmosphere relationship are highly context dependent and require discussions of normative and value-related issues, which can only be solved through co-designed solutions. We demonstrate the importance of HAS-thinking by examples of sustainable development in the Arctic and Himalayan countries.
Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan
Critical thinking is central to education, but the majority of English language classes in China fail to teach critical thinking skills. In order to help students to develop critical thinking skills, this paper examines the underlying values that produce the variety of culturally derived thinking dispositions so as to demonstrate the influence of Chinese thinking disposition on student’ critical thinking development. Suggestions are made for culture –based instructions as an educa...
Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite fo...
Mahvash Salsali; Mansooreh Tajvidi; Shahrzad Ghiyasvandian
Creativity in the mathematics classroom is not just about what pupils do, but also what teachers do. If they are thinking creatively about the mathematical experiences they offer their pupils they can open up opportunities for them to be creative. This article reflects the belief of staff at the NRICH Mathematics Project that mathematics is about…
Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skills.
Castle, Alan [University of Portsmouth, Centre for Radiography Education, St George' s Building, Portsmouth PO1 2HY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sketching is a valuable field technique to support a person's observation, recording, interpretation and communication of important features in both natural and human-made landscapes. The Singapore geography syllabus employs an inquiry approach and encourages sketching as a fundamental geographical skill. Sketching allows the learner to connect with the world through a personal and kinesthetic experience. The Earth Observatory of Singapore collaborates with the Singapore Geography Teachers' Association, Urban Sketchers, and National Institute of Education professional development to give teachers both basic sketching skills and the opportunity to develop those skills in a scaffolded environment. In Singapore, geography and geology skills overlap in content area of coastal processes, climate change, and plate tectonics with its associated natural hazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunami. Both disciplines are interested in how people live on the Earth. Likewise, basic skills such as observing, classifying, measuring, and communicating cut across disciplines of social and natural sciences in order to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information about the world. Hence, sketching, commonly considered an art skill, is used to further scientific thinking. This somewhat unique collaboration to develop sketching in teachers is based on the long tradition of sketches in geological field work, the newly popular urban sketching community, and professional development by a professional organization and the Singapore National Institute of Education. Workshops provide technique as well as opportunities for sketching with experts in different areas relevant to the geography curriculum.
Eriksson, S. C.; Wang, P.; Sim, T. B.; Goh, E.; Ng, H. K.
Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social–ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social–ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.
Full Text Available Se presenta el texto de instalación del V Congreso Javeriano de Psicología "Pensar el presente: Psicología, Crítica y Tiempos de Globalización", evento realizado en abril del 2008 en la ciudad de Bogotá. En la reflexión que se hace se invita a mirar la psicología en el presente y a interrogarse sobr [...] e las formas de vida que nos constituyen y que atraviesan las subjetividades en el mundo contemporáneo, en el marco de las condiciones económicas, culturales, sociales y políticas de nuestros países. También se invita a profundizar en las condiciones de emergencia de un sujeto que asuma el proyecto indefinido de la libertad. Abstract in english The inauguration text of the V Congress of Psychology at the Javeriana University, "Thinking the Present: Psychology, Criticism, and Globalization Times", is presented. This event took place in April, 2008, in Bogotá, Colombia. These thoughts invite to see Psychology in the present, and to ask onese [...] lf about the forms of life that we are built of and that go through subjectivities in today's World, within the framework of the Economical, Cultural, Social and Political conditions of our countries, and they also invite to go in depth into the conditions of creation of a Subject that assumes the undefined project of freedom.
ÁNGELA MARÍA, ROBLEDO-GÓMEZ.
In Brazil, the study of think tanks is still at its beginning, even if this is far from being a new object of research worldwide, mainly in the United States. No matter if it relates to the nature of this kind of institution per se, or to the way think tanks were received in Brazil, the truth is that there are just a few relevant works about this theme. The aim of this paper is to contribute to fill this gap in, mapping the most visible Brazilian think tanks, and also trying to reach a defini...
Full Text Available Critical thinking is an important skill for undergraduates to learn, yet rarely is it formally taught in the classroom. Here we explain how critical thinking can be fostered within an undergraduate biology course by encouraging students to evaluate biological claims related to current topics within the course. We found that with the completion of two writing assignments within a four-week period, students demonstrated a significantly greater ability to analyze the evidence within the claims. These results support the notion that even short-term learning experiences focused upon critical thinking can enhance students’ skills beyond discipline-specific knowledge.
Tracie M. Addy
Thinking with images plays a central role in scientific creativity and communication but is neglected in science classrooms. This article reviews the fundamental role of imagery in science and technology and our current knowledge of visual-spatial cognition. A novel analogic and thematic organization of images and visualization within science and technology is proposed that can help in the generation and evaluation of classroom activities and materials, and serve as a focus for professional development programs in visual-spatial thinking for science teachers. Visual-spatial thinking includes vision - using the eyes to identify, locate, and think about objects and ourselves in the world, and imagery - the formation, inspection, transformation, and maintenance of images in the mind's eye in the absence of a visual stimulus. A spatial image preserves relationships among a complex set of ideas as a single chunk in working memory, increasing the amount of information that can be maintained in consciousness at a given moment. Vision and imagery are fundamental cognitive processes using specialized pathways in the brain and rely on our memory of prior experience. Visual-spatial thinking develops from birth, together with language and other specialized abilities, through interactions between inherited capabilities and experience. Scientific creativity can be considered as an amalgam of three closely allied mental formats: images; metaphors; and unifying ideas (themes). Combinations of images, analogies, and themes pervade science in the form of master images and visualization techniques. A critique of current practice in education contrasts the subservient role of visual-spatial learning with the dominance of the alphanumeric encoding skills in classroom and textbooks. The lack of coherence in curriculum, pedagogy, and learning theory requires reform that addresses thinking skills, including imagery. Successful integration of information, skills and attitudes into cohesive mental schemata employed by self-aware human beings is a basic goal of education. The current attempt to impose integration using themes is criticized on the grounds that the required underpinning in cognitive skills and content knowledge by teachers and students may be absent. Teaching strategies that employ visual-spatial thinking are reviewed. Master images are recommended as a novel point of departure for a systematic development of programs on visual-spatial thinking in research, teacher education, curriculum, and classroom practice.
Mathewson, James H.
Service thinking and the transition from a product-logic-perspective to a process-perspective are catchwords in current management research (e.g. Grönroos 2000, Kowalksowski 2006, Söderström 2003, Stremersch et al. 2001, Oliva & Kallenberg 2003, Lele 1986) While the product-logic is based on value distribution via the transition of a ready-made product or service, the service-process logic focuses on value-in-use that is created together with the customer. (Grönroos 2007) In the curre...
Though many teachers would like to incorporate creative activities into their teaching, there are few practical suggestions to help them accomplish this goal (Yager 2000). In this article, the authors introduce four strategies to help integrate creative-thinking skills into high school science instruction: SCAMPER; Six Thinking Hats; Agreement, Disagreement, and Irrelevance; and Creative Problem Solving.
Think-aloud is a research method in which participants speak aloud any words in their mind as they complete a task. A review of the literature has shown that think-aloud research methods have a sound theoretical basis and provide a valid source of data about participant thinking, especially during language based activities. However, a researcher needs to design a process which takes into account a number of concerns, by selecting a suitable task, a role for the researcher, a source of...
Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to disclose the essence of students’ multi-dimensional thinking, also to reveal the rating of factors which stimulate the raising of effectiveness of self-development of students’ multi-dimensional thinking in terms of subject-oriented teaching. Subject-oriented learning is characterized as a type of learning where self-abilities and self-processes are systematically actualized. Among them the abilities and processes of students’ self-development in different learning situations are systemically important. 52 students took part in the pedagogical experiment. In order to evaluate the students’ competencies of self-development of their multi-dimensional thinking the 10-point grading scale and the special suggested criteria of self-assessment of multi-dimensional application of systematic, creative, critical and reflexive thinking were used. The obtained results were subjected to statistical processing.
Valentin I. Andreev
Pedagogies for knowledge management courses are still undeveloped. This Teaching Tip introduces a design thinking approach to teaching knowledge management. An induction model used to guide students' real-life projects for knowledge management is presented. (Contains 1 figure.)
Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai
... You Protecting America's Health Through Human Drugs Think It Through: Managing the Benefits and Risks of Medicines ... you feel better and help you get well, it's important to know that all medicines, both prescription ...
Lively thought can be developed in various ways. Examples are given here showing how episodes from Michael Faraday's work used in Physics classes affected pupil thinking. Some observations on the connection between feelings and conceptual learning are discussed.
Instructors and researchers think "thinking like a physicist" is important for students' professional development. However, precise definitions and observational markers remain elusive. We reinterpret popular beliefs inventories in physics to indicate what physicists think "thinking like a physicist" entails. Through discourse analysis of upper-division students' speech in natural settings, we show that students may appropriate or resist these elements. We identify a new element in the physicist speech genre: brief, embedded, spontaneous metacognitive talk (BESM talk). BESM talk communicates students' in-the-moment enacted expectations about physics as a technical field and a cultural endeavor. Students use BESM talk to position themselves as physicists or non-physicists. Students also use BESM talk to communicate their expectations in four ways: understanding, confusion, spotting inconsistencies, and generalized expectations.
Sayre, Eleanor C
"In recent years, we have grown accustomed to philosophical language that is intensely self-conscious and rhetorically thick, often tragic in tone. It is enlivening to read Bergson, who exerts so little rhetorical pressure while exacting such a substantial effort of thought. . . . Bergson's texts teach the reader to let go of entrenched intellectual habits and to begin to think differently—to think in time. . . . Too much and too little have been said about Bergson. Too much, because of the various appropriations of his thought. Too little, because the work itself has not been carefully studied in recent decades."—from Thinking in TimeHenri Bergson (1859–1941), whose philosophical works emphasized motion, time, and change, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. His work remains influential, particularly in the realms of philosophy, cultural studies, and new media studies. In Thinking in Time, Suzanne Guerlac provides readers with the conceptual and contextual tools necessary for informed appreciati...
The authors consider the issue of principles of radiation protection in medicine as being of great interest for the following reasons: health care practitioners exposed to ionizing radiation represent 75% of all world-wide radiation exposed workers; they are also the ones who, by their radiological practice lead to medical exposure of the population (which represents the largest part among artificial exposure to ionizing radiation of the public - about 11%); the superior medical staff are the advisors and prescribers for radiological investigations and treatments. The authors' experience shows that training in radiation protection system is weak, leading sometimes to abusive use of ionizing radiation in both diagnostic and treatment. Medical staff's perception on the importance and role of radiation protection principles is sometimes distorted by unskilled backgrounds in the field. There are recommendations and regulations on radiation protection principles in the relevant legislation, but there are situations in which they are formally considered, or they are regarded as an obligation and not as a form of personal and patient protection. At a national level, the expansion of informing the public about the principles of radiation protection and its role is required by introducing a corresponding training since elementary school. A beneficial aspect that has developed recently is the introduction of radiation protection courses within university and postgraduate traini within university and postgraduate training. They are important for a correct and updated training on the principles of radiation protection, a field in which there are permanent updates and changes, and new concepts are set, such as the 'culture of radiation protection'. Medical thinking and medical research have had a contribution on developing and upgrading the radiation protection principles. (authors)
Full Text Available The intention of this work is to do the mapping of the many problems that critical thinking (CT is confronted with in the inside of law schools, taking these in their institutional role as well as tangible manifestations of legal culture. I address the significance of CT, reflecting on its philosophical origins and its possibility in our time, a time that is marked by a crisis of paradigms. We will move from theory to a more pragmatic approach based on skills, only to find different sets of difficulties. Today’s higher education institutional learning tradition is characterised by the conception and implementation of reforms which, in turn, are dominated by notions of business and commercial ethics, that are adding up to the positivist predominance that is still reigning upon legal education. Este trabajo pretende realizar una descripción de los numerosos problemas con que se encuentra el pensamiento crítico (PC dentro de las escuelas de derecho, entendidas desde su papel institucional pero también como manifestaciones tangibles de la cultura legal. Se destaca la importancia del PC, reflexionando sobre sus orígenes filosóficos y su posibilidad en el momento actual, marcado por una crisis de paradigmas. Después de realizar un análisis teórico, se va a pasar a realizar un enfoque más pragmático basado en habilidades, sólo para encontrar diferentes tipos de dificultades. La tradición actual de la educación superior institucional se caracteriza por la concepción e implementación de reformas que, en cambio, están dominadas por nociones de ética empresarial y comercial, que se suman al predominio positivista que sigue reinando en la educación jurídica. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2115429
Raquel Medina Plana
To identify patients at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes, apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as having a blood pressure (BP) above goal despite the use of ?3 antihypertensive therapies of different classes at maximally tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic. In light of growing scientific interest in the treatment of this group, a multistakeholder think tank was convened to discuss the current state of knowledge, improve the care of these patients, and identify appropriate study populations for future observational and randomized trials in the field. Although recent epidemiologic studies in selected populations estimate that the prevalence of aTRH is 10% to 15% of hypertensive patients, further large-scale observational studies will be needed to better elucidate risk factors. To spur the development of therapies for aTRH, the development of an "aTRH" label for pharmacologic and device therapies with a developmental pathway including treatment added to the use of existing therapies is favored. Although demonstration of adequate BP lowering should be sufficient to gain Food and Drug Administration approval for therapies targeting aTRH, assessment of improvement in quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes is also desirable and considered in Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services coverage decisions. Device trials under the aTRH label will need uniform and consistent processes for defining appropriate patient populations as well as postapproval registries assessing both long-term safety and duration of responses. Finally, patients with aTRH are likely to benefit from evaluation by a hypertension team to assure proper patient identification, diagnostic work-up, and therapeutic management before consideration of advanced or novel therapies to lower BP. PMID:24890525
Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Ard, Jamy; Bakris, George L; Bhatt, Deepak L; Brown, Alan S; Cushman, William C; Ferdinand, Keith C; Flack, John M; Fleg, Jerome L; Katzen, Barry T; Kostis, John B; Oparil, Suzanne; Patel, Chet B; Pepine, Carl J; Piña, Ileana L; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Townsend, Raymond R; Peterson, Eric D; Califf, Robert M; Patel, Manesh R
Lack of creativity is a problem often plaguing students from design-related departments. Therefore, this study is intended to incorporate analogical thinking in the education of architecture design to enhance students' learning and their future career performance. First, this study explores the three aspects of architecture design curricula,…
Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua
Video analysis, using the program Tracker (Open Source Physics), in the educational process introduces a new creative method of teaching physics and makes natural sciences more interesting for students. This way of exploring the laws of nature can amaze students because this illustrative and interactive educational software inspires them to think…
Hockicko, Peter; Krišták, Luboš; Nemec, Miroslav
Physics Education Research (PER) applies a scientific approach to the question, "How do our students think about and learn physics?" PER allows us to explore such intellectually engaging questions as "What does it mean to understand something in physics?" and "What skills and competencies do we want our students to learn from our physics classes?" To address questions like these, we need to do more than observe student difficulties and build curricula. We need a theoretical framework—a structure for talking about, making sense of, and modeling how one thinks about, learns, and understands physics. In this paper, I outline some aspects of the Resources Framework, a structure that some of us are using to create a phenomenology of physics learning that ties closely to modern developments in neuroscience, psychology, and linguistics. As an example of how this framework gives new insights, I discuss epistemological framing—the role of students' perceptions of the nature of the knowledge they are learning and what knowledge is appropriate to bring to bear on a given task. I discuss how this foothold idea fits into our theoretical framework, show some classroom data on how it plays out in the classroom, and give some examples of how my awareness of the resources framework influences my approach to teaching.
Redish, Edward F.
Irwin and Young (2002), in line with previous findings, found a relationship between thinking style and paranormal belief. This study built on their work by looking in more detail at the nature of the relationship between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational thinking style as described by Epstein, Pacini, Denes-Raj and Heier (1996) and paranormal belief. Paranormal belief was measured in two ways, using an explicit self-report measure (the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (Tobacyk, 2...
A qualitative, contextual, exploratory and descriptive design for theory generation was used to develop a model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education (Mouton & Marais, 1990:43; Mouton, 1996: 103- 109; Chinn & Kramer 1991:79-120). A model was developed within the existing frameworks of theory generation. Wilson (1963:23-39) and Gift (1997:75,76) provided a theoretical framework for a concept analysis of reflective thinking in phase one of the study. Further co...
Chabeli, M.; Muller, M.
Interdisciplinary thinking as a skill appears to be of value to higher education students and those in employment. This idea is explored with reference to the agricultural and life sciences. The need for further understanding of the development of interdisciplinary thinking is acknowledged. This is closely related to the requirement for well-founded curriculum and course design. This publication presents a brief introduction to a systematic review of scientific research into teaching and lear...
Spelt, E. J. H.; Biemans, H. J. A.; Luning, P. A.; Tobi, H.; Mulder, M.
Given the all-pervasiveness of Systems thinking -which consists of thinking about things as systemsas a way of reasoning, in this work we will describe its application to make an interpretation of how to conceive and design a final year CDIO capstone course. Both the student teamwork structure as well as the complex engineering system itself addressed in the project are described in terms of entities, links, form and function, thereby pointing out their formal and functional inter...
Alarco?n Cot, Eduardo Jose?; Bou Balust, Elisenda; Camps Carmona, Adriano Jose?; Brago?s Bardia, Ramon; Oliveras Verge?s, Albert; Pegueroles Valle?s, Josep R.; Sayrol Clols, Elisa; Marque?s Acosta, Fernando
Despite many efforts to deal with the various complex issues facing our societies, plans and problem solutions are seldom long lasting, because we, as individuals, and our leaders are most likely to fall into the trap of using traditional linear thinking. It is natural and easy, but does not usually deliver long-term solutions in the context of highly complex modern communities. There is an urgent need for innovative ways of thinking and a fresh approach to dealing with the unprecedented and ...
Nguyen, Nam C.; Bosch, Ockie J. H.
This pilot study aimed to identify the benefits of developing thinking skills with KS1 deaf children who used British Sign Language (BSL). It arose as a response to the findings of a variety of researches who had reported a number of ‘failings’ apparent in the educational and learning activity of deaf children. It used a case study approach involving five profoundly deaf Key stage 1 children and explored the extent to which, using materials grounded in the Somerset Thinking Skills Course,...
Emma Tamsin Kelty
Critical thinking is an important skill for undergraduates to learn, yet rarely is it formally taught in the classroom. Here we explain how critical thinking can be fostered within an undergraduate biology course by encouraging students to evaluate biological claims related to current topics within the course. We found that with the completion of two writing assignments within a four-week period, students demonstrated a significantly greater ability to analyze the evidence within the claims...
Addy, Tracie M.; Stevenson, Maura O.
It is argued that the need for critical thinking in university education is accentuated in response to the rapidly changing world and the complexity of today’s world where people are required to comprehend, judge, and participate in generating new knowledge and processes. It is also argued that integrating critical thinking skills into American literature classes is a prerequisite for learning and succeeding not only at school but also in the workplace and personal life. The discus...
Nazmi Al-Shalabi; Shadi Neimneh; Kifah Omary; Halla Shureteh; Maisoun Abu-Joudeh
Systems thinking. Systems theory. The systems approach. All these concepts have in various guises been claimed as central to logistics management, since its dawning in the mid twentieth century. Such claims are the starting point of this dissertation, the purpose of which is to contribute to an increased understanding of systems thinking in logistics management research, both present and for future advances. The primary unit of analysis in this dissertation is thus logistics management resear...
This study explored the effect of Iranian EFL learners’ critical thinking abilities on their receptive English language proficiency skills. With this purpose in mind, the researchers administered the Persian version of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) and the Interchange Objective Placement Test (Lesley, Hansen, & Zukowski-Faust, 2005) to 96 Intermediate EFL learners, and correlated the scores obtained from the two tests to see whether there is any significant relat...
Mohammad Reza Hashemi; Reza Zabihi
Increasing interest in ‘design thinking’ in the fields of management and organization has resulted in a concern with using design-oriented approaches as means to support organizational change and innovation. To this end, conceptual ideas such as Boland and Collopy’s ‘managing as designing’ have aimed at exploring how ‘design thinking’ can inform managers and the work done in organizational contexts. However, these concepts tend to be discussed theoretically with little grounding in empirical studies of practice that might inform managing according to a ‘design thinking’ approach. In this paper we look at one attempt at facilitating organizational change through ‘design thinking’. The context is the design of a new building for the UTS Business School, Sydney by architect Frank Gehry. User participation was applied to engage stakeholders in ways that would produce valuable input for managers as well as architects. We consider how architectural design and organizational change are constructed and accomplished and to what extent the manager’s approach can be considered ‘design thinking’. Our findings suggest that while ‘design thinking’ may be one approach to managing complex change processes, a deeper engagement between designers, managers and users is needed.
Naar, Liisa; Stang Våland, Marianne
The definition as organization is that 1) the think tank should be policy oriented and propose the current issues, 2) it should be interdisciplinary and future oriented, and 3) it should be independent without any outside interference upon it. It is divided into three types in terms of business activity; 1) policy proposing, 2) R&D undertaking and 3) business consulting think tanks. Historically the U.S. has been leading the world because the first think tank was born in this country, and three types of think tanks have brought out the mature business undertakings there. Most of the countries other than the U.S. has held policy proposing type think tanks. The notable think tanks are Brookings Research Institute, Rand Research Institute, Battelle Memorial Institute, Arthur D. Little Co. Ltd. SRI International in the U.S.A., IFO Economic Research Institute, German Economic Research Institute in Germany, France International Relations Research Institute in France, Royal International Relations Research institute, International Strategic Matters Research Institute in the U.K., and Korean Development Research Institute, Korean industrial Research Institute in Korea. All of these have been active in the areas of politics, economics, industry and technology.
Although many employers think that people are most creative when under time pressure, research indicates that the opposite is true. Data from 177 employees' diaries showed that creative thinking under extreme time pressure is unlikely when people feel on a treadmill or on autopilot; more likely when they feel they are on an expedition or a…
Amabile, Teresa M.; Hadley, Constance N.; Kramer, Steven J.
The aim of this essay is to explore the concept of thinking skills in three different contexts, i.e. Formal Logic, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking. The essay traces some contemporary historical connections between these approaches and illustrates differences and overlap between them by referring to the content pages of textbooks which are representative of the different approaches. In evaluating the historical developments sketched in the essay, the conclusion is reached that the open an...
Pieter van Veuren
This article elaborates on the need for a sub-field of ‘Strategic Thinking’ as the science exploring the hidden side of strategy emergence. The site of our exploration is the discourse. We will investigate the intersystemic link between self-reflection and communication embedded in discourses among strategists for paradigm deconstruction and reconstruction. The rationale for a sub-field of Strategic Thinking is related to applying new research ‘technologies’. By engaging in action-res...
La Rocca, Santa; Colombo, Gianluca
Measured thinking styles of first-year South African university students using the Sternberg Mental Self-government Thinking Styles Inventory. Found that the preferred thinking styles were executive, legislative, hierarchic, internal, and conservative. Major and language were differentiating factors in thinking style preferences; gender was not.…
Cilliers, C. D.; Sternberg, R. J.
The purpose of this study was to construct composite scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) from the PICTS thinking style, factor, and content scales designed to provide general estimates of criminal thinking. The Entitlement thinking style scale, Self-Assertion/Deception factor scale, and Historical content…
Walters, Glenn D.
Critical thinking, viewed as rational and analytic thinking, is crucial for participation in a knowledge economy and society. This article provides a brief presentation of the importance of teaching critical thinking in a knowledge economy; suggests a conceptual model for teaching thinking; examines research on the historical role of teachers in…
Full Text Available RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome inequalities has become a cornerstone of excellence in health care.Method: A small quantitative survey of nurses was conducted in one of the departments in a Slovenian hospital. To analyse the results, we used frequency statistics, Spearman's rank correlation test and chi-square test. Results: Providers of health care services are aware of the importance of ethics in its formation. Professional Code is relatively well known; 8.4 % of the respondents were not sure if they clearly define the principles of respect for equality. Discrimination, caused by providers of health care, is of a less extent. Ethical awareness among health care providers does not affect identification with the profession. The education level ofnursing personnel and the perception of discrimination based on religious affiliation influenced one another. Education has no influence on the perception of discrimination based on other circumstances.Organization: Health care organizations should integrate hygieneethical thinking among its strategic goals. Quality is not only quantifying the data. Personal excellence of health care providers, which is difficult to measure, is the basic building block of organizational excellence and patient satisfaction.Originality: There are not many research studies on perceptionsof discrimination in health care. The article raises the sensitive issue that we should talk more about.Limitations: The survey was conducted on a small sample size. Further research should be conducted on perception of discrimination of both sides in health care, both in terms of health care providers as patients. It may be worthwhile to compare the differences in the perception of discrimination in private and in public hospitals.
Full text: The Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-4 published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1991 points out, in clear-cut terms, that 'the human mind is very effective in detecting and eliminating potential problems, and this has an important positive impact on safety. For these reasons, individuals carry a heavy responsibility. Beyond adherence to defined procedures, they must act in accordance with a Safety Culture. The organizations operating nuclear plants, and all other organizations with a safety responsibility, must so develop safety culture as to prevent human error and to benefit from the positive aspects of human action'. This paper showcases the implementation of nuclear safety culture at China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co., Ltd. (CGNPC) in relation to the operation of the Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) and the Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LNPS) comprising 4 Pressurized Water Reactors of 1000 MWe in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. It emphasizes that the cultivation of a nuclear safety mentality or mindset is essential to the safe and stable operation of the nuclear plant. To this end, compliance with the rules and practices fully consistent with the nuclear safety culture requirements must be put into place at all times such that it becomes second nature to the staff of the nuclear plant. As a result, human error can be forestalled to avoid maloperations or malpractices in operating the nuclear plant. This paper highlights the neuclear plant. This paper highlights the need for a keen sense of nuclear safety culture from top to bottom at the nuclear plant, and emphasizes that, without safety, there is no viable nuclear plant, as there would be no economic return for the operator. A safe nuclear plant is undoubtedly an economically competitive plant. To ensure safety, operators must operate the plant in a way that is free from human error, viz. nuclear safety culture has become a way of thinking tantamount to second nature for the operating crews. As is well known, making mistakes or committing errors is part of the growing up experience. The challenge is to prevent such mistakes from occurring in the first place, and the ideal solution is to rely on a built-in safety culture within the organization. Operators of the GNPS and LNPS have, from the outset, risen up to the above challenge by cultivating in the management and staff a full set of nuclear safety culture awareness, as evidenced by several specific cases outlined in the paper. (author)
Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss and compare the (impossibility of thinking that which is most worth our thought in Deleuze’s What Is Philosophy? (1994 and Heidegger’s course lectures in What Is Called Thinking? (2004. Both authors criticize the history of philosophy in similar ways in order to reconsider what should be taken as the nature and task of philosophical thinking. For Deleuze, true thinking is the creation of concepts, but what is most worth our thought in fact cannot be thought. For Heidegger, Being calls on us think, and to think rightly is to be underway toward thinking itself, a grateful heeding of Being. In this paper I explore the very possibility to think that which is most worth our thought. I will argue that although for both authors proper thinking as such is possible, thinking what is most worth our thought seems remarkably both possible as impossible.
Corijn van Mazijk
The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign. PMID:17558789
Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A
Full Text Available The general target of this paper is to establish methodological guidelines for comparative thinking that will show the latter’s merits for the development of global thinking in cultural and human sciences. Furthermore, the paper solves questions of how the inter-action of cultures and the intra-relation of societies and communication work for the benefit of human beings of various cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the purpose of this project is not limited to pure methodology. The project shows in detail how comparative thinking works in every aspect of human sciences and how effective it is as applied cultural philosophy. Contrary to materialist and physical reductionism, the comparative method opens a wide gate to understanding the principles of cultures, including various dimensions of the inter-action of different thinking methods. From this viewpoint, comparative thinking shows an effective way of interdisciplinary thinking which supports the basis of human and cultural sciences in this globalizing world. The special focus of this work is on how comparative thinking grasps the basic terminology of the cultural philosophies of East and West, e.g., the basic thoughts of Heidegger about being, life, death and nothingness versus the same problems treated by D?gen, one of the most important thinkers and authors of Zen Buddhism in Japan and East Asia. Until about ten years ago, many philosophers regarded Heidegger and Buddhist thinkers in a harmonized one-sided dimension. The effort was successful, and we have entered an era of intercultural “oneness philosophy.” Starting from this point a further step leads to a better understanding of the basic differences of insight into similar problems approached by Heidegger and D?gen. An intensified dialogue and a more lively inter-action will lead to the emergence of profound conceptions and hermeneutics, capable of constructing a new philosophy in the contemporary world.
Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) u...
Huda Umar Alwehaibi
Full Text Available Despite many efforts to deal with the various complex issues facing our societies, plans and problem solutions are seldom long lasting, because we, as individuals, and our leaders are most likely to fall into the trap of using traditional linear thinking. It is natural and easy, but does not usually deliver long-term solutions in the context of highly complex modern communities. There is an urgent need for innovative ways of thinking and a fresh approach to dealing with the unprecedented and complex challenges facing our world. It is essential for future leaders and citizens to be prepared for “interconnected” thinking to deal with complex problems in a systemic, integrated and collaborative fashion; working together to deal with issues holistically, rather than simplistically focusing on isolated features. An educational tool (Ecopolicy is used as the main mechanism to achieve this aim. The Ecopolicy cybernetic simulation “game” is a challenging, but playful, method by which students are introduced to the idea of thinking in terms of relations, in feedback cycles, in networks and in systems. Participation in this stimulating simulation enhances the capacity of young people to change their way of thinking. This would be expected to prepare them to develop into leaders or citizens who can effectively deal with a complex and challenging future.
Nam C. Nguyen
Full Text Available This paper examines how the discussion tool is used to promote critical thinking in an online environment at Marshall University. The significance of critical thinking in higher education has been brought to attention at both national and local levels. The paper studies the use of discussions as an approach to promote critical thinking in a number of English as a Second Language (ESL courses offered by Marshall University's Graduate School of Education and Professional Development (GSEPD program. At the end of the semester, a qualitative survey was developed to identify the effectiveness of such discussions, and the opportunities for improvement. The survey was sent to all students in these three classes. These students were all full time teachers in Elementary and Secondary schools in West Virginia. Out of 21 students, 15 of them have responded to the three questions asked in the survey. Almost all the respondents have found discussion helpful in enhancing learning and critical thinking. Most students support the involvement of an online instructor in the online discussion, and faculty members involved in these discussions function as helpers in the development of critical thinking skills.
Full Text Available Legislation, systems and processes provide a rigid framework within which local government operates. In a perfect world, perfect information would result in perfect decisions. However, the world is chaotic, people are far from perfect, and priorities vie for resources, as is evidenced through the so [...] cial inequality and environmental degradation in society. A common way of managing complexity is to break complex processes into manageable portions. In doing so, the advantage of integration is often lost. Furthermore, silo thinking tends to yield duplication, often through localised efficiencies at the cost of overall value. System thinking can be employed to facilitate a constructive, creative space that has potential to evolve in the presence of intuitive trust, combined with a framework with which to measure and verify against. The City of Cape Town serves as example of a local authority grappling with allocation of resources in a manner which is fair and efficient in fulfilling its electoral mandate.
G N, Kaiser; J J, Smallwood.
Full Text Available This paper presents cMinds, a learning intervention that deploys game-based visual programming towards building analytical, computational, and critical thinking skills in primary education. The proposed learning method exploits the structured nature of programming, which is inherently logical and transcends cultural barriers, towards inclusive learning that exposes learners to algorithmic thinking. A visual programming environment, entitled ‘cMinds Learning Suite’, has been developed aimed for classroom use. Feedback from the deployment of the learning methods and tools in classrooms in several European countries demonstrates elevated learner motivation for engaging in logical learning activities, fostering of creativity and an entrepreneurial spirit, and promotion of problem-solving capacity
Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider. PMID:24228380
Written by a well-known lecturer and consultant to the pharmaceutical industry, this book focuses on the pharmaceutical non-statistician working within a very strict regulatory environment. Statistical Thinking for Clinical Trials in Drug Regulation presents the concepts and statistical thinking behind medical studies with a direct connection to the regulatory environment so that readers can be clear where the statistical methodology fits in with industry requirements. Pharmaceutical-related examples are used throughout to set the information in context. As a result, this book provides a detailed overview of the statistical aspects of the design, conduct, analysis and presentation of data from clinical trials within drug regulation. Statistical Thinking for Clinical Trials in Drug Regulation:Assists pharmaceutical personnel in communicating effectively with statisticians using statistical languageImproves the ability to read and understand statistical methodology in papers and reports and to critically ap...
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the direct and indirect interdisciplinary communication, didactic units of discipline «Computer software of project design», including vector graphics, raster graphics, three-dimensional graphics, with units of other special disciplines. Considered such disciplines, as «Descriptive geometry and technical drawing», «The fundamentals of composition in industrial design», «Fundamentals of design graphics», «Design and modelling of industrial products», the VPO standard in «Industrial design» speciality. Also, is considered the mutual influence of the didactic units of discipline on the various elements of professional thinking, forming the general professional thinking of students studying design during laboratory work. Formation of professional thinking most effectively will take place under the condition of coherence and complementarity between educational areas, as well as orientation on modern technical and technological changes in industry.
Ahmetova Albina Maratovna
Full Text Available Combining the teaching of thinking skills and a second language seems a plausible way to promote language acquisition. The teaching of thinking is explained, with an example from the curriculum of de Bono. Arguments supporting the thinking-L2 combination come from theory, practice, its benefits to teaching skills, national needs, and successful implementation. Research literature is reviewed, and a major study in South Africa is summarized. Die kombinasie van die onderrig van denkvaardighede en tweede taal blyk 'n aanneemlike metode om taalverwerwing te bevorder. Die onderrig van denke word aangedui, met 'n voorbeeld uit die kurrikulum van De Bono. Argumente wat die kombinasie van denke en tweede taal ondersteun, word gebaseer op teorie, praktyk, voordele vir onderwysvaardighede, nasionale behoeftes, en suksesvolle toepassing. Navorsingsartikels word in oi!nskou geneem, en 'n belangrike navorsingstudie word opgesom.
Carol A. Puhl
Creationism is a religiously motivated worldview in denial of biological evolution that has been very resistant to change. We performed a textual analysis by examining creationist and pro-evolutionary texts for aspects of “experiential thinking”, a cognitive process different from scientific thought. We observed characteristics of experiential thinking as follows: testimonials (present in 100% of sampled creationist texts), such as quotations, were a major form of proof. Confirmation bias (100% of sampled texts) was represented by ignoring or dismissing information that would contradict the creationist hypothesis. Scientifically irrelevant or flawed information was re-interpreted as relevant for the falsification of evolution (75–90% of sampled texts). Evolutionary theory was associated to moral issues by demonizing scientists and linking evolutionary theory to atrocities (63–93% of sampled texts). Pro-evolutionary rebuttals of creationist claims also contained testimonials (93% of sampled texts) and referred to moral implications (80% of sampled texts) but displayed lower prevalences of stereotypical thinking (47% of sampled texts), confirmation bias (27% of sampled texts) and pseudodiagnostics (7% of sampled texts). The aspects of experiential thinking could also be interpreted as argumentative fallacies. Testimonials lead, for instance, to ad hominem and appeals to authorities. Confirmation bias and simplification of data give rise to hasty generalizations and false dilemmas. Moral issues lead to guilt by association and appeals to consequences. Experiential thinking and fallacies can contribute to false beliefs and the persistence of the claims. We propose that science educators would benefit from the systematic analysis of experiential thinking patterns and fallacies in creationist texts and pro-evolutionary rebuttals in order to concentrate on scientific misconceptions instead of the scientifically irrelevant aspects of the creationist—evolutionist debate. PMID:25734650
Nieminen, Petteri; Ryökäs, Esko; Mustonen, Anne-Mari
Read this book if you care about students really understanding physics and getting genuine intellectual satisfaction from doing so. Read it too if you fear that this goal is out of reach ? you may be surprised! Laurence Viennot here shows ways to deal with the awkward fact that common sense thinking is often not the same as scientific thinking. She analyses examples of frequent and widespread errors and confusions, which provide a real eye-opener for the teacher. More than that, she shows ways to avoid and overcome them. The book argues against over-emphasis on "fun" applications, demonstratin
Developing mathematical thinking is one of major aims of mathematics education. In mathematics education research, there are a number of researches which describe what it is and how we can observe in experimental research. However, teachers have difficulties developing it in the classrooms. This book is the result of lesson studies over the past 50 years. It describes three perspectives of mathematical thinking: Mathematical Attitude (Minds set), Mathematical Methods in General and Mathematical Ideas with Content and explains how to develop them in the classroom with illuminating examples.
This report is a summary of and commentary on (a) the seven lectures that C. S. Peirce presented in 1903 on pragmatism and (b) a commentary by P. A. Turrisi, both of which are included in Pragmatism as a Principle and Method of Right Thinking: The 1903 Harvard Lectures on Pragmatism, edited by Turrisi . Peirce is known as the founder of the philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirce's decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the important points in the lectures.
Campbell, Philip LaRoche
Full Text Available Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.
Full Text Available This essay on cultural studies and the African Diaspora argues for a rethinking of cultural studies in two critical ways: firstly, that cultural studies, from its founding institutional and conceptual moment, cannot but be thought diasporically; and, secondly, that cultural studies be thought ‘out of’, or, against, context—that is, cultural studies is most revealing in its political and literary articulation when it is not read, as many of its advocates claim, contextually. This essay offers a broad critique of cultural studies and the (African diaspora but derives its most cogent and creative argument from its ability to read together the work of two diasporic authors, deracinated South African and Australian writers, J. M. Coetzee and David Malouf.
This article illustrates spatial thinking tasks through cube diagrams and drawings. The author talks about the pentacube diagram that is based on the principle that a vertical cube-edge is shown "vertically". The author describes how to extend isometric drawing to include triangular wedges that are made by slicing single cubes, bi-cubes,…
Encourages the use of integrated prereading, prewriting, and critical thinking activities in music classes to help students appreciate and understand the process of musical composition. Discusses using freewriting, journal writing, directed reading, and extended activities in music appreciation, performance, and composition classes. (SKC)
Duke, Charles R.
This study aimed to explore metaphorical images of pre-service and in-service teachers as windows into their schemata for thinking about "teachers". Data were gathered from three groups: 58 junior year students studying in a pre-service English teaching programme, 92 senior year students registered in the same pre-service programme, and 70…
Seferoglu, Golge; Korkmazgil, Sibel; Olcu, Zeynep
Describes the use of chess instruction to develop abstract thinking skills and problem solving among gifted students. Offers suggestions for starting school chess programs, teaching and evaluating chess skills, and measuring the success of both student-players and the program in general. (PB)
Rifner, Philip J.; Feldhusen, John F.
Cross-linguistic research on motion events has shown that Spanish speakers and English speakers have different patterns of thinking for speaking about motion, both linguistically and gesturally (for a review, see Stam, 2010b). Spanish speakers express path linguistically with verbs, and their path gestures tend to occur with path verbs, whereas…
This article presents results of the first two years of the introduction of a critical thinking (CT) component to standard freshman astronomy lab exercises for nonmajors. The component consists of a series of probing questions folded into the exercises, plus a formal grading rubric. The grading rubric is adapted from the generalized Washington…
Allen, Michael L.; Kelly-Riley, Diane
Full Text Available AHO – Oslo School of Architecture & Design, Norway, invites to the Relating Systems Thinking and Design to a free and open symposium over two days 9th-11th October 2013, with a preceding full day with diverse workshops and a subsequent special issue in FORMakademisk.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.
"Thinking in English" represents Dr. Muciaccia's unique method of teaching English to non-native English speakers. Unlike any other English as a Second Language (ESL) book, Muciaccia's book features the "cultural immersion" approach that he has developed and practiced to a fine degree. In addition to his methodology, Muciaccia includes words of…
Muciaccia, John B.
Full Text Available Mathematical thinking is the essence of the mathematics in the phase of middle school, in which penetration mathematical thinking method contributes to the teaching efficiency in practice. This paper has listed some thinking methods, such as, penetration symbolic method that improves students’ adaptive ability on the transformation from arithmetic to algebra; penetration normalization method that contributes to the problem-solving ability; penetration of the combination of characters and graphics method that improves the competence both on the transformation between characters and graphics, and knowledge migration; penetration inductive method that strengthens their innovation both on thought and practical ability; penetration equation and function that is responsible for the cultivation of their modeling ability; and penetration classified discussion method that is conductive to the competence on observation all-round and handling problem flexibly. It is of much significance to propel the application of mathematical thinking in teaching practice for the goal of improved teaching quality and the cultivation of highly competent talent.
This report describes a program designed to increase critical thinking skills in order to improve the transfer of material from the classroom to the clinic. The targeted population consisted of second year community college radiography students in a growing, middle class community in the Midwest. Evidence for the existence of the problem included…
This research examined US high school students' thinking about economic and cultural globalization during their participation in an international education program. The findings mapped the students' categories for the two aspects of globalization and showed that the students' positions were shaped by relatively stable narratives characterizing the…
Myers, John P.
Introduction: Recent personal information management literature has underlined the significance of the contextuality of personal information and its use. The present article discusses the applicability of the records continuum model and its generalisation, continuum thinking, as a theoretical framework for explicating the overlap and evolution of…
Huvila, Isto; Eriksen, Jon; Häusner, Eva-Maria; Jansson, Ina-Maria
Explains economists' general approach to family behavior and describes how that framework is useful for thinking about families and children. Outlines how economists model parental investment in children. Examines the implications of approach for developmental science. Illustrates this approach using the example of the involvement of children and…
Foster, E. Michael
As radiographers continue to extend their role and take on more procedures associated traditionally with radiologists, it is essential that their critical thinking abilities keep pace with the new practical skills they are learning. This is particularly important in ultrasound where student sonographers must master a number of new skills including the technical dexterity required to perform a scan, the ability to form and discard hypotheses when trying to interpret the image, and the communication of their findings as a written report. Interpreting the image and producing an accurate, appropriate report involves the higher level cognitive processes of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In other words, the student sonographer must be able to think critically to become a successful practitioner. This paper attempts to define and discuss critical thinking, and considers a range of simple strategies that the clinical teacher of ultrasound can employ to help develop critical thinking skills in their students. These methods are appropriate for use not only by clinical teachers of ultrasound but for all teachers and mentors wishing to improve reasoning skills in their pupils.
Edwards, Hazel [Ultrasound Department, James Paget Healthcare NHS Trust, Gorleston, Norfolk NR31 6LA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: email@example.com
To investigate whether men and women think alike about drinking and the effects of alcohol, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire was administered to 440 college students, 120 medical patients, and 305 alcoholics in residential treatment. Previous and current drinking patterns and background information were also examined. Subjects were grouped by…
Brown, Sandra A.
Your students successfully completed a lab session, correctly filled in all of the worksheets, and collected the required data. Yet, as a science teacher, you still find yourself wondering--what did my students actually learn? And, can they apply that learning to what is going on in their everyday lives? The process of critical thinking and…
McDonald, James; Dominquez, Lynn
The study reported in this article examines primary teachers' understandings of thinking skills within the curriculum. All respondents were from primary schools within a local authority in central Scotland, and in total thirty-six schools were represented. Practitioners' perceptions were explored by analysing their quantitative responses to…
Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.; Skinner, Don
This article shares experiences that participants had playing the game of STRATEGO and how the activity may be linked to strategic planning and thinking. Among the human performance technology implications of playing this game are that gamers agreed on a framework for rules, took stock on where they wanted to go in the future, and generated a risk…
Baaki, John; Moseley, James L.
Education's greatest challenge is not technology or accountability, but the need to discover a new way of thinking. The shift from a Cartesian to a configuration view of the universe requires new conceptual models and compatible educational practices (like cooperative learning). Concepts of content/process and complexity and chaos need…
New Brunswick : Transaction Publishers, 2014 - (Tcho?, K.; Gasparski, W.), s. 171-181 ISBN 978-1-4128-5285-2. - (Praxiology: The International Annual of Practical Philosophy and Methodology. 21) Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : technological thinking * responsibility * meritorious questions * major atributes of responsibility Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
This study analyzed data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education to estimate the unique effects of exposure to classroom diversity and involvement in interactional diversity on growth in critical thinking skills during the first year of college. Net of important confounding influences, neither classroom nor interactional diversity…
Loes, Chad; Pascarella, Ernest; Umbach, Paul
Thought processes of seven artist-level jazz musicians, each of whom recorded an improvised solo, were investigated. Immediately after completing their improvisations, participants listened to recordings of their playing and looked at the notation of their solos as they described in a directed interview the thinking processes that led to the…
Suggests that traditional remedial teaching methods such as drill and practice activities are not challenging, and that incorporating alternative teaching strategies such as critical dialogue and higher order thinking skills (HOTS) into the classroom fosters self-esteem, creates enthusiasm for learning, raises test scores, and alters brain…
Campbell, Tracy; Chastain-Bogy, Cindy
Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…
Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai
This collection of activities is designed to show how graphics display calculators can be used to foster algebraic thinking in middle school students. The collection consists of five activities addressing such topics as functions, estimation and scatterplots, and patterns. Blackline masters for the activities are included. (MM)
Full Text Available Pre-service teachers are typically concerned with student assessment and view related issues through varied experiences and backgrounds. Understanding how they think about assessment issues within the current educational context helps to better prepare them. In this paper we describe pre-service teachers’ thinking about assessment issues, the theories that underlie their thinking, and how it evolves as a result of using an introspective critical approach called the objective knowledge growth framework. The framework combines the diary and the think aloud protocol and brings pre-service teachers to identify initial assessment problems, propose tentative solutions, and challenge their solutions. Thirty-one pre-service teachers took part in this study and received a one hour workshop on the use of the introspective approach to solve their self-identified assessment issues. Brookhart’s ‘Tensions in Classroom Assessment Theory and Practice’ framework was then used to explore the theories at play when pre-service teachers go through their problem solving processes. The participants identified group work, test failure, accommodation, fairness, multiple assessment opportunities, and academic enablers as key areas of concern. Particularly notable in the study, was the greater importance attached by the pre-service teachers to assessment for classroom management, student motivation, and social justice purposes, than to support learning. The analysis of these concerns using Brookhart’s framework and of the reasoning about them suggests that the intersection of measurement, psychological, and social theories continues to impact the decision making process regarding assessment.
Analysis of the political aspects of adult education reveals multiple ways of examining policies, programs, and practices. Five key issues form a framework for analysis: politics of diversity, whose interest, material conditions and control, accommodation and resistance, and strategic thinking. (Contains 69 references.) (SK)
Sissel, Peggy A.
Moments of restriction or impasse--situations that are seemingly intransigent, offering no alternatives or poor alternatives, predicaments leading to less than satisfactory resolutions or unhappy compromises--abound in the practice of educational research. This paper speculates on the possibilities offered by thinking with "Trickster"--a shadowy,…
Transformative learning may involve gentle perspective widening or something more traumatic. This paper explores the impact of a transformative pedagogy in a course that challenges learners to "think like a planet". Among six sources of intellectual anxiety, learners worry about: why Gaia Theory is neglected by their other courses; the…
Describes a middle school career-oriented teaching unit with emphasis on teaching for divergent thinking. The unit provides hands-on opportunities for eighth-grade students to explore careers using the knowledge and skills developed in their home economics class. The careers are restaurant management, hospitality service, and interior design. (CT)
Ranke, Charlotte; Champoux, Ellen M.
Based on a literature review, class observations, and interviews with teachers and students, this article offers a conception of higher order thinking (as signifying challenge and expanded use of the mind), discusses reasons for the difficulty of promoting it in high schools, and suggests ways principals can help. (MLH)
Newmann, Fred M.
Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…
Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.
In this brief article NCTM President Linda Gojak encourages educators to reconsider the notion of fluency with regard to number facts, procedures, and other topics. She elaborates on the NCTM's position of broadening the definition to include conceptual understanding and flexible thinking.
Linda M. Gojak
In different countries efforts have been made to integrate critical thinking into science curricula, recognizing that it is necessary to live in a plural society with citizenship competence. However, this objective has not been appropriately implemented in classrooms. One of the obstacles is the fact that teachers do not have a clear idea about…
Vieira, Rui Marques; Tenreiro-Vieira, Celina; Martins, Isabel P.
As the world of business shifts towards a knowledge economy, the growing availability of information delivered in print and electronic media will require professionals well-versed in the methodologies of information thinking and knowledgeable of the practical resources available to them. This book provides a window on the complexities of the…
Park, Mary Woodfill
To encourage critical thinking and expression of viewpoints by undergraduate students, an in-class debate on the issue of spanking as a disciplinary practice and its impact on children's development is presented as a class activity. Specific details on how the debate is conducted are provided. Evaluation results suggest that the activity is…
Walker, Susan K.; Benson, Lisa J.
Critical thinking is conceived in the theories as a skill that students consciously learn and practice while the teacher is positioned as the one who can teach students how to critique. However, one of the major insights gained through research conducted at a university in the Northern Territory is that students are already critiquing what they…
Having gained independence in 1991, Kazakhstan is making major adjustments in its educational system to meet the demands of its changing workplace. To that end, the Ministry of Education has mandated that critical thinking be incorporated into all levels. Given the importance of this goal, the authors surveyed teachers' understanding and use of…
Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat
In a general sense, entrepreneurial thinking and action relates to all those in employment, as an attitude to work and working behaviour, and it is accordingly becoming a key factor in competence. For independent entrepreneurs it is also, in a more specific sense, a fundamental precondition for successfully establishing and operating an…
Eickhoff, Markus Th.
Presents examples from children's literature that illustrate types of special "thinking/dream spots." Suggests the following activities: creating a dream place in the library media center, describing or drawing a dream spot, designing a meditation room, making a sculpture garden, and writing monologs. (AEF)
Examines letters written by more than 700 participants in a citizen-science project conducted by the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. Finds that nearly eighty percent of the letters, which were unsolicited and not connected with a formal evaluation, revealed that participants had engaged in thinking processes similar to those that are part of…
Trumbull, Deborah J.; Bonney, Rick; Bascom, Derek; Cabral, Anna
In the attempt to improve mathematical thinking for safeguarding our future societal needs, there is a worldwide tendency in schools to start training mathematical and arithmetical operations at an earlier age in children's development. Recent theoretical developments and empirical research have pointed to alternative ways of approaching early…
van Oers, Bert
In the late 1980s a large northeastern university implemented a critical thinking course for undergraduate students. Combining insights from cognitive psychology and philosophy, this class was designed to give students concrete strategies to promote self-regulated learning and ensure academic success. The analyses in this study are based on…
Ahuna, Kelly H.; Tinnesz, Christine Gray; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol
This paper proposes that the acquisition of meta-concepts and thinking skills in order to facilitate scholarly religious thought should be the principal aim of religious education in schools. As a result, the aim of religious education is primarily stated in cognitive terms and religious education is understood as closely related to education…
This book is based on research into programme management competence conducted by Cranfield School of Management and SP Associates. It brings cutting-edge thinking on a subject of great relevance to professionals and senior managers, providing useful advice on the practice of programme management, and the performance of that role in organizations.
If critical thinking is to be seriously considered as a possible vehicle for educational reform, an exploration of relevant theories of reason is required. This paper offers an analytic framework for understanding theories of reason, presents an overview of recent work in empirical psychology that is related to root conceptions of rationality, and…
A new course entitled “Mechanical Engineering Seminar” has begun in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mie University. This course consists of three parts, a teamwork seminar, a creative design seminar and a comprehensive achievement examination. Its aim is to foster a broad social and international outlook, ethical thinking, autonomy, partnership, leadership, presentation ability, originality, overall creativity in students, and to help them become aware of their real ability. The teaching method used in this seminar is based on problem-based learning (PBL) , and pro-active student participation is required. The purpose of this paper is to report the features, teaching method and educational effectiveness of the teamwork seminar, which seeks to educate students with a broad, diversified outlook. The results of a student questionnaire show that these new fields of study stimulate students' will to learn, and they express general satisfaction with the seminar.
Maruyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Kazumi; Yamao, Hidenori
Full Text Available In article, we have shown the main approaches to the typology of styles of thinking, an attempt of definition of the ontological status of paradoxical style of thinking and paradox has been made
Zilberman T. V.
The Indiana University School of Nursing uses a definition for critical thinking that is more operational than theoretical. It elaborates defining characteristics for six critical thinking competencies: interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation, and self-regulation. (SK)
Dexter, Phyllis; And Others
Full Text Available This study investigated mathematics teachers’ interpretation of higher-order thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Thirty-two high school mathematics teachers from the southeast U.S. were asked to (a define lower- and higher-order thinking, (b identify which thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy represented lower- and higher-order thinking, and (c create an Algebra I final exam item representative of each thinking skill. Results indicate that mathematics teachers have difficulty interpreting the thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy and creating test items for higher-order thinking. Alternatives to using Bloom’s Taxonomy to help mathematics teachers assess for higher-order thinking are discussed.
This paper explores what it means for a business school to embed systems thinking and sustainability into the curriculum by looking at both the application of systems thinking to the design of sustainable programmes and the teaching of system thinking to support understanding of sustainability. Although programmes that include systems thinking and sustainability as “bolt ons” are becoming more common, how these may best be integrated throughout the curriculum is still largely unexplored. ...
Amanda Gregory; Susan Miller
Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of stud...
Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.
Design tasks are omnipresent in our everyday lives. Previous research shows that reflective thinking is one of the critical factors in solving design problems. Related research has attempted to capture designers' reflective thinking process. Yet a close inspection of designers' reflective thinking taking place during their design process demands…
Hong, Yi-Chun; Choi, Ikseon
In contemporary academic literature and in many national curricula, there is a widespread acceptance that critical thinking should be an important dimension of Education. Teachers and researchers recognize the importance of developing students critical thinking, but there are still great difficulties in defining and assessing critical-thinking…
Malamitsa, Katerina; Kokkotas, Panagiotis; Kasoutas, Michael
In Think Tank: The Story of the Adam Smith Institute, Madsen Pirie documents the fascinating history of one of the world’s biggest think tanks, and the many projects in which it has been engaged over the past three decades. Donald Abelson values the wealth of information with which scholars can develop and refine their observations about how think tanks exercise influence.
A key component of good writing is the use of critical thinking skills. Without deeper levels of reflection and thinking, writing becomes superficial, less interesting, and harder to follow. Too many essays do not reflect the use of critical thinking. This paper examines the effects of the Jane Schaffer method and the degree to which it has…
Roybal, Richard A.
One of the goals of higher education is to develop the students' ability to think critically. However, little research has been done to indicate the impact of college on students' critical thinking skills. A study conducted at a midwestern university measured the critical thinking capability of college seniors. Subjects, 37 volunteers derived from…
Browne, M. Neil; Keeley, Stuart M.
Full Text Available The significance of the philosophical methodology consists in providing the mode of thinking for people to understand, grasp, and evaluate the relevant knowledge. The transformation of the dialectic theory commonly known is the transformation of the philosophical mode of thinking. One of the main reasons why people emphasizes that Marxist philosophy is a great achievement and contribution with the regular development of western philosophy is that the practical mode of thinking of Marxist philosophy is reform and innovation of the mode of thinking in the traditional western philosophy, especially the idealistic mode of thinking of Hegelian philosophy. In this paper I intend to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the speculative mode of thinking and the criticism and reconstruction of the practical mode of thinking on the speculative mode of thinking. This contributes to show the superiority of the practical mode of thinking and its normativity for Marxist philosophy.
The objective of this study was to analyze the structural elements of critical thinking (CT) of nurses in the clinical decision-making process. This exploratory, qualitative study was conducted with 20 emergency care nurses in three hospitals in southern Brazil. Data were collected from April to June 2009, and a validated clinical case was applied from which nurses listed health problems, prescribed care and listed the structural elements of CT. Content analysis resulted in categories used to determine priority structural elements of CT, namely theoretical foundations and practical relationship to clinical decision making; technical and scientific knowledge and clinical experience, thought processes and clinical decision making: clinical reasoning and basis for clinical judgments of nurses: patient assessment and ethics. It was concluded that thinking critically is a skill that enables implementation of a secure and effective nursing care process. PMID:25508620
Crossetti, Maria Da Graça Oliveira; Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; Lima, Ana Amélia Antunes; De Góes, Marta Georgina Oliveira; Saurin, Gislaine
Full Text Available This paper debates the new theories of philosophical and aesthetical discourse by applying them to Nietzsche’s thinking on art. The article consists of four general subjects, each of them focusing on an essential part of Nietzsche’s special relationship to art: 1 Art generated by the philosophical text itself, through the form of the fragment; 2 The artistic relationship as an interdisciplinary ground for philosophical knowledge of the world (especially as applied in Nietzsche’s and Schopenhauer’s work; 3 A critical debate on Wolfgang Welsch’s theory about the interdisciplinary aspects of the philosophical and aesthetic discourse; 4 The backgrounds of Nietzsche’s aesthetics project explained in Claus Zittel’s theory on Nietzsche’s “aesthetic turn.” Thus, Nietzsche’s thinking is defined as a relationist project, emphasizing the “self-destruction dy- namic” of his aesthetical perspectivism.
Instructional techniques based on research in cognitive science and physics education have been used in physics courses to enhance student learning. While dramatic increases in conceptual understanding have been observed, students enrolled in these courses tend to shift away from scientist-like views of the discipline (and views of learning within the discipline) and toward novice-like views. Shifts toward scientist-like views are found when course materials and instruction explicitly address epistemology, the nature of science, and the nature of learning. The Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum has specific goals for helping non-science majors explicitly reflect on the nature of science and the nature of science learning. We show that in PET courses with small and large enrollments, shifts toward scientist-like thinking ranged from +4% to +16.5% on the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey. These results are compared to results from other studies using a variety of similar assessment instruments.
Otero, Valerie K.; Gray, Kara E.
Now that digital technology has accessed the Z-space in cinema, narrative artistry is at a loss. Motion picture professionals no longer can readily resort to familiar tools. A new language and new linguistics for Z-axis storytelling are necessary. After first examining the roots of monocular thinking in painting, prior modes of visual narrative in twodimensional cinema obviating true binocular stereopsis can be explored, particularly montage, camera motion and depth of field, with historic examples. Special attention is paid to the manner in which monocular cues for depth have been exploited to infer depth on a planar screen. Both the artistic potential and visual limitations of actual stereoscopic depth as a filmmaking language are interrogated. After an examination of the historic basis of monocular thinking in visual culture, a context for artistic exploration of the use of the z-axis as a heightened means of creating dramatic and emotional impact upon the viewer is illustrated.
Using the formalism provided by the Systems Thinking approach, the dynamics present when operating multidisciplinary teams are examined in the context of the NASA Langley Research and Technology Group, an R&D organization organized along functional lines. The paper focuses on external dynamics and examines how an organization creates and nurtures the teams and how it disseminates and retains the lessons and expertise created by the multidisciplinary activities. Key variables are selected and the causal relationships between the variables are identified. Five "stories" are told, each of which touches on a different aspect of the dynamics. The Systems Thinking Approach provides recommendations as to interventions that will facilitate the introduction of multidisciplinary teams and that therefore will increase the likelihood of performing successful multidisciplinary developments. These interventions can be carried out either by individual researchers, line management or program management.
Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Waszak, Martin R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Silcox, Richard J.; Silva, Walter A.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.
Purpose – The objective of the paper is to describe and discuss how the biotech company Novozymes integrates stakeholder thinking into everyday sustainability practices. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on first-hand experiences as well as secondary information from Novozymes' stakeholder-oriented sustainability activities. Findings – The paper illustrates how a company is striving to transform the general stakeholder principles into concrete, manageable actions. Moreover, the paper describes some of the needs, challenges, and paradoxes experienced by an organisation that is trying to make sense of stakeholder thinking. Originality/value – The contribution of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how various stakeholder relations management methods can be used in practice to integrate sustainability in an organisation.
Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Hove Henriksen, Morten
Full Text Available Evolving international management challenges like succession planning as members “baby boomer” generation retire, avoiding marketing myopia in the auto industry, managing employee generational conflict, valuing cultural diversity, and developing adaptive strategy have made decision making for international professionals more perplexing and almost overwhelming. Even with the best strategic planning there is likelihood to mishandle a crisis or leadership strategy decision. How does an international manager make the correct leaders decisions when the unexpected occurs, existing plans are insufficient, and important organizational core values and goals are threatened? The development of critical thinking skills in today’s professionals has never been more vital. The engagement in managerial critical thinking is about learning to apply both experience-based, team based, and formal problem solving methods to situations. It is essential to develop a keen ability to overcome and become self aware of biases, false assumptions, myths, and faulty paradigms that can hamper effective decision making.
Darrell Norman Burrell
Criteria for the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools that allow educators to justifywhat they do are described within a wider framework of learning theory and research into bestpractice. Based on a meta-analysis of best practice, results from a three year project designedto evaluate the effectiveness of a secondary school literacy initiative in New Zealand, togetherwith recent research from cognitive and neuro-psychologists, it is argued that the design andselection of literac...
This paper examines how design thinking and serious games approaches can be used to support participation through the analysis of three case studies. Indeed we will analyze these approaches in three different contexts: (i) a state-owned multi-utilities company; (ii) a political party; (iii) an information system strategic committee. Our analysis framework relies on the concepts of "perceived usefulness" and "perceived ease of use" and we will use it to discuss the lessons learned. Our main fi...
Glassey, Olivier; Morin, Jean-henry; Genoud, Patrick; Pauletto, Giorgio
Customer’ demands, higher quality, faster and safer deliveries are some reasons for unexpected changes in the organizations. It has incremented complexity and cost. Lean production is known as a methodology to make improvements in manufacturing areas such as mentioned above and it is focused on the process of a product. But, Lean Thinking is a management strategy to make improvements in the process of a product or service and it is based on five principles. It allows having the process clos...
Over the past 30 years, physics education research has guided the development of instructional strategies that can significantly enhance students' functional understanding of concepts in introductory physics. Recently, attention has shifted to instructional goals that, while widely shared by teachers of physics, are often more implicit than explicit in our courses. These goals involve the expectations and attitudes that students have about what it means to learn and understand physics, together with the behaviors and actions students think they should engage in to accomplish this learning. Research has shown that these ``hidden'' elements of the curriculum are remarkably resistant to instruction. In fact, traditional physics courses tend to produce movement away from expert-like behaviors. At Western Washington University, we are exploring ways of promoting metacognition, an aspect of the hidden curriculum that involves the conscious monitoring of one's own thinking and learning. We have found that making this reflective thinking an explicit part of the course may not be enough: adequate framing and scaffolding may be necessary for students to meaningfully engage in metacognition. We have thus taken the basic approach of developing metacognition, like conceptual understanding, through guided inquiry. During our teaching experiments, we have collected written and video data, with twin goals of guiding iterative modifications to the instruction as well as contributing to the knowledge base about student metacognition in introductory physics. This talk will provide examples of metacognition activities from course assignments and labs, and will present written data to assess the effectiveness of instruction and to illustrate specific modes of students' reflective thinking.
Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta argumentos para comprender las dificultades de los docentes al comunicarse en condiciones de crisis. Su finalidad es aportar ideas que relacionen la triada: educar, pensar y dialogar; para conseguirlo, muestra qué entender por cada uno de sus elementos. Así mismo, presenta rela [...] ciones que siguen al inclinarse por los principios epistemológicos: identidad, dialéctico y dialógico. La intención última es abrir paso a una forma de educar distinta a explicar, emitir comunicados o desdeñar estudiantes: dialogar y pensar. El énfasis está puesto en debatir con el sentido común vigente que contrapone maniqueamente, por ejemplo, moderno versus tradicional. Sus conclusiones pretenden mover al compromiso con la utopía, al educar-pensar-dialogar. Enseguida se plantean problemas, no se ofrecen certezas: se problematizan las relaciones existentes entre educar-dialogar-pensar y se ofrecen algunas propuestas para pensarlas y, en su caso, retomarlas. Abstract in english This article presents arguments in order to understand better the difficulties that the teachers experience when communicating in crisis conditions. It aims to offer ideas able to establish connections between the triad educate, think and dialogue; to do so, it shows what each of those terms mean, a [...] nd then presents the relations that ensuefrom leaning on the following epistemologicalprinciples: identity, dialectical and dialogical. The final purpose is to pave the way towards a different way to educate that does not exclusively explains, issue releases or despise students. The emphasis is put on struggling with the in force common sense that opposes in a black-and-white setting, for instance, modern vs. traditional. The conclusions have as purpose to motivate to a certain commitment towards Utopia, to the triad educate-think-dialog. The article presents problems and does not offer certainty, since it challenges the existing relations between educate, dialog and think and offer some proposals to think about them and, if necessary, to take them up again.
Luis Rodolfo, Ibarra Rivas.
THE HELSINKI PUBLIC LIBRARY “Re-thinking the public library” Through the last decades information has become more approachable, easy to influence and deliver; technology specifically internet has change the ways and accessibility to knowledge, if a couple of decades ago we were dependent on main stream media and traditional sources of information, now we are facing a new paradigm where the receiver can become to be a source of information through different tools such as: Tweeter, Facebook...
Riquelme Soto, Pablo
Full Text Available The paper discusses Rorty’s critique and special relation to intercultural thinking. It looks into the history of both pragmatism and intercultural philosophy, discusses some of their possible points of convergence, and finally follows the implications of this encounter for our intercultural understanding of Rorty’s version of pragmatism, especially in the context of a contemporary North-South intercultural dialogue.
Automotive design is a specialized discipline in which designers are challenged to create emotionally appealing designs. From a practice perspective, this requires that designers apply their hermeneutic as well as reflective design thinking skills. However, due to the increasing demand for new car models, it is not always possible to keep generating new car designs without some form of assistive means. Therefore, it is common practice to use Automated Morphing Systems (AMS) to facilitate and ...
Abidin, Shahriman Bin Zainal
This page provides links to syllabi of courses taught by scholars from a variety of institutions across the country. They were assembled as illustrations of how spatial thinking, spatial analysis and GIS are taught in undergraduate programs. The subject disciplines include: Anthropology, Archaeology, Criminology, Demography, Economics, Environment, GIS, History, Human Geography, Political Science, Public Health, Sociology, Spatially Integrated Social Sciences, Urban Studies, and Urban Planning.
This study investigates the application of life cycle thinking (LCT) and life cycle assessment (LCA) in the field of waste management from perspectives based in the social sciences. LCT is explored through the theoretical construct of regimes, drawing theoretical resources from a combination of the ‘pragmatic turn’, the economics of conventions and transition theory.This work is based on eight papers treating theoretical arguments, qualitative and quantitative analysis, case studies and s...
Second Language teaching in South Africa and concludes that many L2 teachers have resisted using this approach. This may be attributed to a misunderstanding of the basic principles of communicative language teaching (CLT), as well as to uncertainty regarding its practical application. He proposes an innovative way of implementing CLT, involving the integration of thinking skills with selected language content within a communicative framework To demonstrate this, he gives a detailed descriptio...
Swatz, Johann J.
Historically, cognitive researchers have largely ignored the domain of sport in their quest to understand how the mind works. This neglect is due, in part, to the limitations of the information processing paradigm that dominated cognitive psychology in its formative years. With the emergence of the embodiment approach to cognition, however, sport has become a dynamic natural laboratory in which to investigate the relationship between thinking and skilled action. Therefore, the purpose of this...
Moran, Aidan P.
In 11 studies, we found that participants typically did not enjoy spending 6 to 15 minutes in a room by themselves with nothing to do but think, that they enjoyed doing mundane external activities much more, and that many preferred to administer electric shocks to themselves instead of being left alone with their thoughts. Most people seem to prefer to be doing something rather than nothing, even if that something is negative. PMID:24994650
Wilson, Timothy D; Reinhard, David A; Westgate, Erin C; Gilbert, Daniel T; Ellerbeck, Nicole; Hahn, Cheryl; Brown, Casey L; Shaked, Adi
This paper reports an action research project which examined the foreign language reading comprehension of public school eighth graders who experienced a directed reading-thinking approach with strategies for comprehension and application. The strategies used were prediction, prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and questions. Data analyzed included participants’ perceptions of the usefulness of the strategies and students’ work on the graphic organizers and reading worksheets. Findings s...
Echeverri Acosta Luz Marina; McNulty Ferri Maria
In this paper, we present the results of a study conducted with several major actors from the French financial industry, which aimed at developing a process for developing responsible innovations by deploying a Design Thinking method. We begin by presentingthe context for the study which includes a brief description of our approach for understanding and exploring the issues raised by responsible innovation. This first part also includes a comparative analysis of the characteristics of RI (res...
Pavie, Xavier; Carthy, Daphne?