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1

Thinking Creatively; Thinking Critically  

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Full Text Available The development of creative and critical thinking is seen as an encouragement to independent and student-centred learning.  But what exactly do we mean when we talk about creative and critical thinking? When  and why did these terms come into prominence in modern education?  This paper will compare and consider some of the diverse but not universally agreed definitions of these widely used terms.  The language and literature classroom will be offered as an example in order to demonstrate ways of putting these approaches into practice.  Finally the paper will close with a discussion of the application of critical and creative thinking in the Hong Kong context.

Julie C. FORRESTER

2009-02-01

2

Homospatial thinking in creativity.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Homospatial thinking" consists of actively conceiving two or more discrete entities occupying the same space, a conception leading to the articulation of new identities. Homospatial thinking has a salient role in the creative process in the following wide variety of fields: literature, the visual arts, music, science, and mathematics. This cognitive factor, along with "Janusian thinking," clarifies the nature of creative thinking as a highly adaptive and primarily nonregressive form of functioning. PMID:1247359

Rothenberg, A

1976-01-01

3

The Critical Thinking and Chinese Creative Education  

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Full Text Available Critical thinking is an important basis for college students’ creative ability. In order to develop college students’ creative ability and expand creative education, we must pay attention to the cultivation of college students’ critical thinking. This paper starts from “Asking of Qian Xuesen”, which reveals the present situation why Chinese college students’ creativity is blocked. Learning from the universities’ education experience of developed European countries, we know that critical thinking is the basis of university’s creative education. Then this paper elaborates the philosophical basis and the meaning of critical thinking, the relationship of critical thinking and creativity. And furthermore, it discusses ways and methods of how to cultivate critical thinking in Chinese universities in depth.

Yanhong REN

2014-09-01

4

The Du Pont OZ Creative Thinking Network.  

Science.gov (United States)

The OZ Creative Thinking Network is a volunteer group of Du Pont Corporation employees devoted to educating themselves and others concerning creativity and innovation. This network, organized in 1986, has a current membership of over 600 employees and has produced a book that couples essays expressing concepts in creativity and innovation with…

Tanner, David

1994-01-01

5

Thinking about Creativity in Science Education  

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Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the notion of creativity in the contexts of science and science education. In doing so, we consider and reflect on some taken-for-granted ideas associated with school science creativity, such as inquiry science, and integrating art and science, while we search for a notion of scientific creativity that is compatible with both the nature of science and the general notion of creativity, and also realistic in the context of school science education. We then propose a number of activities/strategies that encourage creativity, and more specifically imaginative/creative thinking, through the learning of school science.

Yannis Hadzigeorgiou

2012-09-01

6

Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reasoning processes allow the human cognitive system to go beyond the information readily available in the environment. This review focuses on the processes of human thinking, including deductive reasoning, induction, mental simulation, and analogy. We survey recent trends across several areas, including categorization, mental models, cognitive development, and decision making. Our chief organizing principle is the contrast between traditional approaches that focus on abstract logical reasoning and a number of current approaches that posit domain-specific, knowledge-intensive cognition. We suggest that some instances of domain-specific cognition result from domain-general processes operating on domain-specific representations. Another theme is the link between reasoning and learning. We suggest that learning typically occurs as a byproduct of reasoning, rather than as an end in itself. PMID:11148305

Markman, A B; Gentner, D

2001-01-01

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Thinking creatively: from nursing education to practice.  

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Creative thinking is a critical link in the teaching-learning process, one that enhances problem solving in nursing practice. This article describes a conceptualization of creativity based on focus groups with 12 post-RN students and two nurse educators. Inherent within the major theme, striving for balance, were three subthemes-enhancing self-esteem, working within structure, and making time for reflection (i.e., process). When participants achieved balance, both personally and professionally, they experienced increased creative energy that resulted in creative expression, subsequently displayed in educational endeavors and clinical practice (i.e., product). Strategies for fostering creativity and criteria for evaluating creativity are offered, and implications for nurse educators, managers, and practitioners are examined. PMID:12180769

Kalischuk, Ruth Grant; Thorpe, Karran

2002-01-01

8

Children's Creative Thinking in Kenya.  

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Describes performing arts and story-telling programs in Kenya that help to meet the needs for a creative framework and orientation to genuine learning that recovers some of the diminishing traditions of pre-colonial Kenya. Includes descriptions of the Kenya Schools Drama Festival, the resurgence of traditional story telling, and the Kenya Drama…

Gacheru, Margaretta; Smutny, Joan Franklin; Opiyo, Mumma

1999-01-01

9

Thinking Styles and Conceptions of Creativity among University Students  

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This research aims to understand university students' thinking styles and the relationship with their views of creativity. The Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II was used to measure 13 thinking styles as defined in Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and the Conceptions of Creativity Scales was used to inquire students' views about the…

Zhu, Chang; Zhang, Li-Fang

2011-01-01

10

Distributed creativity : Thinking outside the box of the creative individual  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews theories and empirical examples that help us unpack each of these dimensions and above all, articulate them into a novel and meaningful conception of creativity as a simultaneously psychological and socio-material process. The volume concludes by examining the practical implications in adopting this perspective on creativity.

Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

2014-01-01

11

Distributed Creativity : Thinking Outside the Box of the Creative Individual  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews theories and empirical examples that help us unpack each of these dimensions and above all, articulate them into a novel and meaningful conception of creativity as a simultaneously psychological and socio-material process. The volume concludes by examining the practical implications in adopting this perspective on creativity.

Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

2014-01-01

12

Leveling Students’ Creative Thinking in Solving and Posing Mathematical Problem  

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Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree of creativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has been discussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is based on intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focused on flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving and problem posing. As students have various backgrounds and different abilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns, imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have different levels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order to develop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking in mathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe the characteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviews were conducted to collect data with ten 8th grade junior secondary school students. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking, namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level. These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty in mathematical problem solving and problem posing.

Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono

2010-07-01

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[The application of creative thinking teaching in nursing education].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing education is increasingly expected to cultivate nursing student creative abilities in line with general Ministry of Education promotion of greater creativity within education and the greater leeway for creativity won domestically for nurses by professional nursing organizations. Creative thinking has been named by education experts in the United States as the third most important goal of nursing education. However, nursing students in Taiwan have been shown to test lower in terms of creativity than students enrolled in business management. Leaders in nursing education should consider methods by which to improve the creative thinking capabilities of nursing students. Articles in the literature indicate that courses in creative studies are concentrated in the field of education, with few designed specifically for nursing. The teaching of constructing creative thinking is particularly weak in the nursing field. The purpose of this article was to review literature on education and nursing in order to explore current definitions, teaching strategies, and evaluation approaches related to creativity, and to develop a foundation for teaching creativity in nursing. The authors hope that an appropriate creative thinking course for nursing students may be constructed by referencing guidance provided in this in order to further cultivate creative thinking abilities in nursing students that will facilitate their application of creative thinking in their future clinical practicum. PMID:20401872

Ku, Ya-Lie; Chang, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Chien-Lin; Sheu, Sheila

2010-04-01

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The Effect of Creative and Critical Thinking Based Laboratory Applications on Creative and Logical Thinking Abilities of Prospective Teachers  

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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory method on prospective primary teachers' creative and logical thinking abilities. This research was conducted with 90 prospective elementary school teachers who were enrolled in two classes of education faculty during the spring semester of the…

Koray, Ozlem; Koksal, Mustafa Serdar

2009-01-01

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Lateral Thinking; Creativity Step by Step.  

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The purpose of thinking is to collect information and to make the best possible use of it. Because of the way the mind works to create fixed concept patterns we cannot make the best use of new information unless we have some means for restructuring the old patterns and bringing them up to date. Our traditional methods of thinking teach us how to…

de Bono, Edward

16

Bilingualism and creativity: Benefits in convergent thinking come with losses in divergent thinking  

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Full Text Available Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals towards a strongly focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed by creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking, this predicts that high-proficient bilinguals should outperform low-proficient bilinguals in convergent thinking, while low-proficient bilinguals might be better in divergent thinking. Comparing low- and high-proficient bilinguals on convergent-thinking and divergent-thinking tasks indeed showed a high-proficient bilingual advantage for convergent thinking but a low-proficient bilingual advantage for fluency in divergent thinking. These findings suggest that bilingualism should not be related to “creativity” as a unitary concept but, rather, to the specific processes and mechanisms that underlie creativity.

LorenzaSColzato

2011-11-01

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The effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications on creative and logical thinking abilities of prospective teachers  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory method on prospective primary teachers’ creative and logical thinking abilities. This research was conducted with 90 prospective elementary school teachers who were enrolled in two classes of education faculty during the spring semester of the 2004–2005 academic year. Creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications were conducted in the experimental group, and traditional laboratory applications were conducted in the control group. As a result of the investigation, it was determined that the experimental group was more successful than the control group in terms of the logical thinking ability and creativity. Implications for science education at the teacher education level were discussed.

Özlem KORAY

2009-06-01

18

Hemispheric Specialization and Creative Thinking: A Meta-Analytic Review of Lateralization of Creativity  

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In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking

Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens

2010-01-01

19

Assessing Creativity: The Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP)  

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The Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP), its design, concept and evaluation scheme as well as experiences and results of application are described. The test was designed to mirror a more holistic concept of creativity than the mere quantitatively oriented, traditional divergent thinking tests. The specific design using figural…

Urban, Klaus K.

2005-01-01

20

Creative Thinking of Practical Engineering Students During a Design Project  

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Creativity in engineering design had become an economic necessity and not merely the privilege of unique individuals. The search for new, innovative and effective ideas in engineering design stands in center of daily creative performance. This search requires sensitivity to gaps of knowledge and information, and the ability to evoke numerous, different and unique ideas about engineering problems. The source of such information or knowledge can be either extrinsic-such as provided by an instructor or expert or intrinsic, which might involve transformation from one field or context to another. Furthermore, interaction with an exterior source as well as developing an inherent drive, have an impact on the motivation to perform creatively. This article, which is based on a study conducted among Israeli practical engineering students, deals with the variations in creative thinking during various stages of a design project and the relation between creative thinking and motivation factors.

Waks, Shlomo; Merdler, Moti

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The Scientific Method - Critical and Creative Thinking  

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The ``scientific method'' is not just for scientists! Combined with critical thinking, the scientific method can enable students to distinguish credible sources of information from nonsense and become intelligent consumers of information. Professors John Cotton and Randall Scalise illustrate these principles using a series of examples and demonstrations that is enlightening, educational, and entertaining. This lecture/demonstration features highlights from their course (whose unofficial title is ``debunking pseudoscience'' ) which enables students to detect pseudoscience in its many guises: paranormal phenomena, free-energy devices, alternative medicine, and many others.

Cotton, John; Scarlise, Randall

2011-10-01

22

Current methodology and methods in psychophysiological studies of creative thinking.  

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Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures. PMID:17434420

Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V

2007-05-01

23

Comment on Gadzella and Penland (1995): creativity and critical thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The moderate correlations reported by Gadzella and Penland in 1995 for scores on the 16PF Creativity scale with scores in the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal are interpreted within the context of literature, suggesting the 16PF Creativity scale may be regarded as reflecting personality traits related to both cognitive style and decision making as well as general ability. This allows development of further hypotheses. PMID:10876332

Bisset, I M

2000-06-01

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The Effects of Thinking in Silence on Creativity and Innovation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on the effects of thinking in silence on creativity and innovation. In these studies I use a social psychology and cognitive psychology lens to study creativity and innovation at the individual and at the team level of analysis, using randomized experiments to test hypothesized causal relationships. In the first study I find that when the ability to modify self-presentation is low and the sensitivity to expressive behavior of others is hig...

Vet, A. J.

2007-01-01

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Teaching Design of Cultivating Nursing Students' Creative Thinking  

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Chinese nursing education levels have developed fast over the past few years. Many nursing educators are devoted to the research of nursing teaching. How to cultivate nursing students, creative thinking is one of the principle researches and has received increasing attention. In the course of nursing teaching, we renewed the teaching design based…

Xi-wen, Liu; Chun-ping, Ni; Rui, Yang; Xiu-chuan, Li; Cheng, Cheng

2007-01-01

26

Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence  

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Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

2009-01-01

27

Assessing Creative Thinking in Design-Based Learning  

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Infusing creative thinking competence through the design process of authentic projects requires not only changing the teaching methods and learning environment, but also adopting new assessment methods, such as portfolio assessment. The participants in this study were 128 high school pupils who have studied MECHATRONICS from 10th to 12th grades…

Doppelt, Yaron

2009-01-01

28

Creative Thinking: Processes, Strategies, and Knowledge  

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Creative achievements are the basis for progress in our world. Although creative achievement is influenced by many variables, the basis for creativity is held to lie in the generation of high-quality, original, and elegant solutions to complex, novel, ill-defined problems. In the present effort, we examine the cognitive capacities that make…

Mumford, Michael D.; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Partlow, Paul J.

2012-01-01

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Secondary Teachers' Conceptions of Creative Thinking within the Context of Environmental Education  

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Creative thinking in Environmental Education (EE) remains greatly under researched topic. Research on teachers' conceptions of creative thinking within EE context is also limited, although their role in facilitating creative thinking in students is well documented. The small-scale qualitative study presented here investigates Greek secondary…

Daskolia, Maria; Dimos, Athanasios; Kampylis, Panagiotis G.

2012-01-01

30

Age-Related Changes in Creative Thinking  

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Age-related differences in cognitive processes were used to understand age-related declines in creativity. According to the Geneplore model (Finke, Ward, & Smith, 1992), there are two phases of creativity--generating an idea and exploring the implications of the idea--each with different underlying cognitive processes. These two phases are…

Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly; Black, Sheila R.; Mccown, Steven M.

2008-01-01

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The Analysing Children's Creative Thinking Framework: Development of an Observation-Led Approach to Identifying and Analysing Young Children's Creative Thinking  

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Increased international recognition of the value of supporting creative thinking suggests the value of development of approaches to its identification in children. Development of an observation-led framework, the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) framework, is described, and a case made for the validity of inferring creative

Robson, Sue

2014-01-01

32

Integrating the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) Programme for Creative Thinking into a Project-Based Technology Curriculum.  

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Describes the Creative Thinking in Technology (CTT) program in which creative thinking is presented as a synthesis between lateral thinking and vertical thinking. Analyzes student projects in light of this definition of creativity, and explores the role technology can play in developing students' higher order thinking skills. (Contains 37…

Barak, Moshe; Doppelt, Yaron

1999-01-01

33

Cultivating the College Students’ Creative Thinking in Industrial Design  

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Full Text Available This paper probes into the source of “originality” in developing the creative thinking of the science students majoring in industrial design. The authors believe that the critical factors for the source of “originality” lie in not only the internal cause, but also the external cause. Whether the science students take a great consideration of art and humanity courses, in other words, whether they are aware of the relationship between artistical thought and industrial design or not, it is very important. In addition, creative capacity cannot be taught, and it only results from inspiration and guidance of teachers from multidisciplinary.

Hua Cen

2013-08-01

34

The Effectiveness of the Creative Reversal Act (CREACT) on Students' Creative Thinking  

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A research study using one-group pretest-posttest design was carried out on the effectiveness of the Creative Reversal Act (CREACT) on creative thinking. The CREACT is a new, teaching technique developed based on the theory of the janusian process. The research participants included 34 students who were attending 10th grade at a social studies…

Sak, Ugur; Oz, Ozge

2010-01-01

35

Creative motivation: creative achievement predicts cardiac autonomic markers of effort during divergent thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Executive approaches to creativity emphasize that generating creative ideas can be hard and requires mental effort. Few studies, however, have examined effort-related physiological activity during creativity tasks. Using motivational intensity theory as a framework, we examined predictors of effort-related cardiac activity during a creative challenge. A sample of 111 adults completed a divergent thinking task. Sympathetic (PEP and RZ) and parasympathetic (RSA and RMSSD) outcomes were assessed using impedance cardiography. As predicted, people with high creative achievement (measured with the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) showed significantly greater increases in sympathetic activity from baseline to task, reflecting higher effort. People with more creative achievements generated ideas that were significantly more creative, and creative performance correlated marginally with PEP and RZ. The results support the view that creative thought can be a mental challenge. PMID:25063471

Silvia, Paul J; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Eddington, Kari M; Kwapil, Thomas R

2014-10-01

36

Composition in the Intermediate Grades: How to Promote Thinking and Creativity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of metacognitive strategies, creative problem solving, and creative thinking techniques in intermediate grade writing instruction can promote students' thinking and creativity. Metacognitive strategies can help students attack the writing task in an orderly fashion. Answering specific questions for descriptive, expository, narrative, or…

Laney, James D.

37

Creative thinking in prospective teachers: the status quo and the impact of contextual factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation...

Hannetjie Meintjes; Mary Grosser

2010-01-01

38

The Effects of Thinking Style Based Cooperative Learning on Group Creativity  

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Full Text Available Recent studies have emphasized group creativity within a socio-cultural context rather than at an individual level, but not many researchers reported strategies for developing group creativity. This paper aims to explore strategies to enhance group creativity based on the theoretical basis of thinking styles by Sternberg. The hypothesis was that groups with members of diverse thinking styles would show greater gains in creative performance. In this study, the participants (n=72 were divided into 24 three-person groups. Each group was given the task to create a game using Scratch programming language. Among the 24 groups, eleven groups (n=33 consisted of heterogeneous thinking styles, and the other thirteen groups (n=39 consisted solely of homogeneous thinking styles. All divided groups performed same creative task. The empirical results supported the hypothesis that group formation of diverse thinking style shows better group creativity.

2013-01-01

39

A Comparative Study of Creative Thinking of American and Japanese College Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cross-cultural differences in creative thinking were assessed for 51 American and 54 Japanese college students. The American students showed significantly higher scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) figural test than the Japanese students. No gender differences were found in either culture. TTCT performance did not correlate…

Saeki, Noriko; Fan, Xitao; Van Dusen, Lani

2001-01-01

40

Designscholar: Examining Creative Thinking in an Online Learning Community for Interior Design Graduate Students  

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This study examined the creative thinking of interior design graduate students in an online learning community. This study considered potential changes in creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration) about design research resulting from peer-led online discussions. It further studied the learner characteristics of…

Ransdell, Marlo Evelyn

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Domain-General and Domain-Specific Creative-Thinking Tests: Effects of Gender and Item Content on Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined the effects of gender and item content of domain-general and domain-specific creative-thinking tests on four subscale scores of creative-thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration). Chinese tenth-grade students (234 males and 244 females) participated in the study. Domain-general creative thinking was measured…

Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Wu, Junbin

2013-01-01

42

Applying MacKinnon's 4Ps to Foster Creative Thinking and Creative Behaviours in Kindergarten Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify certain strategies and conditions that should be used by teachers in kindergarten so as to foster creative thinking and creative behaviours to children. We used a quasi-experimental research design for 6 months in a public kindergarten in a suburban area of Greece, and we developed a creative music and…

Riga, Vassiliki; Chronopoulou, Elena

2014-01-01

43

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF RECORDED PROGRAMMED EXPERIENCES IN CREATIVE THINKING IN THE FOURTH GRADE.  

Science.gov (United States)

TWO MAJOR PROBLEMS IN THE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVE TALENT IN THE FOURTH GRADE WERE CONSIDERED--THE NEED TO OVERCOME DIFFICULTIES WHICH TEACHERS EXPERIENCE IN CREATIVE GUIDANCE, AND THE NEED TO DEVELOP WAYS OF COUNTERACTING A SLUMP IN CREATIVE THINKING. EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECTS SHOWED STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT GAINS ON NONVERBAL…

GUPTA, RAM; TORRANCE, E. PAUL

44

PUZZLES – A CREATIVE WAY OF DEVELOPMENT OF LOGICAL THINKING  

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Logical thinking of students should be enhanced at all levels of their studies. There are many possibilities how to achieve it. In the paper one possible way within the subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization” dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be presented. These mathematical disciplines are powerful tools for teachers allowing them to develop logical thinking of students, increase their imagination and make them familiar with...

Milkova?, Eva

2011-01-01

45

Exploratory Examination of Relationships between Learning Styles and Creative Thinking in Math Students  

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Full Text Available It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate that creative thinking, assessed by RAT, and learning preferences, evaluated by ILS, are not highly correlated. Over all, students in this study show a balanced learning preference across four dimensions. In summary, this study directs a possible path for future researchers to investigate this phenomenon.

Kuan Chen Tsai

2013-08-01

46

Roles of parents in enhancing children’s creative thinking skills  

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Full Text Available Since creative thinking is an essential requirement in today’s societies, educational institutions have to make some reforms in order to prepare next generation according to the needs of the societies such as giving more emphasis on creative thinking. The main aims of this paper are to reveal the parents’ opinions about the creative thinking skills, to teach parents the meaning of creative thinking, and to teach parents to create home environments that enhance creative thinking skills. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed. Pretest- posttest experimental design was used and qualitative data were collected by an open-ended questionnaire. A 10-hour parent education seminar was used as an intervention for the experimental group. The participants of the research were 80 parents (40 parents in the experimental group, 40 parents in the control group from a primary school in Ankara, Turkey. Content analysis was applied to analyze the qualitative data. The pretest results have indicated that there were no differences between parents groups according to the knowledge level about the creative thinking. According to posttest results, the knowledge levels of parents in the experimental group who were given 10-hour parent education seminar were increased. However, the knowledge levels of the parents who have not given any education in the control group, were remained the same. Besides, experimental group parents have more information about creating home environments that enhance creativity rather than control group parents. According to the findings, parents' perspectives in the experimental group on the creative thinking skills have changed after the parent education seminar. However, the perspectives of the parent in the control group have not changed.

Pervin Oya Taneri

2012-07-01

47

The Role of Bilingualism in Creative Performance on Divergent Thinking and Invented Alien Creatures Tests  

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This study continues the effort to investigate the possible influence of bilingualism on an individual's creative potential. The performances of Farsi-English bilinguals living in the UAE and Farsi monolinguals living in Iran were compared on the Culture Fair Intelligence Test battery and two creativity tests: divergent thinking test (the…

Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

2009-01-01

48

Thinking through systems thinking  

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Systemicity is receiving wider attention thanks to its evident paradox. On the one hand, it occurs as a problem with complex symptoms. On the other, it is sought after as an approach for dealing with the non-linear reality of the world. At once problem and prize, systemicity continues to confound. This book details the mechanics of this paradox as they arise from human epistemological engagement with the world. Guided by an original analysis of the fundamental idea of emergent property, Thinking Through Systems Thinking uncovers the distinct significance, but also inc

Georgiou, Ion

2013-01-01

49

Thinking Green!  

Science.gov (United States)

Students show their creativity and think like engineers as they design products or services that can be used to improve environmental problems in the community. While being aware of the steps of the engineering design process, students are challenged to consider all aspects of their products/services, including their costs, and impacts on the environment and people in their communities. They present their "green" solutions, in the form of advertisements, to the class for critical review of their feasibility.

GK-12 Program,

50

Developing creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills in a financial services organisation  

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Full Text Available Orientation: An important evaluation function is to determine whether creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed through training and to assess whether these skills, on their own, are sufficient to ignite innovation in organisations.Research purpose: The evaluation question that the present study aimed to address is whether employees in a corporate context, such as a financial services organisation, can develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills through an intervention such as a workshop.Motivation for the study: A financial services organisation commissioned the primary author of this article to design a workshop with the intent to develop the creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of their employees in order to ignite innovation and competitiveness.Research design, approach and method: This study employed mainly qualitative research. Utilisation-focused evaluation (UFE was employed and findings from the literature review, questionnaires, pen-and-paper tests and interviews were used. The unit of analysis was a niche business unit in a South African financial services organisation.Main findings: From this study’s point of view, the most critical finding related to the confirmation that individuals can acquire creative and innovative thinking and problemsolving skills. The acquisition of these skills, however, is not sufficient on its own to establish a culture supportive of creativity and sustainable innovation.Practical/managerial implications: The development of creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of employees is not sufficient on its own to support sustainable innovation. Managers should consciously establish determinants on an organisational as well as an individual level to create an environment supportive of sustainable innovation.Contribution/value-add: The present study indicated how a workshop can assist individuals to develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills. The acquisition of these skills is not sufficient on its own to ignite sustainable innovation.

Cherylene De Jager

2013-05-01

51

METHODS FOR IMPROVING INFORMATION CULTURE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH AND CREATIVE SKILLS STUDENTS BASED ON CREATIVE THINKING  

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Full Text Available The article discusses methods to improve the information culture in the development of research and creative abilities of students on the basis of creative thinking. The purpose: consider ways to improve the information culture in the development of research and creative abilities of students on the basis of creative thinking. Method or methodology of carrying out of job: theoretical analysis of the psychological and educational literature. Results: The essence of the methods to improve the information culture, which leads to the development of abilities to work in a multi-factor systems in the face of uncertainty, to the construction of more complex hierarchical structures of their own activities, updating combinatorial abilities, that improve the development process of research and creativity, to generate the highest level IV information Culture - Professionally. Scope of results: preparation of the information for University students.

Teplaya Naila Aligasanovna

2013-05-01

52

Visual Material Effect on Academic Achievement, Creative Thinking and Attitude towards Course  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of the visual materials’ usage in Social Sciences on students’ academic achievement, creative thinking skills and their attitudes towards the course. The study was based on the Social Sciences unit titled ‘’Geography and Our World’’ and conducted with a total number of 38 students, (18 of them were in the experimental group and 20 of them were in the control group. The participants were 6th grade students of Koç Primary School in Bolu. For data collection, Social Sciences Achievement Test, Torrance Creative Thinking Test and Attitude Scale were used as instruments. In the statistical analysis of data, Mean, Standard Deviation levels and Mann Whitney-U Test were used. The results of the study revealed that the program designed for the experimental group, increased the participants’ academic achievement and creative thinking skills and had a positive impact on their attitudes towards the course.© 2013 IOJES. All rights reserved

Serap Emir.

2013-08-01

53

THE CREATIVE THINKING LEVELS OF STUDENTS AT SIXTH CLASS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION  

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Full Text Available Today it is necessary to develop an education model that is special to creative individuals and their creativeness. It is also required to discover children and young people who have creative qualities at an early stage and improve creative thinking in their minds. For this aim, it is very important to determine the high-level thinking skills, especially creative thinking levels of children at primary education period. Therefore, there are considerable duties available for the teachers.In this study, the creative thinking levels of two distinct student groups from different primary schools who study at sixth class of primary education are explored and a comparison is made between their levels. The goal of this research is to find out how the fluency, flexibility and originality dimensions of these students differ. In the way of this purpose, there are fourty-three sixth class of primary education students, who study at two different primary schools in ?zmir, formed the research sampling. Twenty-six of these students are female while seventeen students are male. The Torrance Creative Thinking Test Linguistic –A Form is used as a data collecting tool in the study. The application and form evaluation periods have done by the researchers. At the end of the research, there are meaningful differences obtained between the two schools about the fluency, flexibility and originality levels of students attended to the research. When it is considered in terms of total creative levels, it is seen that the fluency points of those two schools attended to this study are the highest while the flexibility points are the lowest. This situation betrays that the students participated in this study can not use their skill of producing many ideas in terms of handling cases from all points of views.

Esen ERSOY

2009-10-01

54

Development of an instrument to measure thinking, learning, and creativity: a triangulation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of triangulation was used to develop an instrument to measure thinking, learning, and creativity in the nursing workplace. A TLC instrument consisting of five components was systematically developed as part of this study. In this descriptive correlative study, we investigated nurses' perceptions of their ability to think, learn, and be creative in their work life. The results of the investigation showed that TLC is significantly related to the perceived quality of work life of practicing registered professional nurses supporting Naisbett and Aburdene's (1985) idea that TLC is essential to attract and retain employees in the workplace. PMID:1788069

Gothler, A M; Hanner, M B

1991-12-01

55

Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

2012-01-01

56

Do dimensional psychopathology measures relate to creative achievement or divergent thinking?  

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Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s). None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants' real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed. PMID:25278919

Zabelina, Darya L; Condon, David; Beeman, Mark

2014-01-01

57

Do Dimensional Psychopathology Measures Relate to Creative Achievement or Divergent Thinking?  

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Full Text Available Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s. None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants’ real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.

DaryaZabelina

2014-09-01

58

The Analysis of the Thinking Styles and Creativity of the Sports Students Studying in the Different Fields of University  

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This study analyzes the creativity and thinking levels of athletes studying at the different college departments; 61 female and 75 male athletes, a total of 136 ice-hockey players have participated in the research. As data collection tools, Thinking Styles Inventory and The Creativity Scale have been used in the study. SPSS 15.0 for Windows…

Eraslan, Meric

2014-01-01

59

From Dichotomous to Relational Thinking in the Psychology of Creativity : A Review of Great Debates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article invites us to think about the role of dichotomies in the psychology of creativity and how they can sometimes lead to a misrepresentation of the phenomenon. Especially when turned into oppositions, which is often the case with dichotomies, distinctions such as those between individual and society, Big C and little c creativity, evolutionary and revolutionary creation, domain generality and domain specificity, product and process, can have detrimental effects on our understanding of the nature and characteristics of creative expression. In contrast, the article advocates for a relational type of logic, supported by socio-cultural and pragmatist sources, one that encourages us to observe the interdependence between categories and the ways in which they are embedded into each other. Examples are given from the five “debates” mentioned above and some consequences of adopting a new way of thinking about creativity discussed towards the end.

Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

2012-01-01

60

Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers  

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Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

A Brief Review on Developing Creative Thinking in Young Children by Mind Mapping  

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Full Text Available Mind mapping is a presentation form of radiant thinking, utilizing lines, colors, characters, numbers, symbols, image, pictures or keywords, etc. to associate, integrate and visualize the learned concept and evoke brain potential. Through mind maps, one’s attention, coordination ability, logic, reasoning, thinking, analyzing, creativity, imagination, memory, ability of planning and integration, speed reading, character, number, visuality, hearing, kinesthetic sense, sensation, etc. are significantly enhanced. “Picture” is not limited by nationality and language and is the best tool for young children to explore new things and learning. Because pictorial representation is one of the most primal human traits and drawing ability is better than writing ability in young children, learning and expressing through mind mapping prevents difficulties of writing, grammar and long description in children. Thus, this study reviews related researches to figure out whether mind mapping can be applied by young children to develop their creative thinking.

Wen-Cheng Wang

2010-06-01

62

Thinking through creativity and culture : Toward an integrated model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Creativity and culture are inherently linked. Society and culture are part and parcel of creativity’s process, outcome, and subjective experience.Equally, creativity does not reside in the individual independent of culture and society. Vlad Petre Gl?veanu’s basic framework includes creators and community, from which new artifacts emerge and existing artifacts are developed. He points to a relationship between self and other, new and old, specific for every creative act. Using this multifaceted system requires that researchers employ ecological research in order to capture the heterogeneity and social dimensions of creativity. Gl?veanu uses an approach based on cultural psychology to present creativity in lay terms and within everyday settings. He concludes with a unitary cultural framework of creativity interrelating actors, audiences, actions, artifacts, and affordances.

Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

2014-01-01

63

Thinking through creativity and culture: Toward an integrated model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Creativity and culture are inherently linked. Society and culture are part and parcel of creativity’s process, outcome, and subjective experience.Equally, creativity does not reside in the individual independent of culture and society. Vlad Petre Gl?veanu’s basic framework includes creators and community, from which new artifacts emerge and existing artifacts are developed. He points to a relationship between self and other, new and old, specific for every creative act. Using this multifaceted system requires that researchers employ ecological research in order to capture the heterogeneity and social dimensions of creativity. Gl?veanu uses an approach based on cultural psychology to present creativity in lay terms and within everyday settings. He concludes with a unitary cultural framework of creativity interrelating actors, audiences, actions, artifacts, and affordances.

Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

2014-01-01

64

Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop model of Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including: 1 to synthesize the tentative model for Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology, 2 to develop the tentative model for Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including, and 3 to evaluate for certifying the tentative model for Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including, by using revision technique from experts called Expert review through the Opinion Survey, Interview, and Focus group discussion in order to synthesize as conceptual framework of design. Data were analyzed by using statistic of Percentage, Mean, and Standard Deviation, and interview tape deciphering. Then, the obtained data were explained, interpreted, and concluded. The research findings found that: 1 the appropriateness of details in tentative model found that the appropriateness was in “the Highest” level, 2 the appropriateness of details in tentative model in the steps and instructional activities by the research methodology including, found that the appropriateness was in “High” level.

Chalit Kangvaravoot

2013-06-01

65

Understanding Imaginative Thinking during Childhood: Sociocultural Conceptions of Creativity and Imaginative Thought  

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Understanding imagination as both a cognitive and affective endeavor is crucial in order for educators to promote creative and imaginative thinking in informal and formal learning environments. It is the primary aim of this paper to develop the theoretical discussion of Vygotsky's writings on young children's imaginative abilities launched by…

Eckhoff, Angela; Urbach, Jennifer

2008-01-01

66

DEVELOPMENT of CREATIVE THINKING through SPEECH SITUATIONS at the ENGLISH LESSONS  

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Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of speech situations created at the English lessons. The purpose is to study one of the most efficient methods to involve pupils into the active speech activity through their imagination and creative thinking and show the essential condition which is pupils’ interest in the topic of speech situations.

Alferova Olga Ivanovna

2013-03-01

67

UNDERSTANDING THE FOURTH GRADE SLUMP IN CREATIVE THINKING. FINAL REPORT.  

Science.gov (United States)

STUDIES OF CREATIVITY AND OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTURBANCES IN CHILDREN HAVE SUGGESTED THE PRESENCE OF SLUMPS (OR INVERSIONS) WHICH MAY BE CORRELATED WITH DEVELOPMENTAL TRANSITIONS. THE MOST NOTABLE OF THESE OCCURS AT ABOUT THE FOURTH GRADE AND IS THE OBJECT OF THIS STUDY. THREE SETS OF INVESTIGATIONS WERE UNDERTAKEN--(1) A STUDY OF CREATIVE

TORRANCE, E. PAUL

68

Exploring the Relationship of Creative Thinking to Reading and Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores if extensive practice in reading or writing is related to high creative performance. In total, 196 university students participated in the study by filling out a questionnaire and completing a creativity test. The questionnaire inquires the total courses taken in the school year, total hours spent on reading, total hours on…

Wang, Amber Yayin

2012-01-01

69

Thinking about the Creativity Based on System Approach  

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Full Text Available Creativity is an essential element of success in contemporary organizations, yet much remains to be discovered about how creativity happens. Based on the system approach, this paper tries to explore how the creativity happens in the minds of individuals. Then it gives three cases to discuss the process of an idea for new product or new technology. And finally, it shows the result of creating knowledge is not an individual’s activity but continual interaction standing in individuals or between system and its environment.

Jun Hong

2009-02-01

70

The Capability of Integrated Problem-Based Learning in Improving Students? Level of Creative-Critical Thinking  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to report andprovide evidence of positive development on physics students’ thinking style focally on their critical thinking at early implementation of an integrated problem-based learning (PBL approach. This study was performed on a cohort of 28 Physics with Electronics students from School of Science and Technology at University Malaysia Sabah. The sample was trained by the integrated PBL method for 1 semester (i.e., 14 weeks in a Physics course (i.e., Thermodynamics. The YanPiaw Creative-Critical Thinking (YCreative-Critical Thinking Test developed by Chua (2004 was used to identify students’ level of thinking style (i.e.,balanced thinking, criticalthinking etc. before and after the early implementation. Theresults show positive development in students’ thinking style before to after the implementation. Additionally the relations of these thinking styles with student’s age were also analysed.

Elnetthra Folly Eldy

2013-08-01

71

Thinking Can Cause Forgetting: Memory Dynamics in Creative Problem Solving  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…

Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

2011-01-01

72

Cogniton-based Enlightenment of Creative Thinking: Examplars in Computer Science  

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Full Text Available It is reputed that “Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration”, but it can also be noted that “sometimes, 1% inspiration is more important than 99% perspiration.” As this 1% is so important, can it be understood, and even learned? If so, how can cognition be used to enlighten a scientist's inspiration (creative thinking? Both questions are considered on the basis of cognitive theory in the paper. We illustrate our ideas with examples from computer science.

2013-01-01

73

Effect of Collaborative Studies on Prospective Teachers’ Creative Thinking Skills while Designing Computer Based Material  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study to examine effect of collaborative studies on prospective teachers? creative thinking skills while designing computer based materials. One group pre-test and post-test design of the pre-experimental model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. This experimental study have been applied to 34 prospective teachers who studied at Artvin Coruh University Facult of Education Primary Education Department in 2009-2010 spring term within the context of “Computer-II” course. “Creative Thinking Skill Scale” was applied at two different stages as pre-test and post-test and opinions of students were gathered about the method in research via interview forms. As a result, it was found that there was a significant difference between the prospective teachers? creative thinking skills and scores taken from scale were increased in favor of post-test. Collaborative group works have a great importance in occurrence of this increase was revealed from student views.

Salih B?R??Ç?

2011-06-01

74

[Gender differences in EEG coherence changes during figural creative thinking: the efficacy coupling].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was aimed to explore the features of interaction between cortical areas during figural creative task performance in high- and low-creative men and women. We divided the participants into two groups with high and low creativity by the median of originality score. EEG was recorded at rest and during task performance (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking "Incomplete figures"). The EEG coherence was computed in six frequency bands from theta1 to beta2. We analyzed the total values of coherence for each of 16 sites, calculated separately for intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connections. In the theta2, alphal, and alpha2 bands, coherence values decreased in task performance as compared to baseline in subjects with lower originality scores, whereas in subjects with higher scores, they increased in the theta2 and alpha1 bands. The decrease in the alpha2 band in the higher-creativity group was significantly lower in comparison with the decrease in the lower-score group. In the alpha2 band, the interaction of gender, creativity, laterality, and electrode position factors was also found during analysis of task-induced coherence changes. Further examination of the interaction showed the similarity of EEG coherence patterns in men and women with opposite creative abilities and higher values of task-induced coherence changes in the anterior regions of the left hemisphere and posterior regions of the right hemisphere in high-creative in comparison with low-creative men. The findings are discussed in terms of different cognitive strategies used by men and women that may have the same results in creative problem solving. PMID:19795805

Vol'f, N V; Tarasova, I V; Razumnikova, O M

2009-01-01

75

Creativity measured by divergent thinking is associated with two axes of autistic characteristics  

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Full Text Available Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Empathizing is the drive to identify the mental status of other individuals and respond to it with an appropriate emotion; systemizing is the drive to analyze a system. Recently, it has been proposed that low empathizing and high systemizing characterize individuals with autistic spectrum conditions (ASCs. It has been proposed that this higher systemizing underlies the academic achievement of these individuals, suggesting the possible positive association between creativity and systemizing. However, previous findings on the association between ASCs and creativity were conflicting. Conversely, previous studies have suggested an association between prosocial traits and creativity, indicating the possible association between empathizing and systemizing. Here we investigated the association between creativity measured by divergent thinking (CDT and empathizing, systemizing, and the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing, which is called D score. CDT was measured using the S-A creativity test and the score of empathizing (EQ and that of systemizing (SQ, and D score was measured via a validated questionnaire. The results showed that higher CDT was significantly and positively correlated with both the score of empathizing and the score of systemizing but not with D score. These results suggest that CDT is positively associated with one of the characteristics of ASCs (analytical aspects, while exhibiting a negative association with another (lower social aspects. Therefore, the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing, which is strongly associated with autistic tendency, was not associated with CDT.

HikaruTakeuchi

2014-08-01

76

The extent to which teachers nurture creative thinking in the Grade 9 Social Sciences classroom through the choice of teaching methods / Byron John Bunt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nurturing of creative thinking skills is one of the cornerstones of Outcomes-Based Education (OBE). This study investigated to what extent teachers nurture the development of creative thinking through the choice of teaching methods, which include the application of teaching strategies and the utilization of resources, in the Grade 9 Social Sciences classroom. A literature study was undertaken to highlight the importance and nature of the development of creative thinking skills, and to est...

Bunt, Byron John

2012-01-01

77

?he Contribution of Music and Movement Activities to Creative Thinking in Pre-School Children  

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Full Text Available As interest in creativity is rising, kindergarten teachers are looking for ways to strengthen the creative potential of young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music and movement activities to creative thinking in preschool children. A three month educational programme was designed and implemented, using an experimental research method. The effect on fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of thought of 5 year old children, as well as how the programme affected creative behaviours, was studied. The results, upon completion of the educational programme, showed that the growth rate of these variables in the experimental group was statistically significant compared to the corresponding rates in the control group. In addition, the emergence of creative behaviours, such as an increased freedom of expression, a tendency to explore and experiment, and a questioning of what is commonly accepted, were considered to be a consequence of the implementation of the specific educational programme. The experimental research produced valuable information about the design and philosophy of educational programmes, and about the teaching methods of music and movement activities in kindergarten.

Elena Chronopoulou

2012-04-01

78

Creative Thinking Development Program for Learning Activity Management of Secondary School Teachers  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: to design a creative thinking development program for learning activity management of secondary school teachers, and to study the program’s efficiency and effectiveness of usage. The results of the study were as follows: the program includes the vision, principles, objectives, content, program development process, evaluation of performance and effectiveness. The process development had 5 stages and 8 activities of construction. The efficiency of the development program in learning activity management of secondary school teachers by 82.15/80.81 was an established requirement. The findings indicated that the teachers attained knowledge, skill and attitude towards creative learning activity management after using the program at a higher than before using the program at .05 significant level.

Sutinan Pukdeewut

2013-11-01

79

Creativity and Thinking Skills Integrated into a Science Enrichment Unit on Flooding  

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Full Text Available Floods that used to happen every hundred years are now occurring more frequently. Human influences on the damage inflicted by flooding need to be well-understood by future voters and property-owners. Therefore, the timely topic of flooding was used as the focus of a special multi-grade enrichment short course taught by two university education professors for 26 preK-8th grade high-achieving and creative students. During the course, students listened to guest speakers (city council member, meteorologist, and environmentalist, watched two flood-related videos, read books on floods, viewed electronic presentations related to dams and recent floods, discussed causes, effects, and mitigations of flooding, and devised creative games from recycled materials to teach peers about flood concepts. The de Bono CoRT Breadth thinking skill system was used to organize many of the course activities. The flood lesson activities were relevant to these students who had experienced a flood of the city’s river the previous year and challenged students more than their typical classroom activities, an important finding considering that many gifted students drop out of school because of irrelevant and non-demanding class work. The course broadened students’ knowledge of floods and assisted them in thinking beyond the immediate situation.

Audrey C. Rule

2012-12-01

80

Teaching creative thinking in regular science lessons: Potentials and obstacles of three different approaches in an Asian context  

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Full Text Available In response to the recent school creativity reforms in Asian places, this paper studied three different approaches of integrating creative thinking training into regular science lessons. They include developing creative thinking through science process, science content and science scenario. Three teacher case studies were conducted to examine the potentials and obstacles of implementing these approaches in classroom of Hong Kong. This study found that all the approaches were useful in developing student creative thinking, yet teachers experienced different tensions and dilemmas in different approaches. This paper suggests that the science content approach may be more readily accepted by teachers and students in an educational system which is dominated by knowledge content and examinations. However, with the limited skills and experience in creativity, teachers and students may feel that the science process and science scenario approach are easier to start with, as they are less constrained by the rigid content in the syllabus. Among various hindering factors, the most crucial one was found to be the original heavy knowledge-content, which in fact is a common characteristic of secondary science curriculum in many Asian places. In our future research and educational reforms, the dilemma between creative thinking and content learning needs to be seriously considered and solved at both individual and system levels.

Vivian M. Y. CHENG

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

The Relationship Between Creative Thinking And Empathy With Self-awareness In High School Students In India  

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Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that there is moderate to strong correlation between creative thinking and empathy with self-awareness as three important skills in human life and the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between these three aspects of life skills. The participants in the study contained of 96(54 males and 42 females 10 grade of high school students from Mysore in India. Life skill questionnaire - India (LSQI, carried out on the group sample and date analyzed through Pearson correlation and multiple regression using SPSS soft ware.The results revealed that self-awareness significantly has positive correlation with creative thinking (r=31, p<.01 and empathy(r=36, p<.01. Analysis of regression also shows that multiple relationships between three variables is significant (MR=0.36 and RS = .12, p<.01 and 12 percent of variation of self-awareness can be predicts by empathy and creative thinking.

Ayatollah Karimi

2012-09-01

82

Criatividade e pensamento crítico / Creative and critical thinking / Creatividad y pensamiento creativo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste breve artigo, com base em uma análise dos recentes discursos acadêmicos e políticos sobre a criatividade, apresenta-se uma reflexão teórica sobre a necessária articulação dialética do pensamento crítico e criativo em estudos de Comunicação. Em uma primeira etapa, são questionados os pressupost [...] os com o objetivo de construir um novo paradigma social e econômico baseado na criatividade. Coloca-se em dúvida, em particular, as hipóteses teóricas e metodológicas de Richard Florida sobre a emergência de uma classe criativa. Em uma segunda etapa, é mostrado como é fácil para os políticos que promovem a criatividade como um valor positivo tornar-se uma pedra angular no desenvolvimento da sociedade da informação. Como conclusão, destaca-se a renovação do pensamento crítico como um complemento necessário da valorização do processo criativo nos estudos de Comunicação. Abstract in spanish Este breve artículo, basado en un análisis de los recientes discursos académicos y políticos en la creatividad, presenta una reflexión teórica sobre la necesaria articulación dialéctica del pensamiento creativo y crítico en los estudios sobre Comunicación. En una primera etapa, los supuestos son cue [...] stionados con el fin de construir un nuevo paradigma basado en la creatividad social y económica. El pone en duda, en particular, los supuestos teóricos y metodológicos Richard Florida en el surgimiento de una clase creativa. En un segundo paso, se muestra lo fácil que es para los políticos que promueven la creatividad como un valor positivo para convertirse en una piedra angular en el desarrollo de la sociedad de la información. En conclusión, es expuesta una renovación del pensamiento crítico como un complemento necesario de la apreciación del proceso creativo en los estudios sobre comunicación. Abstract in english In this short paper, based on an analysis of recent academic and political discourses on creativity, is develops a theoretical reflexion on the necessary dialectical articulation of creative and critical thinking in communication studies. In a first step, are questions the assumptions aiming to buil [...] d a new social and economic paradigm based on creativity. It doubts, in particular, Richard Florida's theoretical and methodological hypotheses regarding the emergence of a creative class. In a second step, is showing how it is easy for politicians to promote creativity as a positive value making it a corner stone in the development of the information society. As a conclusion, it is showing that the renovation of critical thinking as a necessary complement of the promotion of creative process in communication studies.

Gaëtan, Tremblay.

2011-06-01

83

Habilidades de pensamento criativo em crianças institucionalizadas e não institucionalizadas / Creative thinking abilities in institutionalized and non institutionalized children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo examinou diferenças em habilidades de pensamento criativo entre 25 crianças institucionalizadas e 30 crianças não institucionalizadas, sendo 23 do sexo masculino e 32 do sexo feminino. Todas responderam a um teste de natureza verbal da Bateria Torrance de Pensamento Criativo (Torrance, 1 [...] 974) e ao Teste de Pensamento Criativo - Produção Divergente (Urban & Jellen, 1996). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas medidas de pensamento criativo entre crianças institucionalizadas e não institucionalizadas. Diferença significativa entre gêneros foi observada no Teste de Pensamento Criativo - Produção Divergente, a favor do gênero masculino, paralelamente a uma interação entre gênero e instituição neste teste. Observou-se também uma relação positiva entre os escores dos dois testes utilizados. Abstract in english This study investigated the differences in creative thinking abilities among 25 institutionalized children and 30 non-institutionalized children, being 23 male and 30 female. These children answered a verbal test of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1974) and the Test of Creative Th [...] inking - Divergent Production (Urban & Jellen, 1996). No significant differences were observed among male and female children in the creative thinking abilities. However, a significant difference between gender was observed in the Test of Creative Thinking - Divergent Production, to the advantage of the male gender as far as an interaction between gender and institutionalization in the same test. It was observed also, a positive relation among the scores of the tests.

Paulo Gomes de, Sousa Filho; Eunice M. L. Soriano, Alencar.

2003-12-01

84

Others' anger makes people work harder not smarter: the effect of observing anger and sarcasm on creative and analytic thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examine whether and how observing anger influences thinking processes and problem-solving ability. In 3 studies, the authors show that participants who listened to an angry customer were more successful in solving analytic problems, but less successful in solving creative problems compared with participants who listened to an emotionally neutral customer. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors further show that observing anger communicated through sarcasm enhances complex thinking and solving of creative problems. Prevention orientation is argued to be the latent variable that mediated the effect of observing anger on complex thinking. The present findings help reconcile inconsistent findings in previous research, promote theory about the effects of observing anger and sarcasm, and contribute to understanding the effects of anger in the workplace. PMID:21574675

Miron-Spektor, Ella; Efrat-Treister, Dorit; Rafaeli, Anat; Schwarz-Cohen, Orit

2011-09-01

85

Relationships between Thinking Styles and Behaviors Fostering Creativity: An Exploratory Study for the Mediating Role of Certain Demographic Traits  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to examine the role of demographic traits of Turkish teachers on the relationship between their thinking styles and creativity fostering behaviors. Three studies were conducted to investigate these relationships. In the first study, 202 Turkish elementary and secondary school teachers were included; in the second, 106 novice…

Dikici, Ayhan

2014-01-01

86

Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores  

Science.gov (United States)

There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

Kim, Kyung Hee

2008-01-01

87

Critical Thinking Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching critical thinking can be difficult, and it is nice to know that Professors Joe Lau and Jonathan Chan at the University of Hong Kong have created this site to help both teachers and students in this endeavor. Working with a grant from the government of Hong Kong's University Grants Committee, the two have created this website to provide access to over 100 free online tutorials on critical thinking, logic, scientific reasoning, and creativity. The homepage includes a brief introduction to critical thinking and access to the main modules, which are divided into thematic areas such as values and morality, strategic thinking, and basic logic. Visitors can also view the Chinese version of this site, download class exercises, and even take on "the hardest logic puzzle in the world."

88

Thinking of Experience, Experiencing Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article briefly describes the relatively young field of cognitive science dedicated to the research of lived human experience – the so-called phenomenological inquiry (or first-person research. It enumerates the reasons for the renewed interest in the study of experience and outlines the field’s relation to the rest of cognitive science. With the help of an example (phenomenology of thinking, the article attempts to illustrate the importance of systematic study of experience and addresses some open questions emerging from such an enterprise.

Urban Kordeš

2012-10-01

89

Strategic Thinking or Thinking of a Strategist?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design an applied framework for strategic thinking which can be applied in all managerial levels and all types of organizational environments. No especial applied frame has been presented for this thinking. This study presents a theoretical framework for the thinking type of a manager by making a historical research and studying the scientific documents about the thinking of a strategist. In the new theoretical framework, we have tried suggest the best type of thinking for a strategist after analyzing the environment of his decisions. So, in this framework, the traditional viewpoint about strategic thinking, which considered it as a special type of right-brain thinking against other types of right-brain thinking and suggested it to a strategist, is put aside and it is suggested that the strategist should use a suitable type of thinking under different conditions.

S. Iranzadeh

2009-01-01

90

Developing critical thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. What does critical thinking mean? 2. Critical thinking in school 3. Critical thinking as a process 4. Analysing and evaluating the questionnaire 5. Interview with one of the students 6. Analysis and evaluation of the assignments 7. Conclusion

Azar, Elif Zeynep; Erdo?nmez, C?ag?layan; Verscheijden, Desire?e

2012-01-01

91

Design thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes. PMID:18605031

Brown, Tim

2008-06-01

92

On Counter-Stereotypes and Creative Cognition: When Interventions for Reducing Prejudice Can Boost Divergent Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether tasks like this can have benefits beyond…

Goclowska, Malgorzata A.; Crisp, Richard J.

2013-01-01

93

Teaching Creative Thinking and Transitioning Students to the Workplace in an Academic Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

In their collegiate studies, students are given a wide range of concepts, theories, and equations to assist them in their future endeavors. However, students have not been sufficiently exposed to practical critical thinking methodologies that will benefit them as they encounter open-ended problems. A course developed at the University of Michigan…

Senra, Michael; Fogler, H. Scott

2014-01-01

94

An Investigation of an Arts Infusion Program on Creative Thinking, Academic Achievement, Affective Functioning, and Arts Appreciation of Children at Three Grade Levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the effects of an arts infusion program (SPECTRA+) on the creative thinking, academic achievement, self-esteem, locus of control, and appreciation of the arts by school children (n=615). Reports that SPECTRA+ program children scored higher than the control group in creativity, self-esteem, and arts appreciation, while data for…

Luftig, Richard L.

2000-01-01

95

The effectiveness of teaching strategies for creativity in a nursing concepts teaching protocol on the creative thinking of two-year RN-BSN students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of changes in the medical environment, nurses must maintain the ability of divergent thinking to solve the health problems of patients. However, many nurses whose work in clinical practice has become routine have lost the ability of creativity. To cultivate nurses creativity should be a goal of nursing education. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a nursing concepts teaching protocol by utilizing teaching strategies directed toward creativity to promote creativity in two-year RN-BSN students. This study design is a time series and one group experiment utilizing multiple instances of treatment. Teaching strategies for creativity were applied to a teaching unit and 52 two-year RN-BSN students were tested for creativity before the end of each semester. This study was conducted from March, 1999 to May, 2000, but only 30 students completed all tests and reached a 58% return rate. Torrance s (1974) definitions of creativity includ fluency, flexibility, and uniqueness were followed and the instrument, a questionnaire on Creativity in the application of the Nursing Process Tool (CNPT), was designed based on Emerson (1988). The content validity of Chinese-version CNPT was.79. The inter-coder reliability between two researchers was.84 following a coding guide that ten nursing education experts had established. The results indicated that 30 two-year RN-BSN students had improved fluency and flexibility. The improvements reached a significant level after the third semester. Only uniqueness declined. It is suggested that nursing faculty apply teaching strategies uniqueness more often in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts. By utilizing teaching strategies of creativity in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts, it is expected that two-year RN-BSN students can acquire characteristics of creativity for problem-solving skills in clinical settings. PMID:12119595

Ku, Ya-Lie; Kao Lo, Chi-Hui; Wang, Jing-Jy; Lee Hsieh, Jane; Chen, Kuei-Min

2002-06-01

96

The Relationship Between Creative Thinking And Empathy With Self-awareness In High School Students In India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies revealed that there is moderate to strong correlation between creative thinking and empathy with self-awareness as three important skills in human life and the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between these three aspects of life skills. The participants in the study contained of 96(54 males and 42 females) 10 grade of high school students from Mysore in India. Life skill questionnaire - India (LSQI), carried out on the group sample and date analyzed th...

Ayatollah Karimi; Venkatesh Kumar, G.

2012-01-01

97

The Critical Thinking Community  

Science.gov (United States)

Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or downright prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. If you want to think well, you must understand at least the rudiments of thought, the most basic structures out of which all thinking is made. You must learn how to take thinking apart.

2009-06-19

98

Promoting critical thinking skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational accountability requires examination and justification of curriculum elements that will promote critical thinking skills. The authors review theoretical components of critical thinking and provides four examples of teaching strategies used to enhance this cognitive skill. PMID:2216066

White, N E; Beardslee, N Q; Peters, D; Supples, J M

1990-01-01

99

Strategies of Divergent Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of divergent thinking is to generate many different ideas about a topic in a short period of time. This article provides information on how to use self analysis, topic analysis, and other techniques to stimulate divergent thinking.

Evelyn Zent (University of Washington, Tacoma)

2012-01-19

100

Thinking in Science-Thinking in General?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In science we pay attention to some particular types of thinking, such as deductive and inductive logic, establishing causality through experimentation, analysis, and categorisation. There may be other types of thinking which we believe to be more typical of other fields such as literature (e.g. characterisation, sense of audience, art (e.g. form and composition, originality, or sport (e.g. whole-game strategies, anticipation but which do not play such as large part in science. So can we represent thinking in different domains as completely independent of one another, as represented in figure 1?

Philip ADEY

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Critical Thinking Community: CThink  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major learning steps of young scientists is to think critically. This fascinating site offers insight into the various aspects of critical thinking. Supported by the educational nonprofit Foundation for Critical Thinking, CThink targets two levels: the college and university, and the primary and secondary education communities. The site is further organized into Library, Resources, and Events sections. Within the Library section, users may choose to browse examples of the basic elements of critical thinking, the role of questions, the critical thinking process, or a (modest) glossary of critical thinking terms, among others. Resources contains guidelines and lessons on how to integrate critical thinking into the curriculum, and Events offers information on upcoming conferences, seminars, and academies, and gives information on CThink inservices.

102

Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

2009-01-01

103

Supporting Right-Brained Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

In his book, "A Whole New Mind", Daniel Pink champions the benefits of right-brained thinking: creativity, flexibility, empathy, and meaning. He stresses the need to not only be logical, but also aware of emotion; to not only be sequential, but also conceptual; and to not only be calculating, but also recognize value. The project described in this…

Mescolotto, Lee M.

2010-01-01

104

Child-Initiated Play and Professional Creativity: Enabling Four-Year-Olds' Possibility Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Given enormous global challenges, alongside nurturing children's creativity, professional creativity has perhaps never been more vital ([0100] and [0190]). This paper considers how a small, qualitative, co-participative study in an inner city children's centre, explored practitioner perspectives and practice related to creativity understood as…

Craft, Anna; McConnon, Linda; Matthews, Alice

2012-01-01

105

Perspectives: Thinking About Thinking in Science Class  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-regulated learners are able to set learning goals, find strategies that help them achieve those goals, and monitor their progress (Schraw, Crippen, and Hartley 2006). An important part of self-regulation is thinking about thinking, or metacognition. According to cognitive scientists (Donovan and Bransford 2005), metacognition involves self-monitoring and reflection on learning. Researchers have shown that metacognition can support student learning with understanding in many subjects. This month's column describes how metacognition can support science learning and includes strategies that can be used to promote this critical skill.

Abell, Sandra K.

2009-02-01

106

Adivinanzas audiovisuales para ejercitar el pensamiento creativo infantil Audiovisual Riddles to Stimulate Children’s Creative Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para resolver una adivinanza hay que asociar ideas, analizar metáforas, descubrir analogías. Por eso, impulsar esta forma de entretenimiento infantil es un modo de ejercitar el pensamiento creativo. Sin embargo, existe un problema: las adivinanzas tradicionales son formas literarias que corresponden a una época pre-digital. ¿Cómo lograr, entonces, que tengan mayor aceptación entre los nativos digitales? Una posible solución sería crear adivinanzas audiovisuales diseñadas especialmente para YouTube. En esta investigación se realizaron cinco prototipos de adivinanzas audiovisuales con características creativas diferentes y se validaron con estudiantes de tercero a sexto grado de educación primaria. Los resultados de la validación permitieron identificar las actitudes, reacciones, interpretaciones y modos de razonamiento de los niños y niñas cuando intentan resolver este tipo de adivinanzas. También se identificaron los recursos de lenguaje y formatos creativos que funcionan mejor en una adivinanza audiovisual. En las conclusiones se destaca la necesidad de formular correctamente los enunciados de las adivinanzas audiovisuales y sus respectivas «pistas» para que los niños y niñas tengan la satisfacción intelectual y emocional de resolverlas. Se precisa, además, que leer o escuchar una adivinanza tradicional representa una experiencia cognitiva y sensorial muy distinta que interactuar con esa misma adivinanza en un lenguaje multimedia. Finalmente, se discute y analiza el rol mediador del docente y la importancia del aprendizaje colaborativo en los proyectos educativos que emplean tecnologías digitales.Solving riddles involves association of ideas, analysis of metaphors, and discovery of analogies. Therefore, promoting this type of children’s entertainment is a way to develop creative thinking. However, there is a problem: traditional riddles are literary forms that correspond to a pre-digital era. How can we increase its acceptance among the digital natives? One way might be creating audiovisual riddles specially designed for YouTube. In this research we made five prototypes of audiovisual riddles with different creative characteristics and validated them among 8-12 years old students. The validation results helped us to identify the attitudes, reactions, interpretations and ways of thinking of children when they try to solve such riddles. We also identified the resources of language and creative formats that fit best in audio-visual riddles. The outcome of this research emphasizes the need to correctly formulate the audiovisual riddle statements and their «clues» for children; this way we assure an intellectual and emotional satisfaction when solving them. It also concludes that reading or listening to traditional riddles are cognitive and sensory experiences that are very different from interacting with the same riddle in a multimedia language. Finally, we discuss and analyze the mediating role of the teacher and the importance of collaborative learning in educational projects using digital technologies.

Jorge Montalvo Castro

2011-03-01

107

Mating Darwin with Dickinson: How Writing Creative Poetry in Biology Helps Students Think Critically and Build Personal Connections to Course Content  

Science.gov (United States)

Poetry writing is a simple yet effective way to encourage the development of cross-disciplinary connections, creativity, and critical thinking in science students. In other words, by mating ideas and methods from scientists like Charles Darwin with those of poets like Emily Dickinson, students discover new perspectives on scientific issues that are rich in both content and personal meaning because they arise from the student's own creativity. Creative poetry writing is thus one tool that can help achieve the goal of enhancing science literacy and constructing more efficient classroom learning environments.

Waldvogel, Jerry A.

2006-01-01

108

Creative Thinking in Music: Developing a Model for Meaningful Learning in Middle School General Music  

Science.gov (United States)

Creativity can be experienced in many roles of musicianship: performing, improvising, and composing. Yet, activities that encourage creative thought in our music classrooms can be a challenge to implement. A strong music education curriculum for middle school general music is important; as this may be the last time we reach students who do not…

Menard, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

109

Think First for Teens  

Science.gov (United States)

... The ThinkFirst Foundation is a 501c3 nonprofit organization. Benefit "ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation" when you surf or shop 1400+ retailers online. Set up and start shopping at iGive.com or download the iGive button ...

110

Thinking inside the Box  

Science.gov (United States)

When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…

Demski, Jennifer

2012-01-01

111

Vitalistic thinking in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

Wilson, Stuart

2013-11-01

112

Critical Thinking beyond Skill  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article is to investigate possibilities for conceptions of critical thinking beyond the established educational framework that emphasizes skills. Distancing ourselves from the older rationalist framework, we explain that what we think wrong with the skills perspective is, amongst other things, its absolutization of performativity…

Papastephanou, Marianna; Angeli, Charoula

2007-01-01

113

Thinking outside the fence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The way in which we think about detention can shape our ability to consider the alternatives. What is needed is a shift in thinking away from place-based control and towards risk assessment, management and targeted enforcement.

Robyn Sampson

2013-09-01

114

Poetry as a Springboard to Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an assignment in which students use their study of poetry to think critically and write creatively. Describes how students synthesize inferences about a poem to write character monologs based on the poem. (MM)

Smith, Maggy; Salome, Peggy

1989-01-01

115

Creative Thinking in Schools: Finding the "Just Right" Challenge for Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Spurred on by explosive technological developments and unprecedented access to information, leaders in the fields of business, industry, and education are all calling for creative, innovative workers. In an atmosphere of high-stakes testing and global competitiveness, educators around the world are examining their teaching methods to determine…

Fletcher, Tina Sue

2011-01-01

116

Creativity through "Maker" Experiences and Design Thinking in the Education of Librarians  

Science.gov (United States)

A makerspace is a physical place in the library where informal, collaborative learning can happen through hands-on creation, using any combination of technology, industrial arts, and fine arts that is not readily available for home use. The underlying goal of a makerspace is to encourage innovation and creativity through the use of technology-to…

Bowler, Leanne

2014-01-01

117

A Ladder of Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Introducing students to metacognition, or thinking about one's thinking, allows them to discover the value of reflection. Courses related to thinking theory are often included in the curriculum for high-achieving students, but these methods can also be used effectively to enhance the learning of average or below-average students. This article presents a lesson on top-down and bottom-up processing, two of the main ways in which people handle information. It is designed to help students understand why they should proceed slowly and deliberately when making observations in a science lab or when answering questions on a test.

Lovrich, Deborah

2004-04-01

118

Predicting Work Activities with Divergent Thinking Tests: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether divergent thinking test scores obtained from engineering students during college predicted creative work activities fifteen years later. Results showed that a subscore of the "Owens Creativity Test", which assesses divergent thinking about mechanical objects, correlated significantly with self-ratings of creative work…

Clapham, Maria M.; Cowdery, Edwina M.; King, Kelly E.; Montang, Melissa A.

2005-01-01

119

The Effect Of Using The Creative Drama Method and The Six Thinking Hat Technique On Student Success and Attidudes In Eighth-Grade Revolution History and Kemalism Lesson  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to compose the activities about how creative drama teaching method and six thinking hats teaching technique can be used in “Lausanne Peace Treaty” subject in Turkish Republic Revolution History and Kemalism lesson; describe and research whether the composed activities increase the students’ learning levels or not. For this aim, the Lausanne Peace Treaty-related activities were applied on an experiment group and traditional teaching techniques were applied on a checking group. In this study, which is an experimental and descriptive, it was attempted to show the use of creative drama teaching method and six thinking hats teaching technique in Turkish Republic Revolution History and Kemalism lesson and an answer was searched for the question “Is there any meaningful difference between the learning level and attitudes of experiment group and checking group?”

Ali ALTIKULAÇ

2010-12-01

120

Thinking about Divorce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Age at marriage, marital duration, religiosity and income have an effect on thinking about divorce independent of their effect on marital dissatisfaction. Wife's employment and the presence of preschool children are likely to lead to thoughts about divorce. (Author)

Booth, Alan; White, Lynn

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Stop, Breathe & Think app.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives. PMID:25005405

Shaw, Natalie

2014-07-15

122

Reading as Critical Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reading involves an interactive process in which the reader actively produces meaning through a set of mental processes. There is obviously an ongoing interaction between the reader and the text. Critical reading is related to thinking and that is why we cannot read without thinking. Critical reading involves the following skills: predicting, acknowledging, comparing, evaluating and decision-making. Schemata can be seen as the organized background knowledge, which leads the reader to expec...

Ibrahim Abu Shihab

2011-01-01

123

Creativity and Thinking Skills Integrated into a Science Enrichment Unit on Flooding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Floods that used to happen every hundred years are now occurring more frequently. Human influences on the damage inflicted by flooding need to be well-understood by future voters and property-owners. Therefore, the timely topic of flooding was used as the focus of a special multi-grade enrichment short course taught by two university education professors for 26 preK-8th grade high-achieving and creative students. During the course, students listened to guest speakers (city council member, met...

Rule, Audrey C.; Jean Suchsland Schneider; Tallakson, Denise A.; Diane Highnam

2012-01-01

124

Thinking together with material representations : Joint epistemic actions in creative problem solving  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do material representations such as models, diagrams and drawings come to shape and aid collective, epistemic processes? This study investigated how groups of participants spontaneously recruited material objects (in this case LEGO blocks) to support collective creative processes in the context of an experiment. Qualitative micro-analyses of the group interactions motivate a taxonomy of different roles that the material representations play in the joint epistemic processes: illustration, elaboration and exploration. Firstly, the LEGO blocks were used to illustrate already well-formed ideas in support of communication and epistemic alignment. Furthermore, the material concretization of otherwise abstract ideas in LEGO blocks gave rise to elaboration: discussions, requests for clarification and discovery of unnoticed conceptual disagreements. Lastly, the LEGO blocks were used for exploration. That is, the material representations were experimented on and physical attributes were explored resulting in discoveries of new meaning potentials and creative solutions. We discuss these different ways in which material representations do their work in collective reasoning processes in relation to ideas about top-down and bottom-up cognitive processes and division of cognitive labor.

Stege BjØrndahl, Johanne; Fusaroli, Riccardo

2014-01-01

125

The Curiosity in Marketing Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…

Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John

2007-01-01

126

Foundations of resilience thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863

Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

2014-08-01

127

A historical marker in the development of critical and creative thinking in psychiatric-mental health nursing education and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This investigation focuses on traumatic events of World War II and postwar reconstruction in US society in the 1940s, taking into account the development of psychiatric nursing as a specialty within the context of nursing education and practice trends. Scotomas of historic world figures, including Hildegard Peplau, renowned educator and psychiatric nurse, are examined. These blind spots profoundly affected their reactions and behaviors, for the betterment of society or the destruction of it. Method: Psychohistory looks at the “why” of historical events and is concerned with the motivation in human behavior and with the underlying meaning lurking beneath the surface of logic. In this psychohistorical exploration, figurative snapshots highlight a historical marker that commemorates a fire that blazed out of control in 1948 at Highland Hospital, a mental institution in Asheville, North Carolina, where Peplau held directorship. This fire served as a springboard for the evolution of the nurse-patient relationship within the nursing profession, as influenced by Peplau. Relevant questions explored are: What nurses were implicated in the fire? What did the characters at the scene believe and perceive? What were the motivations of key players? Who qualified as nurses? What ramifications did the fire have for nursing education and practice in the development of analytical thought and theoretical concepts? Significance: Some view the historic fire as a black mark against nursing. Nurses, however, with the assistance of Peplau’s teachings, can see it as a benchmark that began the process of eradication of resistances that prevent growth and the illumination of educational curricula that promote advancement of critical and creative thinking. Today, nurses can take advantage of their knowledge base learned from the past and can create expansive innovation in nursing education and practice that is supportive of global health and safety in the 21st century.

Christine M. Silverstein

2013-01-01

128

Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.

José L. Villaveces

2012-05-01

129

Cultivating Divergent Thinking: Conceptualization as a Critical Component of Artmaking  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussing various perspectives of artists' influences and experiences can develop students' divergent thinking skills. Fostering students' divergent thinking skills is integral to developing creativity, and the Arts are a ripe forum for this. In contrast to convergent thinking, which focuses in on one "correct"…

Chin, Christina

2013-01-01

130

Developing critical thinking skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a 1987 practicum report one researcher says, "Teaching children to become effective thinkers is increasingly recognized as an immediate goal of education ... If students are to function successfully in a highly technical society, then they must be equipped with the lifelong learning and thinking skills necessary to acquire and process information in an ever-changing world." There is no doubt that critical thinking skills will help you diagnose what is wrong with your patients and formulate a care plan, keep you and your partner safe, and make you more employable. PMID:17672280

Cotter, Amanda J

2007-07-01

131

Reading as Critical Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reading involves an interactive process in which the reader actively produces meaning through a set of mental processes. There is obviously an ongoing interaction between the reader and the text. Critical reading is related to thinking and that is why we cannot read without thinking. Critical reading involves the following skills: predicting, acknowledging, comparing, evaluating and decision-making. Schemata can be seen as the organized background knowledge, which leads the reader to expect and predict aspects in their interpretation of discourse.

Ibrahim Abu Shihab

2011-07-01

132

Desarrollo del pensamiento creativo en la formación laboral juvenil / Developement of creative thinking in youth work training  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Proyecto de investigación que analiza las representaciones educativo-laborales sobre las atribuciones de valor a la creatividad, motivación e innovación en jóvenes de la educación formal y no formal que se preparan para el mundo del trabajo. La desarticulación educativa entre oferta, demanda y neces [...] idad, exige búsquedas que complementen la didáctica homogénea de un pensamiento convergente con otras vertientes que favorecen el pensamiento divergente. Se asume la creatividad como un concepto teórico, no observable, que difícilmente se da en forma espontánea y se reconoce solo como atributo exclusivo de artistas, siendo necesario generarla en todos los sujetos y disciplinas para una construcción de valores y desarrollo a escala humana. Avanza sobre nuevas aristas didácticas integradoras que cubren un extenso espectro de pertenencias culturales, con disimilitudes de conocimientos, de abstracción, de lenguajes e ideologías. Se opta por una integración metodológica para ampliar las posibilidades de los contextos de descubrimiento y validación priorizando el primero. La metodología comprensivista apunta más directamente a las metas propuestas con los aportes de la etnografía, interaccionismo simbólico y la etnometodología. Los primeros resultados parciales evidencian que las actitudes y motivaciones de los jóvenes, dentro y fuera de las aulas e instituciones, cambian radicalmente, apareciendo estrategias creativas e innovadoras para actividades que responden a intereses diferentes a los contenidos curriculares. En jóvenes alumnos de posgrado en educación, se relevan dificultades para enseñar y desconocimiento de didácticas orientadas al pensamiento divergente, pero interés por interiorizarse en la teoría e instrumentación de las mismas. Abstract in english This research project analyzes the education-labour representations on value attributions to creativity, motivation and innovation in youth with formal and non-formal education that are training for the job world. The educational detachment between offer, demand and need, requests a search that can [...] complement the homogeneous didactics of a converging line of thought with other currents that favour divergent thinking. Creativity is considered a theoretical concept, non observable, that can hardly happen in a spontaneous way and is solely an attribute of artists, but also necessary to be generated in all individuals and disciplines for a construction of values and development at a human scale. It makes progress over new integrating didactic aspects that cover a wide spectrum of cultural belongings, with dissimilar knowledge, of abstraction, of languages and ideologies. A methodological integration is chosen to enlarge the possibilities of the discovery and validation contexts prioritizing the former. The comprehensive methodology aims more directly to intended goals with contributions from ethnography, symbolic interaction and ethnomethodology. The first partial results show that attitudes and motivation in youngsters, inside and outside classrooms and institutions, change radically, giving rise to creative and innovative strategies that respond to different interests to those in curricular contents. Among young postgraduate students in education, difficulties in teaching and both an ignorance but also an interest in didactics oriented to diverging thought are shown.

Rosa, Pérez del Viso de Palou.

133

Desarrollo del pensamiento creativo en la formación laboral juvenil / Developement of creative thinking in youth work training  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Proyecto de investigación que analiza las representaciones educativo-laborales sobre las atribuciones de valor a la creatividad, motivación e innovación en jóvenes de la educación formal y no formal que se preparan para el mundo del trabajo. La desarticulación educativa entre oferta, demanda y neces [...] idad, exige búsquedas que complementen la didáctica homogénea de un pensamiento convergente con otras vertientes que favorecen el pensamiento divergente. Se asume la creatividad como un concepto teórico, no observable, que difícilmente se da en forma espontánea y se reconoce solo como atributo exclusivo de artistas, siendo necesario generarla en todos los sujetos y disciplinas para una construcción de valores y desarrollo a escala humana. Avanza sobre nuevas aristas didácticas integradoras que cubren un extenso espectro de pertenencias culturales, con disimilitudes de conocimientos, de abstracción, de lenguajes e ideologías. Se opta por una integración metodológica para ampliar las posibilidades de los contextos de descubrimiento y validación priorizando el primero. La metodología comprensivista apunta más directamente a las metas propuestas con los aportes de la etnografía, interaccionismo simbólico y la etnometodología. Los primeros resultados parciales evidencian que las actitudes y motivaciones de los jóvenes, dentro y fuera de las aulas e instituciones, cambian radicalmente, apareciendo estrategias creativas e innovadoras para actividades que responden a intereses diferentes a los contenidos curriculares. En jóvenes alumnos de posgrado en educación, se relevan dificultades para enseñar y desconocimiento de didácticas orientadas al pensamiento divergente, pero interés por interiorizarse en la teoría e instrumentación de las mismas. Abstract in english This research project analyzes the education-labour representations on value attributions to creativity, motivation and innovation in youth with formal and non-formal education that are training for the job world. The educational detachment between offer, demand and need, requests a search that can [...] complement the homogeneous didactics of a converging line of thought with other currents that favour divergent thinking. Creativity is considered a theoretical concept, non observable, that can hardly happen in a spontaneous way and is solely an attribute of artists, but also necessary to be generated in all individuals and disciplines for a construction of values and development at a human scale. It makes progress over new integrating didactic aspects that cover a wide spectrum of cultural belongings, with dissimilar knowledge, of abstraction, of languages and ideologies. A methodological integration is chosen to enlarge the possibilities of the discovery and validation contexts prioritizing the former. The comprehensive methodology aims more directly to intended goals with contributions from ethnography, symbolic interaction and ethnomethodology. The first partial results show that attitudes and motivation in youngsters, inside and outside classrooms and institutions, change radically, giving rise to creative and innovative strategies that respond to different interests to those in curricular contents. Among young postgraduate students in education, difficulties in teaching and both an ignorance but also an interest in didactics oriented to diverging thought are shown.

Rosa, Pérez del Viso de Palou.

2008-11-01

134

Developing Thinking in Algebra  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…

Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue

2005-01-01

135

Thinking Data "with" Deleuze  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…

Mazzei, Lisa A.

2010-01-01

136

Dyslexia and Spatial Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on spatial thinking impairments, with special reference to right-left orientation, visuomotor and visuoconstructive performances, and finger recognition are examined. It is concluded that, although some dyslexic children do show spatial disabilities, there is little evidence to support the existence of a visuospatial type of developmental…

Benton, Arthur L.

1984-01-01

137

Computational Thinking Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

The iDREAMS project aims to reinvent Computer Science education in K-12 schools, by using game design and computational science for motivating and educating students through an approach we call Scalable Game Design, starting at the middle school level. In this paper we discuss the use of Computational Thinking Patterns as the basis for our…

Ioannidou, Andri; Bennett, Vicki; Repenning, Alexander; Koh, Kyu Han; Basawapatna, Ashok

2011-01-01

138

Contributions of Thinking Styles to Critical Thinking Dispositions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of the author's research was to investigate whether thinking styles significantly contribute to critical thinking dispositions. Two samples of Chinese university students, one from Beijing and the other from Nanjing, participated in the study. The participants responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and to the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (P. Facione & N. Faci...

Zhang, Lf

2003-01-01

139

Thinking Outside the Box  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors associated with the radioactive materials they contain. Packages for fissile materials are the most robust ones. However, very low quantities of fissile material, relative to the overall volume of material in which it is contained, do not pose a realistic criticality hazard. More realistic provisions for these fissile-excepted materials would improve safety, reduce dose uptake, and provide significant financial benefits to both industry and the regulator. It is a basic principle of transport safety regulation that safety is vested primarily in the package, and not the mode of conveyance. Safety standards for packages are set internationally by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Packages designs are subject to a rigorous internationally-established test regime; a test regime that takes account both of normal and conceivable realistic accident conditions to demonstrate conclusively that the package will provide adequate protection. Packages will only be licensed for use by national competent authorities on the basis of a convincing safety case. Looking outside the box - when confronted by uncertainty about the safety of radioactive materials transports, it is suggested industry not limit itself to reassuring words about the undeniably excellent safety record of transport over decades but, it should present the safety features of the packages, the rigorous international safety test criteria to ensure the package would survive realistic regulate and accident conditions of transport, and the need to present a convincing safety case to competent authorities before a licence would be issued. While the very low statistical possibility of transport accident cannot be denied attention also should be paid to the consequences of accidents. The communications theme will also be addressed as the 'new media' push the bounds of possibility of how best to increase understanding about nuclear packaging and transport. The world has evolved in a more sceptical age, a permanent full time communications age when people increasingly rely on very sh

Green, Lorne [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 310-312 Regent Street, London, W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)

2009-06-15

140

Metaphorical Thinking and Comparison Cognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metaphor in language is the manifestation of metaphorical thinking. Although metaphor has been studied from different perspectives with different focuses, systematic researches on metaphor have seldom been conducted from the angle of metaphorical thinking. Approaching from the perspective of thinking, this paper aims to elaborate the cognitive mechanism of metaphor and claims that comparison cognition generates metaphorical thinking which is a dynamic process consisting of some cognitive links that constitute an organic whole.

Yong WU

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

The strategic entrepreneurial thinking imperative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that strategic entrepreneurial thinking is a unitary concept which should be viewed as a standalone construct. DESIGN / METHODOLOGY / APPROACH: The concept strategic entrepreneurial thinking is modelled from an analysis of strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking from available literature. The strategic entrepreneurial mindset imperative is then emphasised and confirmed. FINDINGS: This paper's finding is that there is no differen...

Dhliwayo, S.; Vuuren, Jurie Jansen

2007-01-01

142

Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

Waks, Shlomo

1997-01-01

143

Systems Thinking About Purpose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues that in the context of human activity systems, the concept of purpose is critically important and that giving purpose a central role in the development and management of human activity systems can lead to more flexible, effective and autonomous systems. The systems thinking literature is reviewed in order to consolidate and assess current thinking about purpose. The importance of intrinsic purpose is highlighted. Implications for practice in terms of information systems design are illustrated by contrasting two different approaches to the design of knowledge management systems. An analysis of corporations as purposeful systems highlights some of the benefits of a purposeful systems approach. Directions for future research with a focus on purpose are suggested.

Gaye Lewis

2002-11-01

144

Encouraging Critical Thinking Online  

Science.gov (United States)

Students spend a great deal of time online, and teachers may wonder how they can best teach students to use -- or disregard -- the information they find. Created by the Intute organization in the UK, "Encouraging Critical Thinking Online" consists of two teaching units for use in classroom settings. Visitors will note that the exercises can be used individually or consecutively. The resources "encourage students to think carefully and critically about the information sources they use," and the lessons learned are broadly applicable to range of humanities disciplines. Here visitors will find a teacher's guide and the two units that ask students to use the Internet to explore a question with multiple possible answers and also to gauge public opinion on a controversial topic.

145

A science think tank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

146

Sharpening your critical thinking skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current environment of constant and rapid change in health care, critical thinking is essential. Both personal ability to think critically and a willingness to do so are involved and are related to the individual and to the organization in which the individual works. Knowledge, experience, attitudes, thinking strategies, skills, and an organizational culture that values critical thinking are essential factors in the development and practice of those skills. There is no magic solution. There must be a commitment by all levels of the organization to develop and use the principles and skills of critical thinking. PMID:9110811

Kyzer, S P

1996-01-01

147

Interdisciplinary Thinking and Physics Identity  

Science.gov (United States)

One goal of education is to help students become well-rounded citizens who can think broadly across boundaries. In addition, individuals with interdisciplinary thinking skills can be valuable contributors to modern research challenges by understanding and recognizing interdisciplinary connections and working in diverse teams. However, little research exists on the connection between interdisciplinary thinking and physics education. What aspects of physics classroom practices and experiences foster interdisciplinary thinking? What effect does interdisciplinary thinking have on the development of studentsâ physics identities? Using a physics identity theoretical framework with data from a national survey, this study found that self-reported characteristics of interdisciplinary thinking are significantly correlated with higher levels of physics identity development. Also, several factors of the physics classroom environment and pedagogies are significantly related to interdisciplinary thinking.

Scott, Tyler D.; Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff

2014-01-31

148

Creativity—Innovative Thinking—Tolerance in Uncertainty: Views of Undergraduate Students in Greek Universities Based on the Faculty of Their Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovative-creative thinking and tolerance towards uncertain situations concern the field of the present study. Through scenarios and alternative proposals that concern views about the presence (university or the future as well (professional career after the university, the research focuses on undergraduate students in Greek universities. The research took place in2011 ina sample of 836 students, using the questionnaire as an instrument, in a difficult financially and socially conjuncture for the country, with the unemployment galloping especially in young people and graduates.The present study examines the extent to which the type of student’s studies (social science and science differentiates innovative-creative thinking and tolerance towards the uncertainty of subjects. Results showed that undergraduates of Social Science Faculties make more “conservative” choices, both during their studies as well as during the selection of professional perspectives. On the other hand, students of Sciences show higher tolerance in uncertainty, pursuing more challenging working conditions, as well as assessment conditions during their studies, in comparison to students of Social Science Faculties.

Thomas Babalis

2013-02-01

149

Implementation and evaluation of critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities. PMID:19126073

Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary

2008-12-01

150

Measurement Invariance of Torrance Test of Creative Thinking Figural Scores across Age: A study in Spanish-Speaking Children and Adolescents.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the basis of a previous study carried out with Spanish-speaking children which indicates that the Creativity construct, operationalized by means of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT-Figural, consists of two factors –Innovation and Adaptation– (Krumm, Lemos & Arán Filippetti, in press, the objective of the present work was to prove whether this structure is invariant across age. A sample of 652 Spanish-speaking children and adolescents aged 9-17 years of both sexes was tested. It was in turn divided into three age groups: (a 9-10, (b 11-13 and (c 16 -17 years. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA showed that in each group of the sample, the structure of the TTCT is composed of two correlated factors, namely Innovation and Adaptation. In addition, Multigroup CFA demonstrated that the two-factor solution was actually invariant (configural and metric across age, meaning that children and adolescents equally conceptualize the Creativity construct. Finally, MANOVA showed a significant age effect on every subscale. These data suggest the relevance of considering the age factor when assessing the creative potential through the TTCT-Figural.

Gabriela L. Krumm

2013-12-01

151

Competitive Think Tanks in Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges the view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate that competitive strategies will become more common in the future.

Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

152

Sense & Nonsense: Thinking Poetry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this essay, I discuss poetry as an important style of thinking and exploration. Poetry, I maintain, is a leap, a risk, a gambit that opens unexpected linguistic possibilities and imaginative opportunities. Based on my own experience of teaching poetry, I suggest strategies in this essay for encouraging students to take the kinds of risks that engender sense and confront nonsense. The central claim of this essay is that by creating new and surprising associations, poetry teaches us different and more interesting ways to live in and understand the world.

Gillian Sze

2010-12-01

153

Children's original thinking: an empirical examination of alternative measures derived from divergent thinking tasks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's creative potential is often assessed using cognitive tests that require divergent thinking, such as the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT; E. P. Torrance, 1974, 1976, 1990). In this study the authors investigated the effect of various scoring systems on the originality index, evaluating the high intercorrelation of fluency and originality measures found in the TTCT scoring system and the applicability of TTCT scoring norms over time and across age groups. In 3 studies, the originality of elementary school children was measured using TTCT norms and various sample-specific scoring methods with the TTCT Unusual Uses of a Box test as well as social-problem-solving tasks. Results revealed an effect of scoring technique on creativity indices as well as on the reliability of originality scores and the relationship between originality and other ability measures. The usefulness of the various measures for understanding children's original thinking are discussed. PMID:11831349

Mouchiroud, C; Lubart, T

2001-12-01

154

Organizational change through Lean Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change. PMID:18647948

Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

2008-08-01

155

Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

Kask, Kalle

2002-01-01

156

Some Paradoxes of Reflective Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The halls of my area’s elementary schools are plastered with various posters and signs direcing the children to «STOP AND THINK.» If one should stop and think about what exactly these signs are intended to accomplish, it’s safe to say that «think» is being used in a special sense here, since not any old thinking will suffice; we are urging the children to take the time necessary to engage in something like what Cumberland reckons to be among our «perfections.» After all,the child at...

Power, Nicholas P.

2000-01-01

157

Thinking in systems a primer  

CERN Document Server

Thinking in Systems is a concise and crucial book offering insight for problem-solving on scales ranging from the personal to the global. This essential primer brings systems thinking out of the realm of computers and equations and into the tangible world, showing readers how to develop the systems-thinking skills that thought leaders across the globe consider critical for 21st-century life.While readers will learn the conceptual tools and methods of systems thinking, the heart of the book is grander than methodology. Donella Meadows was known as much for nurturing positive outcomes as she was

Wright, Diana

2012-01-01

158

Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…

Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson

2013-01-01

159

Do Critical Thinking Exercises Improve Critical Thinking Skills?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although textbooks routinely include exercises to improve critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of these exercises has not been closely examined. Additionally, the connection between critical thinking skills and formal operational thought is also relatively understudied. In the study reported here, college students completed measures of…

Cotter, Ellen M.; Tally, Carrie Sacco

2009-01-01

160

Thinking About Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

 
 
 
 
161

Russell's Conception of Critical Thinking: Its Scope and Limits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addresses the question of the range of applicability of Bertrand Russell's conception of critical thinking. Argues that important instances of critical thinking require other resources in addition: decisions about the conduct of one's life, philosophical method, scientific methods, and creative thought. Identifies limitations of Russellian…

Hager, Paul

2001-01-01

162

What Do the Pupils Think?  

Science.gov (United States)

What pupils think about mathematics often features in discussion between mathematics educators. But, how often is "what learners think about their mathematics lessons" a feature of enquiry? It could be a "high risk" strategy to garner honest comment that relates to the "classroom experience". Notions of "risk" apart, the process of collecting data…

Borthwick, Alison

2012-01-01

163

Critical Thinking in Physical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…

Humphries, Charlotte

2014-01-01

164

A Study of Intuitive Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and use of intuitive thinking, at all levels of education, have been of concern to scholars in recent years. This paper discusses the findings and theories of various scholars about intuitive thinking and learning, including the work of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Richard Jones, and Robert Ornstein. The paper also explores the use…

Goethe, Susan E. A. M.

165

Team Based Engineering Design Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

Mentzer, Nathan

2014-01-01

166

Preschoolers' Thinking during Block Play  

Science.gov (United States)

Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages…

Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan

2010-01-01

167

Design Thinking Taxonomy: Providing Clarity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main aim of this paper is to present a taxonomy for design thinking, its central themes and how they are related. Previous research has successfully pointed out that design thinking is vaguely and diversely defined, presenting eight different discourses (Johansson-Sko?ldberg et al. 2013). Although design thinking has been viewed from different perspectives with diverse results, much current research use the terms of design thinking without clarification of the relation to one another. This creates confusion of what the term actually covers. The lack of a well-defined taxonomy makes it difficult to clearly establish which variables (aspects of design thinking) are causing the observed effect. Thereby the vague theoretical systems of design thinking are transferred into adjacent fields, decreasing the theoretical explicitness and quality of the conducted research. The focus of this paper is to identify the core topics from key literature and collect them in taxonomy. Firstly a literature review is carriedout to clarify the main topics and contributions of the design thinking field. Subsequently the taxonomy is developed and discussed. This paper contributes with an explicitness of the concept, a precise and clear taxonomy of the concept of design thinking.

Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

2014-01-01

168

Quantifying Learning in Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a three-year study assessing change in critical thinking demonstrated in essays written for regular class assignments. A rubric was designed and scorers trained to assess critical thinking holistically without knowledge of the writing prompt or author's status. The longitudinal improvement in scores earned by freshmen…

Fliegel, Richard; Holland, John

2013-01-01

169

Thinking outside the Clocks: The Effect of Layered-Task Time on the Creative Climate of Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

The turbulence of the new economy puts demands on organizations to respond rapidly, flexibly and creatively to changing environments. Meetings are one of the organizational sites in which organizational actors "do" creativity; interaction in groups can be an important site for generating creative ideas and brainstorming. Additionally, Blount…

Agypt, Brett; Rubin, Beth A.; Spivack, April J.

2012-01-01

170

Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.

RobertaSellaro

2014-06-01

171

Herramientas informáticas para la aplicación de técnicas de desarrollo de pensamiento creativo / Computing tools for the application of creative thinking development techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El sistema educativo no escapa a la renovación de las técnicas para incentivar el pensamiento innovador. El objetivo de esta reflexión monográfica es mostrar la relación entre el desarrollo de la creatividad y los usos de los softwares educativos. Las técnicas seleccionadas son, el mapa mental y el [...] de conceptos, el mandala y las supernotas. Y los softwares empleados, son el Mind Manager, el Inspiración y el CMap Tool. El procedimiento hace referencia a los fundamentos teóricos argumentados por los autores y, a una descripción de las bondades de los tres softwares seleccionados. Como reflexión final se puede decir que los softwares seleccionados cumplen la función de herramienta mental-tecnológica, al desarrollar habilidades para procesar información de forma creativa. Abstract in english The educational system does not escape to renewing the techniques to motivate innovative thinking. The goal of this monographic reflection is to show the relation between creativity development and education software uses. The chosen techniques are, mental and concept map, the mandala and super note [...] -taking. The software used is the Mind Manager, Inspiration, and the CMap Tool. The procedure refers to the theoretical fundaments argued by the authors and, to a description of the goodness of the software used. As a final reflection it can be said that the software work as a mental-technological tool, by developing skills to process information in a creative way.

Anny, Castillo Rojas.

2008-12-01

172

The Thinking Machine: A Physical Science Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Science projects can be a wonderful opportunity for learning and creativity, or a gigantic headache for teachers. After several years of implementation, experience, and revision, the author has put together a fun and engaging project centered on machines that is appropriate for middle school students. This project came to be known simply as "The Thinking Machine Project," which draws its origin from the national Rube Goldberg Machine competition held each year at Purdue University. Here is one way to bring technology, writing, drawing, creativity, and hands-on ingenuity together in a single fun and successful project.

Jarrard, Amber

2008-11-01

173

Act local, think global  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive Director Chris Lewis will work with the audience on an interactive basis to outline answers to the following questions: - To what extent was there agreement world-wide on the major communications challenges facing the nuclear industry prior to September 11th, and how to address them locally? - How (and how much) has the nuclear communications agenda changed since then? Are the new challenges the same world-wide? - To what extent is communications strategy - like strategy generally - a question not only of what to do, but also of what not to do? When is lack of transparency justified? - Are the new issues all negative, or do recent global developments also offer nuclear communicators world-wide a new opportunity to 'put across' the key messages they have been trying to communicate for many years past - in particular, the 'place' of nuclear energy in the broader 'energy picture'? (author)

174

Critical Thinking and Legal Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We often lack clear procedures for assessing statements and arguments advanced in everyday conversations, political campaigns, advertisements, and the other multifarious uses to which ordinary language can be put. Critical thinking is a method for evaluating arguments couched in ordinary, non-formal language. Legal education should foster this argumentative skill as an ability to assess the open-end variety of arguments that may arise in legal disputes. I will argue that the ability of critical thinking helps lawyers to thrive even in legal cultures that are hostile to critical thinking. There is, therefore, a happy harmony between professional and moral reasons to teach critical thinking at law schools: it promotes epistemic as well as instrumental rationality.

Guido Pincione

2009-01-01

175

Critical Thinking in Language Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Critical thinking, rooted in critical philosophy, has long been an influential part and parcel of Western education. The present study is an attempt to sketch the concept of critical thinking as a viable cornerstone in language education. First, a number of the definitions of the concept as posited by different scholars are put forth. Second, the typical features of critical thinkers are introduced from the perspectives of education scholars. Third, different standpoints on the teachability of the ability to think critically are reviewed. And finally, a number of classroom techniques, including debates, media analyses, problem-solving tasks, self-assessment and peer-assessment, likely to foster critical thinking skills in language classrooms are proposed.

Saeed Rezaei

2011-07-01

176

Children Can't Think  

Science.gov (United States)

If children are to think imaginatively, they must be given the scope to do so. The design of questions and the time allowed for answers are two vital factors in the development of a child's thought processes. (CK)

Kondo, Allan K.

1970-01-01

177

Do Standardized Tests Penalize Deep-Thinking, Creative, or Conscientious Students?: Some Personality Correlates of Graduate Record Examinations Test Scores  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…

Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.

2004-01-01

178

Promoting Creative Thinking and Expression of Science Concepts among Elementary Teacher Candidates through Science Content Movie Creation and Showcasing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the phases of design and use of video editing technology as a medium for creatively expressing science content knowledge in an elementary science methods course. Teacher candidates communicated their understanding of standards-based core science concepts through the creation of original digital movies. The movies were assigned…

Hechter, Richard P.; Guy, Mark

2010-01-01

179

Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking: Integrating Online Tools to Promote Critical Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material...

Jean Mandernach, B.

2006-01-01

180

Thoughts on Thinking: The Challenge of Critical Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Central to Halpern’s definition is the idea that the critical thinker must have not only the necessary analytical tools but also the inclination to use them. Implicit in this argument is the reality that as educators, we must facilitate the learning of both critical thinking skills and dispositions. Critical thinking may also involve the dialectical confrontation between two conflicting forces. The first is what we know and believe; the second is that which is different, new, or contrary to what we know or believe. Braman (1998 uses the phrase “disorienting dilemma” to describe the situation when one critically examines a well-formulated position that is directly at odds with a long held, and perhaps cherished, belief (p. 30. It is this dynamic process of exposure, exploration, and evaluation that is central to the liberal arts educator committed to the practice and to the instruction of critical thinking. However, the evaluation of differing perspectives is a necessary but not sufficient condition of critical thinking. Hatcher and Spencer (2000 address this concern in their succinct but compelling definition. They write that critical thinking “attempts to arrive at a decision or judgment only after honestly evaluating alternatives with respect to available evidence and arguments” (p.1. This definition is particularly satisfying because it refers both to a process (the honest evaluation of alternatives and to an advocacy-based result (a decision that is informed by the evidence and arguments.

Gary Heisserer

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking: Integrating Online Tools to Promote Critical Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. To address this dilemma, it is essential to integrate instructional strategies and techniques that can efficiently and effectively maximize student learning and critical thinking. Modern advances in educational technology have produced a range of online tools to assist instructors in meeting this instructional goal. This review will examine the theoretical foundations of critical thinking in higher education, discuss empirically-based strategies for integrating online instructional supplements to enhance critical thinking, offer techniques for expanding instructional opportunities outside the limitations of traditional class time, and provide practical suggestions for the innovative use of critical thinking strategies via online resources.

B. Jean Mandernach

2006-01-01

182

The role of knowledge in critical thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses the role of knowledge in critical thinking, i.e. a controversial issue of whether critical thinking is general or subject-dependant ability. Analyzed are basic assumptions of the authors who maintain the view of the generality of critical thinking, and those who defend the view that critical thinking is subject dependant, as well as their theoretical and practical arguments in favor of their views. The problem of generality of critical thinking is analyzed on three levels:...

Peši? Jelena

2007-01-01

183

Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in ev...

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-01-01

184

Efectos directos e indirectos entre estilos de pensamiento, estrategias metacognitivas y creatividad en estudiantes universitarios / Direct and indirect effects between thinking styles, metacognitive strategies and creativity in college students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde la psicología educativa se han generado estudios que relacionan los estilos de pensamiento con las estrategias metacognitivas y la creatividad. Aunque existe un cuerpo empírico que explicita relaciones de dependencia y/o predictivas entre estos constructos, no hemos hallado estudios que analic [...] en los efectos directos e indirectos que se establecen entre ellos. Así, el objetivo en este estudio fue probar un modelo teórico mediante modelización con ecuaciones estructurales para estudiar dichos efectos. Participaron 197 estudiantes universitarios. Los instrumentos usados fueron: i) el Inventario de Estilos de Pensamiento (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner y Zhang, 2003) para medir los estilos de pensamiento; ii) La Escala de Estrategias de Aprendizaje (ACRA) (Román y Gallego, 2001) para medir las estrategias metacognitivas; iii) El Test de Inteligencia Creativa (CREA) (Corbalán Berná et al., 2003) para medir la creatividad. Los resultados obtenidos indican que: i) Los estilos de pensamiento judicial y legislativo (Sternberg, 1998) contribuyen de manera positiva y directamente al uso de estrategias metacognitivas e indirecta y positivamente a la creatividad; ii) las estrategias metacognitivas contribuyen de manera directa y positivamente a la creatividad. Sin embargo, no se ha encontrado una relación directa entre los estilos de pensamiento y la creatividad. Abstract in english Previous studies from the field of Educational Psychology have indicated that thinking styles are related to metacognitive strategies and creativity. Although, there is a body of empirical studies which explains the relationship and/ or predictive relations between these constructs, we have not foun [...] d studies examining the direct and indirect effects that arise between them. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling to study these effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling to study these effects. Participants in the present study were 197 university students. Instruments used were: i) the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner & Zhan, 2003) to measure thinking styles; ii) The Learning Strategies Scale (ACRA) (Roman & Gallego, 2001) to measure the metacognitive strategies, iii) The Test of Creative Intelligence (CREA) (Corbalan Berna et al., 2003) to measure creativity. The results indicate that: i) The judicial and legislative thinking styles (Sternberg, 1998) contribute to the use of metacognitive strategies directly and in a positive way, and these styles contribute to the creativity indirectly and in a positive way; ii) metacognitive strategies contribute to the creativity directly and in a positively way. However, not found a direct relationship between thinking styles and creativity.

Calixto, Gutierrez-Braojos; Purificación, Salmeron-Vilchez; Ana, Martín-Romera; Honorio, Salmerón.

185

Efectos directos e indirectos entre estilos de pensamiento, estrategias metacognitivas y creatividad en estudiantes universitarios / Direct and indirect effects between thinking styles, metacognitive strategies and creativity in college students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde la psicología educativa se han generado estudios que relacionan los estilos de pensamiento con las estrategias metacognitivas y la creatividad. Aunque existe un cuerpo empírico que explicita relaciones de dependencia y/o predictivas entre estos constructos, no hemos hallado estudios que analic [...] en los efectos directos e indirectos que se establecen entre ellos. Así, el objetivo en este estudio fue probar un modelo teórico mediante modelización con ecuaciones estructurales para estudiar dichos efectos. Participaron 197 estudiantes universitarios. Los instrumentos usados fueron: i) el Inventario de Estilos de Pensamiento (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner y Zhang, 2003) para medir los estilos de pensamiento; ii) La Escala de Estrategias de Aprendizaje (ACRA) (Román y Gallego, 2001) para medir las estrategias metacognitivas; iii) El Test de Inteligencia Creativa (CREA) (Corbalán Berná et al., 2003) para medir la creatividad. Los resultados obtenidos indican que: i) Los estilos de pensamiento judicial y legislativo (Sternberg, 1998) contribuyen de manera positiva y directamente al uso de estrategias metacognitivas e indirecta y positivamente a la creatividad; ii) las estrategias metacognitivas contribuyen de manera directa y positivamente a la creatividad. Sin embargo, no se ha encontrado una relación directa entre los estilos de pensamiento y la creatividad. Abstract in english Previous studies from the field of Educational Psychology have indicated that thinking styles are related to metacognitive strategies and creativity. Although, there is a body of empirical studies which explains the relationship and/ or predictive relations between these constructs, we have not foun [...] d studies examining the direct and indirect effects that arise between them. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling to study these effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling to study these effects. Participants in the present study were 197 university students. Instruments used were: i) the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner & Zhan, 2003) to measure thinking styles; ii) The Learning Strategies Scale (ACRA) (Roman & Gallego, 2001) to measure the metacognitive strategies, iii) The Test of Creative Intelligence (CREA) (Corbalan Berna et al., 2003) to measure creativity. The results indicate that: i) The judicial and legislative thinking styles (Sternberg, 1998) contribute to the use of metacognitive strategies directly and in a positive way, and these styles contribute to the creativity indirectly and in a positive way; ii) metacognitive strategies contribute to the creativity directly and in a positively way. However, not found a direct relationship between thinking styles and creativity.

Calixto, Gutierrez-Braojos; Purificación, Salmeron-Vilchez; Ana, Martín-Romera; Honorio, Salmerón.

2013-01-01

186

The art of thinking clearly  

CERN Document Server

The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

Dobelli, Rolf

2013-01-01

187

Critical Thinking Activity and Tips  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from HURI SURI includes two documents related to teaching critical thinking skills. The HURI SURI project is developing a regional biotechnology workforce pipeline by expanding and supporting biotechnology research experiences for Jamestown Community College (JCC) undergraduates and disseminating these research experiences and materials to area high school teachers and students. The first document contains three sets of information and asks students to analyze them. The second document lists tips for taking a critical thinking exam such as "write succinct and clear sentences" and "base your answer on the data provided only."

2014-07-11

188

What Do Early Childhood Practitioners Think about Young Children's Thinking?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the perceptions and practices of early childhood practitioners in relation to the development of thinking in children aged 3-5 years. Five practitioners working in nursery and reception classes in England were interviewed, and sessions were observed in each setting, including discussions with the children. The results…

Robson, Sue; Hargreaves, David J.

2005-01-01

189

REFLECTIVE THINKING AND TEACHING PRACTICES: A PRECURSOR FOR INCORPORATING CRITICAL THINKING INTO THE CLASSROOM?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to show a link between reflective thinking and its ability to stimulate critical thinking. Teachers often perceive that critical thinking skills need to...

Chee Choy, S.; Pou San Oo

2012-01-01

190

Thinking outside the Teacher's Box  

Science.gov (United States)

This article applies theories of alternative thinking and problem solving to the teaching context. Teachers working in static situations are prone to stagnation leading to a paradigm crisis where they are forced to question the status quo. Techniques for confronting such situations are examined, along with personal management strategies and the…

Darn, Steve

2006-01-01

191

A Thinking Block for Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how to transform a Rubik's cube into a tool for thinking and writing about literature. Notes how the six faces of the cube are labeled with common examples of theme, character, method, "world,""change," and reader perspective. Describes how, after shuffling, each face includes examples from each perspective. (RS)

Marcus, Stephen

1990-01-01

192

"Thinking about a Sustainable Earth"  

Science.gov (United States)

1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the students thought of were; a rise in the sea level because of melting ice at the north and south poles, floods, the increase of typhoons and cyclones, the increase of droughts, the progression of desertification, etc. Lastly, I asked them to think about what we can do to prevent global warming. The students suggested: saving energy to decrease carbon dioxide emissions, developing further public transportation, using bikes instead of cars, promoting recycling, and decreasing the output of garbage. 3.Conclusion It is very effective to let them think about being sustainable earth after studying Geography, History and Civics at the end of Junior high school to raise awareness concerning sustainable region on the earth, on which we live.

Ikeshita, Makoto

2014-05-01

193

Critical Thinking in Health Sciences Education: Considering “Three Waves”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically, health science education has focused on content knowledge. However, there has been increasing recognition that education must focus more on the thinking processes required of future health professionals. In an effort to teach these processes, educators of health science students have looked to the concept of critical thinking. But what does it mean to “think critically”? Despite some attempts to clarify and define critical thinking in health science education and in other fields, it remains a “complex and controversial notion that is difficult to define and, consequently, difficult to study” (Abrami et al., 2008, p. 1103. This selected review offers a roadmap of the various understandings of critical thinking currently in circulation. We will survey three prevalent traditions from which critical thinking theory emerges and the major features of the discourses associated with them: critical thinking as a set of technical skills, as a humanistic mode of accessing creativity and exploring self, and as a mode of ideology critique with a goal of emancipation. The goal of this literature review is to explore the various ways in which critical thinking is understood in the literature, how and from where those understandings emerge, and the debates that shape each understanding.

Renate Kahlke

2013-12-01

194

Critical thinking in the university curriculum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a multi-qualitative study undertaken to examine the issue of critical thinking as a graduate attribute. Critical thinking is a graduate attribute that many courses claim to produce in students. However, it is important to understand how academics define and describe critical thinking and whether their understandings of critical thinking differ, depending on their discipline or subject area. The paper describes a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with aca...

Ahern, Aoife; Mac Ruairc, Gerry; Mcnamara, Martin; O Connor, Tom

2010-01-01

195

The Phenomenology of Critical Thinking in Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the analysis of literary critical thinking as a form of thinking over shapes and artistic expressions. Based on the principles of phenomenology, critical thinking is investigated as a way through which the literary work is related to the system of aesthetic values. Developed therein are three ideas meant to form a type of thinking expressed by various critics in relation to the literary work.The first aspect is related to the phenomenological perception that occurs in the...

Dumitru M?rcu?

2010-01-01

196

Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but qualitative data indicate that the way discussions are used and facilitated is vital for encouraging critical thinking. Online discussions typically hav...

Bridget Arend

2009-01-01

197

ThinkQuest to help Internet people Think Young!  

CERN Document Server

The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March.   Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...

2001-01-01

198

Wanted: nurses with critical thinking skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowing how to think, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate are crucial skills for nursing professionals. Development of critical thinking skills requires educational involvement beyond the level of basic preparation. The diffusion of nursing knowledge afforded by continuing education in nursing makes it the perfect milieu for the enhancement and continuous development of critical thinking skills. PMID:2107227

Schank, M J

1990-01-01

199

Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related?  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the relationship between thinking styles and personality types by having 600 undergraduate students from the University of Hong Kong respond to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS). Reports that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. (CMK)

Zhang, Li-Fang

2000-01-01

200

Critical Thinking Assessment of College Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a framework for assessment of critical thinking of college students. Proposes a multimethod approach focused on assessment of three major components of critical thinking: knowledge, thinking skills, and attitudes. Notes that each component requires its own assessment. Finds this multidimensional assessment framework is a workable solution…

Aretz, Anthony J.; Bolen, M. Todd; Devereux, Kimberly E.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Interaction of cerebral hemispheres and artistic thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of drawings by patients with local lesions of the right or left hemisphere allows to understand how artistic thinking is supported by brain structures. The role of the right hemisphere is significant at the early stage of creative process. The right hemisphere is a generator of nonverbal visuo-spatial thinking. It operates with blurred nonverbal images and arrange them in a visual space. With the help of iconic signs the right hemisphere reflects the world and creates perceptive visual standards which are stored in the long-term right hemisphere memory. The image, which appeared in the `inner' space, should be transferred into a principally different language, i.e. a left hemispheric sign language. This language operates with a number of discrete units, logical succession and learned grammar rules. This process can be explained by activation (information) transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one. Thus, natural and spontaneous creative process, which is finished by a conscious effort, can be understood as an activation impulse transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one and back.

Nikolaenko, Nikolay N.

1998-07-01

202

Thinking Pedagogically, Again, from Constructivism  

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In the present article I continue the one I published in Revista de Estudios Sociales, Universidad de los Andes, entitled “Pensar pedagógicamente desde el constructivismo: De las concepciones a las prácticas pedagógicas” (Thinking pedagogically from constructivism: From pedagogical conceptions to pedagogical practices) (1). There I presented what are to me the principal constructivist conceptions; I also supported the idea that they allow us, teachers of any discipline and educational ...

Ordo?n?ez, Claudia Luci?a

2010-01-01

203

Zoogenesis: Thinking Encounter with Animals  

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The “question of the animal,” as it has become known, is central—both strategically and in-itself—to contemporary philosophy and politics, and in my thesis, Zoogenesis: Thinking Encounter with Animals, I seek to further explore the ongoing deconstruction of the human-animal dichotomy. Therein I argue that, if we are to stall the genocidal machine by which various bodies are reproduced as “killable,” the reinscription of other animals within the domains of philosophy, ethics, and p...

Iveson, Richard

2011-01-01

204

Methods and Strategies: Thinking Metric  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite educators' strong recommendation for teaching students measurement skills--and specifically the metric system--measurement continues to be among the lowest scoring mathematics content areas in the United States for students. But, it doesn't have to be this way. This article provides a series of simple activities that can help students in grades 4-6 conceptualize metric units of measurement and thus improve their ability to think in metric units.

Sterling, Donna R.

2006-10-01

205

Critical Thinking and Legal Culture  

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We often lack clear procedures for assessing statements and arguments advanced in everyday conversations, political campaigns, advertisements, and the other multifarious uses to which ordinary language can be put. Critical thinking is a method for evaluating arguments couched in ordinary, non-formal language. Legal education should foster this argumentative skill as an ability to assess the open-end variety of arguments that may arise in legal disputes. I will argue that the ability of critic...

Guido Pincione

2009-01-01

206

Teaching Sociology and Womens’ Critical Thinking  

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Full Text Available IntroductionSociology of Teaching sociology is seen as a fresh new place to explore the importance and role of critical thinking in the sociology of education has been one of the most important issues to consider.Principles of Sociology course ample opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills and attitudes and serves as a missionary spirit, critical thinking has suggested an alternative,Areas has brought the development of critical thinking. Learn the basics of critical thinking as a product of sociology curriculum content.To promote critical thinking skills so that potential learners. Increased emphasis on critical thinking in the university, leads to an increase in the use of critical thinking in the Society. Thinking and critical thinking as well as to social criticism, sociological thinking, and thinking is deemed necessary. Critical thinking involves the ability to judge and evaluate any logical thinking person based on sociological insights Mills provides.Sociologists should be in their classrooms, roads and planning ways to Students in order to enable them to think critically And the ability to create a bridge between personal experience and social events have. Critical thinking is one of the most important concepts that are essential for every individual and also play an important role in social life.Sociological critical thinking skills as one of the fundamental goals of education are considered in the evaluation. One of the most common objectives in the field of sociology of education is to enhance students' critical thinking abilities.Sociological critical thinking as well as product of Skills and sociological knowledge of Individuals.His ability to use that knowledge to properly deal with various topics of social life was sociologically.They show sensitivity to the needs of thereby making it one of the fields of social and cultural awareness is about. Critical thinking in education is a priority. Sociology course many opportunities for growth trends and provides the critical thinking skills.One of the major challenges in teaching sociology in Iran, according to critical thinking is a poor practice.Sociology of expectations and the necessary training in Iran, increased emphasis on critical thinking among students in general and specifically the female students. Women are half of the social construction of Iran, the main aim of the present study investigated the relationship between the sociology of education and critical thinking among students (the students associate degrees and Bachelor of Tourism Management, University of Isfahan Sheikh Bahai will be. Matherial & MethodsSurvey methodology and questionnaire data collection tools and approaches to teaching critical thinking Riketts (2003 respectively.Collection Data Based on total between girls' students (n=67 in introduction sociology class of Schiegh Baheei (Baharestan, Isfahan (Tourism Management,one term, 1390-91.Discussion of Results & ConclutionsThe attitude of students to learn the basics of sociology at the high level and high level of critical thinking in students expressed is. ranked in order of importance are the six components of the ability to understand the lesson, a valuable lesson, the importance of having a sense of enjoyment, motivation, learning and teaching principles of fear and concern of sociology. Drngrsh significant difference between the course Principles of sociology two educational levels (undergraduate interest there.Meaningful relationship between the three components of good feeling, motivation, and also learn important lessons that have students think critically and independently represents the relationship between sociology and education is critical thinking among students.C. Wright Mills, leaning on approach, each student through the process of critical thinking in the sociology of education increases,Identification and analysis of practical realization of the society will be realized by most students.

Mohammad-Ali Zaki

2013-01-01

207

Study on the Mathematical Thinking Ability in College Education  

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Full Text Available The critical aspect of cultivating mathematical ability is the training of mathematics thinking. In the process of mathematics education, it should coach the creative thinking continually, and College mathematics will play an important role in training students’ thinking ability. As the matter of fact, mathematics can explain many phenomena simply and accurately. Through the living feeling, leading students to study these things, which can form the habit of being happy to analyze mathematics and communicate with each other. It could strengthen students’ awareness of applying mathematics and improve the ability of using mathematics. According to three effective ways of coaching students, in order to apply mathematic knowledge in all kinds of social topics, the author will study how to train student’s mathematical thinking from the perspective of college mathematical teaching in this topic.

Meihong Qiao

2013-03-01

208

Critical Thinking: Rationality, and the Vulcanization of Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although critical thinking has become a pedagogical industry, its endorsement by educators is uncritical. The conventional critical thinking model assumes that only logical thinking is good thinking. However, good thinking also includes rational but nonlogical cognitive functions. To ignore them is to train students in only one aspect of thinking.…

Walters, Kerry S.

1990-01-01

209

Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-04-01

210

The role of knowledge in critical thinking  

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Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of knowledge in critical thinking, i.e. a controversial issue of whether critical thinking is general or subject-dependant ability. Analyzed are basic assumptions of the authors who maintain the view of the generality of critical thinking, and those who defend the view that critical thinking is subject dependant, as well as their theoretical and practical arguments in favor of their views. The problem of generality of critical thinking is analyzed on three levels: conceptual (whether it is conceptually possible to speak about critical thinking outside a particular subject context; epistemological (whether the epistemological nature of the ability and skill of critical thinking differs in different domains of human knowledge and practical (practical implications related to developing the most adequate approach to enhance critical thinking. The outcomes of the analysis suggest that critical thinking has both a general and a subject-dependant components, whose contents require further elaboration based on theoretical and empirical research. Educational implications of the analysis indicate that it is necessary to carefully devise the connection between the desired skills and teaching contents in the curricula which aim at enhancing critical thinking. .

Peši? Jelena

2007-01-01

211

Shaping entrepreneurial thinking through nudging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nudging is increasingly acknowledged as a way to encourage change in behavior. Research shows that through the use of persuasive techniques individuals can be steered towards more effective decision-making. Using explicit nudging strategies in entrepreneurship education may create awareness about choice patterns and change the way individuals think about their entrepreneurial potential. Nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring students beyond the unseen boundaries of the self towards the kind of learning (growth) that develops self-efficacy and an entrepreneurial mindset. Thus, nudging techniques may promote, strengthen and develop learning beyond the limitations of what we already do.

Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle

212

Relationship Between Thinking Style and Organizational Innovation of Senior and Junior Managers of Shiraz Educational Hospitals  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: The most important principles in an organization are continuous development and survival. Nowadays, creativity and innovation are vital for survival in a competitive world. The thinking style of a manager in an organization is an important factor in his/her creativity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between thinking style and organizational innovation in 84 senior and junior managers of Shiraz educational hospitals in 2008.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 84 top and mid-level managers of Shiraz teaching hospitals were selected by the census method. Data were collected using two standard questionnaires, one for thinking style and one for innovation, the content validity and reliability of which had been confirmed. A preliminary test showed the Cronbachs alpha for the thinking style and organizational questionnaires to be 0.83 and 0.72, respectively. Data analysis was performed using Spearman correlation test. Results: The Spearman correlation analysis showed a statistically significant, although weak, relationship between thinking style of senior and junior managers of Shiraz teaching hospitals and their organizational innovation. A pragmatic thinking style had the strongest association with organizational innovation.Conclusion: The thinking style of a teaching hospital manager plays a vital role in his/her creativity. No thinking style is particularly preferred; any thinking style may give desirable results as regards creativity of a manger, depending on the circumstances and conditions.

A Roshanfard

2009-11-01

213

The Phenomenology of Critical Thinking in Literature  

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Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of literary critical thinking as a form of thinking over shapes and artistic expressions. Based on the principles of phenomenology, critical thinking is investigated as a way through which the literary work is related to the system of aesthetic values. Developed therein are three ideas meant to form a type of thinking expressed by various critics in relation to the literary work.The first aspect is related to the phenomenological perception that occurs in the act of reading, the second establishes the mechanism that triggers the interpretation and the third is related to the explanation of the convergence/divergence of critical judgments. The idea of logical critical thinking with the fuzzy logic is also introduced. The article is part of a research project about the structure of critical thinking.

Dumitru M?rcu?

2010-09-01

214

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS FOR LANGUAGE STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this areahave begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners’ mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was conducted partly to seek the answers to the issue. A brief training on critical thinking and critical attitude was given to a group of language learners who were studying Business Correspondence. Questionnaires were then used to capture traces of their thinking as they were preparing to accomplish a learning task and while they were listening to their classmates’ presentation of ideas. The data show the change of their thinking process. After the training there is a tendency from the students to ask more critical questions with slightly higher frequencies. It is concluded then that the brief training has prompted their awareness of critical thinking.

Patrisius Istiarto Djiwandono

2013-01-01

215

Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions  

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Full Text Available Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but qualitative data indicate that the way discussions are used and facilitated is vital for encouraging critical thinking. Online discussions typically have the purpose of creating a space and time for informal, open-ended thinking to occur. Critical thinking appears to be best encouraged among students when a more consistent emphasis is placed on the discussions, and when instructor facilitation is less frequent but more purposeful.

Bridget Arend

2009-01-01

216

Critical Thinking Tendencies of Music Teacher Candidates  

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In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant ?zzet ...

Pi?ji? Ku?c?u?k, Duygu; Uzun, Yusuf Bar?s?

2013-01-01

217

Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related?  

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The relationship between thinking styles and personality types is investigated within the contexts of Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and Holland's theory of personality types. A total of 600 university students from Hong Kong responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS) that was specially designed for the present study. A major finding of this study is that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. A seconda...

Zhang, Lf

2000-01-01

218

Barriers to Critical Thinking Across Domains  

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The transfer of critical thinking across domains presents both a significant challenge and meaningful opportunity for college education as well as programs of continuing education and · efforts to encourage lifelong learning. After examining different approaches to teaching critical thinking, this paper examines some of the barriers to transfer across domains using an interactionist perspective. This perspective underscores the fact that developing and using critical thinking ...

Geertsen, Reed

2013-01-01

219

Strategies for improving productive thinking in the language impaired adult.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to discuss a cognitive approach to therapy with a language impaired adult. Two types of productive thinking are explored in this research: concept awareness and problem solving. These are dynamic and creative processes underlying the development and use of cognition and language. This single subject study follows an ABAB design and describes techniques used in therapy and methods for measuring productive thinking in a 66-yr-old moderately language impaired adult. Results indicate a sharp increase in the subject's thought productivity in a variety of contexts. A critical appraisal of reasons for therapy effectiveness are given. PMID:7263932

Jenning, E A; Lubinski, R B

1981-07-01

220

The critical thinking curriculum model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Critical Thinking Curriculum Model (CTCM) utilizes a multidisciplinary approach that integrates effective learning and teaching practices with computer technology. The model is designed to be flexible within a curriculum, an example for teachers to follow, where they can plug in their own critical issue. This process engages students in collaborative research that can be shared in the classroom, across the country or around the globe. The CTCM features open-ended and collaborative activities that deal with current, real world issues which leaders are attempting to solve. As implemented in the Critical Issues Forum (CIF), an educational program administered by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the CTCM encompasses the political, social/cultural, economic, and scientific realms in the context of a current global issue. In this way, students realize the importance of their schooling by applying their efforts to an endeavor that ultimately will affect their future. This study measures student attitudes toward science and technology and the changes that result from immersion in the CTCM. It also assesses the differences in student learning in science content and problem solving for students involved in the CTCM. A sample of 24 students participated in classrooms at two separate high schools in New Mexico. The evaluation results were analyzed using SPSS in a MANOVA format in order to determine the significance of the between and within-subjects effects. A comparison ANOVA was done for each two-way MANOVA to see if the comparison groups were equal. Significant findings were validated using the Scheffe test in a Post Hoc analysis. Demographic information for the sample population was recorded and tracked, including self-assessments of computer use and availability. Overall, the results indicated that the CTCM did help to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills for students, thereby positively effecting critical thinking. No matter if the students liked science or not, enjoyed computers or not, the CTCM approach helped to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills. The CTCM clearly provides an educational framework that can aid all students in the development of critical thinking skills.

Robertson, William Haviland

 
 
 
 
221

CATEGORIES OF CRITICAL THINKING IN INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. A STUDY OF CRITICAL THINKING IN DECISION MAKING PROCESSES  

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This article focuses as a survey on the qualities of Critical Thinking on reviewing its definitions in recent history of academic research and compared to other intellectual processes. On the one hand we will compare the basic characteristic qualities of Critical Thinking with other types of thinking. On the other hand we will give examples how Critical Thinking is a part of the decision making processes both in personal human issues and institutional decision making processes. Since Critical...

Fee-Alexandra Haase

2010-01-01

222

REFLECTIVE THINKING AND TEACHING PRACTICES: A PRECURSOR FOR INCORPORATING CRITICAL THINKING INTO THE CLASSROOM?  

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Full Text Available The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to show a link between reflective thinking and its ability to stimulate critical thinking. Teachers often perceive that critical thinking skills need to be taught, however research has shown that they may not know how to do this effectively. The use of reflective thinking may be a precursor to stimulating critical thinking in teachers. The research questions are on the reflective thinking skills of teachers and how they perceive themselves and their teaching. In this study a total of 60 participants from institutions of higher learning volunteered to answer a questionnaire to determine the level at which they reflected on their teaching practices as an indicator of their level of critical thinking. It was found that most of the teachers did not reflect deeply on their teaching practices. They did not seem to practice the four learning processes: assumption analysis, contextual awareness, imaginative speculation and reflective scepticism which were indicative of reflection. It would suggest that critical thinking is practised minimally among teachers. Further research need to be carried out on how to bring about reflective practices among teachers and how it would enhance the quality of lessons in terms of critical thinking.

S. Chee Choy

2012-01-01

223

Critical Thinking: The Role of Management Education. Developing Managers To Think Critically.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emphasizing critical thinking as the source of renewal and survival of organizations, this document begins by analyzing the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the destruction of the space shuttle Challenger as examples of inadequate critical thinking. The role of management education in promoting critical thinking is explored as well as the need for a…

Pierce, Gloria

224

Promoting scientific thinking with robots  

CERN Document Server

This article describes an exemplary robot exercise which was conducted in a class for mechatronics students. The goal of this exercise was to engage students in scientific thinking and reasoning, activities which do not always play an important role in their curriculum. The robotic platform presented here is simple in its construction and is customizable to the needs of the teacher. Therefore, it can be used for exercises in many different fields of science, not necessarily related to robotics. Here we present a situation where the robot is used like an alien creature from which we want to understand its behavior, resembling an ethological research activity. This robot exercise is suited for a wide range of courses, from general introduction to science, to hardware oriented lectures.

Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Benker, Emanuel

2011-01-01

225

Tackling Problems through Lateral Thinking. An Interview with Edward de Bono.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this interview, Edward de Bono says critical or logical thinking in lockstep fashion is necessary but not sufficient because we need not only the ability to critique ideas, but to create them. Creative or lateral thinking arrives at solutions by attacking problems "laterally" or "sideways." (DCS)

Brodinsky, Ben

1985-01-01

226

Tools for innovative thinking in epidemiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Innovation is the engine of scientific progress. Concern has been raised by the National Academies of Science about how well America is sustaining its "creative ecosystem." In this commentary, the author argues that we can all improve our ability to think innovatively through instruction and practice. The author presents a series of tools that are currently being taught in a curriculum developed at the University of Texas, based on earlier evidence-based creativity training programs. The tools are these: 1) finding the right question; 2) enhancing observation; 3) using analogies; 4) juggling induction and deduction; 5) changing your point of view; 6) broadening the perspective; 7) dissecting the problem; 8) leveraging serendipity and reversal; 9) reorganization and combination of ideas; 10) getting the most out of groups; and 11) breaking out of habitual expectations and frames. Each tool is explained using examples from science and public health. It is likely that each of us will identify with and agree with the usefulness of one or two of the tools described. Broader mastery of many of these tools, particularly when used in combination, has provided our students with a powerful device for enhancing innovation. PMID:22427609

Ness, Roberta B

2012-04-15

227

Infusing Systems Thinking into Career Counseling  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the role of career counselors in infusing systems thinking into occupational advising. The authors conducted a qualitative review and analysis of selected literature on systems thinking and analyzed trends for adaptation to career counseling practice. This analysis suggests that career counselors need to infuse systems…

Ryan, Charles W.; Tomlin, James H.

2010-01-01

228

ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation  

Science.gov (United States)

... The ThinkFirst Foundation is a 501c3 nonprofit organization. Benefit "ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation" when you surf or shop 1400+ retailers online. Set up and start shopping at iGive.com or download the iGive button ...

229

Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills among Authoritarian Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…

Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David

2013-01-01

230

Critical Thinking Tendencies of Music Teacher Candidates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant ?zzet Baysal University, Necatibey Education Faculty of Bal?kesir University and Education Faculty of Çanakkkale Onsekiz Mart University. The data of the study was accumulated by the California Critical Thinking Tendency Scale. In the wake of the study, it was found that music teacher candidates have a medium-level tendency in general critical thinking and its sub-dimensions and that there are high-level significant relations in a positive way between critical thinking tendency and its sub-dimensions. Critical thinking tendencies of music teacher candidates not being differentiated according to the gender and class variable, teacher candidates graduated from general high school having a higher critical thinking tendency than the ones graduated from Anatolian Fine Arts High School were determined.

Duygu P?J? KÜÇÜK

2013-04-01

231

Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

2013-01-01

232

Philosophy, Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children  

Science.gov (United States)

For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…

Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle

2011-01-01

233

Upper Primary School Students' Algebraic Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative research study involving 128 students in grades 4-6 was conducted to develop a framework for characterizing upper primary school students' algebraic thinking. Four levels of algebraic thinking were identified from student responses to tasks involving patterns and open number sentences. Level 1 students failed to understand the…

Kamol, Natcha; Ban Har, Yeap

2010-01-01

234

Higher Level Thinking Skills through Drama.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of drama in the classroom provides concrete opportunities to explore such higher-level thinking abilities as synthesis, evaluation, and divergent thinking. Suggested activities for use with upper elementary and secondary students involve pantomime, verbal improvisation, expressing emotions, and developing characters. (JDD)

Gangi, Jane M.

1990-01-01

235

Manipulating Critical Thinking Skills in Test Taking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Critical thinking ability is a difficult concept to define. It involves reasoning and active consideration of what is received rather than a forthright acceptance of the ideas. It has been argued that when the focus of testing is the examination itself, the critical thinking ability of the learners cannot be boosted. However, different types a...

Maryam Pezeshki; Mansoor Fahim

2012-01-01

236

Critical Thinking in the Business Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

A minicourse in critical thinking was implemented to improve student outcomes in two sessions of a senior-level business course at a Midwestern university. Statistical analyses of two quantitative assessments revealed significant improvements in critical thinking skills. Improvements in student outcomes in case studies and computerized business…

Reid, Joanne R.; Anderson, Phyllis R.

2012-01-01

237

Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English  

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Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

Valerie, Pellatt

2010-01-01

238

The disruptive effect of Think Aloud  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thinking Aloud Thinking Aloud is the most commonly used technique used to test users´ interaction with computers. The assumption is that Think Aloud gives access to what goes on in the users´ minds. However, interfaces are multi modal and play heavily on user´s visual perception. Reflecting upon Think Aloud (TA), we ask the question: what happens when users are required to verbalise their visual perceptions and interactions? We argue that TA may have a disruptive effect, suggesting that other techniques be considered. With a theoretical distinction between focal and subsidiary awareness and a focus on the sense making process, we develop a frame for test of user´s visual interaction which rely on the coordination between hand/mouse and eye/cursor.Author Keywords: Think Aloud, visual perception, interaction, test

Nielsen, Janni

2004-01-01

239

Manipulating Critical Thinking Skills in Test Taking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Critical thinking ability is a difficult concept to define. It involves reasoning and active consideration of what is received rather than a forthright acceptance of the ideas. It has been argued that when the focus of testing is the examination itself, the critical thinking ability of the learners cannot be boosted. However, different types and formats of tests can engage the learners in an active critical thinking when they are appropriately prepared. In this paper some of these tests used in the literature and the way they engage the learners in critical thinking activities are explained. The paper concludes that different tests of language can be manipulated so that they can engage the learners in critical thinking activities. Implications for teachers and test developers are also provided.

Mansoor Fahim

2012-02-01

240

How mathematicians think using ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox to create mathemathics  

CERN Document Server

To many outsiders, mathematicians appear to think like computers, grimly grinding away with a strict formal logic and moving methodically--even algorithmically--from one black-and-white deduction to another. Yet mathematicians often describe their most important breakthroughs as creative, intuitive responses to ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox. A unique examination of this less-familiar aspect of mathematics, How Mathematicians Think reveals that mathematics is a profoundly creative activity and not just a body of formalized rules and results

Byers, William

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The Impact of Emotions on Divergent Thinking Processes: A Consideration for Inquiry-Oriented Teachers  

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Full Text Available Innovation is a cornerstone of the success of our global society and it is required to generate solutions to today’s challenges. Students will benefit from classrooms that encourage creative thought and innovative self-directed projects. Inquiry is an instructional approach that fosters creativity and divergent thinking. This paper elaborates on one aspect of the creative process—the impact of emotions on divergent thinking. Theory and some existing research are reviewed and a plan for a neurocognitive study using electroencephalography is delineated. Current and previous research is taken into account when reflecting on suggestions for fostering learning environments conducive to creativity and building interdisciplinary collaboration.

Krista C. Ritchie

2011-12-01

242

The Efficacy of Play on Divergent Thinking of Adult Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

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According to the literature, empirical links between play and divergent thinking in children were found. However, the potential effects of play in adults in terms of promoting creativity are underestimated. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible benefits of play behavior in adult classrooms in order to facilitate creativity. The results of the present study lend some support for the effects of play on divergent thinking in adults. In respect to ideas generation, the results did not show a significant difference between experiment and control groups. Nevertheless, with regard to originality, it showed a significant difference between the two groups. The participants perceived play intervention as producing more unique ideas than the control group. The implication of the findings and future research were also discussed.

Kuan Chen Tsai

2012-09-01

243

Does Critical Thinking Enhance EFL Learners‘ Receptive Skills?  

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Full Text Available This study explored the effect of Iranian EFL learners’ critical thinking abilities on their receptive English language proficiency skills. With this purpose in mind, the researchers administered the Persian version of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA and the Interchange Objective Placement Test (Lesley, Hansen, & Zukowski-Faust, 2005 to 96 Intermediate EFL learners, and correlated the scores obtained from the two tests to see whether there is any significant relationship between critical thinking and proficiency. Results from Pearson product-moment correlation showed significant correlations between WGCTA subscales and proficiency scores. Furthermore, while logical interpretation was the only important variable in predicting both reading and listening comprehension scores, a stepwise multiple regression consisting of Watson-Glaser subscales 1 (drawing inferences, 2 (recognizing assumptions, and 4 (logical interpretation successfully predicted total proficiency test scores (R = .43. To see to what extent total scores for critical thinking may affect English language proficiency, three groups of High, Mid, and Low were formed based on critical thinking scores. The mean proficiency scores of the three groups were compared. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in the mean proficiency scores among the three groups. The results of the post-hoc Scheffe test revealed that there was a significant difference between the proficiency scores of the high creative group and those of the two other groups. The implications of the results were discussed.

Mohammad Reza Hashemi

2012-01-01

244

The Application of Critical Thinking in Teaching English Reading  

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Examining different critical thinking definitions, one thing is agreed upon by most researchers: that is critical thinking includes not only critical thinking skills (containing both a process of thinking and thinking ability), involving analysis, interpretation, inference, explanation, evaluation and self-regulation but also critical thinking dispositions including clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, fairness. So a new way to te...

Jun Xu

2011-01-01

245

Organ transplantation and magical thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organ transplantation can provide important treatment benefits in a variety of situations. While a number of live donor procedures are now possible, procurement of organs from dead donors remains the mainstay of transplant programmes. However, cadaveric donation rates remain much lower than anticipated, and some patients who receive organs struggle to adapt to their new body. The reasons for this are not entirely explained by rational or logical means. This paper uses concepts drawn from magical thinking to try to explain some of the less apparent issues at play within the process of cadaveric organ transplantation, including both the donation and receiving of organs. Three themes are explored as potentially relevant: superstitions and rituals around death and the dead body, incorporation and the meanings attached to the transplanted organ, and survivor guilt. All three are shown to be relevant for some part of the transplantation process in at least a minority of cases. It is therefore suggested that focusing not only on the logical and scientific, but also on the ambiguous and magical may enhance the organ donation process and thus increase donation rates and the psychological adjustment of transplant recipients. PMID:20932201

Vamos, Marina

2010-10-01

246

Neural correlates of wishful thinking.  

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Wishful thinking (WT) implies the overestimation of the likelihood of desirable events. It occurs for outcomes of personal interest, but also for events of interest to others we like. We investigated whether WT is grounded on low-level selective attention or on higher level cognitive processes including differential weighting of evidence or response formation. Participants in our MRI study predicted the likelihood that their favorite or least favorite team would win a football game. Consistent with expectations, favorite team trials were characterized by higher winning odds. Our data demonstrated activity in a cluster comprising parts of the left inferior occipital and fusiform gyri to distinguish between favorite and least favorite team trials. More importantly, functional connectivities of this cluster with the human reward system were specifically involved in the type of WT investigated in our study, thus supporting the idea of an attention bias generating WT. Prefrontal cortex activity also distinguished between the two teams. However, activity in this region and its functional connectivities with the human reward system were altogether unrelated to the degree of WT reflected in the participants' behavior and may rather be related to social identification, ensuring the affective context necessary for WT to arise. PMID:22198967

Aue, Tatjana; Nusbaum, Howard C; Cacioppo, John T

2012-11-01

247

Spatiotemporal Thinking in the Geosciences  

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Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.

Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.

2011-12-01

248

Thinking with your eye, thinking with your hand  

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Full Text Available AbstractDefining architecture as visual-functional art, Asis Cabrero goes back to the origins of the human species to explain the elements of conscience involved in the work of humankind. Human survival is voluntary, variable, personal and inventive in sharp contrast with the instinct of nature's other species. Humans are intelligent beings whose thinking is determined by their sense of sight, by the ability of their hands to make tools, on top of their predatory nature. This human animal of exchangeable organs is able to specialize himself in the use of tools he makes to be on equal terms with specialized animals. So does man make tools to come face to face with a variable and changing nature, be it a knife, an ax or a shelter.Since Architecture is a product of what your eye sees, it is the functional use of your hand that comes into play in Architectural drawings. According to Cabrero, matter becomes material through tools, to be rigged, to be built. Tools which have evolved over the course of history as matter always remain unchanged in nature. Asís Cabrero has researched five primitive architectures related to five original matters. He has studied the dome structure, the lintel, the framework, the laminated structure and the removable structure in connection with the rational use of clay, stone, wood, branches and skin.The variety of available materials in the professional career of Asís Cabrero, from post-war isolation to the liberalization of the sixties, allow us to set five ages in the work of Francisco de Asís Cabrero according to the material and the tools he uses.Key wordsFrancisco Cabrero, architecture, instruments, material, structure, tools

Juan Manuel Sánchez de la Chica

2013-10-01

249

On the Importance of Conceptual Thinking Outside the Simulation Box  

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Any ambitious construction project requires architects for its design and engineers who apply the design to the real world. As scientific research shifts towards large groups which focus on the engineering aspects of linking data to existing models, architectural skills are becoming rare among young theorists. Senior researchers should mentor qualified students and postdocs to think creatively about the big picture without unwarranted loyalty to ancient blueprints from past generations of architects.

Loeb, Abraham

2013-01-01

250

[Investigation into the formation of proportions of "realistic thinking vs magical thinking" in paranoid schizophrenia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Both magical thinking among healthy persons and magical and symbolic thinking in schizophrenia were discussed. The investigation covered 100 paranoid schizophrenics. They also underwent an examination in connection with the formation of the remaining 3 proportions. Both "realistic thinking and magical thinking" scales were used. An ability to think realistically was preserved, to a varying degree, in all patients, with 50% of those examined having shown an explicit or very explicit ability to follow realistic thinking. The above findings deviate from a simplified cognitive model within the discussed range. It was further confirmed that realistic thinking may coexist with magical thinking, and, in some cases, it concerns the same events. That type of disorders of the content of thinking are referred to as magical-realistic interpenetration. The results, and particularly high coefficient of negative correlation within the scales of the examined proportions, confirm the correctness of the assumption that the investigated modes of thinking form an antithetic bipolarity of proportions, aggregating antithetic values, therefore being also complementary. PMID:8415996

Jarosz, M; Pankiewicz, Z; Buczek, I; Poprawska, I; Rojek, J; Zaborowski, A

1993-01-01

251

Constructive Thinking Strategies in College Students  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify the strategies of constructive thinking that are used by university students. Constructive thinking is the automatic representation of the world, ourselves, and the future, it direct our actions to solve everyday problems. Results show that, there are no significant differences in global constructive thinking between male and female students. Although, exist differences in the copy style: men are better at emotional copies, they diminish the emotional cost of the events, and overcame faster negative experiences, they also show higher self-esteem. Women, on the other hand, show better strategies in order to solve problems (behavioral copy.

Ofelia Contreras Gutiérrez

2011-01-01

252

Developing First Year Students’ Critical Thinking Skills  

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Full Text Available Critical thinking is a crucial skill that students need to develop while at university. It is important for a well-educated person to be able to make well-informed judgements, be able to explain their reasoning and be able to solve unknown problems. This paper proposes that critical thinking can and should be developed from the first year of university in order for students to cope with their future studies and to be of most use to future employers. The paper then describes four exercises that can be used to develop critical thinking in first year students.

Theda Ann Thomas

2011-03-01

253

Why People Think Computers Can't  

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Today, surrounded by so many automatic machines industrial robots, and the R2-D2's of Star wars movies, most people think AI is much more advanced than it is. But still, many "computer experts" don’t believe that machines will ever "really think." I think those specialists are too used to explaining that there's nothing inside computers but little electric currents. This leads them to believe that there can’t be room left for anything else- like minds, or selves. And there are man...

Minsky, Marvin L.

1982-01-01

254

LANGUAGE SKILLS AND THE CRITICAL THINKING
D?L BECER?LER? VE ELE?T?REL DÜ?ÜNME
 

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Critical thinking is one of the eight basic skills in the primary school curriculum which has been prepared with a constructivist approach. Teaching critical thinking in Turkish language lessons has an importance in reaching curricular aims. Critical thinking has bonds with skills such as creative thinking, communication, research making, problem solving, using ICT, entrepreneurship, and using Turkish appropriatelyCritical thinking is involved with questioning, interpreting and decision makin...

Karadu?z, Adnan

2010-01-01

255

Evaluating Evidence of Critical Thinking Skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a checklist for evaluating student use of critical thinking skills in writing assignments. The checklist covers (1) purpose, (2) audience analysis, (3) coherence/logic, (4) sentence logic, (5) parallel features, and (6) subordination features. (CH)

Evans, Eileen B.; Supnick, Roberta

1989-01-01

256

If You Think Your Child Is Stuttering...  

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Tweet If You Think Your Child Is Stuttering... Download PDF of brochure This material was compiled by Dr. Barry ... G. Conture, Vanderbilt University. Is Your Child Stuttering? If your child has difficulty speaking and tends to ...

257

Component isolation in the Think architecture.  

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We present in this paper the security features of Think, an ob ject-oriented architecture dedicated to build customized operating system kernels. The Think architecture is composed of an object- oriented software framework including a trader, and a library of system abstractions programmed as components. We show how to use this architecture to build secure and e?cient kernels. Policy-neutral security is achieved by providing elementary tools that can be used by the system programmer to buil...

Rippert, Christophe

2002-01-01

258

Statistical Thinking for Managerial Decision Making  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site is a course in statistics appreciation; i.e., acquiring a feeling for the statistical way of thinking. It is an introductory course in statistics that is designed to provide you with the basic concepts and methods of statistical analysis for decision making under uncertainties. Materials in this Web site are tailored to meet your needs in making good decisions by fostering statistical thinking.

Arsham, Hossein

2009-11-06

259

Critical thinking as reflecting on understanding others  

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This dissertation about critical thinking processes three questions. The first regards the question what critical thinking means when conceptualizing the phrase away from the dominant account in which it refers to the ability to reason well and the disposition to do so (Bailin & Siegel, 2003). A critical response in this account, it is argued, comes from reason assessment. The critical thinker within this paradigm wonders: What is the probative strength of reasons given to support a statement...

Torringa, J. G. H.

2011-01-01

260

Thinking in nursing education. Part I. A student's experience learning to think.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to think critically is a central commitment of nursing education. There is a substantial body of literature describing nursing educators' attempts to define critical thinking (1-3) to differentiate critical thinking from other kinds of thinking (1,4), and to measure students' ability (and changes in ability) to think critically (2,5-7). These efforts were facilitated when the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC) identified critical thinking as an outcome criterion for the accrediation of undergraduate and graduate nursing programs. This change in accreditation led to the proliferation of framework (8,9) and strategies (10,11) for nursing educators to use in demonstrating compliance with this criterion. Describing strategies and frameworks for teaching critical thinking is helpful. However, explicating how teachers teach and students learn critical thinking in actual clinical situations illuminates the contextual aspects of practice that influence learning to think (12). Conventional strategies teachers use to assist students to learn critical thinking include individual and group activities, discussions and interactions between students and teachers, clinical simulations, and problem-solving encounters. Although such strategies are commonly thought to be effective in teaching critical thinking in classroom or laboratory situations, little research has been conducted to evaluate the relationship between specific teaching strategies and students' ability to think critically in specific situations (1). A further limitation of laboratory and classroom strategies is that they need to be supplemented with contextual experiences. Providing students with opportunities to practice critical thinking in actual clinical situations is difficult because the context of care is rapidly changing and schools of nursing continue to allocate limited resources to practice education. This two-year study, which was undertaken to reveal common contemporary approaches to teaching and learning critical thinking in clinical courses, analyzes the lived experiences of 45 students and teachers. Part I describes a typical student's experiences of learning "nurse thinking" in the context of clinical practice. Part II describes a typical teacher's experiences creating opportunities for students to learn and practice critical thinking in a community clinical course. PMID:10754845

Ironside, P M

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Higher Order Thinking: Definition, Meaning and Instructional Approaches.  

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This publication shares current thinking, research, and practice in the area of higher order thinking skills with home economics educators, including teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators. The first three articles provide general discussions of thinking skills. They are "Introduction" (Ruth Pestle); "Can Higher Order Thinking Skills Be…

Thomas, Ruth G., Ed.

262

Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

2014-01-01

263

Using critical thinking skills to improve medication administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses need critical thinking skills to provide competent care. For interventions such as drug administration, a system of critical thinking assists nurses to accomplish tasks safely and efficiently. The use of the "think and apply" model provides nurses with a practical way to integrate critical thinking skills into practice. PMID:7627236

Cook, P R

1995-08-01

264

Towards a Dialogic Theory of How Children Learn to Think  

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This paper develops a dialogic theory of thinking and of learning to think that has implications for education. The theory is offered as a contrast to theories that are based on both Piaget and Vygotsky. The paper proceeds by unpacking and interweaving three key concepts: dialogue, thinking and learning in order to argue that learning to think can…

Wegerif, Rupert

2011-01-01

265

Faculty Perceptions of Critical Thinking at a Health Sciences University  

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The fostering of critical thinking skills has become an expectation of faculty, especially those teaching in the health sciences. The manner in which critical thinking is defined by faculty impacts how they will address the challenge to promote critical thinking among their students. This study reports the perceptions of critical thinking held by…

Rowles, Joie; Morgan, Christine; Burns, Shari; Merchant, Christine

2013-01-01

266

The Application of Critical Thinking in Teaching English Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examining different critical thinking definitions, one thing is agreed upon by most researchers: that is critical thinking includes not only critical thinking skills (containing both a process of thinking and thinking ability, involving analysis, interpretation, inference, explanation, evaluation and self-regulation but also critical thinking dispositions including clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, fairness. So a new way to teach English reading focusing on developing students’ critical thinking should be proposed. Students should be trained to be critical readers who can “question, organize, interpret, synthesize, and digest what they read”

Jun Xu

2011-02-01

267

Creating science simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.

Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

268

Think tanks: the quest to define and to rank them  

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On 22 January 2014 the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program at the University of Pennsylvania releases its latest “Global Go To Think Tanks Report.” This series of annual reports, launched in 2007, has been subject to substantial criticism from scholars working in or on think tanks. Over the past decade, various organizations and publications have started to rank think tanks, mostly at the national level. Top-ranked think tanks like to announce their standings in pro...

Ko?llner, Patrick

2013-01-01

269

Critical Thinking Disposition of Pre-Service Teachers  

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Purpose : Critical thinking has received increasing attention as an educational goal. Critical thinking is clearly a metacognitive skill that influences students’ ability to evaluate the evidence for and against concepts. The desire or inclination to use critical thinking is reflected in a number of personal attributes, known as critical thinking dispositions. This paper explores the critical thinking disposition of freshman and senior students from the Faculty of Educational Sciences. ...

Alper, Yrd Doc? Dr Ayfer

2010-01-01

270

CATEGORIES OF CRITICAL THINKING IN INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. A STUDY OF CRITICAL THINKING IN DECISION MAKING PROCESSES  

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Full Text Available This article focuses as a survey on the qualities of Critical Thinking on reviewing its definitions in recent history of academic research and compared to other intellectual processes. On the one hand we will compare the basic characteristic qualities of Critical Thinking with other types of thinking. On the other hand we will give examples how Critical Thinking is a part of the decision making processes both in personal human issues and institutional decision making processes. Since Critical Thinking is an intellectual skill, we show the applications of this intellectual skill within contemporary life. Critical Thinking has several academic roots of philosophy, rhetorical argumentation, logic and social science, but also is an auxiliary tool in other academic disciplines. Coming from these roots Critical Thinking also finds its applications in contemporary private and professional life. Based on this historical and exemplifying discourse of criticism, we will argue for a general importance of Critical Thinking contrary to contemporary predominance as an applied skill and educational tool.

Fee-Alexandra Haase

2010-01-01

271

Autonomy, Critical Thinking and the Wittgensteinian Legacy: Reflections on Christopher Winch, "Education, Autonomy and Critical Thinking"  

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In this review of Christopher Winch's new book, "Education, Autonomy and Critical Thinking" (2006), I discuss its main theses, supporting some and criticising others. In particular, I take issue with several of Winch's claims and arguments concerning critical thinking and rationality, and deplore his reliance on what I suggest are problematic…

Siegel, Harvey

2008-01-01

272

Concept Mapping for Higher Order Thinking  

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Full Text Available Engineering education is facing a changing world in which how one thinks is becoming more important than what one thinks; that is, our course content is important but constantly changing and we need to help students learn how to think about that content.Today’s students have grown accustomed to immediate rewards, multi-channel stimuli, and rapid-fire communications.  As a result, they are often impatient and suffer a lack of focus. When reflection is called for in the learning process - a time consuming practice - students may find it difficult to overcome the conflict between their typically speedy management of priorities and the focused, time-intensive thinking required to acquire a strong foundation of declarative knowledge.Therefore, the exploration of tools to facilitate the formation of deep knowledge structures is essential. One instructional strategy that shows promise is the use of concept mapping, a learning activity that requires students to explain their understanding of important ideas and the relationships among those ideas.  This paper describes a pilot project to integrate concept mapping into a Mechanical Engineering Course and the preliminary results of that project.This project has been established within the Working Group of “Tools for Developing High Order Thinking Skills”, of the Portuguese Society for Engineering Education, in which the first author is the leader and the other two co-authors, are working group members

Susan Marie Zvacek

2013-02-01

273

THINKING SKILL - THE MAIN LEARNING TOOL  

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Full Text Available The method of teaching with help of four elementary skills - reading, speaking, writing and listening is definitely inconceivable to teaching any foreign language. But automatic answers following the exercise and students passive memorising does not make speaking language and its learning very natural. This has forced me to find and create the way how to make learners think and realise the point and meaning of learning itself. My paper is about special skill I have tried to apply –thinking skill. I have chosen it to complement other four which teacher normally uses when teaching foreign language (reading, speaking, listening skills. At the same time I put thinking skill into a role to support and enhance learning process. To find and use some methods how to make students think, make their own opinion and also teach them to apply their own experience to learning process was the main goal of this survey. The methods I have applied were provoking students to think before they learn.

Daniela Koteková

2010-06-01

274

Systems Thinking for an Economically Literate Society  

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Full Text Available In the US a dismal truth exists about the citizenry’s lack of understanding of economic fundamentals whether it is amongst our political leaders or our university graduates. This then leads one to ask, “What can be done to help people become literate in economics?” Perhaps the answer lies in the area of systems thinking, which is a way of thinking about the interconnections between the parts of a system and their synthesis into a unified view of the whole system. More specifically, this means incorporating systems thinking and design in primary, secondary, and tertiary curricula. In this paper, the author gives a cursory review of General Systems Theory (GST as developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy and extended by others in the systems thinking field to illustrate the confluences of thought among Ludwig von Mises and systems scientists. From this the author argues the need for systems thinking and design in curricula and makes reference to non-prescriptive teaching and learning applications for the fostering of economic literacy.

Michael F. Reber

2010-11-01

275

Design Thinking as a Phenomenon - Design Thinking as a Contemporary Phenomenon and as an Object of Discussion  

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Design thinking is fundamentally about how designers think and what tools and methods they use in their profession. During the past decade, design thinking has become a popular topic within design and especially business communities. Business leaders and managers have adapted design thinking as a part of their companies’ innovation process and the business community has given a new flavour to the term. Design thinking has become an exceedingly discussed phenomenon in business and design-rel...

Hanttu, Aino

2013-01-01

276

[Peculiarities of research of flying thinking].  

Science.gov (United States)

New approach to the research of flying thinking is offered. This approach is based on principals of stage-by-stage approach (research of the reflection of every parameter of flight, than its aggregate in figured and conceptual framework), on the usage of the methods of registration of inner and external characteristics of activity of the air staff with the priority of research of content area and mechanisms of flying thinking, typology of content area and mechanisms of flying thinking. This approach is also based on the effectiveness of reflection by means of correlation of the detected figured and conceptual framework with time and correctness of decisions of test flight tasks and with different psychophysiological characteristics. PMID:21506331

Kovalenko, P A; Chulaevski?, A O

2011-01-01

277

Understanding Student Computational Thinking with Computational Modeling  

CERN Document Server

Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...

Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F

2012-01-01

278

Understanding student computational thinking with computational modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". 9th Grade students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than observational) terms tended to have more success in the programming exercise.

Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Douglas, Scott S.; Burk, John B.; Scanlon, Erin M.; Thoms, Brian D.; Schatz, Michael F.

2013-01-01

279

Teachers’ Critical Thinking Level and Dispositions  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking level and dispositions of teachers. Participants of this descriptive study were 110 teachers and lecturers. Data of the study were based on literature review and on scores on California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. Its alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.88. Data analyses were involve determination of descriptive statistics, use of t-test, analysis of variance and Scheffe’s test (p<0.05. As a result; Critical thinking level and dispositions of teachers is found medium. It is also determined education level, type of institution, filed of study, seniority and gender, factors aren’t effect on it.

Özgen KORKMAZ

2009-04-01

280

Critical Thinking: Frameworks and Models for Teaching  

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Full Text Available Developing critical thinking since the educational revolution gave rise to flourishing movements toward embedding critical thinking (CT henceforth stimulating classroom activities in educational settings. Nevertheless the process faced with complications such as teachability potentiality, lack of practical frameworks concerning actualization of CT tasks, and transferability obstacles, as well as lack of a homogeneous model of conceptualization of CT among educators. The present study made an effort to represent a comprehensive model of CT for educators drawn on the contemporary literaturein order to indicate a uniform delineation of the construct and to offer a comprehensive model of CT for the intention of making boosting learners’ capability of CT possible.

Mansoor Fahim

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Educational interventions to advance children's scientific thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of science education interventions is to nurture, enrich, and sustain children's natural and spontaneous interest in scientific knowledge and procedures. We present taxonomy for classifying different types of research on scientific thinking from the perspective of cognitive development and associated attempts to teach science. We summarize the literature on the early--unschooled--development of scientific thinking, and then focus on recent research on how best to teach science to children from preschool to middle school. We summarize some of the current disagreements in the field of science education and offer some suggestions on ways to continue to advance the science of science instruction. PMID:21852489

Klahr, David; Zimmerman, Corinne; Jirout, Jamie

2011-08-19

282

Critical Thinking, Transfer, and Student Satisfaction  

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Full Text Available A pedagogical treatment was developed to teach critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies to college students. This treatment was implemented at a Midwestern University for a three-year period. Graduates were surveyed to determine the extent to which the treatment affected their personal, academic, and professional lives. Graduates reported that they had transferred the critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies they had acquired, and were using it in their personal, academic, or professional lives. The graduates also reported that this transfer was extremely beneficial to them in all aspects of their personal, academic, or professional lives, leading to high levels of satisfaction in their undergraduate education.

Joanne R. Reid

2013-04-01

283

Thinking through Content Instruction: Microteaching Unveils  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent of critical skills being incorporated in the undergraduates’ lesson as shown in their microteaching sessions. The researcher seeks to find evidence of critical thinking skills in the undergraduates’ content instruction of their respective lessons. She investigates the integration of critical thinking skills via the undergraduates’ lesson plans and the lesson’s implementation. She seeks for inclusion of these skills by viewing the taped lessons. Recommendations to UPSI are also presented in an effort to inspire awareness on the compelling need for thinkers amongst undergraduates and future teachers.

Nor Hashimah Isa

2011-01-01

284

How can we think the complex?  

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This chapter does not deal with specific tools and techniques for managing complex systems, but proposes some basic concepts that help us to think and speak about complexity. We review classical thinking and its intrinsic drawbacks when dealing with complexity. We then show how complexity forces us to build models with indeterminacy and unpredictability. However, we can still deal with the problems created in this way by being adaptive, and profiting from a complex system's capability for selforganization, and the distributed intelligence this may produce.

Gershenson, C; Gershenson, Carlos; Heylighen, Francis

2004-01-01

285

Developing First Year Students’ Critical Thinking Skills  

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Critical thinking is a crucial skill that students need to develop while at university. It is important for a well-educated person to be able to make well-informed judgements, be able to explain their reasoning and be able to solve unknown problems. This paper proposes that critical thinking can and should be developed from the first year of university in order for students to cope with their future studies and to be of most use to future employers. The paper then describes four exercises ...

Theda Ann Thomas

2011-01-01

286

Parental Approval As A Correlate Of Divergent Thinking Ability In Young Children  

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Full Text Available The significance of ability to think differently and explore many possible solutions to generate creative ideas has been well recognized in the present competitive world. Although there are many factors affecting development of divergent thinking ability in children, parental approval is one of the important factors in the development of divergent thinking ability in children. The present study was carried out to assess the divergent thinking ability of children in the setting selected and analyze it with reference to academic grades and gender. Further, the relationship of parental approval with the development of divergent thinking was assessed. The sample comprised 102 school children (51 boys and 51 girls in the age group 6-9 years and their parents (either father or mother.The entire sample was selected from different schools of urban areas of Jammu (J&K.

Rajni Dhingra

2013-09-01

287

Do thinking styles contribute to academic achievement beyond self-rated abilities?  

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This research identifies individual differences in academic achievement attributable to thinking styles over and above what can be explained by self-rated abilities. Participants were 209 university students from Hong Kong and 215 university students from mainland China. Participants responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (Chinese version) that is based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government (R. J. Sternberg, 1988). They also rated their own analytical, creative, and practical ab...

Zhang, Lf

2001-01-01

288

Learning about the world: developing higher order thinking in music education  

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Innovative thinking is an innate human capacity geared towards adaptation and survival. Theories of education accordingly aim at developing teaching-learning strategies that promote creative, problem-solving reasoning referred to as higher order thinking. This essay briefly explains some of the assumptions underlying this concept, and then suggests how they may be reconfigured in a strategy suitable for education in and through music. The strategy involves a basic process of analysis...

Kruger, J.; Merwe, L.

2012-01-01

289

Critical Thinking in Education: Globally Developed and Locally Applied  

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Full Text Available Critical Thinking encompasses a set of skills including the ability to assess reasons properly, probe into pertinent evidence and figure out fallacious arguments in educational settings. Developing critical thinking or promoting the ability to think critically is a prime goal of education (Birjandi and Bagherkazemi, 2010; Bailin et al., 1991a,. A key factor to improving educational standards is training teachers into employing classroom strategies that encourage critical thinking. This paper wishes to take a fundamental look at the application of critical thinking to education in an Iranian context through analyzing its scope, significance, the need for, and strategies employed to enhance critical thinking (CT in educational contexts.

Mansoor Fahim

2011-11-01

290

Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners  

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Full Text Available Outcomes-Based Education (OBE brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content, to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from ‘transmission’ models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30. Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000. Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000. The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005.

MM Chabeli

2006-09-01

291

Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005). PMID:17131612

Chabeli, M M

2006-08-01

292

Thinking Style, Browsing Primes and Hypermedia Navigation  

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There is a common assumption that hypermedia navigation is influenced by a learner's style of thinking, so people who are inclined to apply sequential and analytical strategies (left-thinkers) are thought to browse hypermedia in a linear way, whereas those who prefer holistic and intuitive strategies (right-thinkers) tend towards non-linear paths.…

Fiorina, Lorenzo; Antonietti, Alessandro; Colombo, Barbara; Bartolomeo, Annella

2007-01-01

293

Children's Mathematical Thinking in Different Classroom Cultures  

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The relationship between normative patterns of social interaction and children's mathematical thinking was investigated in 5 classes (4 reform and 1 conventional) of 7- to 8-year-olds. In earlier studies, lessons from these classes had been analyzed for the nature of interaction broadly defined; the results indicated the existence of 4 types of…

Wood, Terry; Williams, Gaye; McNeal, Betsy

2006-01-01

294

Using Repeating Patterns to Explore Functional Thinking  

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Traditionally, primary schools place minimal emphasis upon relations and transformations as objects of study. In their research, the authors have found the young children can engage in conversations about equivalence and equations (Warren & Cooper, 2005a) and functional thinking (Warren & Cooper, 2005b). Fundamental to relations and…

Warren, Elizabeth; Cooper, Tom

2006-01-01

295

A Professor's Formula for Teaching Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a formula for writing critical thinking assignments on different academic levels which professors can use in training elementary and secondary educators and in developing critical thinkers at different academic levels. The paper includes lists of terminology, instructional materials, and assignments at various academic levels…

Hepburn, Velma

296

Counterfactual thinking in patients with amnesia.  

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We often engage in counterfactual (CF) thinking, which involves reflecting on "what might have been." Creating alternative versions of reality seems to have parallels with recollecting the past and imagining the future in requiring the simulation of internally generated models of complex events. Given that episodic memory and imagining the future are impaired in patients with hippocampal damage and amnesia, we wondered whether successful CF thinking also depends upon the integrity of the hippocampus. Here using two nonepisodic CF thinking tasks, we found that patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia performed comparably with matched controls. They could deconstruct reality, add in and recombine elements, change relations between temporal sequences of events, enabling them to determine plausible alternatives of complex episodes. A difference between the patients and control participants was evident, however, in the patients' subtle avoidance of CF simulations that required the construction of an internal spatial representation. Overall, our findings suggest that mental simulation in the form of nonepisodic CF thinking does not seem to depend upon the hippocampus unless there is the added requirement for construction of a coherent spatial scene within which to play out scenarios. © 2014 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24978690

Mullally, Sinéad L; Maguire, Eleanor A

2014-11-01

297

Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant opportunity for learning and…

Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

2007-01-01

298

Learning Not to Think Like an Economist  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay describes my progress bringing the core ideas of economics into conversations with noneconomists about important public policy issues within my faith community, through local politics, and through interdisciplinary conversations in academia. Thinking like an economist is essential to conducting research and performing careful analysis…

Ross, David R.

2007-01-01

299

Nursing Faculty Perceptions on Teaching Critical Thinking  

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The perceptions of nursing faculty teaching critical thinking (CT) affective attributes and cognitive skills are described in this quantitative, descriptive study. The study sample consisted of nurse educators from the National League of Nursing database. The purpose of the study was to gain nursing faculty perception of which teaching strategies…

Clark, Doris A.

2010-01-01

300

Children's Thinking Styles, Play, and Academic Performance  

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Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…

Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons  

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This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

2010-01-01

302

Paths from Erich Fromm: Thinking Authority Pedagogically.  

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Drawing from psychologist Eric Fromm's work, this article confronts the relationship between individualism on one hand, and the ability for individuals to think collectively and transform social structures on the other. States that in this context, atomization becomes a dimension of both fascism and capitalism, one that positions freedom as the…

Weiner, Eric J.

2003-01-01

303

Incongruity and Provisional Safety: Thinking through Humor  

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The aim of this paper is to reconceive safety as a form of relation embedded in particular ways of speaking, listening and thinking. Moving away from safety as a relation that is achieved once and for all and afterwards remains safe avoids some of the disappointments of discourses of safety that seem to promise once a risk is taken or a gap is…

Mayo, Cris

2010-01-01

304

Do Tests Show More than "Test Think"?  

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Achievement gaps in standardized tests consist of the differences between test scores of students of color and those of white students and between scores of poor children and those of their wealthier peers. Maylone determines student testing behaviors, herein referred to as TestThink, which reflect differences in students' abilities to behave in…

Maylone, Nelson

2004-01-01

305

Enhancing Effective Careers Thinking: Scripts and Socrates  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines a technique for enhancing the effectiveness of careers thinking by identifying and challenging tacit beliefs about career success. These beliefs can be understood as social scripts, i.e. cognitive structures that simplify common decision scenarios. An important contribution of careers counselling is to enable clients to…

Morrell, Kevin

2004-01-01

306

Penetrating the Barriers to Teaching Higher Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers five ways to overcome barriers teachers face when they attempt to create thinking classrooms: (1) acquisition of conscious commitment; (2) legitimization of students' experiences; (3) integration of visualizing into the curriculum; (4) use of reflective analysis; and (5) diversification of perspectives. (SR)

Supon, Viola

1998-01-01

307

Thinking About My School. Appendix A.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Thinking About My School" (TAMS) is a 47-item inventory designed to measure student perceptions of the school environment. It was constructed for use with fourth, fifth, and sixth grade pupils in a "distressed" school. Subjects respond to statements about their school on a four-point scale ranging from "Not at all" to "All the time." The items…

Whitmore, Joanne Rand

308

Ludwik Fleck: forerunner of Thomas Kuhn's thinking. [Spanish  

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This article explores Ludwik Fleck’s concepts of collective thinking, style of thinking, esoteric and exoteric communication as precursors of the concepts of paradigm and incommensurability central in Thomas Kuhn’s thought.

Mónica Pérez Marín

2010-01-01

309

Strategy To Assess, Develop, and Evaluate Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses' ability to think critically in clinical situations cannot be assessed by multiple-choice tests. Context-dependent test items that assess critical thinking are useful for orientation of new staff, competency testing, and clinical staff development. (SK)

Oermann, Marilyn; Truesdell, Sandra; Ziolkowski, Linda

2000-01-01

310

Peculiarities of the Development of the Modern Culture of Thinking  

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Full Text Available The article considers the peculiarities of the formation of a culture of thinking in the modern information society and the ratio of the culture of thinking, information and intellectual culture

Tamara L. Salova

2013-01-01

311

Critical Thinking in Higher Education: A Pedagogical Look  

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Many authorities in higher education did not enthusiastically embrace the idea that college students should receive explicit instruction in how to think. Note that the academic community was opposed to good thinking, but many educators believed that it was a misguided effort. For example, Glaser (1984) cited abundant evidence of Critical Thinking failures in support of his argument that thinking skills are context-bound and do not transfer across academic domains. Glaser and other sceptics we...

Mansoor Fahim; Nima Shakouri Masouleh

2012-01-01

312

Critical Thinking in Education: Globally Developed and Locally Applied  

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Critical Thinking encompasses a set of skills including the ability to assess reasons properly, probe into pertinent evidence and figure out fallacious arguments in educational settings. Developing critical thinking or promoting the ability to think critically is a prime goal of education (Birjandi and Bagherkazemi, 2010; Bailin et al., 1991a,). A key factor to improving educational standards is training teachers into employing classroom strategies that encourage critical thinking. This paper...

Mohammad Reza Ghamari; Mansoor Fahim

2011-01-01

313

“ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BARRIER IS THINKING  

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Science requires imagination nourished by knowledge, experience and sustained critical thinking. Science teaching has the same requirements, but metacognition is even more important to a teacher than it is to a practioner of science. Critical thinking is essential to both science and science teaching: in either domain, imagination relies on sustained critical thinking based on relevant knowledge. Knowledge can be acquired by the prepared mind, but the capacity to think must be nurtured and...

Simon Brown

2009-01-01

314

An Content Analysis of the Definition of Critical Thinking  

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Full Text Available Based on 64 definitions of critical thinking in the recent study, it can be concluded that scholars take judgment, argument, questioning, information processing, problem solving, meta-cognition, skill and disposition as the nature of critical thinking. Scholar’s disciplinary background directly affect their opinions of critical thinking, interdisciplinary research should be paid more attention to promote the development of critical thinking.

Fuyun Geng

2014-09-01

315

Teaching Critical Thinking: Some Lessons from Cognitive Science  

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This article draws six key lessons from cognitive science for teachers of critical thinking. The lessons are: acquiring expertise in critical thinking is hard; practice in critical-thinking skills themselves enhances skills; the transfer of skills must be practiced; some theoretical knowledge is required; diagramming arguments ("argument mapping")…

van Gelder, Tim

2005-01-01

316

Clinical Reasoning in Athletic Training Education: Modeling Expert Thinking  

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Objective: To address the need for a more definitive approach to critical thinking during athletic training educational experiences by introducing the clinical reasoning model for critical thinking. Background: Educators are aware of the need to teach students how to think critically. The multiple domains of athletic training are comprehensive and…

Geisler, Paul R.; Lazenby, Todd W.

2009-01-01

317

Relationships between critical thinking dispositions and learning styles.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mutually inclusive model directing the development of critical thinking includes facilitating critical thinking dispositions or affective attributes of individuals as well as their critical thinking skills. This inclusion takes into account personal and subjective ways of making meaning as part of the conceptualization of critical thinking. There is a gap in understanding the disposition dimensions of critical thinking among professional nursing students and how they may relate with other behavioral aspects. Many baccalaureate programs have been found to define and/or measure critical thinking as primarily cognitive in nature. Guided by this crucial omission of knowledge regarding critical thinking dispositions, this study addressed the following research questions: (1) What are the critical thinking dispositions and learning styles of baccalaureate nursing students? and (2) Are there correlations between critical thinking dispositions and learning modes? A descriptive, correlational study was conducted in which the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory were administered to two convenience groups of senior-level nursing students (n = 100). Low critical thinking self-confidence mean scores for both groups were found. Other disposition scores that reflected weaknesses were analyticity, systematicity, and inquisitiveness. Strong disposition scores are described as are dominant learning styles. The Spearman Rank-Difference Correlation measurement indicated relationships between specific components of critical thinking dispositions and learning modes. Implications for nursing education are presented. PMID:10554470

Colucciello, M L

1999-01-01

318

"Diving in Deeper": Bringing Basic Writers' Thinking to the Surface  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay examines the problem of defining critical thinking and demonstrates how critical thinking is less a determinable process or set of procedures than a constellation of attitudes, habits of mind, role relations, and participation motives. It demonstrates further why college instruction in critical thinking in composition…

Smith, Cheryl Hogue

2010-01-01

319

Developing Critical Thinking through the Study of Paranormal Phenomena.  

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Argues that accounts of paranormal phenomena can serve as an ideal medium in which to encourage students to develop critical-thinking skills. Describes a cooperative-learning approach used to teach critical thinking in a course on paranormal events. Reports that critical-thinking skills increased and that the course received favorable student…

Wesp, Richard; Montgomery, Kathleen

1998-01-01

320

The Feasibility of Systems Thinking in Biology Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems thinking in biology education is an up and coming research topic, as yet with contrasting feasibility claims. In biology education systems thinking can be understood as thinking backward and forward between concrete biological objects and processes and systems models representing systems theoretical characteristics. Some studies claim that…

Boersma, Kerst; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Klaassen, Kees

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Training Critical Thinking Skills for Battle Command: ARI Workshop Proceedings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ARI Workshop, Training Critical Thinking Skills for Battle Command, was held on 5-6 December 2001 at Ft. Leavenworth. The purpose of the Workshop was to: (1) provide an overview of current research in critical thinking and training critical thinking (...

S. L. Riedel, R. A. Morath, T. P. McGonigle

2001-01-01

322

Teaching critical thinking skills to undergraduate nursing students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching nursing students to use critical thinking skills is important in today's changing healthcare system. Formal instruction in critical thinking theory is included in a professional issues nursing course for junior nursing students. The authors describe healthcare and non-healthcare educational activities used to promote application of the principles of critical thinking. PMID:9197656

Beeken, J E; Dale, M L; Enos, M F; Yarbrough, S

1997-01-01

323

Critical-Thinking Predisposition Among Undergraduate Athletic Training Students  

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Objective: To investigate the tendency of undergraduate athletic training students to think critically, to assess their likelihood of using specific components of critical thinking, and to study the effect of selected demographic and educational variables on critical-thinking tendencies in this sample of students.

Leaver-dunn, Deidre; Harrelson, Gary L.; Martin, Malissa; Wyatt, Tom

2002-01-01

324

Critical-Thinking Grudge Match: Biology vs. Chemistry--Examining Factors That Affect Thinking Skill in Nonmajors Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors

Egbert, Brandi; Cornell, Caitlyn N.; Quitadamo, Ian J.; Hancock, Julie; Griffith, Lindsay; Kurtz, Martha J.

2011-01-01

325

Should we teach thinking skills to deaf children?  

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Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to identify the benefits of developing thinking skills with KS1 deaf children who used British Sign Language (BSL. It arose as a response to the findings of a variety of researches who had reported a number of ‘failings’ apparent in the educational and learning activity of deaf children. It used a case study approach involving five profoundly deaf Key stage 1 children and explored the extent to which, using materials grounded in the Somerset Thinking Skills Course, the teaching of thinking skills in a supportive environment could remediate some of these issues. The strongly visual nature of the material supported pupil exchanges mediated by the use of sign language. Analysis of video film was used to plot individual pupil development of scanning skills, their use of nouns versus adjectives, micro-skills and macro-abilities. Pupil reasoning skills, how they were supported, their ownership and role of the facilitator were also examined. The results showed that within eight weeks (equivalent to four hours in total the children were more able to express their perceptions. They watched other children in order to access their signed information and appeared to use this to develop, elaborate, extend and provide reasons when it was their turn to present. There was also evidence of enhanced creativity and originality in their contributions. This pilot study urges the need for further research and suggests that a priority should be given to developing this approach in the teaching of deaf children. Due to the complexity of thinking skills it further recommends that this area should be taught as a separate topic that can inform other subjects.

Emma Tamsin Kelty

2006-04-01

326

On some limits of hypothetical thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faced with extreme demands, hypothetical thinking runs the danger of total failure. Paradoxical propositions such as the Liar ("I am lying") provide an opportunity to test it to its limits, while the Liar's nonparadoxical counterpart, the Truthteller ("I am telling the truth"), provides a useful comparison. Two experiments are reported, one with abstract materials ("If I am a knave then I live in Emerald City") and one with belief-laden materials (a judge says: "If I am a knave then I enjoy pop music"). In both experiments, conditionals with Truthteller-type antecedents were "collapsed" to responses of conditional probability closely resembling estimates of control items. Liar-type antecedents, in contrast, dramatically weakened belief in conditionals in which they were embedded. The results are discussed in the framework of the theory of hypothetical thinking. PMID:17853229

Elqayam, Shira; Handley, Simon J; Evans, Jonathan St B T; Bacon, Alison M

2008-05-01

327

Symmetrizing object and meta levels organizes thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a single non-cellular finite automaton model first shown to exhibit self-organizing behavior with intermittency and criticality, through a self-referential process. We propose a method to make self-referential contradiction a dynamic process of interaction with the selves in first person and third person description. The process represents thinking as inner dialogue with the self in second person. The dynamic effect of the rewrite shows characters proper to internal measurement, disequilibration by equilibration and transfer of inconsistency to the neighborhood by local resolution of the inconsistency. As the result, the advent of contradiction is postponed by the rewrite. The duality of internal measurement subject prevents inner dialogue in second person from lapsing into monologue. Criticality of thinking process is expressed. A probabilistic interpretation of non-determinacy weakening oracle is the key. PMID:22100872

Takahashi, Tatsuji; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

2012-02-01

328

Critical thinking skills of baccalaureate nursing students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if a student will score higher on a critical thinking appraisal test on completion of a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program than on entry into the program. Students currently enrolled in a BSN program were given the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Test in the first month of the program and repeated the test 1 month before graduation. BSN and BSN/registered nurse (RN) students were included in the study. Data analysis indicated there were no significant differences found in all of the classes of BSN/RN graduates and two of the classes of BSN graduates. There was a significant difference in the scores in one of the classes of BSN graduates. Implications for future research suggest additional comparative studies as well as using a different instrument along with expansion of the study to include master's students and nursing faculty. PMID:8606258

Saucier, B L

1995-01-01

329

Biological Systems Thinking for Control Engineering Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms are often quoted in discussions about the contribution of biological systems thinking to engineering design. This paper reviews work on the neuromuscular system, a field in which biological systems thinking could make specific contributions to the development and design of automatic control systems for mechatronics and robotics applications. The paper suggests some specific areas in which a better understanding of this biological control system could be expected to contribute to control engineering design methods in the future. Particular emphasis is given to the nonlinear nature of elements within the neuromuscular system and to processes of neural signal processing, sensing and system adaptivity. Aspects of the biological system that are of particular significance for engineering control systems include sensor fusion, sensor redundancy and parallelism, together with advanced forms of signal processing for adaptive and learning control. 

D. J. Murray-Smith

2004-01-01

330

Nietzsche's Thinking in Relationship with the Aesthetical  

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Full Text Available This paper debates the new theories on philosophical and aesthetical discourse, by applying them to Nietzsche?s thinking on art. The article consists in four general subjects, each of them focussing on an essential part of Nietzsche?s special relationship to art: 1 Art generated by the philosophical text itself, through the form of the fragment; 2 The artistic relationship as an interdisciplinary ground for the philosophical knowledge of the world (especially applied in Nietzsche?s and Schopenhauer?s work; 3 A critical debate on Wolfgang Welsch?s theory about the interdisciplinary aspects of the philosophical and aesthetical discourse; 4 The backgrounds of Nietzsche?s aesthetical project explained in Claus Zittel?s theory on Nietzsche?s ?aesthetic turn?. Thus, Nietzsche?s thinking is defined as a relationist project, the ?self-destruction dynamic? of his aesthetical perspectivism.

Stefan Maftei

2003-04-01

331

Aníbal Bascuñán and Hispanic American Administrative Thinking  

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The article examines the administrative thinking of Aníbal Bascuñán Valdés, derived from the analysis of his book Elementos de Ciencia de la Administración Pública (1963). It highlights the value of Bascuñán to the intellectual history of the discipline, for being the first Hispanic American thinker who without hesitation supported the autonomous status of public administration and for conceiving it as scientific knowledge under an ontic approach, where his being is endowed with an id...

Omar Guerrero Orozco

2012-01-01

332

Computational thinking in Dutch secondary education  

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We shall examine the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Computer Science (CS) teachers concerning students’ Computational Thinking (CT) problem solving skills within the context of a CS course in Dutch secondary education and thus obtain an operational definition of CT and ascertain appropriate teaching methodology. Next we shall develop an instrument to assess students’ CT and design a curriculum intervention geared toward teaching and improving students’ CT problem solving skills ...

Grgurina, Natas?a

2013-01-01

333

STRATEGIC THINKING AS A LEARNING PROCESS  

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Full Text Available Under the central notion that every strategy is always a theory, necessarily a strategy is based on speculations about the expected performance of a system in its environment and, as such, those conjectures should be exposed to refutations with the purpose of enhancing its effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its goals. This succession of conjectures and refutations is at the core of the strategic thinking methodology as a learning process and, therefore, as the Competitive Development thrust.

Alberto, Levy

2012-01-01

334

Exploring Cultural Differences in Critical Thinking: Is It about My Thinking Style or the Language I Speak?  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical thinking is deemed as an ideal in academic settings, but cultural differences in critical thinking performance between Asian and Western students have been reported in the international education literature. We examined explanations for the observed differences in critical thinking between Asian and New Zealand (NZ) European students, and…

Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Fischer, Ronald; Ward, Colleen

2010-01-01

335

Critical-Thinking Grudge Match: Biology vs. Chemistry--Examining Factors That Affect Thinking Skill in Nonmajors Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors investigated, ethnicity and high school physics had the largest impact on critical-thinking

Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Cornell, Caitlyn Nicole; Griffith, Lindsay; Hancock, Julie; Egbert, Brandi

2011-01-01

336

O pensamento criativo de Paul Klee: arte e música na constituição da Teoria da Forma The creative thinking of Paul Klee: art and music in the formation of the Theory of Form  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudo sobre a Teoria da Forma concebida no início do século XX pelo artista plástico Paul Klee e publicado no livro O Pensamento Criativo (KLEE, 1920. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é uma demonstração do pensamento artístico que adota pressupostos formais, previamente estabelecidos para resultar na prática da representação artística. Klee identificou as relações formais entre a música e as artes visuais, apresentando conexões entre a linha melódica e a linha no desenho; o ritmo e as seqüências de módulos e sub-módulos; os tempos dos compassos e as divisões da pintura; a métrica da música e a modulação da forma e da cor nas artes visuais. Klee também apresentou suas experiências com superposição de cores e texturas para representar visualmente a polifonia. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é um exemplo de estudo que pressupõe modelos formais para a elaboração artística e projetual.Study on the Theory of Form conceived in the early twentieth century by artist Paul Klee and published in the book The Creative Thinking (KLEE, 1920. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is a demonstration of an artistic thought that adopts the previously established formal prerequisites that result in the practice of artistic representation. Klee identified the formal relationship between music and the visual arts, providing connections between the melodic line and the line in the drawing, rhythm and sequence of modules and sub-modules, the pulses of the measures and the divisions of the painting, metrics in music and the modulation of shape and color in the visual arts. Klee also presented his experiences with overlapping colors and textures to visually represent polyphony. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is an example of a study that requires formal models for the artistic and design elaboration.

Rosana Costa Ramalho de Castro

2010-01-01

337

O pensamento criativo de Paul Klee: arte e música na constituição da Teoria da Forma / The creative thinking of Paul Klee: art and music in the formation of the Theory of Form  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo sobre a Teoria da Forma concebida no início do século XX pelo artista plástico Paul Klee e publicado no livro O Pensamento Criativo (KLEE, 1920). A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é uma demonstração do pensamento artístico que adota pressupostos formais, previamente estabelecidos para resultar n [...] a prática da representação artística. Klee identificou as relações formais entre a música e as artes visuais, apresentando conexões entre a linha melódica e a linha no desenho; o ritmo e as seqüências de módulos e sub-módulos; os tempos dos compassos e as divisões da pintura; a métrica da música e a modulação da forma e da cor nas artes visuais. Klee também apresentou suas experiências com superposição de cores e texturas para representar visualmente a polifonia. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é um exemplo de estudo que pressupõe modelos formais para a elaboração artística e projetual. Abstract in english Study on the Theory of Form conceived in the early twentieth century by artist Paul Klee and published in the book The Creative Thinking (KLEE, 1920). The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is a demonstration of an artistic thought that adopts the previously established formal prerequisites that result in [...] the practice of artistic representation. Klee identified the formal relationship between music and the visual arts, providing connections between the melodic line and the line in the drawing, rhythm and sequence of modules and sub-modules, the pulses of the measures and the divisions of the painting, metrics in music and the modulation of shape and color in the visual arts. Klee also presented his experiences with overlapping colors and textures to visually represent polyphony. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is an example of a study that requires formal models for the artistic and design elaboration.

Rosana Costa Ramalho de, Castro.

338

Thinking Tools for Successful Collaborative Initiatives - 13351  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful collaboration requires effective communication and collective problem solving. Regardless of the subject area --- environmental remediation, waste management, program planning and budgeting --- those involved must focus their efforts in an orderly and cooperative manner. A thinking tool is a technique used to get individuals to focus on specific components of the task at the same time and to eliminate the 'noise' that accompanies communications among individuals with different objectives and different styles of communicating. For example, one of these thinking tools is a technique which enables a working group to delineate its roles, responsibilities and communication protocols so that it can deliver the right information to the right people at the right time. Another enables a group to objectively and collectively evaluate and improve a policy, plan, or program. A third technique enables a group to clarify its purpose and direction while generating interest and buy-in. A fourth technique makes it possible for a group with polarized opinions to acknowledge their differences as well as what they have in common. A fifth technique enables a group to consider a subject of importance from all perspectives so as to produce a more comprehensive and sustainable solution. These thinking tools make effective communication and collective problem solving possible in radioactive waste management and remediation. They can be used by a wide spectrum of professionals including policy specialists, program administrators, program and project managers, and technical specialists. (author)

Boucher, Laurel A. [The Laurel Co., P.O. Box 218, Wetmore, MI (United States)

2013-07-01

339

PHENOMENOLOGICAL WAY OF THINKING IN THE SCHOOL  

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Full Text Available Education should take into account the phenomenological investigation of individuals in order to encourage students to create and construct their own knowledge. It is known that current educational system mainly approves of objective knowledge and phenomenological ways of thinking of individuals cannot be approved. Thus, individuals leave their own naturalistic ways of thinking and learning that it creates serious problems in current educational system related to students’ learning in school. This study aims at reflecting the subjective knowledge, that is perceptions of students concerning “desire of learning” and also analyzing what those students felt and experienced in reflecting their subjective knowledge related to the given concept. The data were collected from the twelve master students studying at Institute of Educational Sciences between 2006 and 2010. It can be said that the students reach their own meaning related to the concept of “desire of learning”. The phenomenological way of thinking and reflecting should be covered in school study in order to create and construct the authentic knowledge of self.

KIYMET SELVI

2012-05-01

340

Towards an agential realist thinking of learning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores what can be understood by learning based on agential realist thinking. An agential realist thinking about learning is sensitive to the complexity that characterizes learning as a phenomenon. Thus, learning, from an agential realist perspective, is a dynamic and emergent phenomenon, characterized by constantly being in processes of becoming and by expanding the range of components involved in the constitutive processes thereto. This paper focuses on material-discursivity, spatiality and temporality. The meta-theoretical position which lies behind agential realism is post human, which means that it is not only the human and the discursive possessing empowerment in relation to learning; the non-human also is woven into - and makes constitutive difference to - human learning processes. An excerpt from a field note will be used to illustrate these mutual shaping processes. This paper argues that intra-activity and 'leaps' are characteristics of learning. Thereby, transfer will be addressed and explained. Re-configurations are pivotal for this thinking about learning, and the concept of re-configurations breaks the tendency to understand learning as either more of the same or a radical change in the sense of 'penny dropped'. For although learning processes that are not recognized as 'aha moments' do not call much attention to themselves, this is how they occur most often.

Plauborg, Helle

 
 
 
 
341

Perseverative thinking in depression and anxiety  

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Full Text Available The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA. We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6. Overall, results from path analyses supported the assumptions of the TMDA, in that negative affectivity was a non-specific predictor for both depression and anxiety whilst lack of positive affectivity was related to depression only. Unexpectedly, perseverative thinking had an effect on the dependency of negative and positive affectivity. Worry was a significant moderator for the path NA – anxiety. All other hypothesized associations were only marginally significant. Alternative pathways as well as methodological implications regarding similarities and differences of the two types of perseverative thinking are discussed.

SonjaSorg

2012-02-01

342

Gaming science: the "Gamification" of scientific thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:24058354

Morris, Bradley J; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie

2013-01-01

343

Gaming Science: The “Gamification” of Scientific Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well being in the 21st century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

BradleyMorris

2013-09-01

344

Critical Thinking and Iranian EFL Context  

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Full Text Available The advent of the information diffusion emanating from the information technology of the third millennium along with the revamped concept of literacy and intellectual understanding, and the demand for accountability as one of the prerequisites of modern societies has given birth to a movement resting on the idea that schools should be less concerned with imparting information and requiring the memorization of empirical data. Dealing with the extraordinary challenges of today's information society requires autonomous citizens equipped with "critical competence" (Feuerstein, 1999 whose meta-knowing is to be ameliorated through curriculum. The present study is an attempt to sketch the concept of critical thinking as a viable alternative in language education in Iranian EFL context. First, a number of definitions, along with the dimensions, of the concept from various scholars' viewpoints are put forward. Second, the typical features of critical thinkers and what resources they need are introduced. Third, the relation between critical thinking and learner autonomy is examined. Fourth, the relation between critical thinking and the instructional process is investigated. And finally, the issue from both theoretical and pedagogical standpoints in the contemporary Iranian EFL context is reviewed.

Mansoor Fahim

2012-07-01

345

LANGUAGE SKILLS AND THE CRITICAL THINKING D?L BECER?LER? VE ELE?T?REL DÜ?ÜNME  

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Full Text Available Critical thinking is one of the eight basic skills in the primary school curriculum which has been prepared with a constructivist approach. Teaching critical thinking in Turkish language lessons has an importance in reaching curricular aims. Critical thinking has bonds with skills such as creative thinking, communication, research making, problem solving, using ICT, entrepreneurship, and using Turkish appropriatelyCritical thinking is involved with questioning, interpreting and decision making skills in a skeptical approach. It contains sub-skills such as identifying cause and effect relations, catching similarities and differences, making classifications using certain criteria, determining validity of information, making analysis, evaluation, and inferencesTo develop and conserve language skills, teaching critical thinking skills is a very important task. Developing students’ critical thinking skills is essential in order to develop language skills such as listening, speaking, and writing. Curricular aims involved with critical reading, critical listening, and critical writing depend on critical thinking. Instructional methods which foster critical thinking skills should be employed in educational settings to develop basic language skills. Teacher’s role, approach and competency in critical thinking are also essential to create a critical thinking atmosphere.Connecting language skills with general skills is a part of learning philosophy in a constructivist approach. The goal of language teaching, the main mean of thinking that preparing students who can critically think become also one of the main goals of learning. When the expected achievement in language skills occurs in critical thinking, language development could be affected with individuals’ thinking development symmetrically. Critical reading, listening, speaking and creative writing could support development of such foundational skills; students’ creative thinking, communication skills, problem solving, and researching and decision making. For the purpose of what to do and what decision to make, individuals have to be problem solver, conscious to assessment and judgments, and explaining these judgments. The foundation of critical thinking is based on healthy, disciplined, systematic and queried thinking and for the development of critical thinking skills individuals should have enough thinking previously. The development of thinking and learning thinking help individuals to become themselves and structuring their own ideas. When the development in students’ reading skills turn to critical thinking for the students, they are more able to understand what they read and come to conclusion easily. Critical readers judge what they read and they may make comments and critics about what they read. They try to find implementation of the ideas that the writer explains in the content. Individuals’ understanding skills can occur both with reading and with listening. Critical listening is, in another way, a process of checking the accuracy of the information, understanding of this information, and discussing it. Speaking and writing skills which are part of explanation skills also helps the development of critical thinking. People who do critical explanations also have social skills, ability to be in groups, and ability to collaborate. In a learning setting where critical approach is used, students are more able to express their ideas in oral and in writings and these students are able to make comment about issues and provide solutions for these issues. During the process of critical writing, individuals come up with new ideas and start to have a broader perspective. The model of this study is literature review. Literature about critical thinking skills has been reviewed. Afterwards methods that should be employed in Turkish language lessons to foster critical thinking skills have been studied Yap?land?rmac? ö?renme yakla??m?na göre olu?turulan ilkö?retim program?nda yer verilen sekiz temel beceriden birisi de ele?tirel dü?ün

Adnan KARADÜZ

2010-07-01

346

‘Soglitude’- introducing a method of thinking thresholds  

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Full Text Available ‘Soglitude’ is an invitation to acknowledge the existence of thresholds in thought. A threshold in thought designates the indetermination, the passage, the evolution of every state the world is in. The creation we add to it, and the objectivity we suppose, on the border of those two ideas lies our perceptive threshold. No state will ever be permanent, and in order to stress the temporary, fluent character of the world and our perception of it, we want to introduce a new suitable method to think change and transformation, when we acknowledge our own threshold nature. The contributions gathered in this special issue come from various disciplines: anthropology, philosophy, critical theory, film studies, political science, literature and history. The variety of these insights shows the resonance of the idea of threshold in every category of thought. We hope to enlarge the notion in further issues on physics and chemistry, as well as mathematics. The articles in this issue introduce the method of threshold thinking by showing the importance of the in-between, of the changing of perspective in their respective domain. The ‘Documents’ section named INTERSTICES, includes a selection of poems, two essays, a philosophical-artistic project called ‘infraphysique’, a performance on thresholds in the soul, and a dialogue with Israel Rosenfield. This issue presents a kaleidoscope of possible threshold thinking and hopes to initiate new ways of looking at things.For every change that occurs in reality there is a subjective counterpart in our perception and this needs to be acknowledged as such. What we name objective is reflected in our own personal perception in its own personal manner, in such a way that the objectivity of an event might altogether be questioned. The absolute point of view, the view from “nowhere”, could well be the projection that causes dogmatism. By introducing the method of thinking thresholds into a system, be it philosophical, artistic or scientific, it tends to free itself from rigid or fixed models and accepts change and development as the fundamental nature of things. Thinking thresholds as a method of thought progress cannot be done in a single process and therefore asks for participation in its proper nature. The soglitude springs namely from the acceptance of a multitude of points of view, as it is shown by the numerous contributions we present in this issue ‘Seuils, Thresholds, Soglitudes’ of Conserveries mémorielles.

Tatjana Barazon

2010-04-01

347

A comprehensive approach to the development of thinking skills  

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Full Text Available The development of independent and innovative thinking entails much more than merely the acquisition of a series of thinking skills. A comprehensive approach based upon inter-disciplinary cooperation between, among others, the disciplines of philosophy, education and pscychology is needed. In such a comprehensive approach to the development of thinking skills the following factors that have a bearing on the acquisition of thinking skills should be addressed:The cultivation of a positive disposition towards the development of thinking.The creation of conditions conducive to the development of thinking.The cultivation of virtues that will dispose a person towards good thinking.An understanding of what good thinking entails.The teaching and assessment of thinking skills.In this article, these various factors and their bearing on the development of thinking skills are explored. A general theoretical framework for the development of thinking skills is proposed that can and should be translated to specific domains of knowledge or to specific human enterprises.

G. J. Rossouw

1995-03-01

348

Measurement and comparison of nursing faculty members' critical thinking skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing faculty members strive to teach students to think critically. It has long been assumed that nursing faculty members are good at critical thinking because they are expected to teach these skills to students, but this assumption has not been well supported empirically. Faculty members question their ability to think critically and are unsure of their skills. The purpose of this study was to address this assumption by measuring nursing faculty members' critical thinking skills and compare the faculty mean score to that of a student norming group, and to the mean scores of other nursing faculty studies. Findings can be used to increase nursing faculty members' understanding of their critical thinking skills, prompt discussion about critical thinking skills, and to help faculty members address concerns and uncertainty about the concept of critical thinking. This study also helps establish an empirical basis for future research. PMID:20935213

Blondy, Laurie C

2011-03-01

349

Mental models as indicators of scientific thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

One goal of science education reform is student attainment of scientific literacy. Therefore, it is imperative for science educators to identify its salient elements. A dimension of scientific literacy that warrants careful consideration is scientific thinking and effective ways to foster scientific thinking among students. This study examined the use of mental models as evidence of scientific thinking in the context of two instructional approaches, transmissional and constructivist. Types of mental models, frequency of explanative information, and scores on problem solving transfer questions were measured and compared among subjects in each instructional context. Methods. Subjects consisted of sophomore biology students enrolled in general biology courses at three public high schools. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking instrument was used to identify two equivalent groups with an N of 65. Each group was taught the molecular basis of sickle cell anemia and the principles of hemoglobin gel electrophoresis using one of the two instructional approaches at their schools during five instructional periods over the course of one week. Laboratory equipment and materials were provided by Boston University School of Medicine's MobileLab program. Following the instructional periods, each subject was asked to think aloud while responding to four problem solving transfer questions. Each response was audiotaped and videotaped. The interviews were transcribed and coded to identify types of mental models and explanative information. Subjects' answers to the problem solving transfer questions were scored using a rubric. Results. Students taught in a constructivist context tended to use more complete mental models than students taught in a transmissional context. Fifty-two percent of constructivist subjects and forty-four percent of transmissional subjects demonstrated evidence of relevant mental models. Overall fifty-two percent of the subjects expressed naive mental models with respect to content. There was no significant difference in the frequency of explanative information expressed by either group. Both groups scored poorly on the problem solving transfer problems. The average score for the constructivist group was 30% and the average score for the transmissional group was 34%. A significant correlation was found between the frequency of explanative information and scores on the problem-solving transfer questions, r = 0.766. Conclusion. The subjects exhibited difficulty in formulating and applying mental models to effectively answer problem solving transfer questions regardless of the context in which the subjects were taught. The results call into question the extent to which students have been taught to use mental models and more generally, the extent to which their prior academic experience has encouraged them to develop an awareness of scientific thinking skills. Implications of the study suggest further consideration of mental modeling in science education reform and the deliberate integration of an awareness of scientific thinking skills in the development of science curricula.

Derosa, Donald Anthony

350

Combining the arts: an applied critical thinking approach in the skills laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of care that nurses provide to patients is strongly influenced by the nurses' ability to think critically and to solve problems. In response to the dynamic changes in healthcare and rapid technological advancements, nursing educators must prepare nursing students to meet the challenges. Baccalaureate nursing students must be taught to utilize critical thinking skills for problem solving during the application of the nursing process. Nursing students who use critical thinking skills will provide high quality and efficient patient care in the acute care and community settings. During the simulated laboratory experience, incorporating creative teaching strategies to promote critical thinking and enhance problem-solving skills can enable nursing graduates to enter the workforce feeling confident and competent. PMID:12016668

Peterson, M J; Bechtel, G A

2000-01-01

351

Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…

Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

2011-01-01

352

Thinking and Writing Mathematically: "Achilles and the Tortoise" as an Algebraic Word Problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduces Hogben's adaptation of Zeno's paradox, "Achilles and the Tortoise", as a thinking and writing exercise. Emphasizes engaging students' imagination with creative, thought-provoking problems and involving students in evaluating their word problem-solving strategies. Describes the paradox, logical solutions, and students' mathematical…

Martinez, Joseph G. R.

2001-01-01

353

'What ought we to think?' Castoriadis' Response to the Question for Thinking  

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Full Text Available Castoriadis views the project of autonomy as central to both political action and philosophical thinking. Although he acknowledges that the political project has retreated,he insists on its thinkability as a viable project. We argue that this insistence gives rise to an unresolved tension. Specifically, Castoriadis’ substantive response to the question ‘what ought we to think?’, which he gives in terms of the pursuit of the philosophical project of autonomy, ultimately fails to recognise the unavoidable effect of the political project’s retreat on the thinker and this failure raises doubts as to whether Castoriadis’ own thinking has the potential to move beyond a merely journalistic style of critique, which he finds objectionable.

Toula Nicolacopoulos

2012-11-01

354

A Research on Critical Thinking Tendencies and Factors that Affect Critical Thinking of Higher Education Students  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relationship between critical thinking tendencies and levels and thefactors that affect the critical thinking tendencies of higher education students. In the study, critical thinkingtendencies of freshman and senior students were analyzed depending on demographic features, faculties anddepartments.The research was done on the students of U?ak University. In the study, the data collected through surveys wereanalyzed through regression analysis in order to determine the effects of the dependent and independentvariables; frequency and percentage values, reliability, item factor analysis, KAISER-MEYER-OLKIN:measure of sampling adequacy test, Bartlett's test of sphericity using SPSS 18.0.

Ramazan Arslan

2014-04-01

355

The Relationship between Critical Thinking Disposition and Self-Esteem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 289 medical students were selected through stratified random sampling method in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing 3 parts: demographic data, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results were analyzed by SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. Results: Results showed that 98.6% (285 of students had deficiency, 1.4% (4 ambivalence and nobody had positive critical thinking disposition. There was a significantly negative correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem (r=-0.462, P<0.001. Also, there was no a significant relationship between two groups of low self-esteem , high self-esteem , negative and ambivalent Critical Thinking Disposition. Conclusion: It seems that Critical Thinking Disposition, like other psychological variables, is influenced by social factors and social environment plays a role in promoting or undermining it. So, similar studies are recommended to investigate the factors affecting Critical Thinking in medical students.

Shirin Iranfar

2013-12-01

356

Is There a Specific Experience of Thinking?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} In this paper I discuss whether there is a speci?c experience of thinking or not. I address this question by analysing if it is possible to reduce the phenomenal character of thinking to the phenomenal character of sensory experiences. My purpose is to defend that there is a specific phenomenality for at least some thinking mental states. I present Husserl's theory of intentionality in the Logical Investigations as a way to defend this claim and I consider its assumptions. Then I present the case of understanding as a paradigmatic case for the phenomenal contrast argument and I defend it against two objections.

Marta Jorba

2010-06-01

357

Mathematical Thinking: Teachers Perceptions and Students Performance  

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Full Text Available

This paper was investigated the teachers rating of the six different aspects of mathematical thinking developed by the researcher: Searching for patterns , Induction, Deduction, symbolism, Logical thinking and Mathematical proof in relation to level of importance, level of difficulty, and time spent in teaching each aspect. This paper was also aimed to examine any possible consistencies and inconsistencies between teacher opinions about the level of importance of mathematical thinking aspects to mathematics achievement, level of difficulty and test data collected. Also, it was examined if the students were familiar with solving specific problems (such as rice problem logical ways like searching for patterns rather than more traditional approaches and if they also applying the fourth step in problem solving according to Polya, (1990 (i.e., looking back (a checking the answer.
Key words: Mathematical thinking; Teacher perceptions; Students performance

Résumé
Ce document a étudié la notation des six aspects différents de la pensée mathématique des enseignants développé par le chercheur: la recherche de modèles, à induction, déduction, le symbolisme, la pensée logique et mathématique la preuve par rapport au niveau d'importance, le niveau de difficulté et le temps passé dans l'enseignement de chaque aspect. Ce document visait également à examiner toute consistances et des incohérences éventuelles entre les opinions des enseignants sur le niveau d'importance des aspects la pensée mathématique à la réussite en mathématiques, niveau de difficulté et les données recueillies lors des essais. En outre, il a été examiné si les élèves ont été familiarisés avec la résolution de problèmes spécifiques (tels que les problèmes du riz façons logiques, tels que la recherche de modèles plutôt que des approches plus traditionnelles, et si ils ont également l'application de la quatrième étape dans la résolution de problèmes en fonction de Polya, (1990 (à savoir, en regardant en arrière (une vérification de la réponse.
Mots clés: Pensée mathématique; Les perceptions des enseignants et le rendement des étudiants

Mamoon. M. Mubark

2011-10-01

358

ReadWriteThink: Student Interactives  

Science.gov (United States)

Computers have been in classrooms for decades and continue to implement new and compelling resources expanding their multimedia capabilities. This set of classroom resources from ReadWriteThink brings together several hundred interactive activities for students in grades K-12. First-time visitors should explore the Featured area for helpful activities that address doing research (Inquiry & Analysis) for elementary school children and learning about letters and sounds (Word Wizard). The detailed Refine By area on the left-hand side of the page can filter items by grade level, type of interactive feature, and learning objectives. There is also a detailed search engine and feedback system for each activity.

2012-01-01

359

Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools. PMID:24713126

Paul, Sheila A

2014-11-01

360

Indetermination, intertextuality, figurative thinking and linguistic education  

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Full Text Available This article emphasizes the intertextuality which is established by real readers in a social reading event as a fact linked to the determination. Its aim is to map the figures of the intertextuality used in the construction of the poem, as well as to verify the signs of the figurative thinking, especially the analogy, which are in the intertextual linkings by the use of the group protocol. It also discusses how the methodology adopted in the data collect can be a stimulus path to the renewal of the Pedagogy of Reading, one of the branches of Linguistic Education.

Jeni Silva Turazza

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Critical thinking inside law schools. An outline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intention of this work is to do the mapping of the many problems that critical thinking (CT) is confronted with in the inside of law schools, taking these in their institutional role as well as tangible manifestations of legal culture. I address the significance of CT, reflecting on its philosophical origins and its possibility in our time, a time that is marked by a crisis of paradigms. We will move from theory to a more pragmatic approach based on skills, only to find different sets ...

Raquel Medina Plana

2012-01-01

362

Manifestation of critical thinking skills in the English textbooks employed by language institutes in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scholars in the field of education have unanimously subscribed to the pivotal role of critical thinking in individuals' life in general and their academic life in particular (Bloom, 1956; Ennis, 2003; Dewey, 1933. The thrust of the current study was to investigate the extent to which the books employed for Teaching English as Foreign Language include critical thinking skills. To attain this goal, 3 series of English books, namely, Top notch, Interchange, and English files series utilized by language institutes in Iran were targeted. Next, a seventy two-item critical thinking checklist based on Likert-scale and consisting of twelve skills; namely, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, deduction, induction, balanced-thinking, multiple perspective-taking, creative thinking, building community of thinkers, and knowledge was developed. The target skills on the checklist were mainly based on Bloom's taxonomy and the related literature on critical thinking. The checklist was validated by the researchers themselves and some experts in the field and the reliability coefficient was also estimated at 0.86. Then, two raters conducted a content analysis on the books and determined the magnitude of each skill. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis Non-parametric tests. Findings of the study revealed that the books mainly tapped knowledge, comprehension, application and building community of thinkers skills and failed to acceptably include other skills reported to be of utmost importance for students' academic success. The comparison of the mean rank of the skills in the three books also disclosed that as for lower order thinking skills there wasn’t a significant difference among the books; however, as for other skills Top notch was marginally higher. The paper also discusses the lack of critical thinking in the classroom and materials and proposes some ways to include more critical thinking skills in the materials. The results of the study have significant implications for material developers, educational policy makers and teachers.

Birjandi, Parviz

2013-01-01

363

Think Tanks in Europe : A pilot definition, research design and categorisation of selected think tanks in Brussels, Denmark and Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how and why think tank types converge and diverge across countries and levels of governance, to what extent they are embedded in national contexts and how studies of think tanks can proceed despite methodological problems and disagreement on how to define think tanks.

Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

364

What Do GCSE Examiners Think of "Thinking Aloud"? Findings from an Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: "Thinking aloud" is a well-established method of data collection in education, assessment, and other fields of research. However, while many researchers have reported their views on its usage, the first-hand experiences of research participants have received less attention. Purpose: The aim of this exploratory study was to obtain the…

Greatorex, Jackie; Suto, Irenka W. M.

2008-01-01

365

Critical Thinking and Writing: Reclaiming the Essay. Monographs on Teaching Critical Thinking Number 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended for teachers, this monograph argues that, unlike the structured, formulaic "school" essay, personal essays in the manner of Michel de Montaigne lead students to explore their connections with ideas and texts. The monograph describes several strategies which use writing as a tool for critical thinking. The monograph contains the following…

Newkirk, Thomas

366

Critical thinking education in 21st Century: korean experience  

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Full Text Available In 21st century, advanced countries as well as Asian countries are changing curriculums. According to UNESCO, the characteristics of the change are paradigmatic. The term for paradigmatic change is used; this means the change that knowledge of previous paradigm is completely unusable in new paradigm (Khun 1977.In a word, the major concern of education is changed from teaching consumers of knowledge to teaching producer of knowledge. Critical thinking ability and creative thinking ability is required for educated person [1]. For it is rapidly reduced the cycle of knowledge in our society in the present. For example, in case of cellular phone, new phone would be released about six months. Current elementary, middle and high school students should live in the society ten and twenty years from now. So, the education should prepare the time ten and twenty years from this time and go ahead to lead the future society. Thus, teachers should understand the changes of curriculum and develop educational method for the future society.

Jin Whan Park

2013-06-01

367

Mental habits: metacognitive reflection on negative self-thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 8 studies, the authors investigated negative self-thinking as a mental habit. Mental content (negative self-thoughts) was distinguished from mental process (negative self-thinking habit). The negative self-thinking habit was assessed with a metacognitive instrument (Habit Index of Negative Thinking; HINT) measuring whether negative self-thoughts occur often, are unintended, are initiated without awareness, are difficult to control, and are self-descriptive. Controlling for negative cognitive content, the authors found that negative self-thinking habit was distinct from rumination and mindfulness, predicted explicit as well as implicit low self-esteem (name letter effect), attenuated a positivity bias in the processing of self-relevant stimuli, and predicted anxiety and depressive symptoms 9 months later. The results support the assumption that metacognitive reflection on negative self-thinking as mental habit may play an important role in self-evaluative processes. PMID:17352607

Verplanken, Bas; Friborg, Oddgeir; Wang, Catharina E; Trafimow, David; Woolf, Kristin

2007-03-01

368

Study on Theory and Practice of Thinking Innovation Education  

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Full Text Available The cognition was spread from creation-energetics to creation-dynamics and thinking innovation-dynamics by study on trinal-creation theory in the creation and thinking innovation. This article expounded the importance of bringing up person with ability, and had importance on development of human being society.
Keywords: thinking innovation, thinking innovation education, creation-energetics, thinking innovation-thermodynamics, thinking innovation -dynamics
Résumé: Le présent article applique la théorie de création à la connaissance de la thermodynamique « trois innovations » et la dynamique de l’innovation idéologique. L’innovation idéologique revêt une grande signification pour le développement de la société humaine.
Mots-clés: innovation idéologique, éducation visant à trois innovations, thermodynamique de l’innovation idéologique, dynamique de l’innovation dynamique
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Li-ping WANG

2007-12-01

369

Research Thinking Development by Teaching Archaeoastronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

A model of research thinking development by teaching archaeoastronomy in specialized three-year extra-curriculum Astronomy programme and creation of favourable socio-educational surroundings is suggested. It is shown as a didactic system of conditions, influences and possibilities of answering specific hierarchic complex of personal needs in the 14 - 18 year age interval. Transformation of these needs in worldly values secures an active position of the students in the educational process and determines their personality development. It is also shown that the Archaeoastronomy School, as an educational environment, executes specific work of students' teaching, upbringing and progress as well as their inclusion in the real process of scientific research. Thus, they have the possibility of generating scientific ideas and obtaining results in the science archaeoastronomy. In consequence of this, their activity acquires social significance. Usages of this model of scientific school in the extra-curriculum Astronomy education reproduces norms and traditions of the real scientific research and directly relay subject content, cultural norms and values of archaeoastronomy in the educative process. Students' participation in archaeoastronomical expeditions, their competent work during the research of concrete archaeoastronomical objects create an investigation style of thinking and steady habits of scientific activity.

Muglova, P. V.; Stoev, A. D.

2006-08-01

370

Reflection: A Key Component to Thinking Critically  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to think critically is an important trait of all members of society. With today’s multinational, multicultural, complex issues, citizens must be able to sift through large amounts of various data to make intelligent decisions. Thinking critically must be a focus of higher education in order to provide the intellectual training for its students to participate in this world. This qualitative study examined critical reflection through student writing as seen in three different college settings. Structured reflections were analyzed using Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (2001.La capacité d’exercer son esprit critique est une caractéristique importante de tous les membres de la société. De nos jours, les enjeux sont multinationaux, multiculturels et complexes. Les citoyens doivent être capables de filtrer de grandes quantités de données diverses pour prendre des décisions intelligentes. L’enseignement supérieur doit être axé sur la pensée critique afin de procurer aux étudiants la formation intellectuelle qui leur permettra de participer au monde qui les entoure. La présente étude qualitative se penche sur la réflexion critique dans les écrits des étudiants de trois différents collèges. Les chercheurs ont analysé les réflexions structurées à l’aide de la nouvelle taxonomie des objectifs pédagogiques de Marzano (2001.

Carol M. Lerch

2012-09-01

371

Adolescent thinking ála Piaget: The formal stage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two of the formal-stage experiments of Piaget and Inhelder, selected largely for their closeness to the concepts defining the stage, were replicated with groups of average and gifted adolescents. This report describes the relevant Piagetian concepts (formal stage, concrete stage) in context, gives the methods and findings of this study, and concludes with a section discussing implications and making some reformulations which generally support but significantly qualify some of the central themes of the Piaget-Inhelder work. Fully developed formal-stage thinking emerges as far from commonplace among normal or average adolescents (by marked contrast with the impression created by the Piaget-Inhelder text, which chooses to report no middle or older adolescents who function at less than fully formal levels). In this respect, the formal stage differs appreciably from the earlier Piagetian stages, and early adolescence emerges as the age for which a "single path" model of cognitive development becomes seriously inadequate and a more complex model becomes essential. Formal-stage thinking seems best conceptualized, like most other aspects of psychological maturity, as a potentiality only partially attained by most and fully attained only by some. PMID:24413954

Dulit, E

1972-12-01

372

Child Computer Interaction SIG: Towards Sustainable Thinking and Being  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The discipline of Child Computer Interaction has been steadily growing and as a community it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC conference and its own Journal whilst also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant contributor to the ACM CHI conference. Having recently been given status as an IFIP TC13 working group, the community now needs to make plans around its academic themes and its coherence as a developing academic community. The CCI SIG at CHI aims to use a mixture of facilitated creative thinking and a world café approach to bring the community together to tackle these two key challenges. The CCI SIG will be the natural meeting place for members of this community at CHI and will disseminate its discussion to the CCI and CHI communities through the production of visual and interactive materials at the CHI conference.

Read, Janet; Iversen, Ole Sejer

373

Teacher thinking and interconnectedness: Teachers' thinking about students' experiences and science concepts during classroom teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined 4 elementary school teachers' thinking during science teaching in 2 urban schools in the southern United States. Most of the students in these schools come from minority families with low socioeconomic status. The teachers involved in this study were participants in the Linking Food and the Environment (LIFE) program, a curriculum designed for urban elementary students to learn life and environmental sciences. The research employed cross-case study methodology to understand teachers' thinking and the decisions they made during classroom teaching. Fifteen science lessons were taped (7 videotaped and 8 audiotaped) for each teacher over a period of 7 months. Six stimulated recall interviews were conducted to elicit the teachers' thinking and decision-making process during teaching. Data were analyzed using William and Baxter's (1996) discourse analysis framework. Three factors that influence elementary school teachers' thinking and the decisions they made during science teaching emerged from the data analysis: (1) Most teachers believed that students' experiences could be used during teaching, but they disagreed about the usefulness of students' experiences in teaching science for understanding. Two teachers who perceived their students to be less intelligent did not use students' experiences during teaching. (2) All the teachers in the study asserted that students must have the knowledge of science process skills to succeed in science investigation and high-stakes tests. These teachers also believed that mastering science process skills aided in students' understanding of science concepts. (3) In an academically high-performing school, the school administrators played a less significant role in teachers' thinking and decision making than in an academically low-performing school. Administrators were under pressure to "teach to the test" so that students would perform better in the high-stakes test. Teachers perceived a higher incentive for teaching science for better scores in high-stakes tests than for understanding.

Upadhyay, Bhaskar Raj

2004-11-01

374

Frameworks for thinking : a handbook for teaching and learning.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This handbook focuses on the thinking processes necessary for learning. It provides descriptions and evaluations of 42 major frameworks including Bloom¿s taxonomy, de Bono¿s lateral and parallel thinking tools, Gardner¿s theory of multiple intelligences and Paul¿s model of critical thinking. Unique in its comprehensive coverage and interdisciplinary approach, it offers easy-to-grasp summary tables for each major theorist for speedy reference. The discussion of cognitive, emotional and soc...

Moseley, D.; Baumfield, V.; Elliott, J.; Gregson, M.; Higgins, S.; Miller, J.; Newton, D. P.

2005-01-01

375

A computer simulation for teaching critical thinking skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical thinking is difficult to teach because it is an abstract conceptual skill and there is no standard model. The authors discuss the development and use of a computer simulation that stimulates critical thinking in nursing students. Computer simulations are an efficient method of teaching students content and critical thinking skills without exhausting severely limited clinical time or placing a patient in jeopardy. PMID:9582801

Weis, P A; Guyton-Simmons, J

1998-01-01

376

Teaching strategies to promote critical thinking skills in nursing staff.  

Science.gov (United States)

The promotion of critical thinking skills necessary for safe, effective, state-of-the-art nursing care is discussed in this article. Definitions of critical thinking and inductive and deductive reasoning are explored. Benner's (1986) research, based on Dreyfus and Dreyfus' (1980) model of skill acquisition, provides a basis for the various strategies mentioned to teach critical thinking. Implementation and evaluation of these strategies are addressed. PMID:7868746

Dobrzykowski, T M

1994-01-01

377

Marx’s Practical Thinking Logic of Law  

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Full Text Available Marx developed his practical thought by the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts in 1844, Holy Family and the Outline of Feuerbach, formed a systematic practical thinking logic of law ultimately in the German Ideology .Based on the analysis and summarization of the Marx’s practical thinking logic of law, we can conclude that Marx’s practical thinking logic of law is of abstract and specific; It is also of dialectical, historical and material.

Lu XIA

2014-06-01

378

The determination of the critical thinking tendencies of teacher candidates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was carried out to determine the critical thinking tendencies of teacher candidates studying in the educationfaculties of universities in North Cyprus. The study was carried out with the participation of 874 teacher candidates studyingin the North Cyprus. In the research, which was carried out within the frame of the screening model and used the datacollection tool the California Critical Thinking Tendencies Measure, it was concluded that the critical thinking tendencies ofthe t...

Cigdem Hürsen; Aylin Kaplan

2012-01-01

379

Critical thinking: conceptual clarification and its importance in science education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In different countries efforts have been made to integrate critical thinking into science curricula, recognizing that it is necessary to live in a plural society with citizenship competence. However, this objective has not been appropriately implemented in classrooms. One of the obstacles is the fact that teachers do not have a clear idea about critical thinking because the meaning ascribed to critical thinking in different contexts is rarely explicit. This paper attem...

Vieira, Rui Marques; Tenreiro-vieira, Celina; Martins, Isabel Pinheiro

2011-01-01

380

Can One Learn to Think Critically? – A Philosophical Exploration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within nursing, critical thinking is a required skill that educators strive to foster in their students’ development for use in complex healthcare settings. Hence the numerous studies published measuring critical thinking as a terminal outcome of education. However, an important comparison between different philosophical underpinnings such as person, truth and the nature of nursing, and how one defines and utilizes critical thinking in practice, has been absent from discussions about critic...

Raymond-seniuk, Christy; Profetto-mcgrath, Joanne

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Problem Solving and Computational Thinking in a Learning Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computational thinking is a new problem soling method named for its extensive use of computer science techniques. It synthesizes critical thinking and existing knowledge and applies them in solving complex technological problems. The term was coined by J. Wing, but the relationship between computational and critical thinking, the two modes of thiking in solving problems, has not been yet learly established. This paper aims at shedding some light into this relationship. We al...

Voskoglou, Michael Gr; Buckley, Sheryl

2012-01-01

382

Breaking the quality barrier: critical thinking and conflict resolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breaking the quality barrier requires case manages to possess the skills of critical thinking and conflict resolution. After a brief focus on habits that create barriers to critical thinking, a critical thinking assessment is offered. Strategies for critical thinking and how to create a culture of openness and flexibility are discussed. Critical thinkers bring to conflict situations skills that foster win-win conflict resolution. An example is used to discuss the skills of assertiveness and negotiation. An example is given that demonstrates how to deal with defensiveness by first stating agreement and then disagreement. PMID:10754866

Lachman, V D

1999-01-01

383

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AND MEANING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many ELT experts believe that the inclusion of critical thinking skills in English classes is necessary to improve students’ English competence. Students’ critical thinking skills will be optimally increased if meaning is prioritized in English lessons. Those two inter-related elements can be implemented when teachers do collaborative activities stimulating students’ thinking process and meaning negotiation. Yet, the realization might be counter-productive if they are applied without careful consideration of task purposes and of students’ roles. Based on the consideration, this paper is focused on presenting how critical thinking skills and meaning should be properly incorporated in an English lesson.

Harits Masduqi

2011-07-01

384

Developing nurses' critical thinking skills with concept mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations and research in educational and practice settings suggest new nurses are not using critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies traditionally focused on linear modes of thinking--no longer as helpful in today's complex and crisis-driven contexts. Concept mapping has promise of promoting higher levels of thinking and may develop critical thinking--and decision-making skills--in less time and without intensive oversight by staff instructors. A case example is used to demonstrate the design of a concept map. PMID:15586090

Ferrario, Catherine G

2004-01-01

385

Economic thinking of post-industrial society: formation and development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding of post-industrial society in the context of the role of economic thinking in the post-industrial society that becomes an actual in the mainstream of modern social and economic modernization in Russia is actualized. The peculiarities of the formation of economic thinking in the process of cooperation with the economic reality in the process of economic education and training are considered. The step-by-step analysis of development of categorical economic apparatus of an individual, the influence of theoretical and practical knowledge on the formation of economical thinking is made. The active role of people in the formation of their own economical thinking is shown.

Bogunov Leonid Aleksandrovich

2011-12-01

386

Critical Thinking in Higher Education: A Pedagogical Look  

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Full Text Available Many authorities in higher education did not enthusiastically embrace the idea that college students should receive explicit instruction in how to think. Note that the academic community was opposed to good thinking, but many educators believed that it was a misguided effort. For example, Glaser (1984 cited abundant evidence of Critical Thinking failures in support of his argument that thinking skills are context-bound and do not transfer across academic domains. Glaser and other sceptics were partly correct. Better thinking is not a necessary outcome of traditional, discipline-based instruction. But, increasingly global relationships of culture, people and economic activity make Critical Thinking as necessary as sunrise. This study attempted (1 to examine the predictive relationships of student dispositions and their abilities to think; and (2 to open a refreshed horizon in teaching students to develop their ability of Critical Thinking. Furthermore, the authors believed that to motivate students’ disposition, it is indispensable for the teacher to scaffold them to think critically.

Mansoor Fahim

2012-07-01

387

Developing Critical Thinking in English Class: Culture-based Knowledge and Skills  

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Full Text Available Critical thinking is central to education, but the majority of English language classes in China fail to teach critical thinking skills. In order to help students to develop critical thinking skills, this paper examines the underlying values that produce the variety of culturally derived thinking dispositions so as to demonstrate the influence of Chinese thinking disposition on student’ critical thinking development. Suggestions are made for culture –based instructions as an educational conception of critical thinking in language teaching.

Mei Guo

2013-03-01

388

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MOTOR ASYMMETRY AND HEMISPHERIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR EFFECTIVE CONVERGENT AND DIVERGENT THINKING DURING INFŒORMATION IDENTIFICATION  

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Full Text Available Multiple regression analyses utilising time parameters have been used to investigate the relationships between hemispheric attention and motor asymmetry and the efficiency of convergent/divergent thinking during the identification of laterally presented hierarchical letters and during performance of psychometric indices of intelligence and creativity. Efficiency in convergent thinking is primarily associated with the rapid and accurate identification of information on a global level of selection, and divergent thinking is associated with increases in selection time on a local level. Motor asymmetry is more associated with verbal creativity and figurative intelligence, as evidenced by increased performance on psychometric indices as right-handed dominance decreases. Additionally, the contribution of selective left or right hemispheric processing to convergent or divergent thinking is different during verbal versus figurative testing.

O.M. Razumnikova

2013-05-01

389

Grow Creativity!  

Science.gov (United States)

Creativity matters. A shared vocabulary and lens for creativity helps teachers and students know what it means to "be creative" and where to start. J. P. Guilford's FFOE model of divergent thinking from the 1950s offers four dimensions to describe creativity: (1) Fluency; (2) Flexibility; (3) Originality; and (4) Elaboration. FFOE makes time spent…

Shively, Candace Hackett

2011-01-01

390

Critical thinking levels of senior students at education faculties and their views on obstacles to critical thinking  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to determine the critical thinking levels of senior students at Primary School Teacher and Turkish Language Teacher Education Departments and to explore their views on the obstacles to critical thinking. The research uses both the quantitative and the qualitative approach. First, for data-gathering purposes, the sample group, consisting of 139 senior students from the Bülent Ecevit University, Educational Faculty, Turkish Language Teacher Education Department and Primary School Teacher Education Department, was administered the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTD-I, which was adapted to Turkish by Kökdemir in 2003. Afterwards, focus-group interviews were made with fourteen students (two groups with seven students each, during which students discussed the obstacles to critical thinking. The research findings concluded that the critical thinking levels of the students are low in general. Furthermore, it was seen that the highest critical thinking disposition was at the sub-dimension of open-mindedness, while the lowest critical thinking level was at the sub-dimension of systematicity. According to the results of the research, the critical thinking levels of students differed significantly as per gender, although no significant differences were found with regard to their grade point averages or the type of their secondary school of graduation. Looking at the opinions expressed on the obstacles to critical thinking, it is seen that the traditional approach to education and the ongoing practice of rote learning are regarded as the main reasons for these obstacles by students.

Aycan Çiçek Sa?lam

2013-01-01

391

Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ideals of OBE?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of the Outcomes-based approach adopted by the South African education and training sector is the so-called Critical Outcomes. Included as one of these outcomes is the ability of learners to identify and solve problems, using creative and critical thinking. Underpinned by the Critical Outcomes, Outcomes-based Education (OBE was introduced in South African schools in 1997. It can therefore be argued that the critical thinking abilities of the cohort of first-year students who entered higher education institutions in 2006 were challenged somewhere in their school careers. Based on this assumption, a group of first-year education students were required to complete the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA to gauge their critical thinking abilities. The results obtained by this means are discussed and some suggestions made to address the way forward with regard to development of learners' critical thinking abilities.

Kobus Lombard

2008-11-01

392

MENTAL SHIFT TOWARDS SYSTEMS THINKING SKILLS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE  

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Full Text Available When seeking solutions to current problems in the field of computer science – and other fields – we encounter situations where traditional approaches no longer bring the desired results. Our cognitive skills also limit the implementation of reliable mental simulation within the basic set of relations. The world around us is becoming more complex and mutually interdependent, and this is reflected in the demands on computer support. Thus, in today’s education and science in the field of computer science and all other disciplines and areas of life need to address the issue of the paradigm shift, which is generally accepted by experts. The goal of the paper is to present the systems thinking that facilitates and extends the understanding of the world through relations and linkages. Moreover, the paper introduces the essence of systems thinking and the possibilities to achieve mental a shift toward systems thinking skills. At the same time, the link between systems thinking and functional literacy is presented. We adopted the “Bathtub Test” from the variety of systems thinking tests that allow people to assess the understanding of basic systemic concepts, in order to assess the level of systems thinking. University students (potential information managers were the examined subjects of the examination of systems thinking that was conducted over a longer time period and whose aim was to determine the status of systems thinking. . The paper demonstrates that some pedagogical concepts and activities, in our case the subject of System Dynamics that leads to the appropriate integration of systems thinking in education. There is some evidence that basic knowledge of system dynamics and systems thinking principles will affect students, and their thinking will contribute to an improved approach to solving problems of computer science both in theory and practice.

MILDEOVÁ, Stanislava

2012-03-01

393

Critical-Thinking Predisposition Among Undergraduate Athletic Training Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the tendency of undergraduate athletic training students to think critically, to assess their likelihood of using specific components of critical thinking, and to study the effect of selected demographic and educational variables on critical-thinking tendencies in this sample of students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data were collected before regularly scheduled athletic training classes at the beginning of the spring semester. SUBJECTS: Ninety-one students enrolled in 3 Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited undergraduate athletic training education programs in the southeast. The subjects ranged in age from 19 to 29 years (mean age = 22.33 +/- 1.94). Forty-six (50.5%) of the subjects were men and 45 (49.5%) were women. MEASUREMENTS: The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory contains 75 Likert-type items assessing 7 components of critical thinking: truth seeking, open mindedness, analyticity, systematicity, inquisitiveness, cognitive maturity, and critical-thinking self-confidence. RESULTS: The overall mean indicated a general but mild trend toward critical thinking, with weak scores on the truth-seeking subscale. One-way analysis of variance reflected significant differences among the schools for truth seeking, open mindedness, and maturity subscales and for the overall mean score for the entire inventory. Only the open-mindedness difference persisted between 2 of the schools after post hoc testing. Correlation analyses indicated no significant relationship between total score and age, sex, ethnicity, year in athletic training program, cumulative grade point average, completed semester hours, or clinical-experience hours. CONCLUSIONS: Athletic training students are inclined toward critical thinking, but this tendency is relatively weak. Classroom and clinical instructors should use teaching methods and techniques that facilitate the components of critical thinking. The promotion of critical thinking and critical-thinking skills has implications for athletic training education and the advancement of certified athletic trainers and the profession of athletic training. PMID:12937536

Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Harrelson, Gary L; Martin, Malissa; Wyatt, Tom

2002-12-01

394

Learning Not to Think Like an Economist  

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Full Text Available This essay describes my progress bringing the core ideas of economics into conversations with noneconomists about important public policy issues within my faith community, through local politics, and through interdisciplinary conversations in academia. Thinking like an economist is essential to conducting research and performing careful analysis of public policy issues. However, it can reduce the economists’ effectiveness in teaching and interacting with neighbors and political leaders. Effective pedagogy requires that faculty be present as good economists to their neighbors, their fellow citizens, in daily conversations and public policy debates. Our continuing education as teachers of economics requires that we enter those conversations as committed students as well--committed to learning how our neighbors process economic facts and principles and how their insights into public policy debates might alter our own understanding.

David R. Ross

2007-01-01

395

Think Scientifically: Hiding Science in a Storybook  

Science.gov (United States)

The pressure to focus on math and reading at the elementary level has increased in recent years. As a result, science education has taken a back seat in elementary classrooms. The Think Scientifically book series provides a way for science to easily integrate with existing math and reading curriculum. This story-based science literature program integrates a classic storybook format with solid solar science, to make an educational product that meets state literacy standards. Each story is accompanied by hands-on labs and activities that teachers can easily conduct in their classrooms with minimal training and materials, as well as math and language arts extensions and assessment questions. These books are being distributed through teacher workshops and conferences.

Van Norden, W. M.; Wawro, M.

2013-12-01

396

Using value-focused thinking in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) provides a systematic approach to structure complex decisions for subsequent analysis. It is a powerful complement to decision analysis and its application has been growing in recent years. This paper discusses the application of VFT in Brazil to three problems in differ [...] ent contexts: water management, information system/information technology (IS/IT) strategic planning, and the disposal of plaster waste. This article describes how the VFT approach was used to structure these decision problems and identify alternatives to stall them, which led to developing qualitative and quantitative models for evaluating the alternatives, and discusses how such structures can be used in other similar problems.

Danielle C., Morais; Luciana H., Alencar; Ana Paula C.S., Costa; Ralph L., Keeney.

397

Using value-focused thinking in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) provides a systematic approach to structure complex decisions for subsequent analysis. It is a powerful complement to decision analysis and its application has been growing in recent years. This paper discusses the application of VFT in Brazil to three problems in differ [...] ent contexts: water management, information system/information technology (IS/IT) strategic planning, and the disposal of plaster waste. This article describes how the VFT approach was used to structure these decision problems and identify alternatives to stall them, which led to developing qualitative and quantitative models for evaluating the alternatives, and discusses how such structures can be used in other similar problems.

Danielle C., Morais; Luciana H., Alencar; Ana Paula C.S., Costa; Ralph L., Keeney.

2013-04-01

398

Aníbal Bascuñán and Hispanic American Administrative Thinking  

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Full Text Available The article examines the administrative thinking of Aníbal Bascuñán Valdés, derived from the analysis of his book Elementos de Ciencia de la Administración Pública (1963. It highlights the value of Bascuñán to the intellectual history of the discipline, for being the first Hispanic American thinker who without hesitation supported the autonomous status of public administration and for conceiving it as scientific knowledge under an ontic approach, where his being is endowed with an identity and able to develop principles. It is concluded that the work of Bascuñán is one of the most developed within the discipline during the 1960s,above all because it considers public administration as an autonomous science and social science.

Omar Guerrero Orozco

2012-01-01

399

Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.

Ford Motor Company

2005-03-01

400

CREATIVE ACTIVITIES FOR EVERY SCHOOL.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUGGESTIONS FOR CREATIVE ACTIVITIES IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES ARE PRESENTED. THE SUBJECTS OUTLINED ARE CREATIVE ART, CREATIVE DRAMA, CREATIVE THINKING, CREATIVE WRITING AND CREATIVE MATH. UNDER EACH HEADING ACTIVITIES AND THE MATERIALS NEEDED WERE LISTED. AN EXAMPLE OF AN ACTIVITY IN CREATIVE ART IS BOX SCULPTURE, THE MATERIALS NEEDED WERE AN…

WALSH, ROSALIA

 
 
 
 
401

A Study of Grade Level and Gender Differences in Divergent Thinking among 8th and 11th Graders in a Mid-Western School District  

Science.gov (United States)

This research study compared gender and grade level differences in divergent thinking among middle school and high school students in the Midwest, in an attempt to determine whether gender or grade level-based differences exist in divergent thinking. The instrument used was based on the Wallach and Kogan Creativity Test (WKCT). There were 166…

Roue, Leah Christine

2011-01-01

402

Functional Thinking Ways in Relation to Linear Function Tables of Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the basic components of algebraic thinking is functional thinking. Functional thinking involves focusing on the relationship between two (or more) varying quantities and such thinking facilitates the studies on both algebra and the notion of function. The development of functional thinking of students should start in the early grades and it…

Tanisli, Dilek

2011-01-01

403

Teaching Thinking Throughout the Curriculum--Where Else?  

Science.gov (United States)

The notion that thinking can be taught as a separate skill is a philosophical mistake. Teachers who are knowledgeable about their subject, who understand how it differs from other disciplines, and who can convey this to their students are already teaching thinking skills. (TE)

Chambers, John G.

1988-01-01

404

Thinking in Sex Education: Reading Prohibition through the Film "Desire"  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that sex education must move beyond a focus on compliance so that we may risk the uncertain work of thinking. How might we understand the work of thinking in sex education if we begin from the assumptions that learning is conflicted, that sexuality resists being educated even as it inspires curiosity, and that the subject of sex…

Gilbert, Jen

2013-01-01

405

Critical Thinking and Online Supplemental Instruction: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…

Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.

2014-01-01

406

Empowering Critical Thinking Skills with Computerized Patient Simulators  

Science.gov (United States)

Students struggle with the mastery of critical thinking skills which are essential to their academic success. University faculty are challenged to create teaching strategies to help students build critical thinking skills. Nursing faculty at Austin Peay State University in Clarksville, Tennessee looked to research and technology for ways to…

Farrar, Francisca Cisneros; Suggs, Leslie

2010-01-01

407

Problem Solving, Reasoning, and Analytical Thinking in a Classroom Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem solving, reasoning, and analytical thinking are defined and described as teachable repertoires. This paper describes work performed at a school serving special needs children, Morningside Academy, that has resulted in specific procedures developed over the past 15 years. These procedures include modifying "Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving"…

Robbins, Joanne K.

2011-01-01

408

Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

2010-01-01

409

Martial Arts and Critical Thinking in the Gifted Education Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines similarities between the goals of Aikido, a martial art, and critical thinking and argues that Aikido promotes the development of thinking in its training and practice. It applies these ideas to the gifted education curriculum. First the paper introduces characteristics of Aikido, Aikido movement and techniques. It equates…

Choo, Lay Hiok; Jewell, Paul D.

410

Developing Scientific Thinking Methods and Applications in Islamic Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article traces the early and medieval Islamic scholarship to the development of critical and scientific thinking and how they contributed to the development of an Islamic theory of epistemology and scientific thinking education. The article elucidates how the Qur'an and the Sunna of Prophet Muhammad have also contributed to the…

Al-Sharaf, Adel

2013-01-01

411

Preparing Students for Critical-Thinking Applications on Standardized Tests  

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Student performance on critical-thinking applications on standardized tests in a southwestern U.S. state has been low for several years. The purpose of this instrumental case study was to explore how one school district prepared students for critical-thinking applications on standardized tests. The study was informed by cognitivism and…

Hendricks, Jacquelyn Kaye

2010-01-01

412

Two Questions about Critical-Thinking Tests in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author argues first, that critical-thinking skills do exist independent of disciplinary thinking skills and are not compromised by interaction effects with the major; and second, that standardized tests (e.g., the Collegiate Learning Assessment, or CLA, which is his example throughout the article) are the best way to measure…

Benjamin, Roger

2014-01-01

413

The Role of Learning Environments in Thinking Styles  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the association between students' perceived general learning environment and their thinking styles (a specific term for "intellectual styles"). Seven hundred and fifty-two undergraduates in Shanghai responded to the Thinking Style Inventory-Revised II and the Inventory of Students' Perceived Learning…

Fan, Jieqiong; Zhang, Li-fang

2014-01-01

414

Gamers and Gaming Context: Relationships to Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Gaming is purported to hold promise for education, in part, because it is thought to develop 21st century skills such as critical thinking. To date, there has been a dearth of generalisable research investigating the relationship between gaming and critical thinking. Results of a survey of 121 adults found that gamers and non-gamers do not differ…

Gerber, Sue; Scott, Logan

2011-01-01

415

French Fries, Lateral Thinking and the Education of Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that lateral thinking is represented by the person who is able to exhibit exploratory behavior, while vertical thinkers take the most reasonable view of a situation and then proceed logically and carefully to work it out. Much of education and teacher education in particular reflects vertical thinking. (Author/AM)

Horton, Lowell

1976-01-01

416

Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

Notgarnie, Howard M.

2011-01-01

417

I Like Chocolate Ice Cream: A Lesson in Thinking Civics  

Science.gov (United States)

In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking

Waterson, Robert A.

2012-01-01

418

Critical Thinking as Miracle Tonic: Selling Snake Oil in Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes that the current interest in critical thinking is based on important conceptual, epistemological, and procedural confusions. It suggests that the attempt to identify a successful critical thinking construct mirrors the search for miracle tonics often peddled by snake oil salesmen as a medicinal cure-all. It goes to suggest that…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

419

The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction  

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Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.

Shirley Fessel

2006-01-01

420

Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure…

Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Developing Connective Leadership: Successes with Thinking Maps[R  

Science.gov (United States)

"If our best thinking comes by making connections and building patterns, then what would these patterns look like, and what might they be based on?"--ask the authors. Most importantly, how could they be used? Developing Connective Leadership shows you how Thinking Maps[R] are an efficient and eloquent language that can be used to explore and…

Alper, Larry; Williams, Kimberly; Hyerle, David

2011-01-01

422

Critical Thinking, Executive Functions and Their Potential Relationship  

Science.gov (United States)

The central issue of this paper is to review the possible relationships between the constructs of critical thinking and executive functions. To do this, we first analyse the essential components of critical thinking from a psychological and neurological point of view. Second, we examine the scope of the cognitive and neurological nature of…

Lizarraga, Maria Luisa Sanz de Acedo; Baquedano, Maria Teresa Sanz de Acedo; Villanueva, Oscar Ardaiz

2012-01-01

423

Development of Critical Spatial Thinking through GIS Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…

Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert

2013-01-01

424

Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

2013-01-01

425

Contemporary Approaches to Critical Thinking and the World Wide Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…

Buffington, Melanie L.

2007-01-01

426

The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ): validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been found to be involved in the maintenance of several types of emotional problems and has therefore been suggested to be a transdiagnostic process. However, existing measures of RNT typically focus on a particular disorder-specific content. In this article, the preliminary validation of a content-independent self-report questionnaire of RNT is presented. The 15-item Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was evaluated in two studies (total N = 1832), comprising non-clinical as well as clinical participants. Results of confirmatory factor analyses across samples supported a second-order model with one higher-order factor representing RNT in general and three lower-order factors representing (1) the core characteristics of RNT (repetitiveness, intrusiveness, difficulties with disengagement), (2) perceived unproductiveness of RNT and (3) RNT capturing mental capacity. High internal consistencies and high re-test reliability were found for the total scale and all three subscales. The validity of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was supported by substantial correlations with existing measures of RNT and associations with symptom levels and clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety. Results suggest the usefulness of the new measure for research into RNT as a transdiagnostic process. PMID:21315886

Ehring, Thomas; Zetsche, Ulrike; Weidacker, Kathrin; Wahl, Karina; Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

2011-06-01

427

The ethical imperative to think about thinking - diagnostics, metacognition, and medical professionalism.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the medical ethics literature has well explored the harm to patients, families, and the integrity of the profession in failing to disclose medical errors once they occur, less often addressed are the moral and professional obligations to take all available steps to prevent errors and harm in the first instance. As an expanding body of scholarship further elucidates the causes of medical error, including the considerable extent to which medical errors, particularly in diagnostics, may be attributable to cognitive sources, insufficient progress in systematically evaluating and implementing suggested strategies for improving critical thinking skills and medical judgment is of mounting concern. Continued failure to address pervasive thinking errors in medical decisionmaking imperils patient safety and professionalism, as well as beneficence and nonmaleficence, fairness and justice. We maintain that self-reflective and metacognitive refinement of critical thinking should not be construed as optional but rather should be considered an integral part of medical education, a codified tenet of professionalism, and by extension, a moral and professional duty. PMID:25033249

Stark, Meredith; Fins, Joseph J

2014-10-01

428

Evaluation of magical thinking: validation of the Illusory Beliefs Inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magical thinking has been related to obsessive-compulsive disorder; yet, little research has examined this construct in other anxiety disorders. The Illusory Beliefs Inventory (IBI) is a recently developed measure of magical thinking. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of this new measure and to determine if magical thinking accounts for pathological worry beyond the well-researched constructs of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and perfectionism. A sample of 502 participants completed an online survey. Confirmatory factor analysis identified a three-factor solution for the IBI, and the measure had good internal consistency (? = .92), test-retest reliability (r = .94) and discriminant validity. Magical thinking, IU, and perfectionism all predicted pathological worry; however, magical thinking accounted for less than 1% of unique variance in worry, suggesting that it is not strongly related to worry. Further investigation regarding the validity and clinical utility of the IBI is required. PMID:24957205

Shihata, Sarah; Egan, Sarah J; Rees, Clare S

2014-01-01

429

Systemic thinking fundamentals for understanding problems and messes  

CERN Document Server

Whether you’re an academic or a practitioner, a sociologist, a manager, or an engineer, one can benefit from learning to think systemically.  Problems (and messes) are everywhere and they’re getting more complicated every day.  How we think about these problems determines whether or not we’ll be successful in understanding and addressing them.  This book presents a novel way to think about problems (and messes) necessary to attack these always-present concerns.  The approach draws from disciplines as diverse as mathematics, biology, and psychology to provide a holistic method for dealing with problems that can be applied to any discipline. This book develops the systemic thinking paradigm, and introduces practical guidelines for the deployment of a systemic thinking approach.

Hester, Patrick T

2014-01-01

430

The concept of thinking: A reappraisal of Ryle's work  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In The Concept of Mind, Ryle's official position seems to be that mental acts cannot be intrinsically private. In The Concept of Mind as well as his later work on thinking, Ryle views thinking as an activity that terminates in a thought, which is a state of being prepared for a performance. Thinking is characterised by what Ryle calls intention-parasitism; for it is, insofar as its underlying motive is concerned, parasitic on the final performance which will take place later. Ryle shows that acts of thinking, owing to their intention-parasitism, can be described in a tactical idiom, with reference to the final performance for which it was intended. However, this framework of intention-parasitism is not adequate to describe all instances of thinking in all their aspects, which therefore remain inextricably private. The task of this paper is to accommodate such privacy within the theoretical framework suggested in The Concept of Mind.

Nilanjan Das

2011-03-01

431

A New Method for Assessing Critical Thinking in the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

To promote higher-order thinking in college students, we undertook an effort to learn how to assess critical-thinking skills in an introductory biology course. Using Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives to define critical thinking, we developed a process by which (a) questions are prepared with both content and critical-thinking skills in mind, and (b) grading rubrics are prepared in advance that specify how to evaluate both the content and critical-thinking aspects of an answer. Using this methodology has clarified the course goals (for us and the students), improved student metacognition, and exposed student misconceptions about course content. We describe the rationale for our process, give detailed examples of the assessment method, and elaborate on the advantages of assessing students in this manner.

Ahrash N. Bissell (Duke University;); Paula P. Lemons (Duke University;)

2006-06-01

432

Evaluating critical thinking skills of baccalaureate nursing students.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the critical thinking skills of students enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing program, using the WGCTA, for the classes of 1993 through 1996. Scores were obtained at entry and at end of junior and senior years. The mean entry WGCTA score was 56 for all four classes; however, the 1995 and 1996 classes had significantly higher scores than the class of 1994. Critical thinking scores were higher at entry for older students and students who had completed another education degree; however, critical thinking scores were lower for students who had previous nursing experience. After adapting for age, previous degree, and nursing experience, no significant differences in the WGCTA scores from entry to end of junior and senior years emerged for the classes of 1993, 1994, 1995. Critical thinking skills have become the hallmark of education. The National Education Goal Panel has advocated for an increase in the ability to think critically, communicate effectively and solve problems (Banta, 1993). In turn, the nursing profession has incorporated these goals of higher education into its educational programs. The National League for Nursing (NLN) includes the measurement of critical thinking as a required outcome in the evaluation and accreditation of baccalaureate and higher degree programs in nursing. This critical thinking outcome must reflect the student's skill in analysis, reasoning, research, or decision making as these skills relate to the nursing discipline (National League for Nursing, 1992). To meet the NLN's critical thinking outcome criterion, nursing programs must have a method of evaluating this skill. Many programs use the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA), which is a standardized instrument. The College of Nursing at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) adopted this instrument to evaluate the critical thinking skills of students in the baccalaureate nursing program. PMID:9413820

Vaughan-Wrobel, B C; O'Sullivan, P; Smith, L

1997-12-01

433

Beyond Critical Thinking Skills: Investigating the Relationship between Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions through Different Online Instructional Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the relationship between critical thinking skills (CTS) and critical thinking dispositions (CTD), and (2) the effectiveness of different levels of instructional strategy (asynchronous online discussions (AODs), CTS instruction via AODs, and CTS instruction with CTD cultivation via AODs) in improving…

Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Chou, Heng-An

2008-01-01

434

Coupled Human-Atmosphere-System Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

With the discovery of fire, humankind started changing the composition of the atmosphere. Beginning with the industrial revolution, this has led to significant environmental problems, mainly air pollution and climate change. While climate change has been recognized as one key challenge of the Anthropocene, air pollution contributes to the top causes of global premature mortality. Air pollution also plays a key role in contamination of ecosystems and bio-magnification of toxins along food chains. Even though emissions leading to air pollution and climate change often originate from the same sources, they are generally perceived and regulated separately. Climate change impacts are global and hence are tackled at an international level. Conversely, air pollution has local to regional impacts and is thus a matter of national or regional legislation. This legislative and policy divide is generally useful, since full integration could lead, for example, to detrimental delays in action against air pollution through protracted international climate negotiations. However, the separation obscures the fact that almost any kind of human activity leads to the simultaneous emission of air pollutants, toxins and long-lived greenhouse gases. The atmosphere functions as a "dump" for human generated gaseous waste, which is then dispersed and transformed, partly chemically and partly micro-physically, perturbing natural processes in the atmosphere and leading to manifold impacts. In addition, air pollutants affect the Earth's radiative balance directly and indirectly, hence affecting climate change, while a changing climate in turn affects air pollution. Current policies often neglect these linkages and favor mitigation in one arena, which sometimes has detrimental effects on the other. One example is domestic wood burning, which though nearly carbon neutral, deteriorates air quality. Moreover, the design of appliances, machinery, or infrastructure generally does not attempt to minimize atmospheric release, but rather only complies with either climate or air quality requirements. Nor do current narratives promote behavioral change for the overall reduction of emissions (e.g., you can drive your diesel SUV as long as it has a low fuel consumption). This divide and thinking has not only been manifested in policy and regulations and hence media coverage, but has also shaped the public's general perception of this issue. There is no public conceptual understanding regarding humanity's modification of the atmosphere through the continuously and simultaneously released substances by almost any kind of activity and resulting impacts. Here, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a new perspective on the coupled human-atmosphere-system. It makes tangible the inherent linkages between the socio-economic system, the atmospheric physico-chemical changes and impacts, and legal frameworks for sustainable transformations at all levels. To implement HAS-thinking in decision and policy making, both salient disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and comprehensive science-society interactions in the form of transdisciplinary research are necessary. Societal transformations for the sake of a healthy human-atmosphere relationship are highly context dependent and require discussions of normative and value-related issues, which can only be solved through co-designed solutions. We demonstrate the importance of HAS-thinking by examples of sustainable development in the Arctic and Himalayan countries.

Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan

2014-05-01

435

Konsten att tänka kritiskt - John Deweys How We Think  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The art of critical thinking. John dewey’s how we think. This articleinvestigates Dewey’s view of critical thinking as it appears in his How We Think. There, he distinguishes some key steps in the thinking process. It begins with a perceived difficulty, which we try to locate and propose a possible solution to, after which we examine and test the hypothesis, first in theory and then in practice, i.e. in an experimental corroboration. This conception of the thinking process follows a generalized, typical scientific working method. At the same time, however, Dewey tries to affirm and do justice to the relative, the particular and the individual, an endeavour that can be associated with the hermeneutic tradition. It is also in accordance with that tradition, as well as with Aristotle’s conception of phronesis, that Dewey stresses the importance of good judgement. In our schools, he maintains, we should try to promote good judgement, as well as critical thinking, on the part of students.

Anders Burman

2008-01-01

436

Critical Thinking and Speaking Proficiency: A Mixed-method Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was intended to investigate the impact of teaching critical thinking skills on the speaking proficiency of Iranian EFL learners in Tehran, how this impact is explained and the participants’ attitudes towards explicit critical-thinking content. To achieve this goal, two groups of female Iranian intermediate EFL learners were compared on their speaking performance, with one group having been trained in critical thinking explicitly and the other as the control group. Both groups were tested prior to and after the training of the experimental group was performed. A mixed-method approach was employed in the analysis of the data. In the quantitative analysis, a quasi-experimental method was adopted to investigate the impact of teaching critical thinking skills on the speaking proficiency of the experimental group in comparison with the control group. The results indicated that teaching critical thinking explicitly has a significantly positive impact on the speaking proficiency of female Iranian adult intermediate EFL learners. Through the qualitative approach, the participants’ attitudes towards their training in critical thinking were studied during in-depth interviews. The results are described in detail. Accordingly, explicit instruction of critical thinking in the English class can make a deeper impression of the language taught. 

Reza Vahdani Sanavi

2014-01-01

437

Assessment of the critical thinking skills of student radiographers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skills.

Castle, Alan [University of Portsmouth, Centre for Radiography Education, St George' s Building, Portsmouth PO1 2HY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: alan.castle@port.ac.uk

2006-05-15

438

Developing Critical Thinking in English Class: Culture-based Knowledge and Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Critical thinking is central to education, but the majority of English language classes in China fail to teach critical thinking skills. In order to help students to develop critical thinking skills, this paper examines the underlying values that produce the variety of culturally derived thinking dispositions so as to demonstrate the influence of Chinese thinking disposition on student’ critical thinking development. Suggestions are made for culture –based instructions as an ed...

Mei Guo

2013-01-01

439

Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social–ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social–ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

Terry Chapin

2010-12-01

440

Think Scientifically: Science Hidden in a Storybook  

Science.gov (United States)

The Solar Dynamics Observatory's Think Scientifically (TS) program links literacy and science in the elementary classroom through an engaging storybook format and hands-on, inquiry based activities. TS consists of three illustrated storybooks, each addressing a different solar science concept. Accompanying each book is a hands-on science lesson plan that emphasizes the concepts addressed in the book, as well as math, reading, and language arts activities. Written by teachers, the books are designed to be extremely user-friendly and easy to implement in classroom instruction. The objectives of the program are: (1) to increase time spent on science in elementary school classrooms, (2) to assist educators in implementing hands-on science activities that reinforce concepts from the book, (3) to increase teacher capacity and comfort in teaching solar concepts, (4) to increase student awareness and interest in solar topics, especially students in under-served and under-represented communities. Our program meets these objectives through the National Science Standards-based content delivered in each story, the activities provided in the books, and the accompanying training that teachers are offered through the program.; ;

Van Norden, W. M.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
441

Sketching for Developing Critical Thinking Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

Sketching is a valuable field technique to support a person's observation, recording, interpretation and communication of important features in both natural and human-made landscapes. The Singapore geography syllabus employs an inquiry approach and encourages sketching as a fundamental geographical skill. Sketching allows the learner to connect with the world through a personal and kinesthetic experience. The Earth Observatory of Singapore collaborates with the Singapore Geography Teachers' Association, Urban Sketchers, and National Institute of Education professional development to give teachers both basic sketching skills and the opportunity to develop those skills in a scaffolded environment. In Singapore, geography and geology skills overlap in content area of coastal processes, climate change, and plate tectonics with its associated natural hazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunami. Both disciplines are interested in how people live on the Earth. Likewise, basic skills such as observing, classifying, measuring, and communicating cut across disciplines of social and natural sciences in order to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information about the world. Hence, sketching, commonly considered an art skill, is used to further scientific thinking. This somewhat unique collaboration to develop sketching in teachers is based on the long tradition of sketches in geological field work, the newly popular urban sketching community, and professional development by a professional organization and the Singapore National Institute of Education. Workshops provide technique as well as opportunities for sketching with experts in different areas relevant to the geography curriculum.

Eriksson, S. C.; Wang, P.; Sim, T. B.; Goh, E.; Ng, H. K.

2013-12-01

442

I am thinking of a job/career change  

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443

Making the link between critical appraisal, thinking and analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing has become an all-graduate profession; as such, student nurses must develop their skills of critical analysis. The need to develop critical analytical thinking has been identified as the single most important skill in undergraduate education and reaching the academic requirements of level six study. In degree-level healthcare programmes, students are frequently asked to complete a structured critical appraisal of research. This paper examines how critical appraisal activities can be an opportunity for students to develop transferable critical thinking skills. Critical appraisal teaches objectivity, reflection, logic and discipline, which encourage students to think critically in both theory and practice. PMID:24260994

Whiffin, Charlotte Jane; Hasselder, Alison

444

Critical thinking inside law schools. An outline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The intention of this work is to do the mapping of the many problems that critical thinking (CT is confronted with in the inside of law schools, taking these in their institutional role as well as tangible manifestations of legal culture. I address the significance of CT, reflecting on its philosophical origins and its possibility in our time, a time that is marked by a crisis of paradigms. We will move from theory to a more pragmatic approach based on skills, only to find different sets of difficulties. Today’s higher education institutional learning tradition is characterised by the conception and implementation of reforms which, in turn, are dominated by notions of business and commercial ethics, that are adding up to the positivist predominance that is still reigning upon legal education. Este trabajo pretende realizar una descripción de los numerosos problemas con que se encuentra el pensamiento crítico (PC dentro de las escuelas de derecho, entendidas desde su papel institucional pero también como manifestaciones tangibles de la cultura legal. Se destaca la importancia del PC, reflexionando sobre sus orígenes filosóficos y su posibilidad en el momento actual, marcado por una crisis de paradigmas. Después de realizar un análisis teórico, se va a pasar a realizar un enfoque más pragmático basado en habilidades, sólo para encontrar diferentes tipos de dificultades. La tradición actual de la educación superior institucional se caracteriza por la concepción e implementación de reformas que, en cambio, están dominadas por nociones de ética empresarial y comercial, que se suman al predominio positivista que sigue reinando en la educación jurídica