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Teaching Creative Thinking Skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is internationally recognized that teachers play a significant role in developing suitable values in their pupils. Students also learn strategies for identifying problems, making decisions, and finding solutions both in and out of school. Among them creative thinking skills play a prominent role in their learning process. Techniques developed specifically to teach creative thinking and examine how they may be applied to the classroom, are precise things to be considered. Awareness with techniques designed to improve creative thinking gives individuals a set of tools to use in their exploratory behaviour. Though there are various methods, the major innovative thinking skills that play the crucial role in learning process are visualization and creative dramatics, Torrance and Safter's incubation model, use of metaphors and analogies, divergent thinking strategies and commercial and competitive programmes. Brainstorming, the acronym scamper which is a useful tool for many creative endeavours and can assist children as well as adults in using the idea-spurring questions that can help them generate diverse ideas, and future solving problem, are the most popular innovative techniques that the teachers employ in moulding the young buds into colourful blossoms who are sole responsible to create the society more modest where we can live pleasantly. Hence, this present paper highlights the most appropriate techniques that the educators employ to motivate the knowledge seekers most effective and inspirational for the upcoming generation.

Nagamurali Eragamreddy

2013-01-01

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Motivation of Professional Creative Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal correlation between motivation and creative professional thinking. Four hundred and seventy-one Russians of different trades participated in the study. It was supposed that motivational structure and level of creative professional thinking were interrelated. The connection between motivational components and professional thinking was revealed. Tendencies of transition form situational level of thinking to oversituational one were determined. It was found out that motivational structure of workers with situational thinking was much more consistent than that of workers with oversituational thinking.

Mergal??s M. Kashapov; Anna V. Leybina

2009-01-01

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Thinking styles and creativity preferences in nursing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a study using a descriptive approach of cross-sectional correlation to explore the association between thinking styles and creativity in a group of nursing professionals and students. A thinking style is a characteristic way of thinking. The hypothesis was that the most creative subjects would present thinking styles that enhance and express their creativity. De la Torre and Violant (2006) argue that creativity is not only a personal value, insofar as it recognizes and stimulates the transforming potential of the individual, but is also an educational value because it generates abilities and attitudes toward improvement. The study results show that a legislative thinking style encourages innovation and creativity and should be encouraged both during education and training and in the professional domain. PMID:23798247

Almansa, Pilar; López-Martínez, Olivia; Corbalán, Javier; Limiñana-Gras, Rosa M

2013-01-01

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Thinking styles and creativity preferences in nursing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes a study using a descriptive approach of cross-sectional correlation to explore the association between thinking styles and creativity in a group of nursing professionals and students. A thinking style is a characteristic way of thinking. The hypothesis was that the most creative subjects would present thinking styles that enhance and express their creativity. De la Torre and Violant (2006) argue that creativity is not only a personal value, insofar as it recognizes and stimulates the transforming potential of the individual, but is also an educational value because it generates abilities and attitudes toward improvement. The study results show that a legislative thinking style encourages innovation and creativity and should be encouraged both during education and training and in the professional domain.

Almansa P; López-Martínez O; Corbalán J; Limiñana-Gras RM

2013-01-01

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Thinking about Creativity in Science Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the notion of creativity in the contexts of science and science education. In doing so, we consider and reflect on some taken-for-granted ideas associated with school science creativity, such as inquiry science, and integrating art and science, while we search for a notion of scientific creativity that is compatible with both the nature of science and the general notion of creativity, and also realistic in the context of school science education. We then propose a number of activities/strategies that encourage creativity, and more specifically imaginative/creative thinking, through the learning of school science.

Yannis Hadzigeorgiou; Persa Fokialis; Mary Kabouropoulou

2012-01-01

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Enhancing Creative Thinking through Designing Electronic Slides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate students. A total number of 50 subjects, 25 in an experimental group and 25 in a control group were selected and a design of pre and post-test with an experimental and a control group was employed in this study. Torrance Test for creative thinking (TTCT) form (A) was applied on both groups. The experimental group was taught to design electronic instructional slides using Microsoft PowerPoint. After six weeks, both groups were given the TTCT form (A) again. Using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups favoring the experimental group over the control in the total creative thinking scores. Designing electronic slides can enhance the creative thinking skills for students, and the expansion of using computer applications in promoting thinking and learning skills is recommended.

Al-Ali Khaled Mokaram; Ahmad Mohammad Al-Shabatat; Soon Fook Fong; Ahmad Abdallah Andaleeb

2011-01-01

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Level of Student's Creative Thinking in Classroom Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

It is reasonable to assume that people are creative, but the degree of creativity is different. The Idea of the level of student's creative thinking has been expressed by experts, such as Gotoh (2004), and Krulik and Rudnick (1999). The perspective of the mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which…

Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

2011-01-01

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The Relationship between Creative Thinking Ability and Creative Personality of Preschoolers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between creative thinking ability and creative personality of preschoolers. Prior research showed that the correlation coefficient between creative thinking ability and creative personality of teenagers was very low (Hah, 1999), so this research was undertaken to validate the test and to examine how…

Lee, Kyung-Hwa

2005-01-01

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Creativity Unlimited Thinking Inside the Box for Business Innovation  

CERN Multimedia

Flying in the face of current thinking, this book suggests that we do not need to 'think outside the box' in our quest for creativity, rather we should rethink the way we look 'inside the box'.  This idea will resonate only too well with those who have endeavoured to be creative by thinking outside that box, only to have their attempts scuppered by the constraints of bureaucracy and organizational politics.  Instead of fighting a losing battle, the author suggests that creativity should be worked at within the constraints of the organizational box, but that space needs to be grown and allowed

Dahlen, Micael

2008-01-01

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Bilingualism and creativity: benefits in convergent thinking come with losses in divergent thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals toward a relatively focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed by creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking, this predicts that high-proficient bilinguals should outperform low-proficient bilinguals in convergent thinking, while low-proficient bilinguals might be better in divergent thinking. Comparing low- and high-proficient bilinguals on convergent-thinking and divergent-thinking tasks indeed showed a high-proficient bilingual advantage for convergent thinking but a low-proficient bilingual advantage for fluency in divergent thinking. These findings suggest that bilingualism should not be related to "creativity" as a unitary concept but, rather, to the specific processes and mechanisms that underlie creativity.

Hommel B; Colzato LS; Fischer R; Christoffels IK

2011-01-01

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Creative Thinking and Problem Solving for Young Learners.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides practical advice and lessons based on outstanding children's literature, fostering a better understanding of creativity and helping educators and parents recognize and nurture creative thinking in young children in grades K-4. The book describes components of the creative process--fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration,…

Meador, Karen S.

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Creative and Critical Thinking, Teamwork, and Tomorrow's Workplace  

Science.gov (United States)

Creative and critical thinking have been identified by Isaksen, Dorval, and Treffinger (2000) as the ability to "perceive gaps, challenges, or concerns; think of many varied or unusual possibilities; or elaborate and extend alternatives," as well as make meaningful connections that include analyzing, evaluating, and developing options. Business…

Gould, J. Christine; Schoonover, Patricia F.

2009-01-01

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Critical thinking and creativity in nursing: learners' perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although the development of critical thinking and the development of creativity are major areas in nursing programme, little has been explored about learners' perspectives towards these two concepts, especially in Chinese contexts. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to reveal nursing learners' perspectives on creativity and critical thinking. DESIGN: Qualitative data collection methods were adopted, namely group interviews and concept map drawings. SETTINGS: The process of data collection was conducted in private rooms at a University. PARTICIPANTS: 36 nursing students from two problem-based learning classes were recruited in two groups for the study. METHODS: After data collection, content analysis with axial coding approach was conducted to explore the narrative themes, to summarise the main ideas, and to make valid inferences from the connections among critical thinking, creativity, and other exogenous variables. RESULTS: Based on the findings, six major themes were identified: "revisiting the meanings of critical thinking"; "critical thinking and knowledge: partners or rivals?"; "is critical thinking criticising?"; "revising the meanings of creativity"; "creativity and experience: partners or rivals?"; and "should creativity be practical?". CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that learners had diverse perspectives towards critical thinking and creativity, and their debate on these two domains provided implications on nursing education, since the voices of learners are crucial in teaching. By closing the gap between learners and educators, this study offered some insights on nursing education in the new curriculum, in particular to co-construct nursing knowledge which is student-driven, and to consider students' voices towards understanding and applying creativity and critical thinking in nursing.

Chan ZC

2013-05-01

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Hemispheric Specialization and Creative Thinking: A Meta-Analytic Review of Lateralization of Creativity  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking

Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens

2010-01-01

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The effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications on creative and logical thinking abilities of prospective teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory method on prospective primary teachers’ creative and logical thinking abilities. This research was conducted with 90 prospective elementary school teachers who were enrolled in two classes of education faculty during the spring semester of the 2004–2005 academic year. Creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications were conducted in the experimental group, and traditional laboratory applications were conducted in the control group. As a result of the investigation, it was determined that the experimental group was more successful than the control group in terms of the logical thinking ability and creativity. Implications for science education at the teacher education level were discussed.

Özlem KORAY; Mustafa Serdar KÖKSAL

2009-01-01

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The Effects of Creative Thinking Activities on Learners’ Creative Thinking and Project Development Skills  

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Full Text Available This research was done on 41 subjects consisted of 6th year students at Mehmet Çelik Primary School in Bolu, Yeniça?a. According to ANCOVA results, pre-test values of the students from different instruction systems compared to the corrected post-test values andcreative thinking average values showed a significant difference in favor of education in which creative course activities were used. In research, two-factored ANNOVA was used for complex measurements for the research question about whether the learners’ cognitiveachievement scores, related to learning environment, change or not, according to groups. According to the findings, cognitive achievement scores showed a significant difference in favor of experimental group.

Serçin KARATA?; Seher ÖZCAN

2010-01-01

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Assessing Creativity: The Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP)  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP), its design, concept and evaluation scheme as well as experiences and results of application are described. The test was designed to mirror a more holistic concept of creativity than the mere quantitatively oriented, traditional divergent thinking tests. The specific design using figural…

Urban, Klaus K.

2005-01-01

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Developing Critical and Creative Thinkers: Toward a Conceptual Model of Creative and Critical Thinking Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical and creative thinking skills are essential for students who plan to work and excel in the 21st-century workforce. This goal of the project reported in this article was to define critical and creative thinking in a way that would be useful for classroom teachers charged with developing such skills in their students. To accomplish their…

Combs, Liesl Baum; Cennamo, Katherine S.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary

2009-01-01

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Comment on Gadzella and Penland (1995): creativity and critical thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The moderate correlations reported by Gadzella and Penland in 1995 for scores on the 16PF Creativity scale with scores in the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal are interpreted within the context of literature, suggesting the 16PF Creativity scale may be regarded as reflecting personality traits related to both cognitive style and decision making as well as general ability. This allows development of further hypotheses.

Bisset IM

2000-06-01

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Moods, Emotions and Creative Thinking: A Framework for Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

When planning and teaching, attention is generally given to cognition while the effect of mood and emotion on cognition is ignored. But students are not emotionless thinkers and the effect can make a difference to their thought. This is particularly evident when attempting to foster creative thinking. This article draws on research to describe…

Newton, Douglas P.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Creative Thinking: Processes, Strategies, and Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Creative achievements are the basis for progress in our world. Although creative achievement is influenced by many variables, the basis for creativity is held to lie in the generation of high-quality, original, and elegant solutions to complex, novel, ill-defined problems. In the present effort, we examine the cognitive capacities that make…

Mumford, Michael D.; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Partlow, Paul J.

2012-01-01

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A systematic review of creative thinking/creativity in nursing education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to identify the types of nursing course structure that promotes students' creative thinking and creativity. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Five electronic databases: The British Nursing Index, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus and Ovid Medline. REVIEW METHODS: The databases were systematically searched to identify studies that discussed the concept of creative thinking in nursing education or reported a strategy that improved students' creative thinking. Qualitative studies or studies that included qualitative data were included. After reading the full content of the included studies, key themes and concepts were extracted and synthesized. RESULTS: Eight studies were identified. Four main themes relating to the course structure in teaching creativity were developed: diversity learning, freedom to learn, learning with confidence and learning through group work. CONCLUSIONS: To promote creative thinking in nursing students, educators themselves need to be creative in designing courses that allow students to learn actively and convert thoughts into actions. Educators should balance course freedom and guidance to allow students to develop constructive and useful ideas. Confidence and group work may play significant roles in helping students to express themselves and think creatively.

Chan ZC

2013-11-01

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Cultivating the College Students’ Creative Thinking in Industrial Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper probes into the source of “originality” in developing the creative thinking of the science students majoring in industrial design. The authors believe that the critical factors for the source of “originality” lie in not only the internal cause, but also the external cause. Whether the science students take a great consideration of art and humanity courses, in other words, whether they are aware of the relationship between artistical thought and industrial design or not, it is very important. In addition, creative capacity cannot be taught, and it only results from inspiration and guidance of teachers from multidisciplinary.

Hua Cen; Chuandong Ma

2013-01-01

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Effects of trait anxiety and the scamper technique on creative thinking of intellectually gifted students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work assessed the effect of trait anxiety (measured on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and the Scamper technique on figural creative thinking, measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. An analysis of covariance with 52 gifted students in a summer camp gave no significant main effect of treatment for trait anxiety, or their interaction. Scamper may not effectively improve figural creativity and anxiety may not influence figural creativity the same way it influences verbal creativity, at least as measured.

Mijares-Colmenares BE; Masten WG; Underwood JR

1993-06-01

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Nurturing and training of creative thinking ability in physics experiments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article takes the design and study of the experiment which is related to the relationship between the stretch and outer force of rubber band as example in order to discuss the task on small-scale physics experiment. By designing and studying the task, students are expected to develop such ability as making observations, doing experiments, asking questions, thinking scientifically, analyzing and solving problems. The task also aims at training students' creativity and developing their consciousness and spirit of innovation.

Dean Li

2000-01-01

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Creative thinking in prospective teachers: the status quo and the impact of contextual factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitativ (more) e pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA) and a Partial Least Squares (PLS) exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.

Meintjes, Hannetjie; Grosser, Mary

2010-01-01

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Creative thinking in prospective teachers: the status quo and the impact of contextual factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA) and a Partial Least Squares (PLS) exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.

Hannetjie Meintjes; Mary Grosser

2010-01-01

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The Effects of Thinking Style Based Cooperative Learning on Group Creativity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies have emphasized group creativity within a socio-cultural context rather than at an individual level, but not many researchers reported strategies for developing group creativity. This paper aims to explore strategies to enhance group creativity based on the theoretical basis of thinking styles by Sternberg. The hypothesis was that groups with members of diverse thinking styles would show greater gains in creative performance. In this study, the participants (n=72) were divided into 24 three-person groups. Each group was given the task to create a game using Scratch programming language. Among the 24 groups, eleven groups (n=33) consisted of heterogeneous thinking styles, and the other thirteen groups (n=39) consisted solely of homogeneous thinking styles. All divided groups performed same creative task. The empirical results supported the hypothesis that group formation of diverse thinking style shows better group creativity.

2013-01-01

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The Effects of Computer Use on Creative Thinking among Kindergarten Children in Jordan  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of early computer experience, using quasi-experimental design, on creative thinking among Jordanian kindergarten children. It intended to answer two main research questions. First, does adding a computer to a kindergarten environment enhance children's creative thinking? Second, does…

Shawareb, Aseel

2011-01-01

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Domain-General and Domain-Specific Creative-Thinking Tests: Effects of Gender and Item Content on Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined the effects of gender and item content of domain-general and domain-specific creative-thinking tests on four subscale scores of creative-thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration). Chinese tenth-grade students (234 males and 244 females) participated in the study. Domain-general creative thinking was measured…

Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Wu, Junbin

2013-01-01

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Effects of trait anxiety and the scamper technique on creative thinking of intellectually gifted students.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work assessed the effect of trait anxiety (measured on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and the Scamper technique on figural creative thinking, measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. An analysis of covariance with 52 gifted students in a summer camp gave no significant main effect of treatment for trait anxiety, or their interaction. Scamper may not effectively improve figural creativity and anxiety may not influence figural creativity the same way it influences verbal creativity, at least as measured. PMID:8332693

Mijares-Colmenares, B E; Masten, W G; Underwood, J R

1993-06-01

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A sample study on synectics activities from creative thinking methods: creativity from the perspective of children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was derived from an action research on the use of synectics in creative thinking methods in science and technology teaching. There were three main application steps in the action research, which was designed to help students in gaining creative thinking skills. In the research, which had lasted for one teaching semester, the teacher firstly fulfilled two different applications to make the students get used to the synectics technique. First of these applications was to redefine the concept of creativity. This was followed by the activity of designing a dynamometer. In the third stage, these students were asked to develop a creative project in three or four-person groups in one semester. The researcher continued synectics activities with the project group one by one in the same period. In the redefinition of the concept of creativity, which was the first stage of the action research, synectics methods were used. The research was made along the moment and action unit, which is the second unit of 7th grade science and technology class, in 2009-2010 teaching year. The population of the research was composed of 43 seventh graders in a public school in Istanbul. In the research, in which the students define the concept of creativity, “making the strange familiar” method (Hummell, 2004), which is one of the two basic implementations and is composed of six stages, was used. The students reached their own definitions of creativity at the end of this process, which started with building direct analogies and ended with creating original end-products. It was seen that the students began to see creativity in a different way and to perceive it as a process at the end of the synectics applications, rather than just an activity aiming at creation of an original product.

Aysun Öztuna Kaplan; Serhat Ercan

2011-01-01

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Enhanced Divergent Thinking and Creativity in Musicians: A Behavioral and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical studies of creativity have focused on the importance of divergent thinking, which supports generating novel solutions to loosely defined problems. The present study examined creativity and frontal cortical activity in an externally-validated group of creative individuals (trained musicians) and demographically matched control…

Gibson, Crystal; Folley, Bradley S.; Park, Sohee

2009-01-01

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Exploratory Examination of Relationships between Learning Styles and Creative Thinking in Math Students  

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Full Text Available It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any) of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate that creative thinking, assessed by RAT, and learning preferences, evaluated by ILS, are not highly correlated. Over all, students in this study show a balanced learning preference across four dimensions. In summary, this study directs a possible path for future researchers to investigate this phenomenon.

Kuan Chen Tsai; Matthew Shirley

2013-01-01

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Exploring creativity and critical thinking in traditional and innovative problem-based learning groups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore students' attitude towards problem-based learning, creativity and critical thinking, and the relevance to nursing education and clinical practice. BACKGROUND: Critical thinking and creativity are crucial in nursing education. The teaching approach of problem-based learning can help to reduce the difficulties of nurturing problem-solving skills. However, there is little in the literature on how to improve the effectiveness of a problem-based learning lesson by designing appropriate and innovative activities such as composing songs, writing poems and using role plays. DESIGN: Exploratory qualitative study. METHODS: A sample of 100 students participated in seven semi-structured focus groups, of which two were innovative groups and five were standard groups, adopting three activities in problem-based learning, namely composing songs, writing poems and performing role plays. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: There are three themes extracted from the conversations: 'students' perceptions of problem-based learning', 'students' perceptions of creative thinking' and 'students' perceptions of critical thinking'. Participants generally agreed that critical thinking is more important than creativity in problem-based learning and clinical practice. Participants in the innovative groups perceived a significantly closer relationship between critical thinking and nursing care, and between creativity and nursing care than the standard groups. CONCLUSIONS: Both standard and innovative groups agreed that problem-based learning could significantly increase their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Further, by composing songs, writing poems and using role plays, the innovative groups had significantly increased their awareness of the relationship among critical thinking, creativity and nursing care. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nursing educators should include more types of creative activities than it often does in conventional problem-based learning classes. The results could help nurse educators design an appropriate curriculum for preparing professional and ethical nurses for future clinical practice.

Chan ZC

2013-08-01

36

Roles of parents in enhancing children’s creative thinking skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since creative thinking is an essential requirement in today’s societies, educational institutions have to make some reforms in order to prepare next generation according to the needs of the societies such as giving more emphasis on creative thinking. The main aims of this paper are to reveal the parents’ opinions about the creative thinking skills, to teach parents the meaning of creative thinking, and to teach parents to create home environments that enhance creative thinking skills. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed. Pretest- posttest experimental design was used and qualitative data were collected by an open-ended questionnaire. A 10-hour parent education seminar was used as an intervention for the experimental group. The participants of the research were 80 parents (40 parents in the experimental group, 40 parents in the control group) from a primary school in Ankara, Turkey. Content analysis was applied to analyze the qualitative data. The pretest results have indicated that there were no differences between parents groups according to the knowledge level about the creative thinking. According to posttest results, the knowledge levels of parents in the experimental group who were given 10-hour parent education seminar were increased. However, the knowledge levels of the parents who have not given any education in the control group, were remained the same. Besides, experimental group parents have more information about creating home environments that enhance creativity rather than control group parents. According to the findings, parents' perspectives in the experimental group on the creative thinking skills have changed after the parent education seminar. However, the perspectives of the parent in the control group have not changed.

Pervin Oya Taneri

2012-01-01

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El «design thinking» como estrategia de creatividad en la distancia Building Creative Competence in Globally Distributed Courses through Design Thinking  

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Full Text Available Ayudar a los estudiantes a pensar de forma creativa suele considerarse uno de los objetivos clave de la educación. Sin embargo, muchas universidades de todo el mundo muestran cierta preocupación al respecto que sugiere que los estudiantes no están preparados para un mundo en el que necesitarán resolver problemas desordenados y desestructurados que no tienen fácil solución. Este artículo presenta el «design thinking» como una metodología para la innovación centrada en las personas, que se ha implementado en un programa para la innovación en el diseño de la Universidad de Stanford, así como en una de las consultoras de diseño más exitosas. Después de un breve resumen del concepto de design thinking, se ilustran los elementos clave de esta pedagogía para la innovación a través de su aplicación en una universidad en Colombia. Rendida cuenta del elevado potencial de esta metodología para la construcción de confianza y capacidad creativa en los estudiantes de todas las disciplinas, y del evidente poder de la próxima generación de tecnologías de la información y la colaboración, así como de los medios sociales, el autor propone nuevos proyectos de investigación y desarrollo que aportarán más creatividad a los programas de educación a distancia y semipresenciales gracias a la aplicación del «design thinking».Helping students think creatively is consistently cited as one of the key goals of education. Yet, across universities around the world, alarms have been sounding off suggesting that students are not prepared for a world where they are expected to solve messy, unstructured problems that don't have easy answers. This paper introduces design thinking, a human-centered innovation methodology that has been implemented in a design innovation program at Stanford University as well as at one of the most successful design consultancies. After a brief overview of design thinking, the author illustrates the key elements of this innovation pedagogy through its implementation at a university in Colombia. Realizing the potential of this methodology for building creative competence and confidence among students from all disciplines, and recognizing the power of the next generation of information and collaboration technologies and social media, the author proposes new research and development projects that will bring more creativity to traditional distance and blended learning programs through an infusion of design thinking.

Reinhold Steinbeck

2011-01-01

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The Role of Bilingualism in Creative Performance on Divergent Thinking and Invented Alien Creatures Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study continues the effort to investigate the possible influence of bilingualism on an individual's creative potential. The performances of Farsi-English bilinguals living in the UAE and Farsi monolinguals living in Iran were compared on the Culture Fair Intelligence Test battery and two creativity tests: divergent thinking test (the…

Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

2009-01-01

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The Role of Bilingualism in Creative Performance on Divergent Thinking and Invented Alien Creatures Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

This study continues the effort to investigate the possible influence of bilingualism on an individual's creative potential. The performances of Farsi-English bilinguals living in the UAE and Farsi monolinguals living in Iran were compared on the Culture Fair Intelligence Test battery and two creativity tests: divergent thinking test (the…

Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

2009-01-01

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?????????????????????? Aesthetic Appreciation of the Abstract Degree of the Picture to the Influence of the Creative Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????(??????????????????)??????1) ????????????????????????????????2) ????????????????????????????3) ????????????????????????????????This research is to explore the influence of the aesthetic appreciation of the abstract degree of the picture to creative thinking. College students were asked to complete a creative task (graphics imagination, insight, art creation) after watching abstract or realistic picture. The results showed that: 1) Aesthetic appreciation of the abstract degree of the picture can improve the divergent thinking test’s agility and innovation; 2) Aesthetic appreciation of the abstract degree of the pictures did not improve the insight of the problem solving ability; 3) Aesthetic appreciation of the abstract degree of the picture can effectively improve the creative imagination test’s creation level.

???; ??; ??; ???

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Thinking through systems thinking  

CERN Multimedia

Systemicity is receiving wider attention thanks to its evident paradox. On the one hand, it occurs as a problem with complex symptoms. On the other, it is sought after as an approach for dealing with the non-linear reality of the world. At once problem and prize, systemicity continues to confound. This book details the mechanics of this paradox as they arise from human epistemological engagement with the world. Guided by an original analysis of the fundamental idea of emergent property, Thinking Through Systems Thinking uncovers the distinct significance, but also inc

Georgiou, Ion

2013-01-01

42

Visual Material Effect on Academic Achievement, Creative Thinking and Attitude towards Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of the visual materials’ usage in Social Sciences on students’ academic achievement, creative thinking skills and their attitudes towards the course. The study was based on the Social Sciences unit titled ‘’Geography and Our World’’ and conducted with a total number of 38 students, (18 of them were in the experimental group and 20 of them were in the control group). The participants were 6th grade students of Koç Primary School in Bolu. For data collection, Social Sciences Achievement Test, Torrance Creative Thinking Test and Attitude Scale were used as instruments. In the statistical analysis of data, Mean, Standard Deviation levels and Mann Whitney-U Test were used. The results of the study revealed that the program designed for the experimental group, increased the participants’ academic achievement and creative thinking skills and had a positive impact on their attitudes towards the course.© 2013 IOJES. All rights reserved

Serap Emir.

2013-01-01

43

THE CREATIVE THINKING LEVELS OF STUDENTS AT SIXTH CLASS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today it is necessary to develop an education model that is special to creative individuals and their creativeness. It is also required to discover children and young people who have creative qualities at an early stage and improve creative thinking in their minds. For this aim, it is very important to determine the high-level thinking skills, especially creative thinking levels of children at primary education period. Therefore, there are considerable duties available for the teachers.In this study, the creative thinking levels of two distinct student groups from different primary schools who study at sixth class of primary education are explored and a comparison is made between their levels. The goal of this research is to find out how the fluency, flexibility and originality dimensions of these students differ. In the way of this purpose, there are fourty-three sixth class of primary education students, who study at two different primary schools in ?zmir, formed the research sampling. Twenty-six of these students are female while seventeen students are male. The Torrance Creative Thinking Test Linguistic –A Form is used as a data collecting tool in the study. The application and form evaluation periods have done by the researchers. At the end of the research, there are meaningful differences obtained between the two schools about the fluency, flexibility and originality levels of students attended to the research. When it is considered in terms of total creative levels, it is seen that the fluency points of those two schools attended to this study are the highest while the flexibility points are the lowest. This situation betrays that the students participated in this study can not use their skill of producing many ideas in terms of handling cases from all points of views.

Esen ERSOY; Ne?’e BA?ER

2009-01-01

44

Development of an instrument to measure thinking, learning, and creativity: a triangulation process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The process of triangulation was used to develop an instrument to measure thinking, learning, and creativity in the nursing workplace. A TLC instrument consisting of five components was systematically developed as part of this study. In this descriptive correlative study, we investigated nurses' perceptions of their ability to think, learn, and be creative in their work life. The results of the investigation showed that TLC is significantly related to the perceived quality of work life of practicing registered professional nurses supporting Naisbett and Aburdene's (1985) idea that TLC is essential to attract and retain employees in the workplace.

Gothler AM; Hanner MB

1991-12-01

45

Einstein's creative thinking and the general theory of relativity: a documented report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A document written by Albert Einstein has recently come to light in which the eminent scientist described the actual sequence of his thoughts leading to the development of the general theory of relativity. The key creative thought was an instance of a type of creative cognition the author has previously designated "Janusian thinking," Janusian thinking consists of actively conceiving two or more opposite or antithetical concepts, ideas, or images simultaneously. This form of high-level secondary process cognition has been found to operate widely in art, science, and other fields.

Rothenberg A

1979-01-01

46

Instructional Design as Critical and Creative Thinking: A Journey through a Jamestown-Era Native American Village  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of critical and creative thinking has been debated within the field of instructional design. Through an instructional design and development project we have identified how critical and creative thinking are essential to the instructional design process. This paper highlights a recent project focused on a virtual Native American village…

Baum, Liesl M.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary

2010-01-01

47

From Dichotomous to Relational Thinking in the Psychology of Creativity : A Review of Great Debates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article invites us to think about the role of dichotomies in the psychology of creativity and how they can sometimes lead to a misrepresentation of the phenomenon. Especially when turned into oppositions, which is often the case with dichotomies, distinctions such as those between individual and society, Big C and little c creativity, evolutionary and revolutionary creation, domain generality and domain specificity, product and process, can have detrimental effects on our understanding of the nature and characteristics of creative expression. In contrast, the article advocates for a relational type of logic, supported by socio-cultural and pragmatist sources, one that encourages us to observe the interdependence between categories and the ways in which they are embedded into each other. Examples are given from the five “debates” mentioned above and some consequences of adopting a new way of thinking about creativity discussed towards the end.

Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

2012-01-01

48

What Were They Thinking?  

Science.gov (United States)

|Too often, teachers scratch their heads and ask, "What were my students thinking?" then answer, "I don't want to know." But teachers should want to know, and students should question their own thinking, as well. Critical thinking involves not just problem solving, creativity, analysis, and synthesis but also self-awareness of learning and…

Jones, Rachael Adams

2012-01-01

49

Applicability of the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production for Assessing Creative Potential of Hong Kong Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study explored the applicability of the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP) in the Hong Kong Chinese cultural context. The psychometric properties of scores on the TCT-DP were examined in a sample of 2,368 Hong Kong Chinese students aged 12 to 16. The study compared the TCT-DP's internal consistency, interrater, and…

Rudowicz, Elisabeth

2004-01-01

50

A Brief Review on Developing Creative Thinking in Young Children by Mind Mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mind mapping is a presentation form of radiant thinking, utilizing lines, colors, characters, numbers, symbols, image, pictures or keywords, etc. to associate, integrate and visualize the learned concept and evoke brain potential. Through mind maps, one’s attention, coordination ability, logic, reasoning, thinking, analyzing, creativity, imagination, memory, ability of planning and integration, speed reading, character, number, visuality, hearing, kinesthetic sense, sensation, etc. are significantly enhanced. “Picture” is not limited by nationality and language and is the best tool for young children to explore new things and learning. Because pictorial representation is one of the most primal human traits and drawing ability is better than writing ability in young children, learning and expressing through mind mapping prevents difficulties of writing, grammar and long description in children. Thus, this study reviews related researches to figure out whether mind mapping can be applied by young children to develop their creative thinking.

Wen-Cheng Wang; Chung-Chieh Lee; Ying-Chien Chu

2010-01-01

51

DEVELOPMENT of CREATIVE THINKING through SPEECH SITUATIONS at the ENGLISH LESSONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of speech situations created at the English lessons. The purpose is to study one of the most efficient methods to involve pupils into the active speech activity through their imagination and creative thinking and show the essential condition which is pupils’ interest in the topic of speech situations.

Alferova Olga Ivanovna

2013-01-01

52

Studies of the Turkish form of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explains the results of multi-year applications of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production in a Turkish context with Turkish participants. The purpose of the study is to present the results of several empirical studies conducted by different Turkish samples, using the instrument...

Aysenur Yontar Togrol

53

The development of creative cognition across adolescence: distinct trajectories for insight and divergent thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined developmental trajectories of creative cognition across adolescence. Participants (N = 98), divided into four age groups (12/13 yrs, 15/16 yrs, 18/19 yrs, and 25-30 yrs), were subjected to a battery of tasks gauging creative insight (visual; verbal) and divergent thinking (verbal; visuo-spatial). The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. On divergent thinking in the visuo-spatial domain, however, only 15/16-year-olds outperformed 12/13-year-olds; a model with peak performance for 15/16-years-old showed the best fit. The results for the different creativity processes are discussed in relation to cognitive and related neurobiological models. We conclude that mid-adolescence is a period of not only immaturities but also of creative potentials in the visuo-spatial domain, possibly related to developing control functions and explorative behavior. PMID:23278922

Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

2012-10-08

54

The development of creative cognition across adolescence: distinct trajectories for insight and divergent thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined developmental trajectories of creative cognition across adolescence. Participants (N = 98), divided into four age groups (12/13 yrs, 15/16 yrs, 18/19 yrs, and 25-30 yrs), were subjected to a battery of tasks gauging creative insight (visual; verbal) and divergent thinking (verbal; visuo-spatial). The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. On divergent thinking in the visuo-spatial domain, however, only 15/16-year-olds outperformed 12/13-year-olds; a model with peak performance for 15/16-years-old showed the best fit. The results for the different creativity processes are discussed in relation to cognitive and related neurobiological models. We conclude that mid-adolescence is a period of not only immaturities but also of creative potentials in the visuo-spatial domain, possibly related to developing control functions and explorative behavior.

Kleibeuker SW; De Dreu CK; Crone EA

2013-01-01

55

Bilingualism and Creativity: Benefits in Convergent Thinking Come with Losses in Divergent Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals toward a relatively focused cognit...

Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Fischer, Rico; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

56

Thinking about the Creativity Based on System Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creativity is an essential element of success in contemporary organizations, yet much remains to be discovered about how creativity happens. Based on the system approach, this paper tries to explore how the creativity happens in the minds of individuals. Then it gives three cases to discuss the process of an idea for new product or new technology. And finally, it shows the result of creating knowledge is not an individual’s activity but continual interaction standing in individuals or between system and its environment.

Jun Hong; Haifeng Chen

2009-01-01

57

[Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT): elements for construct validity in Portuguese adolescents].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work is to study the unidimensional and multidimensional nature of creativity when assessed through divergent thinking tasks, as proposed in Torrance's battery (Torrance Creative Thinking Test, TTCT). This battery is made up of various tasks with verbal and figurative content, aimed at estimating the level of creativity according to the dimensions or cognitive functions of fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of the individuals' ideas. This work used a sample of 595 Portuguese students from 5th and 6th grade. The results of confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the unidimensional model (a general factor of creativity) and the model of factors as a function of the cognitive dimensions of creativity, based on task content, do not fit well. The model with the best fit has a hierarchical factor structure, in which the first level comprises the factors for each of the subtests applied and the second level includes verbal or figurative content. The difficulty to verify the structural validity of the TTCT is noted, and the need for further studies to achieve, in practice, better individual creativity scores.

Oliveira E; Almeida L; Ferrándiz C; Ferrando M; Sainz M; Prieto MD

2009-11-01

58

Evidence for a left-over-right inhibitory mechanism during figural creative thinking in healthy nonartists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a complex mental process, creativity requires the coordination of multiple brain regions. Previous pathological research on figural creativity has indicated that there is a mechanism by which the left side of the brain inhibits the activities of the right side of the brain during figural creative thinking, but this mechanism has not been directly demonstrated. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the existence of this inhibitory mechanism in young adults (15 women, 11 men, mean age: 22 years) that were not artists. By making comparisons between brain activity during creative and uncreative tasks, we found increased activity in the left middle and inferior frontal lobe and strong decreases in activity in the right middle frontal lobe and the left inferior parietal lobe. As such, these data suggest that the left frontal lobe may inhibit the right hemisphere during figural creative thinking in normal people. Moreover, removal of this inhibition by practicing artistry or through specific damage to the left frontal lobe may facilitate the emergence of artistic creativity. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2724-2732, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Huang P; Qiu L; Shen L; Zhang Y; Song Z; Qi Z; Gong Q; Xie P

2013-10-01

59

Studies of the Turkish form of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains the results of multi-year applications of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production in a Turkish context with Turkish participants. The purpose of the study is to present the results of several empirical studies conducted by different Turkish samples, using the instrument which was developed by Jellen and Urban for measuring the creative thinking potentials of individuals. The number of the subjects of all the studies described here totaled to 1529. These participants were of various ages and at various levels of ability, and they included primary school students, university students, and adults, as well as 369 gifted students, and 64 subjects with neurological problems. The author introduces the evaluation procedures, discusses the culturally fair characteristics of the test, and makes a case for the utility of the instrument in Turkey with a comparison of existing data in the literature related to the instrument.

Aysenur Yontar Togrol

2012-01-01

60

Design Thinking: Employing an Effective Multidisciplinary Pedagogical Framework to Foster Creativity and Innovation in Rural and Remote Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines a project to develop and track "design thinking" skills within groups of students in late primary and early secondary years of schooling in order to strengthen their creative skills and innovative mindsets. The outcome of the research will be the development of a model for the broad-based implementation of design thinking in…

Anderson, Neil

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Cogniton-based Enlightenment of Creative Thinking: Examplars in Computer Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is reputed that “Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration”, but it can also be noted that “sometimes, 1% inspiration is more important than 99% perspiration.” As this 1% is so important, can it be understood, and even learned? If so, how can cognition be used to enlighten a scientist's inspiration (creative thinking)? Both questions are considered on the basis of cognitive theory in the paper. We illustrate our ideas with examples from computer science.

2013-01-01

62

Effect of Collaborative Studies on Prospective Teachers’ Creative Thinking Skills while Designing Computer Based Material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study to examine effect of collaborative studies on prospective teachers? creative thinking skills while designing computer based materials. One group pre-test and post-test design of the pre-experimental model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. This experimental study have been applied to 34 prospective teachers who studied at Artvin Coruh University Facult of Education Primary Education Department in 2009-2010 spring term within the context of “Computer-II” course. “Creative Thinking Skill Scale” was applied at two different stages as pre-test and post-test and opinions of students were gathered about the method in research via interview forms. As a result, it was found that there was a significant difference between the prospective teachers? creative thinking skills and scores taken from scale were increased in favor of post-test. Collaborative group works have a great importance in occurrence of this increase was revealed from student views.

Salih B?R??Ç?; Hasan KARAL

2011-01-01

63

[Description and evaluation of creative thinking in preterm low birth weight infants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Since the 1950s, the problem of how to evaluate creativity has been addressed in studies on the definition of measurement criteria and on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. Many revealed cognitive and relational disorders in preterm infants, particularly in preterm very low birth weight infants (birth weight <1500 g) and in infants with serious complications. This study describes the development of creative thinking in a group of children born preterm. METHODS: The study sample was 43 children (21 males, 22 females; age range 6-11 years), regularly attending school, born with low birth weight (1050-2450 g) at 29-32 weeks gestational age, and compared with a control group with birth weight >2500 g. The test battery included: Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TCTT); WISC-R intelligence test; Goodenough Human Figure Drawing Test. RESULTS: Statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney U test) showed a statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the 2 groups; scores for figure originality, figure fluidity and figure elaboration were consistently higher in the control group. Within the low birth weight group, there was a significant correlation (Spearman r) between verbal IQ and verbal fluidity and verbal flexibility subscale scores and between IQ performance and figure elaboration. Scores on the figure drawing tests showed higher creative ability in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In children born preterm with low birth weight, emotive dynamics and flow of affection may influence the channels of communication between child and family. The low figure originality subscale scores support the hypothesis that psychodynamic and relational factors (worry about the preterm condition, overprotective behaviour by parents and others) could lead to diminished autonomy, flexibility and manipulatory interest in the child.

Parisi L; Di Filippo T; Firrigno L; La Grutta S; Testa D; Roccella M

2007-04-01

64

Gender differences in creative thinking: behavioral and fMRI findings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gender differences in creativity have been widely studied in behavioral investigations, but this topic has rarely been the focus of neuroscientific research. The current paper presents follow-up analyses of a previous fMRI study (Abraham et al., Neuropsychologia 50(8):1906-1917, 2012b), in which behavioral and brain function during creative conceptual expansion as well as general divergent thinking were explored. Here, we focus on gender differences within the same sample. Conceptual expansion was assessed with the alternate uses task relative to the object location task, whereas divergent thinking was assessed in terms of responses across both the alternate uses and object location tasks relative to n-back working memory tasks. While men and women were indistinguishable in terms of behavioral performance across all tasks, the pattern of brain activity while engaged in the tasks in question was indicative of strategy differences between the genders. Brain areas related to semantic cognition, rule learning and decision making were preferentially engaged in men during conceptual expansion, whereas women displayed higher activity in regions related to speech processing and social perception. During divergent thinking, declarative memory related regions were strongly activated in men, while regions involved in theory of mind and self-referential processing were more engaged in women. The implications of gender differences in adopted strategies or cognitive style when faced with generative tasks are discussed.

Abraham A; Thybusch K; Pieritz K; Hermann C

2013-06-01

65

Temporal construal effects on abstract and concrete thinking: consequences for insight and creative cognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six studies investigate whether and how distant future time perspective facilitates abstract thinking and impedes concrete thinking by altering the level at which mental representations are construed. In Experiments 1-3, participants who envisioned their lives and imagined themselves engaging in a task 1 year later as opposed to the next day subsequently performed better on a series of insight tasks. In Experiments 4 and 5 a distal perspective was found to improve creative generation of abstract solutions. Moreover, Experiment 5 demonstrated a similar effect with temporal distance manipulated indirectly, by making participants imagine their lives in general a year from now versus tomorrow prior to performance. In Experiment 6, distant time perspective undermined rather than enhanced analytical problem solving. PMID:15301626

Förster, Jens; Friedman, Ronald S; Liberman, Nira

2004-08-01

66

Temporal construal effects on abstract and concrete thinking: consequences for insight and creative cognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six studies investigate whether and how distant future time perspective facilitates abstract thinking and impedes concrete thinking by altering the level at which mental representations are construed. In Experiments 1-3, participants who envisioned their lives and imagined themselves engaging in a task 1 year later as opposed to the next day subsequently performed better on a series of insight tasks. In Experiments 4 and 5 a distal perspective was found to improve creative generation of abstract solutions. Moreover, Experiment 5 demonstrated a similar effect with temporal distance manipulated indirectly, by making participants imagine their lives in general a year from now versus tomorrow prior to performance. In Experiment 6, distant time perspective undermined rather than enhanced analytical problem solving.

Förster J; Friedman RS; Liberman N

2004-08-01

67

?he Contribution of Music and Movement Activities to Creative Thinking in Pre-School Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As interest in creativity is rising, kindergarten teachers are looking for ways to strengthen the creative potential of young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music and movement activities to creative thinking in preschool children. A three month educational programme was designed and implemented, using an experimental research method. The effect on fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of thought of 5 year old children, as well as how the programme affected creative behaviours, was studied. The results, upon completion of the educational programme, showed that the growth rate of these variables in the experimental group was statistically significant compared to the corresponding rates in the control group. In addition, the emergence of creative behaviours, such as an increased freedom of expression, a tendency to explore and experiment, and a questioning of what is commonly accepted, were considered to be a consequence of the implementation of the specific educational programme. The experimental research produced valuable information about the design and philosophy of educational programmes, and about the teaching methods of music and movement activities in kindergarten.

Elena Chronopoulou; Vassiliki Riga

2012-01-01

68

[Internal structure and standardised scores of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present work sets out to study the internal structure of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) and to establish standardised scores that will enable the test to be used in both a diagnostic and educational context. 649 students (319 girls and 330 boys), aged 5 to 12 years from various schools in Murcia and Alicante (SE Spain), took part in the study. The findings suggest that the psychometric characteristics of TTCT are satisfactory, and its internal structure can be attributed to three factors that are responsible for a high percentage of the variance (73.8%). The standardised score tables, which are provided for first time in this context, will be useful in the evaluation of creativity and the identification of students with high intellectual abilities.

Ferrando M; Ferrándiz C; Bermejo MR; Sánchez C; Parra J; Prieto MD

2007-08-01

69

Teaching creative thinking in regular science lessons: Potentials and obstacles of three different approaches in an Asian context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In response to the recent school creativity reforms in Asian places, this paper studied three different approaches of integrating creative thinking training into regular science lessons. They include developing creative thinking through science process, science content and science scenario. Three teacher case studies were conducted to examine the potentials and obstacles of implementing these approaches in classroom of Hong Kong. This study found that all the approaches were useful in developing student creative thinking, yet teachers experienced different tensions and dilemmas in different approaches. This paper suggests that the science content approach may be more readily accepted by teachers and students in an educational system which is dominated by knowledge content and examinations. However, with the limited skills and experience in creativity, teachers and students may feel that the science process and science scenario approach are easier to start with, as they are less constrained by the rigid content in the syllabus. Among various hindering factors, the most crucial one was found to be the original heavy knowledge-content, which in fact is a common characteristic of secondary science curriculum in many Asian places. In our future research and educational reforms, the dilemma between creative thinking and content learning needs to be seriously considered and solved at both individual and system levels.

Vivian M. Y. CHENG

2010-01-01

70

Creativity and Thinking Skills Integrated into a Science Enrichment Unit on Flooding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Floods that used to happen every hundred years are now occurring more frequently. Human influences on the damage inflicted by flooding need to be well-understood by future voters and property-owners. Therefore, the timely topic of flooding was used as the focus of a special multi-grade enrichment short course taught by two university education professors for 26 preK-8th grade high-achieving and creative students. During the course, students listened to guest speakers (city council member, meteorologist, and environmentalist), watched two flood-related videos, read books on floods, viewed electronic presentations related to dams and recent floods, discussed causes, effects, and mitigations of flooding, and devised creative games from recycled materials to teach peers about flood concepts. The de Bono CoRT Breadth thinking skill system was used to organize many of the course activities. The flood lesson activities were relevant to these students who had experienced a flood of the city’s river the previous year and challenged students more than their typical classroom activities, an important finding considering that many gifted students drop out of school because of irrelevant and non-demanding class work. The course broadened students’ knowledge of floods and assisted them in thinking beyond the immediate situation.

Audrey C. Rule; Jean Suchsland Schneider; Denise A. Tallakson; Diane Highnam

2012-01-01

71

The Relationship Between Creative Thinking And Empathy With Self-awareness In High School Students In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that there is moderate to strong correlation between creative thinking and empathy with self-awareness as three important skills in human life and the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between these three aspects of life skills. The participants in the study contained of 96(54 males and 42 females) 10 grade of high school students from Mysore in India. Life skill questionnaire - India (LSQI), carried out on the group sample and date analyzed through Pearson correlation and multiple regression using SPSS soft ware.The results revealed that self-awareness significantly has positive correlation with creative thinking (r=31, p<.01) and empathy(r=36, p<.01). Analysis of regression also shows that multiple relationships between three variables is significant (MR=0.36 and RS = .12, p<.01) and 12 percent of variation of self-awareness can be predicts by empathy and creative thinking.

Ayatollah Karimi; Venkatesh Kumar, G

2012-01-01

72

Why love has wings and sex has not: how reminders of love and sex influence creative and analytic thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article examines cognitive links between romantic love and creativity and between sexual desire and analytic thought based on construal level theory. It suggests that when in love, people typically focus on a long-term perspective, which should enhance holistic thinking and thereby creative thought, whereas when experiencing sexual encounters, they focus on the present and on concrete details enhancing analytic thinking. Because people automatically activate these processing styles when in love or when they experience sex, subtle or even unconscious reminders of love versus sex should suffice to change processing modes. Two studies explicitly or subtly reminded participants of situations of love or sex and found support for this hypothesis.

Förster J; Epstude K; Ozelsel A

2009-11-01

73

Creativity Education based on Participants' Reflective Thinking on their Creative Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, some educational courses focusing on creativity, hereafter called ``creativity education'' has been conducted in engineering education. We believe that such creativity education is crucial not only in engineering education, but also in general education. In this study, we designed a learning environment that enables participants to experience some common creative activities, and evaluated its effectiveness in a university class. Our educational program consists of the following three phases: (1) introduction (the participants learned the basics of Mindstorms using the instructional manuscript, and subsequently constructed and modified a moving car with four wheels using Mindstorms), (2) creative activities (they produced creative playground equipment that can move using Mindstorms), and (3) self-reflective activities on the creative processes (they reflected on their creative processes and added the information to a diagram, and they discussed advantages and disadvantages while referring to the diagram). We evaluated the effectiveness of our educational program based on comparisons of the pre- and post-tests and the contents of the participants' discussions. In particular, we confirmed the following three learning activities: (1) the participants discussed their creative activities from various viewpoints, (2) they also discussed the viewpoints considered to be important for creative activities, and (3) they realized the importance of idea generation, idea embodiment, and collaboration in creative activities.

Ishii, Norio; Miwa, Kazuhisa

74

Criatividade e pensamento crítico/ Creative and critical thinking/ Creatividad y pensamiento creativo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste breve artigo, com base em uma análise dos recentes discursos acadêmicos e políticos sobre a criatividade, apresenta-se uma reflexão teórica sobre a necessária articulação dialética do pensamento crítico e criativo em estudos de Comunicação. Em uma primeira etapa, são questionados os pressupostos com o objetivo de construir um novo paradigma social e econômico baseado na criatividade. Coloca-se em dúvida, em particular, as hipóteses teóricas e metodo (more) lógicas de Richard Florida sobre a emergência de uma classe criativa. Em uma segunda etapa, é mostrado como é fácil para os políticos que promovem a criatividade como um valor positivo tornar-se uma pedra angular no desenvolvimento da sociedade da informação. Como conclusão, destaca-se a renovação do pensamento crítico como um complemento necessário da valorização do processo criativo nos estudos de Comunicação. Abstract in spanish Este breve artículo, basado en un análisis de los recientes discursos académicos y políticos en la creatividad, presenta una reflexión teórica sobre la necesaria articulación dialéctica del pensamiento creativo y crítico en los estudios sobre Comunicación. En una primera etapa, los supuestos son cuestionados con el fin de construir un nuevo paradigma basado en la creatividad social y económica. El pone en duda, en particular, los supuestos teóricos y metodoló (more) gicos Richard Florida en el surgimiento de una clase creativa. En un segundo paso, se muestra lo fácil que es para los políticos que promueven la creatividad como un valor positivo para convertirse en una piedra angular en el desarrollo de la sociedad de la información. En conclusión, es expuesta una renovación del pensamiento crítico como un complemento necesario de la apreciación del proceso creativo en los estudios sobre comunicación. Abstract in english In this short paper, based on an analysis of recent academic and political discourses on creativity, is develops a theoretical reflexion on the necessary dialectical articulation of creative and critical thinking in communication studies. In a first step, are questions the assumptions aiming to build a new social and economic paradigm based on creativity. It doubts, in particular, Richard Florida's theoretical and methodological hypotheses regarding the emergence of a cre (more) ative class. In a second step, is showing how it is easy for politicians to promote creativity as a positive value making it a corner stone in the development of the information society. As a conclusion, it is showing that the renovation of critical thinking as a necessary complement of the promotion of creative process in communication studies.

Tremblay, Gaëtan

2011-06-01

75

Original Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

Ashok Natarajan

2012-01-01

76

AUTOMATIC EVOLUTION OF IDEAS THROUGH MULTILAYER EVOLUTIONARY SYSTEM TO SUPPORT CREATIVE THINKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creativity is a tool that helps in effective problem solving utilizing optimum scarce resources in anybusiness. This paper presents a conceptual framework of a multilayer evolutionary system that supportscreative thinking. The system evolves, using a genetic algorithm, new ideas from a set of basic ideas thatare casually provided through an interactive editor or selected from past transaction records. Thearchitecture proposed here encompasses three layers called system layer, database layer, and queryproducer and user interface layer. Besides the general architecture, the paper also describes the detailedmethodology, genetic procedure to evolve ideas, reproduction operators like modified mutation, crossover and selection; and fitness functions to evolve suitable and strong ideas. The system layer furtherdescribes algorithm of stimulus-generation process. The proposed architecture is easy to develop,generic, domain independent and works with databases, which increases scope and usability of thesystem. Above all, the interactive user interface makes the system friendly and easy to operate.

Priti Srinivas Sajja; Rajendra Akerkar; David Camacho

2009-01-01

77

Critical Thinking Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching critical thinking can be difficult, and it is nice to know that Professors Joe Lau and Jonathan Chan at the University of Hong Kong have created this site to help both teachers and students in this endeavor. Working with a grant from the government of Hong Kong's University Grants Committee, the two have created this website to provide access to over 100 free online tutorials on critical thinking, logic, scientific reasoning, and creativity. The homepage includes a brief introduction to critical thinking and access to the main modules, which are divided into thematic areas such as values and morality, strategic thinking, and basic logic. Visitors can also view the Chinese version of this site, download class exercises, and even take on "the hardest logic puzzle in the world."

78

Assessing Creative Potential World-Wide: The First Cross-Cultural Application of the Test for Creative Thinking--Drawing Production (TCT-DP).  

Science.gov (United States)

|Elementary school-aged children (N=569) from 11 countries were administered the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production. The 11 countries had distinctly different political, economic, and educational systems. The test was discovered to be culture-fair, culture-sensitive, gender-fair, and gender-sensitive. (Author/JDD)|

Jellen, Hans G.; Urban, Klaus K.

1989-01-01

79

Effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognition, task enjoyment and creative thinking in healthy volunteers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving. METHODS: A double-blind placebo-controlled parallel design study evaluated the effect of 200 mg of modafinil (N = 32) or placebo (N = 32) in non-sleep deprived healthy volunteers. Non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking were used to measure creativity. A new measure of task motivation was used, together with more levels of difficulty on neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB battery. RESULTS: Improvements under modafinil were seen on spatial working memory, planning and decision making at the most difficult levels, as well as visual pattern recognition memory following delay. Subjective ratings of enjoyment of task performance were significantly greater under modafinil compared with placebo, but mood ratings overall were not affected. The effects of modafinil on creativity were inconsistent and did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Modafinil reliably enhanced task enjoyment and performance on several cognitive tests of planning and working memory, but did not improve paired associates learning. The findings confirm that modafinil can enhance aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

Müller U; Rowe JB; Rittman T; Lewis C; Robbins TW; Sahakian BJ

2013-01-01

80

Effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognition, task enjoyment and creative thinking in healthy volunteers  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving. Methods A double-blind placebo-controlled parallel design study evaluated the effect of 200 mg of modafinil (N = 32) or placebo (N = 32) in non-sleep deprived healthy volunteers. Non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking were used to measure creativity. A new measure of task motivation was used, together with more levels of difficulty on neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB battery. Results Improvements under modafinil were seen on spatial working memory, planning and decision making at the most difficult levels, as well as visual pattern recognition memory following delay. Subjective ratings of enjoyment of task performance were significantly greater under modafinil compared with placebo, but mood ratings overall were not affected. The effects of modafinil on creativity were inconsistent and did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Modafinil reliably enhanced task enjoyment and performance on several cognitive tests of planning and working memory, but did not improve paired associates learning. The findings confirm that modafinil can enhance aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Cognitive Enhancers’.

Muller, U.; Rowe, J.B.; Rittman, T.; Lewis, C.; Robbins, T.W.; Sahakian, B.J.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Beyond the bounds of the dogmatic image of thought: the development of critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: Reflections upon what it might mean to think, and about what inherited presuppositions or images might influence what thinking is thought to consist of, are not readily considered in the mental health care literature. However, the work of the 20th century French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and, in particular, his account of 'the dogmatic image of thought' can be employed to illustrate how such considerations can be of relevance to the theoretical and practical concerns of mental health professionals. In doing so, Deleuze's work can be understood as seeking to sensitize mental health professionals to the dangers of unreflectively adopting a restrictive notion of what it means to think, as well as an exhortation to develop critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions that moves beyond the bounds of the traditional, dogmatic image of thought. ABSTRACT: Considerations about what it might mean to think, and about what inherited presuppositions determine what thinking is thought to consist of, are not readily reflected upon in the mental health care literature. However, this paper will propose that such considerations are of relevance to, and possess important implications for, the mental health professions, and it will do so within the context of the work of the 20th century philosopher Gilles Deleuze. In particular, the paper will provide an accessible exposition of what Deleuze refers to as the 'dogmatic image of thought', along with an examination of his suggestion that this traditional image, and its associated presuppositions, not only determine what is considered to be the ostensible 'nature' of thought, but also delineate what the activity of thinking ought to be concerned with. Moreover, it will be argued that Deleuze's exposition and critique of the image of thought can be understood as seeking to sensitize mental health professionals to the dangers of unreflectively perpetuating a restrictive notion of what it means to think, as well as being an exhortation to develop critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions that moves beyond the bounds of that traditional, dogmatic image of thought.

Roberts M

2013-06-01

82

Thinking of Experience, Experiencing Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article briefly describes the relatively young field of cognitive science dedicated to the research of lived human experience – the so-called phenomenological inquiry (or first-person research). It enumerates the reasons for the renewed interest in the study of experience and outlines the field’s relation to the rest of cognitive science. With the help of an example (phenomenology of thinking), the article attempts to illustrate the importance of systematic study of experience and addresses some open questions emerging from such an enterprise.

Urban Kordeš

2012-01-01

83

Strategic Thinking or Thinking of a Strategist?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design an applied framework for strategic thinking which can be applied in all managerial levels and all types of organizational environments. No especial applied frame has been presented for this thinking. This study presents a theoretical framework for the thinking type of a manager by making a historical research and studying the scientific documents about the thinking of a strategist. In the new theoretical framework, we have tried suggest the best type of thinking for a strategist after analyzing the environment of his decisions. So, in this framework, the traditional viewpoint about strategic thinking, which considered it as a special type of right-brain thinking against other types of right-brain thinking and suggested it to a strategist, is put aside and it is suggested that the strategist should use a suitable type of thinking under different conditions.

S. Iranzadeh; H. Emari; H. Bevrani

2009-01-01

84

The Effects of Educational Multimedia for Scientific Signs in the Holy Quran in Improving the Creative Thinking Skills for Deaf Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the role of the scientific signs in the holy Quran in improving the creative thinking skills for the deaf children using multimedia. The paper investigates if the performance made by the experimental group's individuals is statistically significant compared with the performance made by the control group's individuals on Torrance Test for creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality and the total degree) in two cases:

Abusaleh, Sumaya; Abdelfattah, Eman; Alabadi, Zain; Sharieh, Ahmad

85

The TCT-DP (Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production): An Instrument that Can Be Applied to Most Age and Ability Groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production, an open-ended drawing test, is an approach to assessing and identifying students' creativity in terms of 11 criteria: completion; additions; new elements; connections with a line; connections with a theme; boundary-breaking, fragment-dependent; boundary-breaking, fragment-independent;…

Jellen, Hans G.; Urban, Klaus K.

1986-01-01

86

Design thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes.

Brown T

2008-06-01

87

Design thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes. PMID:18605031

Brown, Tim

2008-06-01

88

On Counter-Stereotypes and Creative Cognition: When Interventions for Reducing Prejudice Can Boost Divergent Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether tasks like this can have benefits beyond…

Goclowska, Malgorzata A.; Crisp, Richard J.

2013-01-01

89

Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry) and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc.) can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

Isaeva E. A.

2008-01-01

90

Effective Leadership of Creative Colleagues in English Primary Schools: Reality or Wishful Thinking?  

Science.gov (United States)

With English primary schools being encouraged to be creative we need to ask what the practicalities are for school leaders. It is not a question of "creative leadership" but more to do with the leadership of creativity and creative colleagues.

Lowe, Bill

2010-01-01

91

Thinking in Science-Thinking in General?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In science we pay attention to some particular types of thinking, such as deductive and inductive logic, establishing causality through experimentation, analysis, and categorisation. There may be other types of thinking which we believe to be more typical of other fields such as literature (e.g. characterisation, sense of audience), art (e.g. form and composition, originality), or sport (e.g. whole-game strategies, anticipation) but which do not play such as large part in science. So can we represent thinking in different domains as completely independent of one another, as represented in figure 1?

Philip ADEY

2006-01-01

92

Description and Analysis of Educational Facilities Design Criteria Based on Creative thinking from the Perspective of Educational Technology Specialists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is description and analysis of educational facilities design criteria based on creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists. Study's method is descriptive-surveyand it is polling type. Method description - is a survey of surveys. Population consists of full-time faculty members in the field of educational technology at the University of Tehran that are 36 persons. Tools for data collection are questionnaire responses depending on the research questions that the research was conducted on the Likert scale. Questionnaire's reliability obtained based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient that was 74%. To analyze data in statistical methods frequency distribution, percentage, frequency, mean, and statistical tables were used. Results of one-sample z-test were used for statistical analysis. Based on the results, obtained z for standard colors equals to 8.98, because the subjects' average (27.38) and compare it with the hypothetical average of (15) it can be said that obtained average by hypothetical population mean has significant difference. For sound scale (phoneme) equals 3.52 based on testees' mean (27.77) and to compare it with society's hypothetical average (17.5) it can be said that that obtained average has significant difference with society's hypothetical average. For thermal condition scale (heat )it was equal to 2,.26 because regarding testee's average ( 14.77) and to compare with society's hypothetical average (10) it can be said that obtained average has significant difference with society's hypothetical mean. Therefore it can be concluded that there is a significant relationshipbetween design criteria of educational facilities and increase in students' creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists at the 5% level.

Shahin Valia; Faramarzmalekian; Mehrnaz Foroughinia

2013-01-01

93

Mating Darwin with Dickinson: How Writing Creative Poetry in Biology Helps Students Think Critically and Build Personal Connections to Course Content  

Science.gov (United States)

Poetry writing is a simple yet effective way to encourage the development of cross-disciplinary connections, creativity, and critical thinking in science students. In other words, by mating ideas and methods from scientists like Charles Darwin with those of poets like Emily Dickinson, students discover new perspectives on scientific issues that are rich in both content and personal meaning because they arise from the student's own creativity. Creative poetry writing is thus one tool that can help achieve the goal of enhancing science literacy and constructing more efficient classroom learning environments.

Waldvogel, Jerry A.

2006-01-01

94

Adivinanzas audiovisuales para ejercitar el pensamiento creativo infantil Audiovisual Riddles to Stimulate Children’s Creative Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para resolver una adivinanza hay que asociar ideas, analizar metáforas, descubrir analogías. Por eso, impulsar esta forma de entretenimiento infantil es un modo de ejercitar el pensamiento creativo. Sin embargo, existe un problema: las adivinanzas tradicionales son formas literarias que corresponden a una época pre-digital. ¿Cómo lograr, entonces, que tengan mayor aceptación entre los nativos digitales? Una posible solución sería crear adivinanzas audiovisuales diseñadas especialmente para YouTube. En esta investigación se realizaron cinco prototipos de adivinanzas audiovisuales con características creativas diferentes y se validaron con estudiantes de tercero a sexto grado de educación primaria. Los resultados de la validación permitieron identificar las actitudes, reacciones, interpretaciones y modos de razonamiento de los niños y niñas cuando intentan resolver este tipo de adivinanzas. También se identificaron los recursos de lenguaje y formatos creativos que funcionan mejor en una adivinanza audiovisual. En las conclusiones se destaca la necesidad de formular correctamente los enunciados de las adivinanzas audiovisuales y sus respectivas «pistas» para que los niños y niñas tengan la satisfacción intelectual y emocional de resolverlas. Se precisa, además, que leer o escuchar una adivinanza tradicional representa una experiencia cognitiva y sensorial muy distinta que interactuar con esa misma adivinanza en un lenguaje multimedia. Finalmente, se discute y analiza el rol mediador del docente y la importancia del aprendizaje colaborativo en los proyectos educativos que emplean tecnologías digitales.Solving riddles involves association of ideas, analysis of metaphors, and discovery of analogies. Therefore, promoting this type of children’s entertainment is a way to develop creative thinking. However, there is a problem: traditional riddles are literary forms that correspond to a pre-digital era. How can we increase its acceptance among the digital natives? One way might be creating audiovisual riddles specially designed for YouTube. In this research we made five prototypes of audiovisual riddles with different creative characteristics and validated them among 8-12 years old students. The validation results helped us to identify the attitudes, reactions, interpretations and ways of thinking of children when they try to solve such riddles. We also identified the resources of language and creative formats that fit best in audio-visual riddles. The outcome of this research emphasizes the need to correctly formulate the audiovisual riddle statements and their «clues» for children; this way we assure an intellectual and emotional satisfaction when solving them. It also concludes that reading or listening to traditional riddles are cognitive and sensory experiences that are very different from interacting with the same riddle in a multimedia language. Finally, we discuss and analyze the mediating role of the teacher and the importance of collaborative learning in educational projects using digital technologies.

Jorge Montalvo Castro

2011-01-01

95

Poetry as a Springboard to Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an assignment in which students use their study of poetry to think critically and write creatively. Describes how students synthesize inferences about a poem to write character monologs based on the poem. (MM)

Smith, Maggy; Salome, Peggy

1989-01-01

96

Analysis of expert thinking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human expertise should be better understood before the users of expert systems specify the services needed and expected from such systems. An analysis of expert thinking has been developed to assist in this understanding. The analysis is discussed in the paper under three main headings. These are specifications, a theory of expert thinking, and human and system expertise. 5 references.

Hawkins, D.

1983-01-01

97

Nuclear age thinking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

Depastas, A.N.

1990-01-01

98

A Ladder of Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Introducing students to metacognition, or thinking about one's thinking, allows them to discover the value of reflection. Courses related to thinking theory are often included in the curriculum for high-achieving students, but these methods can also be used effectively to enhance the learning of average or below-average students. This article presents a lesson on top-down and bottom-up processing, two of the main ways in which people handle information. It is designed to help students understand why they should proceed slowly and deliberately when making observations in a science lab or when answering questions on a test.

Lovrich, Deborah

2004-04-01

99

Thinking about Fertility Treatment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... get pregnant > Thinking about fertility treatment Trying to get pregnant There are many steps you can take ... your menstrual cycle. I’ve been trying to get pregnant for 3 months. What’s wrong? Pregnancy may ...

100

Thinking about Fertility Treatment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Share Your Story! We have sent an email to the address that you provided. Please click on ... to get pregnant > Thinking about fertility treatment Trying to get pregnant There are many steps you can ...

 
 
 
 
101

Beyond positive thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fast-paced change and turmoil can make us lose sight of the power of positive thinking. Eric Olsen's two briefs illustrate characteristics of executives who became healthier in chaotic times and how the mind can be trained for success.

Olsen E

1990-05-01

102

A historical marker in the development of critical and creative thinking in psychiatric-mental health nursing education and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This investigation focuses on traumatic events of World War II and postwar reconstruction in US society in the 1940s, taking into account the development of psychiatric nursing as a specialty within the context of nursing education and practice trends. Scotomas of historic world figures, including Hildegard Peplau, renowned educator and psychiatric nurse, are examined. These blind spots profoundly affected their reactions and behaviors, for the betterment of society or the destruction of it. Method: Psychohistory looks at the “why” of historical events and is concerned with the motivation in human behavior and with the underlying meaning lurking beneath the surface of logic. In this psychohistorical exploration, figurative snapshots highlight a historical marker that commemorates a fire that blazed out of control in 1948 at Highland Hospital, a mental institution in Asheville, North Carolina, where Peplau held directorship. This fire served as a springboard for the evolution of the nurse-patient relationship within the nursing profession, as influenced by Peplau. Relevant questions explored are: What nurses were implicated in the fire? What did the characters at the scene believe and perceive? What were the motivations of key players? Who qualified as nurses? What ramifications did the fire have for nursing education and practice in the development of analytical thought and theoretical concepts? Significance: Some view the historic fire as a black mark against nursing. Nurses, however, with the assistance of Peplau’s teachings, can see it as a benchmark that began the process of eradication of resistances that prevent growth and the illumination of educational curricula that promote advancement of critical and creative thinking. Today, nurses can take advantage of their knowledge base learned from the past and can create expansive innovation in nursing education and practice that is supportive of global health and safety in the 21st century.

Christine M. Silverstein

2013-01-01

103

Desarrollo del pensamiento creativo en la formación laboral juvenil/ Developement of creative thinking in youth work training  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Proyecto de investigación que analiza las representaciones educativo-laborales sobre las atribuciones de valor a la creatividad, motivación e innovación en jóvenes de la educación formal y no formal que se preparan para el mundo del trabajo. La desarticulación educativa entre oferta, demanda y necesidad, exige búsquedas que complementen la didáctica homogénea de un pensamiento convergente con otras vertientes que favorecen el pensamiento divergente. Se asume la c (more) reatividad como un concepto teórico, no observable, que difícilmente se da en forma espontánea y se reconoce solo como atributo exclusivo de artistas, siendo necesario generarla en todos los sujetos y disciplinas para una construcción de valores y desarrollo a escala humana. Avanza sobre nuevas aristas didácticas integradoras que cubren un extenso espectro de pertenencias culturales, con disimilitudes de conocimientos, de abstracción, de lenguajes e ideologías. Se opta por una integración metodológica para ampliar las posibilidades de los contextos de descubrimiento y validación priorizando el primero. La metodología comprensivista apunta más directamente a las metas propuestas con los aportes de la etnografía, interaccionismo simbólico y la etnometodología. Los primeros resultados parciales evidencian que las actitudes y motivaciones de los jóvenes, dentro y fuera de las aulas e instituciones, cambian radicalmente, apareciendo estrategias creativas e innovadoras para actividades que responden a intereses diferentes a los contenidos curriculares. En jóvenes alumnos de posgrado en educación, se relevan dificultades para enseñar y desconocimiento de didácticas orientadas al pensamiento divergente, pero interés por interiorizarse en la teoría e instrumentación de las mismas. Abstract in english This research project analyzes the education-labour representations on value attributions to creativity, motivation and innovation in youth with formal and non-formal education that are training for the job world. The educational detachment between offer, demand and need, requests a search that can complement the homogeneous didactics of a converging line of thought with other currents that favour divergent thinking. Creativity is considered a theoretical concept, non obs (more) ervable, that can hardly happen in a spontaneous way and is solely an attribute of artists, but also necessary to be generated in all individuals and disciplines for a construction of values and development at a human scale. It makes progress over new integrating didactic aspects that cover a wide spectrum of cultural belongings, with dissimilar knowledge, of abstraction, of languages and ideologies. A methodological integration is chosen to enlarge the possibilities of the discovery and validation contexts prioritizing the former. The comprehensive methodology aims more directly to intended goals with contributions from ethnography, symbolic interaction and ethnomethodology. The first partial results show that attitudes and motivation in youngsters, inside and outside classrooms and institutions, change radically, giving rise to creative and innovative strategies that respond to different interests to those in curricular contents. Among young postgraduate students in education, difficulties in teaching and both an ignorance but also an interest in didactics oriented to diverging thought are shown.

Pérez del Viso de Palou, Rosa

2008-11-01

104

Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.

Guillermo Restrepo; José L. Villaveces

2012-01-01

105

Thinking Aloud Together  

Science.gov (United States)

Thinking Together is a project that began at the Open University in the mid 1990s and grew out of research that showed that children benefit from explicit instruction on how to talk in groups. Its fundamental premise is that the ability to communicate effectively is a key skill that lies at the heart of educational success. A crucial goal arising…

Monaghan, Frank

2006-01-01

106

Engineering Design Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

2013-01-01

107

Thinking Outside the Box  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors associated with the radioactive materials they contain. Packages for fissile materials are the most robust ones. However, very low quantities of fissile material, relative to the overall volume of material in which it is contained, do not pose a realistic criticality hazard. More realistic provisions for these fissile-excepted materials would improve safety, reduce dose uptake, and provide significant financial benefits to both industry and the regulator. It is a basic principle of transport safety regulation that safety is vested primarily in the package, and not the mode of conveyance. Safety standards for packages are set internationally by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Packages designs are subject to a rigorous internationally-established test regime; a test regime that takes account both of normal and conceivable realistic accident conditions to demonstrate conclusively that the package will provide adequate protection. Packages will only be licensed for use by national competent authorities on the basis of a convincing safety case. Looking outside the box - when confronted by uncertainty about the safety of radioactive materials transports, it is suggested industry not limit itself to reassuring words about the undeniably excellent safety record of transport over decades but, it should present the safety features of the packages, the rigorous international safety test criteria to ensure the package would survive realistic regulate and accident conditions of transport, and the need to present a convincing safety case to competent authorities before a licence would be issued. While the very low statistical possibility of transport accident cannot be denied attention also should be paid to the consequences of accidents. The communications theme will also be addressed as the 'new media' push the bounds of possibility of how best to increase understanding about nuclear packaging and transport. The world has evolved in a more sceptical age, a permanent full time communications age when people increasingly rely on very short key messages for thei

2009-01-01

108

Thinking Outside the Box  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors associated with the radioactive materials they contain. Packages for fissile materials are the most robust ones. However, very low quantities of fissile material, relative to the overall volume of material in which it is contained, do not pose a realistic criticality hazard. More realistic provisions for these fissile-excepted materials would improve safety, reduce dose uptake, and provide significant financial benefits to both industry and the regulator. It is a basic principle of transport safety regulation that safety is vested primarily in the package, and not the mode of conveyance. Safety standards for packages are set internationally by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Packages designs are subject to a rigorous internationally-established test regime; a test regime that takes account both of normal and conceivable realistic accident conditions to demonstrate conclusively that the package will provide adequate protection. Packages will only be licensed for use by national competent authorities on the basis of a convincing safety case. Looking outside the box - when confronted by uncertainty about the safety of radioactive materials transports, it is suggested industry not limit itself to reassuring words about the undeniably excellent safety record of transport over decades but, it should present the safety features of the packages, the rigorous international safety test criteria to ensure the package would survive realistic regulate and accident conditions of transport, and the need to present a convincing safety case to competent authorities before a licence would be issued. While the very low statistical possibility of transport accident cannot be denied attention also should be paid to the consequences of accidents. The communications theme will also be addressed as the 'new media' push the bounds of possibility of how best to increase understanding about nuclear packaging and transport. The world has evolved in a more sceptical age, a permanent full time communications age when people increasingly rely on very sh

Green, Lorne [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 310-312 Regent Street, London, W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)

2009-06-15

109

Exploring ease in thinking aloud.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thinking aloud seems unnatural and difficult to most subjects. The present study explored the relation between Ease in Thinking Aloud, verbal fluency, Self-talk, and Big Five personality traits for a heterogeneous sample of 101 German-speaking adults (50 women and 51 men). Ease in Thinking Aloud positively correlated with scores on verbal fluency (r =.31) and Conscientiousness (r =.38). The discussion considers implications for further research on ease in thinking aloud. PMID:16673955

Schneider, Johann F; Reichl, Corinna

2006-02-01

110

Exploring ease in thinking aloud.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thinking aloud seems unnatural and difficult to most subjects. The present study explored the relation between Ease in Thinking Aloud, verbal fluency, Self-talk, and Big Five personality traits for a heterogeneous sample of 101 German-speaking adults (50 women and 51 men). Ease in Thinking Aloud positively correlated with scores on verbal fluency (r =.31) and Conscientiousness (r =.38). The discussion considers implications for further research on ease in thinking aloud.

Schneider JF; Reichl C

2006-02-01

111

Cabbage Worms and Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that an approach to composition instruction that emphasizes critical thinking skills produces a more analytical writer. Describes a school project that examined research on critical thinking, implemented changes in the teaching of thinking and composition, and assessed student learning. (HB)

Braswell, Patricia

1993-01-01

112

Creativity—Innovative Thinking—Tolerance in Uncertainty: Views of Undergraduate Students in Greek Universities Based on the Faculty of Their Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovative-creative thinking and tolerance towards uncertain situations concern the field of the present study. Through scenarios and alternative proposals that concern views about the presence (university) or the future as well (professional career after the university), the research focuses on undergraduate students in Greek universities. The research took place in2011 ina sample of 836 students, using the questionnaire as an instrument, in a difficult financially and socially conjuncture for the country, with the unemployment galloping especially in young people and graduates.The present study examines the extent to which the type of student’s studies (social science and science) differentiates innovative-creative thinking and tolerance towards the uncertainty of subjects. Results showed that undergraduates of Social Science Faculties make more “conservative” choices, both during their studies as well as during the selection of professional perspectives. On the other hand, students of Sciences show higher tolerance in uncertainty, pursuing more challenging working conditions, as well as assessment conditions during their studies, in comparison to students of Social Science Faculties.

Yota Xanthacou; Nektarios A. Stavrou; Thomas Babalis

2013-01-01

113

Cultivating strategic thinking skills.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

Shirey MR

2012-06-01

114

Cultivating strategic thinking skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills. PMID:22617694

Shirey, Maria R

2012-06-01

115

Scientific thinking in ophthalmology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Science, medicine and ophthalmology have all evolved and progressed through varied but powerful influences over the centuries. While the tremendous technological advances in ophthalmology in the past 20 years are readily appreciated, many clinicians fail to grasp the impact of the several clinical trials that have contributed to better patient care. This article briefly traces the history of science, medicine and ophthalmology, and explains how scientific thinking could be applied to the clinical and academic aspects of ophthalmology.

Abraham Chandran

1998-01-01

116

A science think tank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

1999-01-01

117

Competitive Think Tanks in Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges the view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate that competitive strategies will become more common in the future.

Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

118

Organizational change through Lean Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change. PMID:18647948

Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

2008-08-01

119

Organizational change through Lean Thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change.

Tsasis P; Bruce-Barrett C

2008-08-01

120

Thinking in systems a primer  

CERN Multimedia

Thinking in Systems is a concise and crucial book offering insight for problem-solving on scales ranging from the personal to the global. This essential primer brings systems thinking out of the realm of computers and equations and into the tangible world, showing readers how to develop the systems-thinking skills that thought leaders across the globe consider critical for 21st-century life.While readers will learn the conceptual tools and methods of systems thinking, the heart of the book is grander than methodology. Donella Meadows was known as much for nurturing positive outcomes as she was

Wright, Diana

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Resilience and Higher Order Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs), i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1) summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2) explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3) describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4) discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

Ioan Fazey

2010-01-01

122

Teach Your Students to Fail Better with Design Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Design thinking is about using design to improve the human experience. It combines collaboration, systems thinking, and a balance of creative and analytical habits. It also fuels what the students want for themselves: making an impact on the real world in real time and having adults take their passions seriously. The process essentially comes down…

Long, Christian

2012-01-01

123

Stimulation of Thinking Skills in High School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to examine the effects of the instruction method "thinking actively in an academic context (TAAC)" on thinking skills, creativity, self-regulation and academic achievement. The design was pre-test-intervention-post-test with control group. The sample included 46 participants (aged 16 to 18 years), 24 experimental…

Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, Maria Luisa; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, Maria Teresa; Oliver, Maria Soria

2010-01-01

124

Critical Thinking in Liberal Education: A Case of Overkill?  

Science.gov (United States)

|While there is good reason to stress critical thinking skills in the liberal arts curriculum, these skills should be complemented by training in alternative methodologies that focus on synthetic, dialectic, and creative modes of awareness and expression. (MSE)|

Walters, Kerry S.

1986-01-01

125

Do Critical Thinking Exercises Improve Critical Thinking Skills?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although textbooks routinely include exercises to improve critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of these exercises has not been closely examined. Additionally, the connection between critical thinking skills and formal operational thought is also relatively understudied. In the study reported here, college students completed measures of…

Cotter, Ellen M.; Tally, Carrie Sacco

2009-01-01

126

Critical Thinking and Disciplinary Thinking: A Continuing Debate  

Science.gov (United States)

I report a study that investigated ideas about critical thinking across three disciplines: Philosophy, History and Literary Studies. The findings point to a diversity of understandings and practices, ones that suggest the limitations of a more generic approach. I argue that a more useful conception of critical thinking is as a form of…

Moore, Tim John

2011-01-01

127

'Right' way to 'do' illness? Thinking critically about positive thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exhortations to 'be positive' accompany many situations in life, either as a general injunction or in difficult situations where people are facing pressure or adversity. It is particularly evident in health care, where positive thinking has become an aspect of the way people are expected to 'do' illness in developed society. Positive thinking is framed both as a moral injunction and as a central belief system. It is thought to help patients cope emotionally with illness and to provide a biological benefit. Yet, the meanings, expectations and outcomes of positive thinking are infrequently questioned and the risks of positive thinking are rarely examined. We outline some of the latter and suggest that health professionals should exercise caution in both 'prescribing' positive thinking and in responding to patients and carers whose belief systems and feelings of obligation rest on it.

McGrath C; Jordens CF; Montgomery K; Kerridge IH

2006-10-01

128

'Right' way to 'do' illness? Thinking critically about positive thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exhortations to 'be positive' accompany many situations in life, either as a general injunction or in difficult situations where people are facing pressure or adversity. It is particularly evident in health care, where positive thinking has become an aspect of the way people are expected to 'do' illness in developed society. Positive thinking is framed both as a moral injunction and as a central belief system. It is thought to help patients cope emotionally with illness and to provide a biological benefit. Yet, the meanings, expectations and outcomes of positive thinking are infrequently questioned and the risks of positive thinking are rarely examined. We outline some of the latter and suggest that health professionals should exercise caution in both 'prescribing' positive thinking and in responding to patients and carers whose belief systems and feelings of obligation rest on it. PMID:16958645

McGrath, C; Jordens, C F C; Montgomery, K; Kerridge, I H

2006-10-01

129

Developing a Classroom Culture of Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This publication begins with a dedication to «those teachers who share my belief that the teaching of thinking is an empowering process that will see students of today become critical, creative, and caring adults of tomorrow». In doing so, the author’s intent to provide a very practical and usable resource for teachers is clear from the outset. Pohl’s book provides models and templates aimed at fostering a «classroom culture of thinking» that many teachers would find immediately usable.However, the value of any pragmatically-oriented publication lies within the educational advantages such «models and strategies» will enable. While this book presents clear, accessible and easily understood strategies for diversifying the classroom repertoire, its claim to enabling a «classroom culture of thinking» must be carefully considered.

Mia O'Brien

2002-01-01

130

Thinking About Global Warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web.

Baron, J. [Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut St., Philadelphia, 19104-6241, PA (United States)

2006-07-15

131

Thinking About Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web.

2006-01-01

132

Improving Reading through Thinking Aloud.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of training in thinking aloud on the development of reading skills were examined for 64 sixth graders in 2 Finnish towns. Trainees adopted five of seven text processing strategies they were taught and were most responsive when the trainer modeled thinking aloud and guided students in the activity. (SLD)

Silven, Maarit; Vauras, Marja

1992-01-01

133

Resilience and Higher Order Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs), i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how som...

Ioan Fazey

134

Team Based Engineering Design Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective is encompassed in the research question driving this inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

Mentzer, Nathan

2012-01-01

135

Herramientas informáticas para la aplicación de técnicas de desarrollo de pensamiento creativo/ Computing tools for the application of creative thinking development techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El sistema educativo no escapa a la renovación de las técnicas para incentivar el pensamiento innovador. El objetivo de esta reflexión monográfica es mostrar la relación entre el desarrollo de la creatividad y los usos de los softwares educativos. Las técnicas seleccionadas son, el mapa mental y el de conceptos, el mandala y las supernotas. Y los softwares empleados, son el Mind Manager, el Inspiración y el CMap Tool. El procedimiento hace referencia a los fundamen (more) tos teóricos argumentados por los autores y, a una descripción de las bondades de los tres softwares seleccionados. Como reflexión final se puede decir que los softwares seleccionados cumplen la función de herramienta mental-tecnológica, al desarrollar habilidades para procesar información de forma creativa. Abstract in english The educational system does not escape to renewing the techniques to motivate innovative thinking. The goal of this monographic reflection is to show the relation between creativity development and education software uses. The chosen techniques are, mental and concept map, the mandala and super note-taking. The software used is the Mind Manager, Inspiration, and the CMap Tool. The procedure refers to the theoretical fundaments argued by the authors and, to a description o (more) f the goodness of the software used. As a final reflection it can be said that the software work as a mental-technological tool, by developing skills to process information in a creative way.

Castillo Rojas, Anny

2008-12-01

136

Primary process thinking, divergent thinking, and coping in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationships among primary process thinking, divergent thinking, and coping were investigated in fifth-grade children. Specifically, it was hypothesized from psychodynamic theory that access to and integration of primary process thinking would be positively related to divergent thinking and that both integration of primary process and divergent thinking would be predictive of coping ability. The Rorschach (Holt's scoring system) and Alternate Uses Test (spontaneous flexibility score) were administered to 53 fifth-grade children. Zeitlin's Coping Inventory, a teacher's rating scale, was the coping measure. Results confirmed the hypotheses for boys in that the percentage of primary process and the Adaptive Regression score on the Rorschach were significantly related to divergent thinking, r(27) = .33, p less than .05 and r(27) = .34, p less than .05, respectively. Divergent thinking was significantly related to teachers' ratings of coping ability for boys, r(27) = .58, p less than .01. There were no significant relationships among the variables for girls. These sex differences in the pattern of correlations are consistent with previous findings.

Russ SW

1988-01-01

137

Primary process thinking, divergent thinking, and coping in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships among primary process thinking, divergent thinking, and coping were investigated in fifth-grade children. Specifically, it was hypothesized from psychodynamic theory that access to and integration of primary process thinking would be positively related to divergent thinking and that both integration of primary process and divergent thinking would be predictive of coping ability. The Rorschach (Holt's scoring system) and Alternate Uses Test (spontaneous flexibility score) were administered to 53 fifth-grade children. Zeitlin's Coping Inventory, a teacher's rating scale, was the coping measure. Results confirmed the hypotheses for boys in that the percentage of primary process and the Adaptive Regression score on the Rorschach were significantly related to divergent thinking, r(27) = .33, p less than .05 and r(27) = .34, p less than .05, respectively. Divergent thinking was significantly related to teachers' ratings of coping ability for boys, r(27) = .58, p less than .01. There were no significant relationships among the variables for girls. These sex differences in the pattern of correlations are consistent with previous findings. PMID:3210126

Russ, S W

1988-01-01

138

Think Before You Click  

CERN Multimedia

Be aware of what attachments you open and what Internet programs you agree to download, the simple click of a mouse can be enough to introduce a virus at CERN and cause widespread damage. Modern viruses are a serious threat to our computers and networks. CERN limits the security risks that these programs pose through the use of its firewall, by constantly updating its anti-virus software, by detecting un-patched security holes, and by blocking many dangerous attachments as they pass through e-mail gateways, but these defenses do not guarantee 100% security. Our habits of clicking "ok" automatically on the Internet and opening attachments without thinking, are the behaviors that modern viruses are using to get past our security protections. Viruses can sit on the Internet waiting for us to activate them as we surf the web. Many of us simply click 'ok' when presented with dialogue boxes and this is exactly what the virus wants: clicking can be enough to download and infect our computers. Viruses can travel as...

2001-01-01

139

What Is Design Thinking and Why Is It Important?  

Science.gov (United States)

Design thinking is generally defined as an analytic and creative process that engages a person in opportunities to experiment, create and prototype models, gather feedback, and redesign. Several characteristics (e.g., visualization, creativity) that a good design thinker should possess have been identified from the literature. The primary purpose…

Razzouk, Rim; Shute, Valerie

2012-01-01

140

Critical Thinking in Language Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Critical thinking, rooted in critical philosophy, has long been an influential part and parcel of Western education. The present study is an attempt to sketch the concept of critical thinking as a viable cornerstone in language education. First, a number of the definitions of the concept as posited by different scholars are put forth. Second, the typical features of critical thinkers are introduced from the perspectives of education scholars. Third, different standpoints on the teachability of the ability to think critically are reviewed. And finally, a number of classroom techniques, including debates, media analyses, problem-solving tasks, self-assessment and peer-assessment, likely to foster critical thinking skills in language classrooms are proposed.

Saeed Rezaei; Ali Derakhshan; Marzieh Bagherkazemi

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Critical Thinking WOCNCB APN Examination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

EDITOR'S NOTE: This feature from the WOCNCB is linked to supplemental digital content (Supplemental Digital content 1, http://links.lww.com/JWOCN/A21) discussing the use of critical thinking when taking a WOCNCB examination.

Richbourg L; Krissovich M

2013-07-01

142

Act local, think global  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive Director Chris Lewis will work with the audience on an interactive basis to outline answers to the following questions: - To what extent was there agreement world-wide on the major communications challenges facing the nuclear industry prior to September 11th, and how to address them locally? - How (and how much) has the nuclear communications agenda changed since then? Are the new challenges the same world-wide? - To what extent is communications strategy - like strategy generally - a question not only of what to do, but also of what not to do? When is lack of transparency justified? - Are the new issues all negative, or do recent global developments also offer nuclear communicators world-wide a new opportunity to 'put across' the key messages they have been trying to communicate for many years past - in particular, the 'place' of nuclear energy in the broader 'energy picture'? (author)

2002-01-01

143

Promoting Creative Thinking and Expression of Science Concepts among Elementary Teacher Candidates through Science Content Movie Creation and Showcasing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the phases of design and use of video editing technology as a medium for creatively expressing science content knowledge in an elementary science methods course. Teacher candidates communicated their understanding of standards-based core science concepts through the creation of original digital movies. The movies were assigned…

Hechter, Richard P.; Guy, Mark

2010-01-01

144

Some Paradoxes of Reflective Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The halls of my area’s elementary schools are plastered with various posters and signs direcing the children to «STOP AND THINK.» If one should stop and think about what exactly these signs are intended to accomplish, it’s safe to say that «think» is being used in a special sense here, since not any old thinking will suffice; we are urging the children to take the time necessary to engage in something like what Cumberland reckons to be among our «perfections.» After all,the child at hand will have already thought about what they are doing sufficiently to be doing it (or else we couldn’t direct them to stop), and so directing them to simply think more about it may notbe useful advice-why should they? Apparently (and it is apparent) we are trying to get the kids to think in a certain, reflective, way. I am going to scrutinize this «way» somewhat. My thesis is that inan important sense it, or what I will call «the reflective self,» has its origins within a community of inquiry.

Nicholas P. Power

2000-01-01

145

Efectos directos e indirectos entre estilos de pensamiento, estrategias metacognitivas y creatividad en estudiantes universitarios/ Direct and indirect effects between thinking styles, metacognitive strategies and creativity in college students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Desde la psicología educativa se han generado estudios que relacionan los estilos de pensamiento con las estrategias metacognitivas y la creatividad. Aunque existe un cuerpo empírico que explicita relaciones de dependencia y/o predictivas entre estos constructos, no hemos hallado estudios que analicen los efectos directos e indirectos que se establecen entre ellos. Así, el objetivo en este estudio fue probar un modelo teórico mediante modelización con ecuaciones estr (more) ucturales para estudiar dichos efectos. Participaron 197 estudiantes universitarios. Los instrumentos usados fueron: i) el Inventario de Estilos de Pensamiento (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner y Zhang, 2003) para medir los estilos de pensamiento; ii) La Escala de Estrategias de Aprendizaje (ACRA) (Román y Gallego, 2001) para medir las estrategias metacognitivas; iii) El Test de Inteligencia Creativa (CREA) (Corbalán Berná et al., 2003) para medir la creatividad. Los resultados obtenidos indican que: i) Los estilos de pensamiento judicial y legislativo (Sternberg, 1998) contribuyen de manera positiva y directamente al uso de estrategias metacognitivas e indirecta y positivamente a la creatividad; ii) las estrategias metacognitivas contribuyen de manera directa y positivamente a la creatividad. Sin embargo, no se ha encontrado una relación directa entre los estilos de pensamiento y la creatividad. Abstract in english Previous studies from the field of Educational Psychology have indicated that thinking styles are related to metacognitive strategies and creativity. Although, there is a body of empirical studies which explains the relationship and/ or predictive relations between these constructs, we have not found studies examining the direct and indirect effects that arise between them. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modelin (more) g to study these effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling to study these effects. Participants in the present study were 197 university students. Instruments used were: i) the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner & Zhan, 2003) to measure thinking styles; ii) The Learning Strategies Scale (ACRA) (Roman & Gallego, 2001) to measure the metacognitive strategies, iii) The Test of Creative Intelligence (CREA) (Corbalan Berna et al., 2003) to measure creativity. The results indicate that: i) The judicial and legislative thinking styles (Sternberg, 1998) contribute to the use of metacognitive strategies directly and in a positive way, and these styles contribute to the creativity indirectly and in a positive way; ii) metacognitive strategies contribute to the creativity directly and in a positively way. However, not found a direct relationship between thinking styles and creativity.

Gutierrez-Braojos, Calixto; Salmeron-Vilchez, Purificación; Martín-Romera, Ana; Salmerón, Honorio

2013-01-01

146

Think City : modular manufacturing approach to the Think City Vehicle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the Think City-Zone battery electric vehicle was discussed. The vehicle is designed for short trips in urban settings for the following three broad groups of customers: business applications, personal use and special project customers. Think Nordic AS, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Ford Motor Company Operations, is based in Aurskog Norway where the innovative personal mobility vehicle is manufactured, marketed and sold. The electric-powered vehicle has an 85 km range and a top speed of 90 km/h. It was designed to be environmentally friendly from the initial stages of manufacturing, through product use and recycling. Both Think Nordic AS and the Ford Motor Company (FMC) share responsibilities in design and development, manufacturing, marketing, communication, sales and service. Think Nordic AS is responsible for manufacturing at the Norway facility. Additional facilities may be added to increase capacity or to address transportation costs to North America. Think Nordic will lead Scandinavia and Europe for marketing the product and FMC will lead the North American market. The basic manufacturing approach has been to adopt a strategy to use existing automotive components and systems to minimize component design effort and investment costs. The latest modular techniques are used to piece the car into several modular systems that are assembled off-line or inside the plant. This modular concept saves on production time and labour. figs.

Wilson, C.C. [Think Nordic AS, Aurskog (Norway)

2000-07-01

147

Thoughts on Thinking: The Challenge of Critical Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Central to Halpern’s definition is the idea that the critical thinker must have not only the necessary analytical tools but also the inclination to use them. Implicit in this argument is the reality that as educators, we must facilitate the learning of both critical thinking skills and dispositions. Critical thinking may also involve the dialectical confrontation between two conflicting forces. The first is what we know and believe; the second is that which is different, new, or contrary to what we know or believe. Braman (1998) uses the phrase “disorienting dilemma” to describe the situation when one critically examines a well-formulated position that is directly at odds with a long held, and perhaps cherished, belief (p. 30). It is this dynamic process of exposure, exploration, and evaluation that is central to the liberal arts educator committed to the practice and to the instruction of critical thinking. However, the evaluation of differing perspectives is a necessary but not sufficient condition of critical thinking. Hatcher and Spencer (2000) address this concern in their succinct but compelling definition. They write that critical thinking “attempts to arrive at a decision or judgment only after honestly evaluating alternatives with respect to available evidence and arguments” (p.1). This definition is particularly satisfying because it refers both to a process (the honest evaluation of alternatives) and to an advocacy-based result (a decision that is informed by the evidence and arguments).

Gary Heisserer

2006-01-01

148

Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking: Integrating Online Tools to Promote Critical Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. To address this dilemma, it is essential to integrate instructional strategies and techniques that can efficiently and effectively maximize student learning and critical thinking. Modern advances in educational technology have produced a range of online tools to assist instructors in meeting this instructional goal. This review will examine the theoretical foundations of critical thinking in higher education, discuss empirically-based strategies for integrating online instructional supplements to enhance critical thinking, offer techniques for expanding instructional opportunities outside the limitations of traditional class time, and provide practical suggestions for the innovative use of critical thinking strategies via online resources.

B. Jean Mandernach

2006-01-01

149

Fostering Design Culture through Cultivating the User-Designers' Design Thinking and Systems Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of design thinking and systems thinking for design has gained much recognition in recent years. In comparison to design thinking, scholarly discussion about systems thinking has a much longer history and includes more multiple and divergent perspectives. This paper reviews and critiques the essence of design thinking and systems…

Ming-fen, Li

150

Concerning technology: thinking with Heidegger.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In human lives, technology holds sway in mundane and extraordinary ways, such as in the ways we work, entertain, transport, and feed ourselves, and importantly in the ways we encounter and manage health, disease, illness, and death. A significant area of Heidegger's later work is questioning technology. Unlike many current inquiries that centre on contemporary technology's function, utility, and positive transformations, Heidegger offers a radical way of thinking about technology through developing an inquiry that uncovers technology's essence of revealing. In this article, Heidegger's thinking about technological modes of revealing in regard to bodies, health, and illness is explored. In Heidegger's view, the ordered revealing of modern technology has overshadowed other modes of revealing. This article highlights how remembering concealment and unconcealment in its many modes can be relevant to nurses and others involved in health care. Through tracing Heidegger's thinking about technology, a more critical approach to the effects and outcomes of modern technologies within health care systems can be generated.

Zitzelsberger HM

2004-10-01

151

[Semantic information. Internal language. Thinking  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Semantic information has reached an objective condition after a lengthy history of semantic inquiries that instrumental neurophysiological devices--such as event-related potentials, electroencephalographic spectral analysis, regional brain circulation, PET scan, deep brain electrodes, and other--have made easier. In turn, internal language, as screened according to Vigotsky's perspective, is considered a product of semantic information circulation understood as neurosemae interconnection. Finally, in normal adults, thinking processes are assumed to be made up by both sensoperceptive information (proprioceptive information included) and semantic information. Thus, an "extraverbal thinking" can be distinguished, whose activity is hardly describable in healthy adults but should be considered as a condition of non-educated deaf persons, and a "verbal thinking", or internal language, made up by semantic information.

Azcoaga JE

1993-06-01

152

Conceptual thinking of uneducated adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is Vygotsky's thesis that the prerequisite of conceptual thinking and concepts in general is the systematic influence upon the child effectuated by his/her inclusion into the process of education. The aim of this work is to examine characteristics of conceptual thinking of people who have not attended school, by which they have been devoid of formative role of education. Four different methods for examination of conceptual development have been used on the sample consisting of seventeen respondents who have not attended school. The results state that the majority of respondents have not demonstrated that they master the concepts on the highest level of development in none of these four methods. However, some respondents in some tests and some individual tasks within the tests show some characteristics of the high level of the conceptual thinking development.

Pavlovi? Zoran

2006-01-01

153

How is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?  

CERN Document Server

The Internet, in the memorable words of EDGE founder John Brockman, is 'the infinite oscillation of our collective consciousness interacting with itself. It's not about computers. It's not about what it means to be human - in fact, it challenges, renders trite, our cherished assumptions on that score. It is about thinking'. In How is the Internet Changing the Way you Think?, the latest volume in Brockman's cutting-edge Edge questions series, 154 of the world's leading intellectuals - scientists, artists and creative thinkers - explore exactly what it means to think in the new age of the Inter

Brockman, John

2011-01-01

154

The cognitive imperative: thinking about how we think.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are three domains of expertise required for consistently effective performance in emergency medicine (EM): procedural, affective, and cognitive. Most of the activity is performed in the cognitive domain. Studies in the cognitive sciences have focused on a number of common and predictable biases in the thinking process, many of which are relevant to the practice of EM. It is important to understand these biases and how they might influence clinical decision-making behavior. Among the specialities, EM provides a unique clinical milieu of inconstancy, uncertainty, variety, and complexity. Injury and illness are seen within narrow time windows, often under pressured ambient conditions. These operating characteristics force practitioners to adopt a distinctive blend of thinking strategies. Principal among them is the use of heuristics, a form of abbreviated thinking that often leads to successful outcomes but that occasionally may result in error. A number of opportunities exist to overcome interdisciplinary, linguistic, and other historical obstacles to develop a sound approach to understanding how we think in EM. This will lead to a better awareness of our cognitive processes, an improved capacity to teach effectively about cognitive strategies, and, ultimately, the minimization or avoidance of clinical error.

Croskerry P

2000-11-01

155

Duck: Think Outside the Flock  

Science.gov (United States)

This set of 25 interactive challenges gives students practice solving problems, using logical thinking, spatial orientation, and movement along a path. Learners must control the movements of one or more ducks to achieve an unstated goal. The music and sound effects add to the realism.

Bonte, Bart

2011-01-01

156

Creative Energy Foods, Inc. Recalls Crunch thinkThin Nutrition Bars Due to Possible Health Risk Associated With Sunland Inc. Peanut Products  

Science.gov (United States)

thinkThin nutrition bars which may contain blanched roasted peanuts supplied by Sunland , Inc. to CEF. The decision was made as the result of the expanded recall of peanut butter, nut butters and peanut products by Sunland because of potential ...

157

The role of knowledge in critical thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses the role of knowledge in critical thinking, i.e. a controversial issue of whether critical thinking is general or subject-dependant ability. Analyzed are basic assumptions of the authors who maintain the view of the generality of critical thinking, and those who defend the view t...

Peši? Jelena

158

Enhancing Systems-Thinking Skills with Modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems thinking is an essential cognitive skill that enables individuals to develop an integrative understanding of a given subject at the conceptual and systemic level. Yet, systems thinking is not usually an innate skill. Helping students develop systems-thinking skills warrants attention from educators. This paper describes a study examining…

Hung, Woei

2008-01-01

159

Augustine and Education in Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Augustine's concept of the deep self provides a basis for a complex and many-faceted account of critical thinking. He uncovers the moral sources of thinking in the inner depths of the self and shows that critical thinking presupposes radical self-reflection ready to face the truth about oneself. Self-knowledge assumes transparency, consciousness…

Puolimatka, Tapio

2005-01-01

160

ThinkQuest to help Internet people Think Young!  

CERN Multimedia

The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March.   Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Dressing up nursing diagnoses: a critical-thinking strategy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Teaching nursing diagnoses to beginning students who have no clinical experiences challenges educators to use their creative energies in developing strategies that facilitate students' critical-thinking skills. Dressing Up Nursing Diagnoses is a fun and creative classroom teaching strategy you can use during the Halloween season to help beginning students formulate nursing diagnoses. Two nurse educators describe their successful experiences with this unique teaching strategy.

Sedlak CA; Ludwick R

1996-07-01

162

Constructive Memory in Design Thinking  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper introduces the concept of constructive memory as a framework for themodeling of design thinking. It describes some recent results from empirical studies ofdesigning to show a gap exists between our models of designing and these results. The paperpresents constructive memory and its associated concept of situatedness as potentialfoundations for increasing our understanding of design thinking.Keywords. Constructive memory, emergence, situatedness, models of designing, designtheory.IntroductionModels of designing have largely been founded on either introspection or extrospection. There has beeninsufficient experimental data on the phenomenon we call "designing" to provide a solid empiricalfoundation on which to found both theories and models. Of course, this has not prevented researchers frompositing both theories and models of designing. (We will use the word "designing" as the verb and"design" and the noun; rather than using context to disambiguate the m...

John S Gero

163

Study on the Mathematical Thinking Ability in College Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The critical aspect of cultivating mathematical ability is the training of mathematics thinking. In the process of mathematics education, it should coach the creative thinking continually, and College mathematics will play an important role in training students’ thinking ability. As the matter of fact, mathematics can explain many phenomena simply and accurately. Through the living feeling, leading students to study these things, which can form the habit of being happy to analyze mathematics and communicate with each other. It could strengthen students’ awareness of applying mathematics and improve the ability of using mathematics. According to three effective ways of coaching students, in order to apply mathematic knowledge in all kinds of social topics, the author will study how to train student’s mathematical thinking from the perspective of college mathematical teaching in this topic.

Meihong Qiao; Anping Liu

2013-01-01

164

Enhancement of Thinking Skills: Effects of Two Intervention Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Three studies were carried out with Compulsory Secondary Education students to verify the effectiveness of two intervention methods--the infusion method (IM) and the instrumental enrichment program (IEP)--to enhance thinking skills, creativity, behavioral self-regulation, and academic achievement. Study 1 (N = 118) was conducted in order to create…

Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, Maria Luisa; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, Maria Teresa; Goicoa Mangado, Tomas; Cardelle-Elawar, Maria

2009-01-01

165

Clinical Reasoning, Decisionmaking, and Action: Thinking Critically and Clinically  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Learning to provide safe and quality health care requires technical expertise, the ability to think critically, experience, and clinical judgment. The high-performance expectation of nurses is dependent upon the nurses’ continual learning, professional accountability, independent and interdependent decisionmaking, and creative problem-solving abilities.

Benner P; Hughes RG; Sutphen M

166

Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed.

Ryan MK; Haslam SA; Hersby MD; Bongiorno R

2011-05-01

167

Counterfactual thinking and regulatory fit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to regulatory fit theory (Higgins, 2000), when people make decisions with strategies that sustain their regulatory focus orientation, they ``feel right'' about what they are doing, and this ``feeling-right'' experience then transfers to subsequent choices, decisions, and evaluations. The present research was designed to link the concept of regulatory fit to functional accounts of counterfactual thinking. In the present study, participants generated counterfactuals about their anagram performance, after which persistence on a second set of anagrams was measured. Under promotion framing (i.e., find 90\\% or more of all the possible words) upward counterfactual thinking in general elicited larger increases in persistence than did downward counterfactual thinking in general, but under prevention framing (i.e., avoid failing to find 90\\% or more of all the possible words) upward evaluation (comparing reality to a better reality) elicited larger increases in persistence than did upward reflection (focusing on a better reality), whereas downward reflection (focusing on a worse reality) elicited larger increases in persistence than did downward evaluation (comparing reality to a worse reality). In all, the present findings suggest that the generation of counterfactuals enhances the likelihood that individuals will engage in courses of action that fit with their regulatory focus orientation.

Keith D. Markman; Matthew N. McMullen; Ronald A. Elizaga; Nobuko Mizoguchi

2006-01-01

168

Does the think-aloud protocol reflect thinking? Exploring functional neuroimaging differences with thinking (answering multiple choice questions) versus thinking aloud.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Whether the think-aloud protocol is a valid measure of thinking remains uncertain. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate potential functional neuroanatomic differences between thinking (answering multiple-choice questions in real time) versus thinking aloud (on review of items). Methods: Board-certified internal medicine physicians underwent formal think-aloud training. Next, they answered validated multiple-choice questions in an fMRI scanner while both answering (thinking) and thinking aloud about the questions, and we compared fMRI images obtained during both periods. Results: Seventeen physicians (15 men and 2 women) participated in the study. Mean physician age was 39.5?+?7 (range: 32-51 years). The mean number of correct responses was 18.5/32 questions (range: 15-25). Statistically significant differences were found between answering (thinking) and thinking aloud in the following regions: motor cortex, bilateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral cerebellum, and the basal ganglia (p?thinking aloud within the motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. These differences were by degree (more focal activation in these areas with thinking aloud as opposed to answering). Prefrontal cortex and cerebellum activity was attributable to working memory. Basal ganglia activity was attributed to the reward of answering a question. The identified neuroimaging differences between answering and thinking aloud were expected based on existing theory and research in other fields. These findings add evidence to the notion that the think-aloud protocol is a reasonable measure of thinking.

Durning SJ; Artino AR Jr; Beckman TJ; Graner J; van der Vleuten C; Holmboe E; Schuwirth L

2013-09-01

169

Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-01-01

170

The role of knowledge in critical thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of knowledge in critical thinking, i.e. a controversial issue of whether critical thinking is general or subject-dependant ability. Analyzed are basic assumptions of the authors who maintain the view of the generality of critical thinking, and those who defend the view that critical thinking is subject dependant, as well as their theoretical and practical arguments in favor of their views. The problem of generality of critical thinking is analyzed on three levels: conceptual (whether it is conceptually possible to speak about critical thinking outside a particular subject context); epistemological (whether the epistemological nature of the ability and skill of critical thinking differs in different domains of human knowledge) and practical (practical implications related to developing the most adequate approach to enhance critical thinking). The outcomes of the analysis suggest that critical thinking has both a general and a subject-dependant components, whose contents require further elaboration based on theoretical and empirical research. Educational implications of the analysis indicate that it is necessary to carefully devise the connection between the desired skills and teaching contents in the curricula which aim at enhancing critical thinking. .

Peši? Jelena

2007-01-01

171

Design Thinking Understand - Improve - Apply  

CERN Document Server

"Everybody loves an innovation, an idea that sells." But how do we arrive at such ideas that sell? And is it possible to learn how to become an innovator? Over the years "Design Thinking" - a program originally developed in the engineering department of Stanford University and offered by the two D-schools at the Hasso Plattner Institutes in Stanford and in Potsdam - has proved to be really successful in educating innovators. It blends an end-user focus with multidisciplinary collaboration and iterative improvement to produce innovative products, systems, and services. "

Meinel, Christoph; Plattner, Hasso

2011-01-01

172

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS FOR LANGUAGE STUDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this areahave begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners’ mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was conducted partly to seek the answers to the issue. A brief training on critical thinking and critical attitude was given to a group of language learners who were studying Business Correspondence. Questionnaires were then used to capture traces of their thinking as they were preparing to accomplish a learning task and while they were listening to their classmates’ presentation of ideas. The data show the change of their thinking process. After the training there is a tendency from the students to ask more critical questions with slightly higher frequencies. It is concluded then that the brief training has prompted their awareness of critical thinking.

Patrisius Istiarto Djiwandono

2013-01-01

173

Postdecisional counterfactual thinking by actors and readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

How do individuals think counterfactually about the outcomes of their decisions? Most previous studies have investigated how readers think about fictional stories, rather than how actors think about events they have actually experienced. We assumed that differences in individuals' roles (actor vs. reader) can make different information available, which in turn can affect counterfactual thinking. Hence, we predicted an effect of role on postdecisional counterfactual thinking. Reporting the results of eight studies, we show that readers undo the negative outcome of a story by undoing the protagonist's choice to tackle a given problem, rather than the protagonist's unsuccessful attempt to solve it. But actors who make the same choice and experience the same negative outcome as the protagonist undo this outcome by altering features of the problem. We also show that this effect does not depend on motivational factors. These results contradict current accounts of counterfactual thinking and demonstrate the necessity of investigating the counterfactual thoughts of individuals in varied roles. PMID:17576264

Girotto, Vittorio; Ferrante, Donatella; Pighin, Stefania; Gonzalez, Michel

2007-06-01

174

Revisiting the predictive power of thinking styles for academic performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study is a further examination of the contributions of thinking styles to academic achievement (see L-F. Zhang, 2001a, 2001b, 2002f; L-F. Zhang & R. J. Sternberg, 1998). Secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 250; 131 from a Catholic boys' school and 119 from a Protestant girls' school) participated in the study. Students' scores on the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) were used to predict their academic achievement in 16 subjects after age, gender, school class level, and performance on the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (R. J. Sternberg, 1993) were controlled. Results indicated that the use of the hierarchical thinking style significantly contributed to better achievement in the social sciences and humanities and that the use of the judicial style uniquely contributed to better achievement in the natural sciences. The use of the monarchic thinking style significantly predicted students' achievement in design and technology. The results of this study suggest that thinking styles should be taken into account in school settings and that thinking styles that generate creativity should be cultivated in students.

Zhang LF

2004-07-01

175

Commentary on Study of Contemporary Integrative Thinking  

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Full Text Available Contemporary integrative thinking is an important thinking way of current scientific development. It is continually developed with flourishing of holism, systematic science and complexity theory. It is far from enough the study of academic circles on its theoretical system, and an automatic condition exists in some aspects. This article is going to comment and analyze several important aspects in theoretical establishment of contemporary integrative thinking. Then the authors make clear study venation of the academic circles, and meanwhile, propose instructive opinions about the theoretical groundwork, scientific essence and practical application of contemporary integrative thinking.

Jian Wang; Juan Hu

2009-01-01

176

REFLECTIVE THINKING AND TEACHING PRACTICES: A PRECURSOR FOR INCORPORATING CRITICAL THINKING INTO THE CLASSROOM?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to show a link between reflective thinking and its ability to stimulate critical thinking. Teachers often perceive that critical thinking skills need to be taught, however research has shown that they may not know how to do this effectively. The use of reflective thinking may be a precursor to stimulating critical thinking in teachers. The research questions are on the reflective thinking skills of teachers and how they perceive themselves and their teaching. In this study a total of 60 participants from institutions of higher learning volunteered to answer a questionnaire to determine the level at which they reflected on their teaching practices as an indicator of their level of critical thinking. It was found that most of the teachers did not reflect deeply on their teaching practices. They did not seem to practice the four learning processes: assumption analysis, contextual awareness, imaginative speculation and reflective scepticism which were indicative of reflection. It would suggest that critical thinking is practised minimally among teachers. Further research need to be carried out on how to bring about reflective practices among teachers and how it would enhance the quality of lessons in terms of critical thinking.

S. Chee Choy; Pou San Oo

2012-01-01

177

Promoting scientific thinking with robots  

CERN Multimedia

This article describes an exemplary robot exercise which was conducted in a class for mechatronics students. The goal of this exercise was to engage students in scientific thinking and reasoning, activities which do not always play an important role in their curriculum. The robotic platform presented here is simple in its construction and is customizable to the needs of the teacher. Therefore, it can be used for exercises in many different fields of science, not necessarily related to robotics. Here we present a situation where the robot is used like an alien creature from which we want to understand its behavior, resembling an ethological research activity. This robot exercise is suited for a wide range of courses, from general introduction to science, to hardware oriented lectures.

Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Benker, Emanuel

2011-01-01

178

Critical thinking in the university curriculum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a multi-qualitative study undertaken to examine the issue of critical thinking as a graduate attribute. Critical thinking is a graduate attribute that many courses claim to produce in students. However, it is important to understand how academics define and describe critical thi...

Ahern, Aoife; Mac Ruairc, Gerry; McNamara, Martin; O'Connor, Tom

179

Designing Thinking Aloud Studies in ESL Reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Briefly reviews prior use of the thinking aloud method. Advantages of this method are contrasted to other techniques of the studying the research process. Suggestions include (1) choosing subjects and reading materials; (2) planning, preparing, and training subjects for thinking aloud sessions; and (3) recording, transcribing, and analyzing data.…

Rankin, J. Mark

1988-01-01

180

Encouraging Historical Thinking at Historic Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to contribute to our understanding of the problem of effectively encouraging historical thinking by (a) evaluating, and modifying Wineburg's heuristics for historical thinking for applicability to the problem-solving activities historians use at historic sites; (b) establishing the efficacy of a hypermedia-based education program…

Baron, Christine

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Systems Thinking Public and Private Sector Studies  

CERN Multimedia

Systems Thinking is a topic which is at the forefront of how we think about management in the Public Sector and Service Industries. This collection from leading thinkers in the field takes a case study approach to a variety of issues which encompass topics such as Banking, Electrical Distribution, Manufacturing and Adult Social Care.

Zokaei, Dr A Keivan; O'Donovan, Brendan

2010-01-01

182

Assessing Skills and Thinking in Social Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cognitive process approach is applied to this discussion of the nature and relationship of skills, thinking, and social studies knowledge. To make understanding explicit, the paper addresses: (1) the meaning of cognitive skills and their role in thinking; (2) generic versus specific skills; and (3) implications for the National Assessment of…

Cornbleth, Catherine

183

Critical Thinking Tendencies of Music Teacher Candidates  

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Full Text Available In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant ?zzet Baysal University, Necatibey Education Faculty of Bal?kesir University and Education Faculty of Çanakkkale Onsekiz Mart University. The data of the study was accumulated by the California Critical Thinking Tendency Scale. In the wake of the study, it was found that music teacher candidates have a medium-level tendency in general critical thinking and its sub-dimensions and that there are high-level significant relations in a positive way between critical thinking tendency and its sub-dimensions. Critical thinking tendencies of music teacher candidates not being differentiated according to the gender and class variable, teacher candidates graduated from general high school having a higher critical thinking tendency than the ones graduated from Anatolian Fine Arts High School were determined.

Duygu P?J? KÜÇÜK; Yusuf Bar?? UZUN

2013-01-01

184

Logical and epistemological approach to critical thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two main approaches in the conceptualization of critical thinking, logical and epistemological, are presented and analyzed in this paper. The review of logical approach begins with defining its general framework (relationship between critical thinking and informal logic) and afterwards we analyze abilities and skills which are seen as basic constituents of critical thinking. In the review of epistemological approach we analyze four conceptions that present the main directions in criticizing logical approach, and also in developing the broader perspective on critical thinking that includes specific view of knowledge and its development, noncognitive dispositions and the role of subject based knowledge. At the end, we discuss the relationship between logical and epistemological approach. We claim and justify that they should be understood as complementary approaches, and we consider specific contribution of each approach to comprehensive definition of critical thinking. .

Peši? Jelena

2007-01-01

185

Manipulating Critical Thinking Skills in Test Taking  

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Full Text Available Critical thinking ability is a difficult concept to define. It involves reasoning and active consideration of what is received rather than a forthright acceptance of the ideas. It has been argued that when the focus of testing is the examination itself, the critical thinking ability of the learners cannot be boosted. However, different types and formats of tests can engage the learners in an active critical thinking when they are appropriately prepared. In this paper some of these tests used in the literature and the way they engage the learners in critical thinking activities are explained. The paper concludes that different tests of language can be manipulated so that they can engage the learners in critical thinking activities. Implications for teachers and test developers are also provided.

Mansoor Fahim; Maryam Pezeshki

2012-01-01

186

Efecto de una intervención motriz en el desarrollo motor, rendimiento académico y creatividad en preescolares Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de un Programa Preescolar de Educación Física Integral (PPEFI) en el desarrollo motor grueso, el rendimiento académico y la creatividad en un grupo de 39 niños y niñas de preescolar, con un promedio de edad de 6 años. Los niños(as) fueron asignados aleatoriamente a uno de tres grupos: Grupo Control, el cual recibió el programa regular de preescolar (el cual incluye una sesión de 30 minutos de educación física). Grupo Experimental 1, el cual recibe el programa regular más una sesión de 30 minutos por semana de la intervención motriz. Grupo Experimental 2, el cual recibe el programa regular más una sesión de 60 minutos de la intervención motriz; durante 8 semanas. Todos los participantes fueron evaluados con el "Torrance Test of Creative Thinking" (TTCT) y con el "Test of Gross Motor Development" antes y después del estudio. El rendimiento académico lo brindó la escuela. Por medio de análisis de varianza de 3 vías con medidas repetidas en el último factor (Grupo x Sexo x Medición), se determinó una interacción triple significativa (Grupo x Sexo x Medición) en la variable de manipulación (p=0.01); y una interacción doble significativa (Grupo x Medición) para las variables de locomoción (p=0.01) y el coeficiente de desarrollo motor (p=0.01). Luego de los análisis post-hoc realizados se concluye que PPEFI tuvo un efecto positivo en niños y niñas en el desarrollo motor grueso, pero no presentó efecto significativo en el rendimiento académico, ni en ningún componente de la creatividad en niños y niñas de preescolar. Palabras Clave: patrones fundamentales de movimiento, actividad física, funcionamiento cognitivo, pensamiento creativo. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years) benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39) were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls) who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week); intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls) who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls), who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post) analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

Judith Jimenez; Gerardo Araya

2009-01-01

187

Positive Thinking: Reduce Stress by Eliminating Negative Self-Talk  

Science.gov (United States)

... use only. Positive thinking: Reduce stress by eliminating negative self-talk By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: ... Sign up Positive thinking: Reduce stress by eliminating negative self-talk Positive thinking helps with stress management ...

188

On the Importance of Conceptual Thinking Outside the Simulation Box  

CERN Multimedia

Any ambitious construction project requires architects for its design and engineers who apply the design to the real world. As scientific research shifts towards large groups which focus on the engineering aspects of linking data to existing models, architectural skills are becoming rare among young theorists. Senior researchers should mentor qualified students and postdocs to think creatively about the big picture without unwarranted loyalty to ancient blueprints from past generations of architects.

Loeb, Abraham

2013-01-01

189

Does Critical Thinking Enhance EFL Learners‘ Receptive Skills?  

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Full Text Available This study explored the effect of Iranian EFL learners’ critical thinking abilities on their receptive English language proficiency skills. With this purpose in mind, the researchers administered the Persian version of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) and the Interchange Objective Placement Test (Lesley, Hansen, & Zukowski-Faust, 2005) to 96 Intermediate EFL learners, and correlated the scores obtained from the two tests to see whether there is any significant relationship between critical thinking and proficiency. Results from Pearson product-moment correlation showed significant correlations between WGCTA subscales and proficiency scores. Furthermore, while logical interpretation was the only important variable in predicting both reading and listening comprehension scores, a stepwise multiple regression consisting of Watson-Glaser subscales 1 (drawing inferences), 2 (recognizing assumptions), and 4 (logical interpretation) successfully predicted total proficiency test scores (R = .43). To see to what extent total scores for critical thinking may affect English language proficiency, three groups of High, Mid, and Low were formed based on critical thinking scores. The mean proficiency scores of the three groups were compared. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in the mean proficiency scores among the three groups. The results of the post-hoc Scheffe test revealed that there was a significant difference between the proficiency scores of the high creative group and those of the two other groups. The implications of the results were discussed.

Mohammad Reza Hashemi; Reza Zabihi

2012-01-01

190

Control deprivation and styles of thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Westerners habitually think in analytical ways, whereas East Asians tend to favor holistic styles of thinking. We replicated this difference but showed that it disappeared after control deprivation (Experiment 1). Brief experiences of control deprivation, which stimulate increased desire for control, caused Chinese participants to shift toward Western-style analytical thinking in multiple ways (Experiments 2-5). Western Caucasian participants also increased their use of analytical thinking after control deprivation (Experiment 6). Manipulations that required Chinese participants to think in Western, analytical ways caused their sense of personal control to increase (Experiments 7-9). Prolonged experiences of control deprivation, which past work suggested foster an attitude more akin to learned helplessness than striving for control, had the opposite effect of causing Chinese participants to shift back toward a strongly holistic style of thinking (Experiments 10-12). Taken together, the results support the reality of cultural differences in cognition but also the cross-cultural similarity of using analytical thinking when seeking to enhance personal control.

Zhou X; He L; Yang Q; Lao J; Baumeister RF

2012-03-01

191

Visual thinking in organizational analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to visualize the relationship among elements of large complex databases is a trend which is yielding new insights into several fields. The author demonstrates the use of 'visual thinking' as an analytical tool to the analysis of formal, complex organizations. Recent developments in organizational design and office automation are making the visual analysis of workflows possible. An analytical mental model of organizational functioning can be built upon a depiction of information flows among work group members. The dynamics of organizational functioning can be described in terms of six essential processes. Furthermore, each of these sub-systems develop within a staged cycle referred to as an enneagram model. Together these mental models present a visual metaphor of healthy function in large formal organizations; both in static and dynamic terms. These models can be used to depict the 'state' of an organization at points in time by linking each process to quantitative data taken from the monitoring of the flow of information in computer networks.

Grantham, Charles E.

1991-06-01

192

Developing First Year Students’ Critical Thinking Skills  

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Full Text Available Critical thinking is a crucial skill that students need to develop while at university. It is important for a well-educated person to be able to make well-informed judgements, be able to explain their reasoning and be able to solve unknown problems. This paper proposes that critical thinking can and should be developed from the first year of university in order for students to cope with their future studies and to be of most use to future employers. The paper then describes four exercises that can be used to develop critical thinking in first year students.

Theda Ann Thomas

2011-01-01

193

Ruminative thinking. A distinctive sign of melancholia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose that ruminative thinking, the tendency to dwell on the same thought or theme, is useful for distinguishing melancholic from nonmelancholic major depression. We demonstrate that the symptom can be rated reliably and that interview ratings are concordant with ward observation of the symptom. The frequency of ruminative thinking, rated retrospectively in a prior study, was 60% in 75 patients having autonomous depression while only 18% of 48 nonautonomous patients were so affected. In this study, we found that ruminative thinking, prospectively rated in 71 patients with unipolar major depression, was present in 53% of patients with DSM-III melancholia but only 11% of the nonmelancholic patients. The presence of ruminative thinking appears to be useful for making the diagnosis of melancholia and its definition may facilitate study of the psychobiology of this disorder.

Nelson JC; Mazure C

1985-07-01

194

Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social–ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually ...

Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan Rockström

195

Recovery After Stroke: Thinking and Cognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Recovery After Stroke: Thinking and Cognition Stroke can cause physical problems. It can also affect cognition. Cognition ... your doctor, “Where am I on my stroke recovery journey?” Note: This fact sheet is complied from ...

196

Concept mapping: a road to critical thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Graduate nurses entering the workforce today are, at times, lacking in the area of critical thinking. Giving graduate nurses a concept map would provide a tool to guide their critical thinking until it becomes inherent or second nature. The concept map, a graphic illustration of key points, guides the focus of patient problems using a body system approach. This article details the use of a concept map in the application of knowledge to practice.

St Cyr SK; All AC

2009-03-01

197

(e-) Mind Thinking with e-Um  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern technology has opened up many new possibilities in learning. Unfortunately, technology's uncritical use can also be damaging. In promoting productive and comprehensive IT learning the essential issue lies within the capability of the teacher and IT material to use computer to promote the basic cognitive aspects of learning and not only to manipulate the learner to remain motivated. Motivation is productive only if used with a focus towards knowledge and understanding. Especially in mathematics the concepts, we try to teach, are simple and logical, but often abstract. Smart use of computers can motivate this abstract concepts through intuitive simulations and animations as well as provide a sophisticated but simple insight into the causality of mathematical thinking. Thus, we argue that preparation of good e-Learning materials requires an almost contemplative focus on what we want to communicate in order not to overwhelm the student with too many effects that the technology offers. The concept and the vision of E-um project has been based on the above premises with a comprehensive system of simple technical, mathematical and didactical guidelines, together with a dynamic and creative system of permanent self evaluation and control. To support those premises new software package based on the Exe open source system has been developed. In order to provide an adequate technical framework for our conceptual ideas new emerging technologies with an emphasis on writing mathematical texts had been used.

Damjan Kobal; Blaž Zmazek

2008-01-01

198

The spatial thinking of origami: evidence from think-aloud protocols.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Origami, the ancient Japanese art of paper folding, involves spatial thinking to both interpret and carry out its instructions. As such, it has the potential to provide spatial training (Taylor and Hutton under review). The present work uses cognitive discourse analysis to reveal the spatial thinking involved in origami and to suggest how it may be beneficial for spatial training. Analysis of think-aloud data while participants folded origami and its relation to gender, spatial ability measures, and thinking style suggest that one way that people profit from spatial training is through the possibility to verbalize concepts needed to solve-related spatial tasks.

Taylor HA; Tenbrink T

2013-05-01

199

Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago  

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Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011) say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

Jonathan Pugh

2013-01-01

200

[Develop critical thinking through the practice daily].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

GOALS: To assess critical thinking skills of students in the UB Hospital Practicum through the development of a daily practice. SETTING: School of Nursing at UB. DESIGN: Descriptive observational correlational. SAMPLE: From the total amount of 3rd course students doing the Hospitalary Practicum from October 2012 to January 2013, we will choose a convenience sample of n=10 from the number of students randomly assigned to each associate teacher, and in this case the main researcher. DATA COLLECTION: From the California Critical Thinking skills test CCTST we'll seek personal disposition towards critical thinking through CCTDI California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory questionnaire to be passed to the students before the start of the Hospitalary and critical thinking skills will be sought after. A modified CTS Critical Thinking skills scale will be used to analyze reflexive writings. ANALYSIS: Data will be statistically treated using SPSS and analized using descriptive statistic.Chi-square tests will be used to verify the existence of correlation between the research variables.

González Samartino M

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Higher Order Thinking: Definition, Meaning and Instructional Approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This publication shares current thinking, research, and practice in the area of higher order thinking skills with home economics educators, including teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators. The first three articles provide general discussions of thinking skills. They are "Introduction" (Ruth Pestle); "Can Higher Order Thinking Skills Be…

Thomas, Ruth G., Ed.

202

It's All in the Detail: Intentional Forgetting of Autobiographical Memories Using the Autobiographical Think/No-Think Task  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a novel autobiographical think/no-think procedure (ATNT; a modified version of the think/no-think task), 2 studies explored the extent to which we possess executive control over autobiographical memory. In Study 1, 30 never-depressed participants generated 12 positive and 12 negative autobiographical memories. Memories associated with…

Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm D.

2013-01-01

203

CATEGORIES OF CRITICAL THINKING IN INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. A STUDY OF CRITICAL THINKING IN DECISION MAKING PROCESSES  

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Full Text Available This article focuses as a survey on the qualities of Critical Thinking on reviewing its definitions in recent history of academic research and compared to other intellectual processes. On the one hand we will compare the basic characteristic qualities of Critical Thinking with other types of thinking. On the other hand we will give examples how Critical Thinking is a part of the decision making processes both in personal human issues and institutional decision making processes. Since Critical Thinking is an intellectual skill, we show the applications of this intellectual skill within contemporary life. Critical Thinking has several academic roots of philosophy, rhetorical argumentation, logic and social science, but also is an auxiliary tool in other academic disciplines. Coming from these roots Critical Thinking also finds its applications in contemporary private and professional life. Based on this historical and exemplifying discourse of criticism, we will argue for a general importance of Critical Thinking contrary to contemporary predominance as an applied skill and educational tool.

Fee-Alexandra Haase

2010-01-01

204

Thinking Design and Pedagogy: An Examination of Five Canadian Post-Secondary Courses in Design Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

At the tertiary level today, courses on design thinking can be found in diverse programs in and beyond the realm of traditional design disciplines. Across Canada, design thinking courses feature in communication, culture and information technology, and business and engineering. This paper reports findings from a study that investigated the…

Donar, Ann

2011-01-01

205

Making Thinking Visible: Using Online Tools to Initiate Teachers' and Students' Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper shares findings from a formative evaluation that explores a professional development program, Intel[R] Teach to the Future Workshop on Interactive Thinking Tools. The Workshop trains K-12 teachers how to use online tools with their students, which are designed to foster higher-order thinking skills, and combine technology and…

Wexler, Dara H.; Hochman, Jessica L.

2004-01-01

206

Increasing self-other integration through divergent thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing evidence suggests that people may cognitively represent themselves and others just like any other, nonsocial event. Here, we provide evidence that the degree of self-other integration (as reflected by the joint Simon effect; JSE) is systematically affected by the control characteristics of temporally overlapping but unrelated and nonsocial creativity tasks. In particular, the JSE was found to be larger in the context of a divergent-thinking task (alternate uses task) than in the context of a convergent-thinking task (remote association task). This suggests that self-other integration and action corepresentation are controlled by domain-general cognitive-control parameters that regulate the integrativeness (strong vs. weak top-down control and a resulting narrow vs. broad attentional focus) of information processing irrespective of its social implications.

Colzato LS; van den Wildenberg WP; Hommel B

2013-02-01

207

Concept Mapping for Higher Order Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Engineering education is facing a changing world in which how one thinks is becoming more important than what one thinks; that is, our course content is important but constantly changing and we need to help students learn how to think about that content.Today’s students have grown accustomed to immediate rewards, multi-channel stimuli, and rapid-fire communications.  As a result, they are often impatient and suffer a lack of focus. When reflection is called for in the learning process - a time consuming practice - students may find it difficult to overcome the conflict between their typically speedy management of priorities and the focused, time-intensive thinking required to acquire a strong foundation of declarative knowledge.Therefore, the exploration of tools to facilitate the formation of deep knowledge structures is essential. One instructional strategy that shows promise is the use of concept mapping, a learning activity that requires students to explain their understanding of important ideas and the relationships among those ideas.  This paper describes a pilot project to integrate concept mapping into a Mechanical Engineering Course and the preliminary results of that project.This project has been established within the Working Group of “Tools for Developing High Order Thinking Skills”, of the Portuguese Society for Engineering Education, in which the first author is the leader and the other two co-authors, are working group members

Susan Marie Zvacek; Maria Teresa Restivo; Maria Fátima Chouzal

2013-01-01

208

Systems Thinking for an Economically Literate Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the US a dismal truth exists about the citizenry’s lack of understanding of economic fundamentals whether it is amongst our political leaders or our university graduates. This then leads one to ask, “What can be done to help people become literate in economics?” Perhaps the answer lies in the area of systems thinking, which is a way of thinking about the interconnections between the parts of a system and their synthesis into a unified view of the whole system. More specifically, this means incorporating systems thinking and design in primary, secondary, and tertiary curricula. In this paper, the author gives a cursory review of General Systems Theory (GST) as developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy and extended by others in the systems thinking field to illustrate the confluences of thought among Ludwig von Mises and systems scientists. From this the author argues the need for systems thinking and design in curricula and makes reference to non-prescriptive teaching and learning applications for the fostering of economic literacy.

Michael F. Reber

2010-01-01

209

Understanding Student Computational Thinking with Computational Modeling  

CERN Multimedia

Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...

Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F

2012-01-01

210

Teachers’ Critical Thinking Level and Dispositions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking level and dispositions of teachers. Participants of this descriptive study were 110 teachers and lecturers. Data of the study were based on literature review and on scores on California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. Its alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.88. Data analyses were involve determination of descriptive statistics, use of t-test, analysis of variance and Scheffe’s test (p<0.05). As a result; Critical thinking level and dispositions of teachers is found medium. It is also determined education level, type of institution, filed of study, seniority and gender, factors aren’t effect on it.

Özgen KORKMAZ

2009-01-01

211

Rational thinking in school-based practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. METHOD: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue confronts uncertainties. We provide suggestions for how this dialogue can be used throughout the individualized education program (IEP) process to lead to more positive experiences for all team members as well as improved student outcomes. CONCLUSION: Rational thinking in school-based practice may be manifest by closer adherence to the tenets [corrected] of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA), ultimately resulting in increased rational thought and improved student outcomes.

Clark MK; Flynn P

2011-01-01

212

Reflexivity and the capacity to think.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reflexivity is fundamental to qualitative health research, yet notoriously difficult to unpack. Drawing on Wilfred Bion's work on the development of the capacity to think and to learn, I show how the capacity to think is an impermanent and fallible capacity, with the potential to materialize or evaporate at any number of different points. I use this conceptualization together with examples from published interview data to illustrate the difficulties for researchers attempting to sustain a reflexive approach, and to direct attention toward the possibilities for recovering and supporting the capacity to think. I counter some of the criticisms suggesting that reflexivity can be self-indulgent, and suggest instead that self-indulgence constitutes a failure of reflexivity. In the concluding discussions I acknowledge tensions accompanying the use of psychoanalytic theories for research purposes, and point to emerging psychosocial approaches as one way of negotiating these.

Doyle S

2013-02-01

213

Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from ‘transmission’ models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005).

MM Chabeli

2006-01-01

214

[Critical thinking: a focus in nursing education  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study we identify and analyse articles published in national and international journals, that used the term "critical thinking" in the title or summary. The aim of the analysis was to seek answers to educators' queries as to how to improve teaching-learning the process in nursing. We analysed 52 articles published in the indexes Comprehensive Medline, Lilacs and Cinahl, in the last five years, from July, 1992 to July, 1997. Data analysis showed that critical thinking should be implemented in nursing education, what demands syllabus planning and teaching-learning strategies that will favour active participation by both educators and learners.

Lima MA; Cassiani SH

2000-01-01

215

[Critical thinking: a focus in nursing education].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we identify and analyse articles published in national and international journals, that used the term "critical thinking" in the title or summary. The aim of the analysis was to seek answers to educators' queries as to how to improve teaching-learning the process in nursing. We analysed 52 articles published in the indexes Comprehensive Medline, Lilacs and Cinahl, in the last five years, from July, 1992 to July, 1997. Data analysis showed that critical thinking should be implemented in nursing education, what demands syllabus planning and teaching-learning strategies that will favour active participation by both educators and learners. PMID:10909374

Lima, M A; Cassiani, S H

2000-01-01

216

Applying spatial thinking in social science research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spatial methods that build upon Geographic Information Systems are spreading quickly across the social sciences. This essay points out that the appropriate use of spatial tools requires more careful thinking about spatial concepts. As easy as it is now to measure distance, it is increasingly important to understand what we think it represents. To interpret spatial patterns, we need spatial theories. We review here a number of key concepts as well as some of the methodological approaches that are now at the disposal of researchers, and illustrate them with studies that reflect the very wide range of problems that use these tools.

Logan JR; Zhang W; Xu H

2010-01-01

217

How can we think the complex?  

CERN Multimedia

This chapter does not deal with specific tools and techniques for managing complex systems, but proposes some basic concepts that help us to think and speak about complexity. We review classical thinking and its intrinsic drawbacks when dealing with complexity. We then show how complexity forces us to build models with indeterminacy and unpredictability. However, we can still deal with the problems created in this way by being adaptive, and profiting from a complex system's capability for selforganization, and the distributed intelligence this may produce.

Gershenson, C; Gershenson, Carlos; Heylighen, Francis

2004-01-01

218

Aging, climate change, and legacy thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climate change is a complex, long-term public health challenge. Older people are especially susceptible to certain climate change impacts, such as heat waves. We suggest that older people may be a resource for addressing climate change because of their concern for legacy--for leaving behind values, attitudes, and an intact world to their children and grandchildren. We review the theoretical basis for "legacy thinking" among older people. We offer suggestions for research on this phenomenon, and for action to strengthen the sense of legacy. At a time when older populations are growing, understanding and promoting legacy thinking may offer an important strategy for addressing climate change.

Frumkin H; Fried L; Moody R

2012-08-01

219

Thinking through Content Instruction: Microteaching Unveils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent of critical skills being incorporated in the undergraduates’ lesson as shown in their microteaching sessions. The researcher seeks to find evidence of critical thinking skills in the undergraduates’ content instruction of their respective lessons. She investigates the integration of critical thinking skills via the undergraduates’ lesson plans and the lesson’s implementation. She seeks for inclusion of these skills by viewing the taped lessons. Recommendations to UPSI are also presented in an effort to inspire awareness on the compelling need for thinkers amongst undergraduates and future teachers.

Nor Hashimah Isa; Hj. Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2011-01-01

220

Concept mapping: a distinctive educational approach to foster critical thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advanced practice nurses must be able to link interventions to address pathophysiological processes with underlying alterations in normal physiological function to promote safe, effective patient care. Development of creative methods to assist students to make their own connections among healthcare concepts is imperative to create a positive learning environment. The authors discuss the use of concept mapping in conjunction with case-study clinical rounds to maximize critical thinking and greater learning retention among advanced practice nurses in a graduate physiology/pathophysiology course.

Taylor LA; Littleton-Kearney M

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Critical Thinking in Education: Globally Developed and Locally Applied  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Critical Thinking encompasses a set of skills including the ability to assess reasons properly, probe into pertinent evidence and figure out fallacious arguments in educational settings. Developing critical thinking or promoting the ability to think critically is a prime goal of education (Birjandi and Bagherkazemi, 2010; Bailin et al., 1991a,). A key factor to improving educational standards is training teachers into employing classroom strategies that encourage critical thinking. This paper wishes to take a fundamental look at the application of critical thinking to education in an Iranian context through analyzing its scope, significance, the need for, and strategies employed to enhance critical thinking (CT) in educational contexts.

Mansoor Fahim; Mohammad Reza Ghamari

2011-01-01

222

Thinking Style, Browsing Primes and Hypermedia Navigation  

Science.gov (United States)

|There is a common assumption that hypermedia navigation is influenced by a learner's style of thinking, so people who are inclined to apply sequential and analytical strategies (left-thinkers) are thought to browse hypermedia in a linear way, whereas those who prefer holistic and intuitive strategies (right-thinkers) tend towards non-linear…

Fiorina, Lorenzo; Antonietti, Alessandro; Colombo, Barbara; Bartolomeo, Annella

2007-01-01

223

Thinking Aloud during Spelling Word Sorts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines how fifth-grade students at different stages of spelling approach open-word sorting activities with familiar words. Demonstrates the value of using open sorts as a means of assessing student thinking about words. Suggests that teachers should be careful using scaffolding techniques--they need to establish the nature and purpose of sorting…

Fresch, Mary Jo; Wheaton, Aileen; Zutell, Jerome B.

1998-01-01

224

Media, Think Tanks, and Educational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Bunkum Awards are a sort of beauty contest for ugly people. Bestowed by the National Education Policy Center housed at the University of Colorado at Boulder, they reward the most "nonsensical, confusing, and disingenuous" studies of education published each year. Contestants are drawn from reports critiqued by the Think Tank Review Project, a…

Yettick, Holly

2011-01-01

225

Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change...

Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.

226

Using Repeating Patterns to Explore Functional Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, primary schools place minimal emphasis upon relations and transformations as objects of study. In their research, the authors have found the young children can engage in conversations about equivalence and equations (Warren & Cooper, 2005a) and functional thinking (Warren & Cooper, 2005b). Fundamental to relations and…

Warren, Elizabeth; Cooper, Tom

2006-01-01

227

Nursing Faculty Perceptions on Teaching Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

The perceptions of nursing faculty teaching critical thinking (CT) affective attributes and cognitive skills are described in this quantitative, descriptive study. The study sample consisted of nurse educators from the National League of Nursing database. The purpose of the study was to gain nursing faculty perception of which teaching strategies…

Clark, Doris A.

2010-01-01

228

Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant opportunity for learning and…

Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

2007-01-01

229

Teaching Critical Thinking by Examining Assumptions  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe how instructors can integrate the critical thinking skill of examining theoretical assumptions (e.g., determinism and materialism) and implications into psychology courses. In this instructional approach, students formulate questions that help them identify assumptions and implications, use those questions to identify and examine the…

Yanchar, Stephen C.; Slife, Brent D.

2004-01-01

230

The thinking styles of human resource practitioners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: Drawing upon Sternberg's theory of mental self-government, this paper aims to investigate the thinking styles and workplace experiences of 152 human resource (HR) practitioners pursuing Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) membership. It seeks to explore whether their thi...

Higgins, P; Zhang, LF

231

Paths from Erich Fromm: Thinking Authority Pedagogically.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Drawing from psychologist Eric Fromm's work, this article confronts the relationship between individualism on one hand, and the ability for individuals to think collectively and transform social structures on the other. States that in this context, atomization becomes a dimension of both fascism and capitalism, one that positions freedom as the…

Weiner, Eric J.

2003-01-01

232

What Nathan Teaches Us about Transitional Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

This article demonstrates how a child's invented algorithm about tens and ones generated "transitional thinking" on the way to the construction of a mathematical understanding of place value. The articles also discusses how two important "best practice" classroom strategies, mathematical discourse, and the role of wait time in that discourse take…

Taylor, Ann R.; Breck, Susan E.; Aljets, Carol M.

2004-01-01

233

Ludwik Fleck: forerunner of Thomas Kuhn's thinking. [Spanish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores Ludwik Fleck’s concepts of collective thinking, style of thinking, esoteric and exoteric communication as precursors of the concepts of paradigm and incommensurability central in Thomas Kuhn’s thought.

Mónica Pérez Marín

2010-01-01

234

What Can I Do If I Think I Have PTSD?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Can I Do if I Think I Have PTSD? Share this page Search PTSD Site Choose Section Enter Term and Search Advanced ... long-term symptoms. If you think you have PTSD Talk to your family doctor. Talk to a ...

235

Dialectical thinking and coping flexibility: A multimethod approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coping flexibility refers to the formulation of flexible coping strategies that meet distinct demands under changing circumstances. Dialectical thinking was proposed to be related to flexible coping across situations. The hypothesized link between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility was expl...

Cheng, C

236

Circadian Preference and Thinking Styles: Implications for School Achievement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research has shown that thinking styles could have an influence on academic achievement. Previous studies have described that evening types are usually right-thinkers who tend to be creative and intuitive, whereas morning types tend to be left-thinkers who prefer verbal and analytic strategies in processing information. However, these studies have been realized among undergraduates, who have more freedom to choose their time schedules according to their circadian preference than adolescents or adult workers. On other hand, the relationship between thinking styles and circadian preference has not been analyzed considering school achievement. The present study aims (1) to investigate the relationship between circadian preference, that is, behavioral differences in circadian rhythmic expression, and thinking styles, referring to the preference toward information processing typical of the right versus the left cerebral hemisphere; and (2) to test the implications for self-reported school achievement. A sample of 1134 preadolescents and adolescents (581 girls; mean?±?SD age: 12.1?±?1.47, range: 10-14?yrs) completed the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) as measure of circadian preference (morning, neither, or evening types), the Hemispheric Preference Test (HPT), conceived as a tool to measure thinking styles (right-, balanced-, and left-thinkers), and self-reported school achievement. Results indicated a greater percentage of left-thinkers among morning types and a greater percentage of right-thinkers among evening types. No differences were found among balanced-thinkers and neither types. Morning types and left-thinkers reported the highest subjective level of achievement, followed by evening types and left-thinkers, and morning types and right-thinkers. Evening types and right-thinkers reported the lowest subjective level of achievement. Finally, multivariate regression analysis indicated that age, left hemisphere and morning preferences accounted for 14.2% of total variance on self-reported achievement.

Díaz-Morales JF; Escribano C

2013-09-01

237

Thinking Aloud in Expository Text: Processes and Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines three questions: What kinds of think-aloud statements, in particular what kinds of inferences, are made by middle school students while reading expository text? Does thinking aloud affect comprehension as measured by recall and answers to questions? Does thinking aloud add value to the assessment of comprehension beyond what is…

Caldwell, JoAnne; Leslie, Lauren

2010-01-01

238

Thinking Maps: Research-Based Instructional Strategy in a PDS  

Science.gov (United States)

An exploratory action research case study was conducted at Moanalua Middle School from 2006-2009 to examine the impact of Thinking Maps on student achievement. Thinking Maps are not just another set of graphic organizers but a set of eight of unique visual mind maps with each linked to a specific higher-order thinking pattern. This study tells the…

Kessler, Cristy; Zuercher, Deborah K.; Wong, Caroline S.

2013-01-01

239

An Assessment Instrument to Measure Geospatial Thinking Expertise  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial thinking is fundamental to the practice and theory of geography, however there are few valid and reliable assessment methods in geography to measure student performance in spatial thinking. This article presents the development and evaluation of a geospatial thinking assessment instrument to measure participant understanding of spatial…

Huynh, Niem Tu; Sharpe, Bob

2013-01-01

240

A critique of positive thinking for patients with cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a critical reflection of the debate regarding the adoption of positive thinking in the care and recovery of patients with cancer. Positive thinking is an approach characterised by adopting a fighting spirit, taking control and being strong and brave. The association of positive thinking with a range of favourable outcomes has been challenged. PMID:21739798

Tod, A

 
 
 
 
241

A critique of positive thinking for patients with cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides a critical reflection of the debate regarding the adoption of positive thinking in the care and recovery of patients with cancer. Positive thinking is an approach characterised by adopting a fighting spirit, taking control and being strong and brave. The association of positive thinking with a range of favourable outcomes has been challenged.

Tod A

2011-06-01

242

O pensamento criativo de Paul Klee: arte e música na constituição da Teoria da Forma/ The creative thinking of Paul Klee: art and music in the formation of the Theory of Form  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudo sobre a Teoria da Forma concebida no início do século XX pelo artista plástico Paul Klee e publicado no livro O Pensamento Criativo (KLEE, 1920). A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é uma demonstração do pensamento artístico que adota pressupostos formais, previamente estabelecidos para resultar na prática da representação artística. Klee identificou as relações formais entre a música e as artes visuais, apresentando conexões entre a linha melódica e a l (more) inha no desenho; o ritmo e as seqüências de módulos e sub-módulos; os tempos dos compassos e as divisões da pintura; a métrica da música e a modulação da forma e da cor nas artes visuais. Klee também apresentou suas experiências com superposição de cores e texturas para representar visualmente a polifonia. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é um exemplo de estudo que pressupõe modelos formais para a elaboração artística e projetual. Abstract in english Study on the Theory of Form conceived in the early twentieth century by artist Paul Klee and published in the book The Creative Thinking (KLEE, 1920). The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is a demonstration of an artistic thought that adopts the previously established formal prerequisites that result in the practice of artistic representation. Klee identified the formal relationship between music and the visual arts, providing connections between the melodic line and the line (more) in the drawing, rhythm and sequence of modules and sub-modules, the pulses of the measures and the divisions of the painting, metrics in music and the modulation of shape and color in the visual arts. Klee also presented his experiences with overlapping colors and textures to visually represent polyphony. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is an example of a study that requires formal models for the artistic and design elaboration.

Castro, Rosana Costa Ramalho de

2010-01-01

243

O pensamento criativo de Paul Klee: arte e música na constituição da Teoria da Forma The creative thinking of Paul Klee: art and music in the formation of the Theory of Form  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudo sobre a Teoria da Forma concebida no início do século XX pelo artista plástico Paul Klee e publicado no livro O Pensamento Criativo (KLEE, 1920). A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é uma demonstração do pensamento artístico que adota pressupostos formais, previamente estabelecidos para resultar na prática da representação artística. Klee identificou as relações formais entre a música e as artes visuais, apresentando conexões entre a linha melódica e a linha no desenho; o ritmo e as seqüências de módulos e sub-módulos; os tempos dos compassos e as divisões da pintura; a métrica da música e a modulação da forma e da cor nas artes visuais. Klee também apresentou suas experiências com superposição de cores e texturas para representar visualmente a polifonia. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é um exemplo de estudo que pressupõe modelos formais para a elaboração artística e projetual.Study on the Theory of Form conceived in the early twentieth century by artist Paul Klee and published in the book The Creative Thinking (KLEE, 1920). The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is a demonstration of an artistic thought that adopts the previously established formal prerequisites that result in the practice of artistic representation. Klee identified the formal relationship between music and the visual arts, providing connections between the melodic line and the line in the drawing, rhythm and sequence of modules and sub-modules, the pulses of the measures and the divisions of the painting, metrics in music and the modulation of shape and color in the visual arts. Klee also presented his experiences with overlapping colors and textures to visually represent polyphony. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is an example of a study that requires formal models for the artistic and design elaboration.

Rosana Costa Ramalho de Castro

2010-01-01

244

Exploring Cultural Differences in Critical Thinking: Is It about My Thinking Style or the Language I Speak?  

Science.gov (United States)

|Critical thinking is deemed as an ideal in academic settings, but cultural differences in critical thinking performance between Asian and Western students have been reported in the international education literature. We examined explanations for the observed differences in critical thinking between Asian and New Zealand (NZ) European students,…

Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Fischer, Ronald; Ward, Colleen

2010-01-01

245

Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

Wong, Shyh Shin

2012-01-01

246

NIRA 1996 World Directory of Think Tanks  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institute for Research Advancement (Japan) provides this no-frills page that makes available basic information on over 250 think tanks (policy organizations) in over 65 countries. Information available can include executive personnel, history, areas of research, geographic focus, availability of research findings, chief researchers, and funding sources, among other data. Contact information is also available, including links to websites when available. For those interested in policy institutes and their work, this is an excellent place to start.

247

STRATEGIC THINKING AS A LEARNING PROCESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the central notion that every strategy is always a theory, necessarily a strategy is based on speculations about the expected performance of a system in its environment and, as such, those conjectures should be exposed to refutations with the purpose of enhancing its effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its goals. This succession of conjectures and refutations is at the core of the strategic thinking methodology as a learning process and, therefore, as the Competitive Development thrust.

Alberto, Levy

2012-01-01

248

Mathematical Thinking: Teachers Perceptions and Students Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper was investigated the teachers rating of the six different aspects of mathematical thinking developed by the researcher: Searching for patterns , Induction, Deduction, symbolism, Logical thinking and Mathematical proof in relation to level of importance, level of difficulty, and time spent in teaching each aspect. This paper was also aimed to examine any possible consistencies and inconsistencies between teacher opinions about the level of importance of mathematical thinking aspects to mathematics achievement, level of difficulty and test data collected. Also, it was examined if the students were familiar with solving specific problems (such as rice problem) logical ways like searching for patterns rather than more traditional approaches and if they also applying the fourth step in problem solving according to Polya, (1990) (i.e., looking back (a checking the answer)). Key words: Mathematical thinking; Teacher perceptions; Students performanceRésumé Ce document a étudié la notation des six aspects différents de la pensée mathématique des enseignants développé par le chercheur: la recherche de modèles, à induction, déduction, le symbolisme, la pensée logique et mathématique la preuve par rapport au niveau d'importance, le niveau de difficulté et le temps passé dans l'enseignement de chaque aspect. Ce document visait également à examiner toute consistances et des incohérences éventuelles entre les opinions des enseignants sur le niveau d'importance des aspects la pensée mathématique à la réussite en mathématiques, niveau de difficulté et les données recueillies lors des essais. En outre, il a été examiné si les élèves ont été familiarisés avec la résolution de problèmes spécifiques (tels que les problèmes du riz) façons logiques, tels que la recherche de modèles plutôt que des approches plus traditionnelles, et si ils ont également l'application de la quatrième étape dans la résolution de problèmes en fonction de Polya, (1990) (à savoir, en regardant en arrière (une vérification de la réponse)).Mots clés: Pensée mathématique; Les perceptions des enseignants et le rendement des étudiants

Mamoon. M. Mubark

2011-01-01

249

The Interrelationship between Speeded and Unspeeded Divergent Thinking and Reasoning, and the Role of Mental Speed  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between intelligence and creativity is still subject to substantial debate in the research literature. In the present study, we focused on core dimensions of both constructs, that is divergent thinking and reasoning. We hypothesized their relationship to depend both on the speededness of test tasks and on the subject's mental…

Preckel, Franzis; Wermer, Christina; Spinath, Frank M.

2011-01-01

250

Critical Thinking in Higher Education: Unfulfilled Expectations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Success in adult life and effective functioning in education depends among other things on critical thinking. The present study consisted of two parts. First, critical thinking (CT) skill of a group of 68 students majoring in education in Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch was evaluated. The participants, divided into two experimental and control groups, received California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) which is a 34 item Multiple-Choice test. The students in the control group were freshmen and the experimental group, junior students. To the researchers’ dismay, junior education students did not perform significantly better than did the freshman students. Using a qualitative method of research, another study was conducted to see whether the university instructors in the education department who had the responsibility of teaching different courses to the same students were aware of the principles of CT. A semi-structured interview was conducted and eight volunteering faculty members in the department of education took part in the interview. Result revealed that, although these instructors highly valued CT and were aware of its tenets, there were some constraints which did provide a situation to let the students practice CT in their classrooms, and much had to be done to help instructors implement CT in their classrooms.

Mehrdad Rezaee; Majid Farahian; Ali Morad Ahmadi

2012-01-01

251

Gaming science: the "Gamification" of scientific thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

Morris, Bradley J.; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie

2013-01-01

252

Gaming science: the “Gamification” of scientific thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

Morris BJ; Croker S; Zimmerman C; Gill D; Romig C

2013-01-01

253

A comprehensive approach to the development of thinking skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of independent and innovative thinking entails much more than merely the acquisition of a series of thinking skills. A comprehensive approach based upon inter-disciplinary cooperation between, among others, the disciplines of philosophy, education and pscychology is needed. In such a comprehensive approach to the development of thinking skills the following factors that have a bearing on the acquisition of thinking skills should be addressed:The cultivation of a positive disposition towards the development of thinking.The creation of conditions conducive to the development of thinking.The cultivation of virtues that will dispose a person towards good thinking.An understanding of what good thinking entails.The teaching and assessment of thinking skills.In this article, these various factors and their bearing on the development of thinking skills are explored. A general theoretical framework for the development of thinking skills is proposed that can and should be translated to specific domains of knowledge or to specific human enterprises.

G. J. Rossouw; J. C. Lamprecht

1995-01-01

254

Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…

Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

2011-01-01

255

Thinking about think tanks in health care: a call for a new research agenda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little sociological attention has been given to the role of think tanks in health policy and planning. Existing work in political science and public administration tends to define and categorise think tanks and situate them as a disinterested source of policy expertise. Despite the increasingly visible presence of think tanks in the world of health care, such work has done little to reveal how they operate, by whom and to what ends. Our article seeks to redress this firstly by examining why they have remained relatively hidden in academic analyses and secondly by advocating an interpretive approach that incorporates think tanks within the wider landscape of health policy and planning. In contrast to most existing literature, an interpretive approach acknowledges that much of the messy business of healthcare policy and planning remains hidden from view and that much can be gleaned by examining the range of organisations, actors, coalitions, everyday activities, artefacts and interactions that make up the think tank stage and that work together to shape health policy and planning. Given the paucity of research in this area, we urge the medical sociology community to open the field to further academic scrutiny.

Shaw SE; Russell J; Greenhalgh T; Korica M

2013-09-01

256

The Art of Thinking: Using Collage to Stimulate Scholarly Work  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrating the arts into higher education pedagogy provides an opportunity for cultivating rich ideas and high-level thinking, capitalizing on the creativity that every person already possesses and uses (Livingston, 2010). As Newton and Plummer (2009) note “the use of the creative arts as pedagogical strategy enables individuals to better understand themselves, [and] to stimulate thinking” (p. 75).We extend that premise to examine the impact of an arts activity on scholarly thinking. Our exploratory study examines academics’ (graduate students and educators) identity and role constructs (Kelly, 1955) to understand to what extent engaging in arts-based activities supports meaning-making and conceptualizing research questions. We asked participants to reflect on collages they created, how the collage process supported their research conceptualization, challenges they encountered, and their overall reflections on the process as an adjunct to written scholarly work. We show that the process of creating collages supported participants in making their tacit knowledge explicit, in reflecting at meta-cognitive levels, and in transforming their thinking, often in ways they anticipated would affect their future practice.L’intégration des arts dans la pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur offre l’occasion de cultiver de riches idées et rend possible une réflexion d’ordre supérieur qui permet de capitaliser sur la créativité que chaque personne possède déjà et utilise (Livingston, 2010). Comme le font remarquer Newton et Plummer (2009), « l’usage des arts créatifs en tant que stratégies pédagogiques permet aux gens de mieux se comprendre et de stimuler la réflexion. » (p. 75)Nous élargissons cette prémisse pour examiner l’impact d’une activité artistique sur la pensée savante. Notre étude exploratoire examine l’identité d’universitaires (étudiants de cycles supérieurs et éducateurs) et les constructions de rôles (Kelly, 1955) pour comprendre la mesure dans laquelle le fait de s’engager dans des activités artistiques appuie la conceptualisation de questions qui portent sur la recherche de la signification. Nous avons demandé aux participants de réfléchir aux collages qu’ils avaient créés, à la manière dont le processus de création de ces collages avait appuyé leur conceptualisation de la recherche, aux défis auxquels ils avaient été confrontés et à leur réflexion générale sur le processus en tant qu’activité d’appoint à leurs travaux académiques écrits. Nous montrons que le processus de création de collages a aidé les participants à rendre explicites leurs connaissances tacites, à réfléchir à des niveaux méta-cognitifs et à transformer leur pensée d’une manière qui allait souvent, comme ils l’avaient anticipé, affecter leur pratique future.

Nicola Simmons; Shauna Daley

2013-01-01

257

Grow Creativity!  

Science.gov (United States)

|Creativity matters. A shared vocabulary and lens for creativity helps teachers and students know what it means to "be creative" and where to start. J. P. Guilford's FFOE model of divergent thinking from the 1950s offers four dimensions to describe creativity: (1) Fluency; (2) Flexibility; (3) Originality; and (4) Elaboration. FFOE makes time…

Shively, Candace Hackett

2011-01-01

258

‘Soglitude’- introducing a method of thinking thresholds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘Soglitude’ is an invitation to acknowledge the existence of thresholds in thought. A threshold in thought designates the indetermination, the passage, the evolution of every state the world is in. The creation we add to it, and the objectivity we suppose, on the border of those two ideas lies our perceptive threshold. No state will ever be permanent, and in order to stress the temporary, fluent character of the world and our perception of it, we want to introduce a new suitable method to think change and transformation, when we acknowledge our own threshold nature. The contributions gathered in this special issue come from various disciplines: anthropology, philosophy, critical theory, film studies, political science, literature and history. The variety of these insights shows the resonance of the idea of threshold in every category of thought. We hope to enlarge the notion in further issues on physics and chemistry, as well as mathematics. The articles in this issue introduce the method of threshold thinking by showing the importance of the in-between, of the changing of perspective in their respective domain. The ‘Documents’ section named INTERSTICES, includes a selection of poems, two essays, a philosophical-artistic project called ‘infraphysique’, a performance on thresholds in the soul, and a dialogue with Israel Rosenfield. This issue presents a kaleidoscope of possible threshold thinking and hopes to initiate new ways of looking at things.For every change that occurs in reality there is a subjective counterpart in our perception and this needs to be acknowledged as such. What we name objective is reflected in our own personal perception in its own personal manner, in such a way that the objectivity of an event might altogether be questioned. The absolute point of view, the view from “nowhere”, could well be the projection that causes dogmatism. By introducing the method of thinking thresholds into a system, be it philosophical, artistic or scientific, it tends to free itself from rigid or fixed models and accepts change and development as the fundamental nature of things. Thinking thresholds as a method of thought progress cannot be done in a single process and therefore asks for participation in its proper nature. The soglitude springs namely from the acceptance of a multitude of points of view, as it is shown by the numerous contributions we present in this issue ‘Seuils, Thresholds, Soglitudes’ of Conserveries mémorielles.

Tatjana Barazon

2010-01-01

259

Manifestation of critical thinking skills in the English textbooks employed by language institutes in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scholars in the field of education have unanimously subscribed to the pivotal role of critical thinking in individuals' life in general and their academic life in particular (Bloom, 1956; Ennis, 2003; Dewey, 1933). The thrust of the current study was to investigate the extent to which the books employed for Teaching English as Foreign Language include critical thinking skills. To attain this goal, 3 series of English books, namely, Top notch, Interchange, and English files series utilized by language institutes in Iran were targeted. Next, a seventy two-item critical thinking checklist based on Likert-scale and consisting of twelve skills; namely, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, deduction, induction, balanced-thinking, multiple perspective-taking, creative thinking, building community of thinkers, and knowledge was developed. The target skills on the checklist were mainly based on Bloom's taxonomy and the related literature on critical thinking. The checklist was validated by the researchers themselves and some experts in the field and the reliability coefficient was also estimated at 0.86. Then, two raters conducted a content analysis on the books and determined the magnitude of each skill. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis Non-parametric tests). Findings of the study revealed that the books mainly tapped knowledge, comprehension, application and building community of thinkers skills and failed to acceptably include other skills reported to be of utmost importance for students' academic success. The comparison of the mean rank of the skills in the three books also disclosed that as for lower order thinking skills there wasn’t a significant difference among the books; however, as for other skills Top notch was marginally higher. The paper also discusses the lack of critical thinking in the classroom and materials and proposes some ways to include more critical thinking skills in the materials. The results of the study have significant implications for material developers, educational policy makers and teachers.

Birjandi, Parviz; Alizadeh, Iman

2013-01-01

260

Re-thinking it in construction & engineering  

CERN Document Server

How could the potential of IT be realised to improve business performance in architecture, construction and engineering organisations? How could organisations unleash the potential of IT to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage? How can organisations migrate from technology to IT-enabled business thinking?Based on the author's twenty years research experience, this book provides a holistic picture of the factors that enable architecture, construction and engineering organisations to explore the potential of IT to improve their businesses and achieve a sustainable competitive ad

Alshawi, Mustafa

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Using value-focused thinking in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) provides a systematic approach to structure complex decisions for subsequent analysis. It is a powerful complement to decision analysis and its application has been growing in recent years. This paper discusses the application of VFT in Brazil to three problems in different contexts: water management, information system/information technology (IS/IT) strategic planning, and the disposal of plaster waste. This article describes how the VFT approach was used to structure these decision problems and identify alternatives to stall them, which led to developing qualitative and quantitative models for evaluating the alternatives, and discusses how such structures can be used in other similar problems.

Danielle C. Morais; Luciana H. Alencar; Ana Paula C.S. Costa; Ralph L. Keeney

2013-01-01

262

Critical thinking education in 21st Century: korean experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 21st century, advanced countries as well as Asian countries are changing curriculums. According to UNESCO, the characteristics of the change are paradigmatic. The term for paradigmatic change is used; this means the change that knowledge of previous paradigm is completely unusable in new paradigm (Khun 1977).In a word, the major concern of education is changed from teaching consumers of knowledge to teaching producer of knowledge. Critical thinking ability and creative thinking ability is required for educated person [1]. For it is rapidly reduced the cycle of knowledge in our society in the present. For example, in case of cellular phone, new phone would be released about six months. Current elementary, middle and high school students should live in the society ten and twenty years from now. So, the education should prepare the time ten and twenty years from this time and go ahead to lead the future society. Thus, teachers should understand the changes of curriculum and develop educational method for the future society.

Jin Whan Park

2013-01-01

263

Child Computer Interaction SIG: Towards Sustainable Thinking and Being  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The discipline of Child Computer Interaction has been steadily growing and as a community it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC conference and its own Journal whilst also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant contributor to the ACM CHI conference. Having recently been given status as an IFIP TC13 working group, the community now needs to make plans around its academic themes and its coherence as a developing academic community. The CCI SIG at CHI aims to use a mixture of facilitated creative thinking and a world café approach to bring the community together to tackle these two key challenges. The CCI SIG will be the natural meeting place for members of this community at CHI and will disseminate its discussion to the CCI and CHI communities through the production of visual and interactive materials at the CHI conference.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Read, Janet

264

Think Tanks in Europe : A pilot definition, research design and categorisation of selected think tanks in Brussels, Denmark and Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how and why think tank types converge and diverge across countries and levels of governance, to what extent they are embedded in national contexts and how studies of think tanks can proceed despite methodological problems and disagreement on how to define think tanks.

Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

265

Meditate to create: the impact of focused-attention and open-monitoring training on convergent and divergent thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The practice of meditation has seen a tremendous increase in the western world since the 60s. Scientific interest in meditation has also significantly grown in the past years; however, so far, it has neglected the idea that different type of meditations may drive specific cognitive-control states. In this study we investigate the possible impact of meditation based on focused-attention (FA) and meditation based on open-monitoring (OM) on creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking. We show that FA meditation and OM meditation exert specific effect on creativity. First, OM meditation induces a control state that promotes divergent thinking, a style of thinking that allows many new ideas of being generated. Second, FA meditation does not sustain convergent thinking, the process of generating one possible solution to a particular problem. We suggest that the enhancement of positive mood induced by meditating has boosted the effect in the first case and counteracted in the second case.

Colzato LS; Ozturk A; Hommel B

2012-01-01

266

Study on Theory and Practice of Thinking Innovation Education  

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Full Text Available The cognition was spread from creation-energetics to creation-dynamics and thinking innovation-dynamics by study on trinal-creation theory in the creation and thinking innovation. This article expounded the importance of bringing up person with ability, and had importance on development of human being society. Keywords: thinking innovation, thinking innovation education, creation-energetics, thinking innovation-thermodynamics, thinking innovation -dynamics Résumé: Le présent article applique la théorie de création à la connaissance de la thermodynamique « trois innovations » et la dynamique de l’innovation idéologique. L’innovation idéologique revêt une grande signification pour le développement de la société humaine. Mots-clés: innovation idéologique, éducation visant à trois innovations, thermodynamique de l’innovation idéologique, dynamique de l’innovation dynamique ?????????????????????????“??”????????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????“??”??????????????????

Li-ping WANG; qing-shan LI; Ya-qin HAO; Zhu-bai LIU

2007-01-01

267

Thinking styles of gifted and nongifted students in Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to compare thinking styles of gifted and nongifted Iranian students and to examine the appropriateness in a nonwestern context of the Thinking Styles Inventory. 200 students in junior high school, including 109 nongifted students (55 girls and 54 boys) and 91 gifted students (46 girls and 45 boys), whose mean age was 12.4 yr. (SD = .69), responded to the short version of the Thinking Styles Inventory. Analysis indicated that gifted students scored significantly higher than nongifted students on Type 1 and Type 3 thinking styles, while the nongifted students had statistically significant higher scores on the Type 2 thinking styles. These results are discussed in terms of the previous research and thinking styles model proposed by Sternberg in 1997.

Alborzi S; Ostovar S

2007-06-01

268

Thinking styles of gifted and nongifted students in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to compare thinking styles of gifted and nongifted Iranian students and to examine the appropriateness in a nonwestern context of the Thinking Styles Inventory. 200 students in junior high school, including 109 nongifted students (55 girls and 54 boys) and 91 gifted students (46 girls and 45 boys), whose mean age was 12.4 yr. (SD = .69), responded to the short version of the Thinking Styles Inventory. Analysis indicated that gifted students scored significantly higher than nongifted students on Type 1 and Type 3 thinking styles, while the nongifted students had statistically significant higher scores on the Type 2 thinking styles. These results are discussed in terms of the previous research and thinking styles model proposed by Sternberg in 1997. PMID:17886491

Alborzi, Shahla; Ostovar, Soghra

2007-06-01

269

“ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BARRIER IS THINKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Science requires imagination nourished by knowledge, experience and sustained critical thinking. Science teaching has the same requirements, but metacognition is even more important to a teacher than it is to a practioner of science. Critical thinking is essential to both science and science teaching: in either domain, imagination relies on sustained critical thinking based on relevant knowledge. Knowledge can be acquired by the prepared mind, but the capacity to think must be nurtured and exercised. The raw material of critical thinking is comprehension of fundamental processes rather than knowledge of facts. In parallel with the rapid growth of scientific knowledge, there has been a tendency to focus on content rather than developing the skills needed to do science. In essence, what has been neglected is critical thinking.

Simon Brown

2009-01-01

270

What Do GCSE Examiners Think of "Thinking Aloud"? Findings from an Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: "Thinking aloud" is a well-established method of data collection in education, assessment, and other fields of research. However, while many researchers have reported their views on its usage, the first-hand experiences of research participants have received less attention. Purpose: The aim of this exploratory study was to obtain the…

Greatorex, Jackie; Suto, Irenka W. M.

2008-01-01

271

Critical Thinking and Writing: Reclaiming the Essay. Monographs on Teaching Critical Thinking Number 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended for teachers, this monograph argues that, unlike the structured, formulaic "school" essay, personal essays in the manner of Michel de Montaigne lead students to explore their connections with ideas and texts. The monograph describes several strategies which use writing as a tool for critical thinking. The monograph contains the following…

Newkirk, Thomas

272

Reflection: A Key Component to Thinking Critically  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to think critically is an important trait of all members of society. With today’s multinational, multicultural, complex issues, citizens must be able to sift through large amounts of various data to make intelligent decisions. Thinking critically must be a focus of higher education in order to provide the intellectual training for its students to participate in this world. This qualitative study examined critical reflection through student writing as seen in three different college settings. Structured reflections were analyzed using Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (2001).La capacité d’exercer son esprit critique est une caractéristique importante de tous les membres de la société. De nos jours, les enjeux sont multinationaux, multiculturels et complexes. Les citoyens doivent être capables de filtrer de grandes quantités de données diverses pour prendre des décisions intelligentes. L’enseignement supérieur doit être axé sur la pensée critique afin de procurer aux étudiants la formation intellectuelle qui leur permettra de participer au monde qui les entoure. La présente étude qualitative se penche sur la réflexion critique dans les écrits des étudiants de trois différents collèges. Les chercheurs ont analysé les réflexions structurées à l’aide de la nouvelle taxonomie des objectifs pédagogiques de Marzano (2001).

Binta M. Colley; Andrea R. Bilics; Carol M. Lerch

2012-01-01

273

New thinking: the evolution of human cognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Humans are animals that specialize in thinking and knowing, and our extraordinary cognitive abilities have transformed every aspect of our lives. In contrast to our chimpanzee cousins and Stone Age ancestors, we are complex political, economic, scientific and artistic creatures, living in a vast range of habitats, many of which are our own creation. Research on the evolution of human cognition asks what types of thinking make us such peculiar animals, and how they have been generated by evolutionary processes. New research in this field looks deeper into the evolutionary history of human cognition, and adopts a more multi-disciplinary approach than earlier 'Evolutionary Psychology'. It is informed by comparisons between humans and a range of primate and non-primate species, and integrates findings from anthropology, archaeology, economics, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, philosophy and psychology. Using these methods, recent research reveals profound commonalities, as well striking differences, between human and non-human minds, and suggests that the evolution of human cognition has been much more gradual and incremental than previously assumed. It accords crucial roles to cultural evolution, techno-social co-evolution and gene-culture co-evolution. These have produced domain-general developmental processes with extraordinary power-power that makes human cognition, and human lives, unique.

Heyes C

2012-08-01

274

New thinking: the evolution of human cognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans are animals that specialize in thinking and knowing, and our extraordinary cognitive abilities have transformed every aspect of our lives. In contrast to our chimpanzee cousins and Stone Age ancestors, we are complex political, economic, scientific and artistic creatures, living in a vast range of habitats, many of which are our own creation. Research on the evolution of human cognition asks what types of thinking make us such peculiar animals, and how they have been generated by evolutionary processes. New research in this field looks deeper into the evolutionary history of human cognition, and adopts a more multi-disciplinary approach than earlier 'Evolutionary Psychology'. It is informed by comparisons between humans and a range of primate and non-primate species, and integrates findings from anthropology, archaeology, economics, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, philosophy and psychology. Using these methods, recent research reveals profound commonalities, as well striking differences, between human and non-human minds, and suggests that the evolution of human cognition has been much more gradual and incremental than previously assumed. It accords crucial roles to cultural evolution, techno-social co-evolution and gene-culture co-evolution. These have produced domain-general developmental processes with extraordinary power-power that makes human cognition, and human lives, unique. PMID:22734052

Heyes, Cecilia

2012-08-01

275

Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ideals of OBE?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of the Outcomes-based approach adopted by the South African education and training sector is the so-called Critical Outcomes. Included as one of these outcomes is the ability of learners to identify and solve problems, using creative and critical thinking. Underpinned by the Critical Outcomes, Outcomes-based Education (OBE) was introduced in South African schools in 1997. It can therefore be argued that the critical thinking abilities of the cohort of first-year students who entered higher education institutions in 2006 were challenged somewhere in their school careers. Based on this assumption, a group of first-year education students were required to complete the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) to gauge their critical thinking abilities. The results obtained by this means are discussed and some suggestions made to address the way forward with regard to development of learners' critical thinking abilities.

Kobus Lombard; Mary Grosser

2008-01-01

276

Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ideals of OBE?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english One of the cornerstones of the Outcomes-based approach adopted by the South African education and training sector is the so-called Critical Outcomes. Included as one of these outcomes is the ability of learners to identify and solve problems, using creative and critical thinking. Underpinned by the Critical Outcomes, Outcomes-based Education (OBE) was introduced in South African schools in 1997. It can therefore be argued that the critical thinking abilities of the cohort (more) of first-year students who entered higher education institutions in 2006 were challenged somewhere in their school careers. Based on this assumption, a group of first-year education students were required to complete the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) to gauge their critical thinking abilities. The results obtained by this means are discussed and some suggestions made to address the way forward with regard to development of learners' critical thinking abilities.

Lombard, Kobus; Grosser, Mary

2008-11-01

277

Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) has been applied extensively to the study of criminal behaviour and cognition. Increasingly growing evidence indicates that criminal thinking styles vary considerably among individuals, and these individual variations appear to be crucial for a full understanding of criminal behaviour. AIMS: This study aimed to examine individual differences in criminal thinking as a function of emotional intelligence. METHODS: A group of 56 Egyptian male prisoners completed the PICTS and Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The correlations between these assessments were examined using a series of Pearson correlations coefficients, with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: General criminal thinking, reactive criminal thinking and five criminal thinking styles (mollification, cutoff, power orientation, cognitive indolence and discontinuity) negatively correlated with emotional intelligence. On the other hand, proactive criminal thinking and three criminal thinking styles (entitlement, superoptimism and sentimentality) did not associate with emotional intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: Emotional intelligence is an important correlate of individual differences in criminal thinking, especially its reactive aspects. Practical implications of this suggestion were discussed.

Megreya AM

2013-02-01

278

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AND MEANING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING  

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Full Text Available Many ELT experts believe that the inclusion of critical thinking skills in English classes is necessary to improve students’ English competence. Students’ critical thinking skills will be optimally increased if meaning is prioritized in English lessons. Those two inter-related elements can be implemented when teachers do collaborative activities stimulating students’ thinking process and meaning negotiation. Yet, the realization might be counter-productive if they are applied without careful consideration of task purposes and of students’ roles. Based on the consideration, this paper is focused on presenting how critical thinking skills and meaning should be properly incorporated in an English lesson.

Harits Masduqi

2011-01-01

279

Critical thinking at the bedside: providing safe passage to patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The critical thinking ability of health care professionals can affect patient safety directly (Buerhaus, Donelan, Ulrich, Norman, & Dittus, 2005). The National League for Nursing (NLN, 2006) expects nursing graduates to be able to demonstrate critical thinking. Nursing programs are required to measure critical thinking as an outcome criterion for accreditation. This process of program accreditation is considered an indicator that a professional program offers a quality product. Based on NLN expectations, health care disciplines should diligently seek opportunities to enhance critical thinking by promoting qualitative and quantitative research that focuses on curriculum evaluation, enhancing educators' and faculty knowledge, and improving patient care outcomes. PMID:23802494

Robert, Ruth R; Petersen, Sandra

280

Critical thinking at the bedside: providing safe passage to patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The critical thinking ability of health care professionals can affect patient safety directly (Buerhaus, Donelan, Ulrich, Norman, & Dittus, 2005). The National League for Nursing (NLN, 2006) expects nursing graduates to be able to demonstrate critical thinking. Nursing programs are required to measure critical thinking as an outcome criterion for accreditation. This process of program accreditation is considered an indicator that a professional program offers a quality product. Based on NLN expectations, health care disciplines should diligently seek opportunities to enhance critical thinking by promoting qualitative and quantitative research that focuses on curriculum evaluation, enhancing educators' and faculty knowledge, and improving patient care outcomes.

Robert RR; Petersen S

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Critical thinking levels of senior students at education faculties and their views on obstacles to critical thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to determine the critical thinking levels of senior students at Primary School Teacher and Turkish Language Teacher Education Departments and to explore their views on the obstacles to critical thinking. The research uses both the quantitative and the qualitative approach. First, for data-gathering purposes, the sample group, consisting of 139 senior students from the Bülent Ecevit University, Educational Faculty, Turkish Language Teacher Education Department and Primary School Teacher Education Department, was administered the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTD-I), which was adapted to Turkish by Kökdemir in 2003. Afterwards, focus-group interviews were made with fourteen students (two groups with seven students each), during which students discussed the obstacles to critical thinking. The research findings concluded that the critical thinking levels of the students are low in general. Furthermore, it was seen that the highest critical thinking disposition was at the sub-dimension of open-mindedness, while the lowest critical thinking level was at the sub-dimension of systematicity. According to the results of the research, the critical thinking levels of students differed significantly as per gender, although no significant differences were found with regard to their grade point averages or the type of their secondary school of graduation. Looking at the opinions expressed on the obstacles to critical thinking, it is seen that the traditional approach to education and the ongoing practice of rote learning are regarded as the main reasons for these obstacles by students.

Aycan Çiçek Sa?lam; Elif Büyükuysal

2013-01-01

282

MENTAL SHIFT TOWARDS SYSTEMS THINKING SKILLS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE  

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Full Text Available When seeking solutions to current problems in the field of computer science – and other fields – we encounter situations where traditional approaches no longer bring the desired results. Our cognitive skills also limit the implementation of reliable mental simulation within the basic set of relations. The world around us is becoming more complex and mutually interdependent, and this is reflected in the demands on computer support. Thus, in today’s education and science in the field of computer science and all other disciplines and areas of life need to address the issue of the paradigm shift, which is generally accepted by experts. The goal of the paper is to present the systems thinking that facilitates and extends the understanding of the world through relations and linkages. Moreover, the paper introduces the essence of systems thinking and the possibilities to achieve mental a shift toward systems thinking skills. At the same time, the link between systems thinking and functional literacy is presented. We adopted the “Bathtub Test” from the variety of systems thinking tests that allow people to assess the understanding of basic systemic concepts, in order to assess the level of systems thinking. University students (potential information managers) were the examined subjects of the examination of systems thinking that was conducted over a longer time period and whose aim was to determine the status of systems thinking. . The paper demonstrates that some pedagogical concepts and activities, in our case the subject of System Dynamics that leads to the appropriate integration of systems thinking in education. There is some evidence that basic knowledge of system dynamics and systems thinking principles will affect students, and their thinking will contribute to an improved approach to solving problems of computer science both in theory and practice.

MILDEOVÁ, Stanislava; DALIHOD, Martin; EXNAROVA, Anna

2012-01-01

283

Thinking in networks: artistic–architectural responses to ubiquitous information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discusses creative practices that in aesthetical-technical ways intervene into the computer networked communication systems.I am interested in artist practices that use networks in different ways to make us aware about the possibilities to rethink media-cultural environments. I use the example of the Japanese art-architectural group Double Negative Architecture to give an example of creatively thinking in networks.Yvonne Spielmann (Ph.D., Dr. habil.) is presently Research Professor and Chair of New Media at The University of the West of Scotland. Her work focuses on inter-relationships between media and culture, technology, art, science and communication, and in particular on Western/European and non-Western/South-East Asian interaction. Milestones of publish research output are four authored monographs and about 90 single authored articles. Her book, “Video, the Reflexive Medium” (published by MIT Press 2008, Japanese edition by Sangen-sha Press 2011) was rewarded the 2009 Lewis Mumford Award for Outstanding Scholarship in the Ecology of Technics. Her most recent book “Hybrid Cultures” was published in German by Suhrkamp Press in 2010, English edition from MIT Press in 2012. Spielmann's work has been published in German and English and has been translated into French, Polish, Croatian, Swedish, Japanese, and Korean. She holds the 2011 Swedish Prize for Swedish–German scientific co-operation.

Yvonne Spielmann

2011-01-01

284

A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking of Urban Xi'an High School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the development of critical thinking of urban high school students in the Chinese city of Xi'an. It presents the assessment of the students' two components of critical thinking: dispositions towards critical thinking and critical thinking skills, using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and the California…

Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Linna

2007-01-01

285

A p-Adic model for the process of thinking disturbed by physiological and information noise.  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop a model of the process of thinking in the presence of noise (which is produced by the simultaneous action of a huge number of neurons in the brain as well as by external information and internal cognitive processes). Our model is based on Freud's idea on the splitting of cognitive processes into two (closely connected) domains: consciousness and subconsciousness. We represent the process of thinking as a random dynamical process in a space of ideas endowed with a non-Euclidean geometry (which differs extremely from the ordinary Euclidean geometry of spatial location of neurons in the brain). The so-called p-adic geometry on a space of ideas describes the ability of cognitive systems to form associations. We show that random dynamical thinking systems on a p -adic space of ideas still generate only deterministic ideas. We also study positive and negative effects of noise (in particular, creativeness and stress). PMID:10196089

Dubischar, D; Gundlach, V M; Steinkamp, O; Khrennikov, A

1999-04-21

286

Using value-focused thinking in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) provides a systematic approach to structure complex decisions for subsequent analysis. It is a powerful complement to decision analysis and its application has been growing in recent years. This paper discusses the application of VFT in Brazil to three problems in different contexts: water management, information system/information technology (IS/IT) strategic planning, and the disposal of plaster waste. This article describes how the VFT appr (more) oach was used to structure these decision problems and identify alternatives to stall them, which led to developing qualitative and quantitative models for evaluating the alternatives, and discusses how such structures can be used in other similar problems.

Morais, Danielle C.; Alencar, Luciana H.; Costa, Ana Paula C.S.; Keeney, Ralph L.

2013-04-01

287

Aníbal Bascuñán and Hispanic American Administrative Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines the administrative thinking of Aníbal Bascuñán Valdés, derived from the analysis of his book Elementos de Ciencia de la Administración Pública (1963). It highlights the value of Bascuñán to the intellectual history of the discipline, for being the first Hispanic American thinker who without hesitation supported the autonomous status of public administration and for conceiving it as scientific knowledge under an ontic approach, where his being is endowed with an identity and able to develop principles. It is concluded that the work of Bascuñán is one of the most developed within the discipline during the 1960s,above all because it considers public administration as an autonomous science and social science.

Omar Guerrero Orozco

2012-01-01

288

Wishful thinking versus law of nature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author responds to standard objections made against global development forecasts set up during the last few years. They refer in general to the 'depletability' of our planet ('limits of growth'). The more events are pressing one another, the more inventions are being made, the more it becomes difficult to construe the prospective development from the sum of often contradictory tendencies. Still the author comes to the conclusion, that today forecasts can be set up with an increasing degree of preciseness. Subjective as well as objective wishful thinking, as well as the resulting hopes for growth are critically examined in detail. The actual development of the next few years will decide this quarrel, in the course of which all counter measures may be taken too late, for they can only become effective after a certain lapse of time. (orig.)

1977-01-01

289

Establishing the Quantitative Thinking Program at Macalester  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In November 2005, the faculty of Macalester College voted to institute a graduation requirement in Quantitative Thinking (QT) that is truly interdisciplinary. It currently draws on courses from thirteen departments including Anthropology, Economics, Geography, Political Science, Theater, Mathematics, Environmental Science, and Geology. This article describes the process that led to the creation of this program. It explains how we were able to get broad buy-in at the beginning and the long process of trial and error—informed by formative assessment—that was needed to refine the initial vision and shape it into a viable program that would be accepted by most of our faculty. The article concludes with a description of the program as it now exists, a discussion of our ongoing assessment of the program and its effectiveness, and a discussion of the lessons we learned in the process.

David Bressoud

2009-01-01

290

Green roofs think-tank progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several green-roof research ideas were developed during a workshop organized by CRESTech, an organization which provides innovative solutions for sustainable actions between human infrastructure and the natural environment. The objective of the Green Roof Think-Tank was to identify research opportunities for developing a green roof infrastructure based on innovative technologies and market development. The following research ideas identified at the workshop: (1) green roof storm water control and quality, (2) green roof costs and benefits, (3) guidelines, (4) green roof remediation technologies, (5) green roof maintenance technologies, (6) energy efficiency, and (7) ecological value. The 3 research challenges include: (1) systems and product development, (2) site and building performance in terms of new versus existing buildings, and (3) public benefits and unique climates. It was noted that since there is no standard green roof, it is necessary to conduct a cost benefit analysis between new and existing buildings that have green roofs.

NONE

2003-11-06

291

Thinking the individual as form of individuation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we will ponder the problem of the individualism through the individuation, pointing out the implications on the idea of “individual”. It attempts to ?nd a theoretical way that allows a broader understanding of its role in human societies It will be suggested that the emphasis placed by modernity in the individual can be evaluated, not as a solipsist individualism, but as a ?gurational form speci?c of social contexts characterized by a wide objectivation of the social tissue. That means that beside individualism we can think individualizations through the seminal setting of individuation. This hypothesis is already insinuated in the German sociological thought, in particular, in the sociology of the social forms of Georg Simmel and in the process sociology of Norbert Elias.

Samuel Mateus

2011-01-01

292

Thinking about microcolonies as phage targets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PHAGE TARGETS FOR ADSORPTION CAN INCLUDE: (1) individual bacteria; (2) bacterial cellular arrangements such as streptococci; (3) microcolonies consisting of bacterial clones as can make up bacterial lawns and biofilms; and (4) bacterial biofilms themselves. While much effort has gone into considering category 1, and some into category 4, substantially less has been put into the question of how bacterial association into clonal arrangements or microcolonies might affect phage-bacterial interactions. Recently I have been exploring just this issue-within a single-authored monograph published in 2011 and a theoretical article published in 2012 as part of a special issue of the journal, Viruses. For this commentary, I have been invited to summarize my thinking on how bacterial association into either cellular arrangements or microcolonies might affect their susceptibility to phages along with related issues of bacterial resistance to phages and phage propagation in the context of both plaques and biofilms.

Abedon ST

2012-07-01

293

Breakthrough thinking from inside the box.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Companies often begin their search for great ideas either by encouraging wild, outside-the-box thinking or by conducting quantitative analysis of existing market and financial data and customer opinions. Those approaches can produce middling ideas at best, say Coyne, founder of an executive-counseling firm in Atlanta, and Clifford and Dye, strategy experts at McKinsey. The problem with the first method is that few people are very good at unstructured, abstract brainstorming. The problems with the second are that databases are usually compiled to describe current--not future--offerings, and customers rarely can tell you whether they need or want a product if they've never seen it. The secret to getting your organization to regularly generate lots of good ideas, and occasionally some great ones, is deceptively simple: First, create new boxes for people to think within so that they don't get lost in the cosmos and they have a basis for offering ideas and knowing whether they're making progress in the brainstorming session. Second, redesign ideation processes to remove obstacles that interfere with the flow of ideas--such as most people's aversion to speaking in groups larger than ten. This article offers a tested approach that poses concrete questions. For example, what do Rollerblades, Häagen-Dazs ice cream, and Spider-Man movies have in common? The answer: Each is something that adults loved as children and that was reproduced in an expensive form for grown-ups. Asking brainstorming participants to ponder how their childhood passions could be recast as adult offerings might generate some fabulous ideas for new products or services.

Coyne KP; Clifford PG; Dye R

2007-12-01

294

Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

2013-01-01

295

I Like Chocolate Ice Cream: A Lesson in Thinking Civics  

Science.gov (United States)

In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking

Waterson, Robert A.

2012-01-01

296

Thinking Aloud: Struggling Readers Often Require More Than a Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The author describes how thinking aloud promotes the comprehension of all learners, including those who struggle with reading. These techniques "improved strategy use, promoted self-efficacy, and increased engagement as well as comprehension." Suggestions and methods for supporting think-alouds are provided.

Walker, Barbara J.

2005-01-01

297

Teaching Comprehension and Study Strategies through Modeling and Thinking Aloud.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on three ideas pertaining to modeling and thinking aloud, presents examples of how the processes can be applied to teaching both text comprehension and study strategies to college developmental readers, and discusses reasons for using modeling and thinking aloud in the classroom. (FL)

Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Kate

1986-01-01

298

Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

2010-01-01

299

Teaching sustainable design through aesthetic experiments and critical thinking  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper describes and reflects on our experience from teaching design and sustainable thinking to fashion & textile students at Kolding School of Design. Using case examples, we attempt to show how combing aesthetic experiments with critical thinking can be useful for students to learn to negotiate the space between the world that is and the world that could be.

Riisberg, Vibeke; Leerberg, Malene

300

Brazilian think tanks and their search for identity and recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Brazil, the study of think tanks is still at its beginning, even if this is far from being a new object of research worldwide, mainly in the United States. No matter if it relates to the nature of this kind of institution per se, or to the way think tanks were received in Brazil, the truth is tha...

Teixeira, Tatiana

 
 
 
 
301

Have Think Tanks in Washington D.C. Become Politicized?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper addresses the following research question: Have think tanks in Washington D.C. become politicized from 1910 to 2010, and if so why? "Politicization" is made empirically tangible with a new primary database of all D.C. think tanks existent over the last century. Public policy-oriented resea...

Gilroy, Patrick

302

Gamers and Gaming Context: Relationships to Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Gaming is purported to hold promise for education, in part, because it is thought to develop 21st century skills such as critical thinking. To date, there has been a dearth of generalisable research investigating the relationship between gaming and critical thinking. Results of a survey of 121 adults found that gamers and non-gamers do not differ…

Gerber, Sue; Scott, Logan

2011-01-01

303

Online Scenarios in FCS College Courses: Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

|Critical thinking is a vital skill for higher education students. The Virtual Exchange was created by the authors to provide instructors with a unique approach to helping students enhance their critical thinking skills. Pilot data were collected from three universities where instructors used Virtual Exchange scenarios in their courses in…

Martin, Lynda; Thompson, Stacy D.; Richards, Lynne

2008-01-01

304

Developing a (Non-Linear) Practice of Design Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Design thinking can be a powerful way to engage the world, allowing interactive understandings that are both analytic and experiential. When fully functioning, design thinking necessarily calls upon faculties often considered a-rational, a-causal and a-logical. Unfortunately, such faculties often give rise to academic suspicion. That is to say,…

Teal, Randall

2010-01-01

305

Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

Notgarnie, Howard M.

2011-01-01

306

Critical Thinking, Executive Functions and Their Potential Relationship  

Science.gov (United States)

The central issue of this paper is to review the possible relationships between the constructs of critical thinking and executive functions. To do this, we first analyse the essential components of critical thinking from a psychological and neurological point of view. Second, we examine the scope of the cognitive and neurological nature of…

Lizarraga, Maria Luisa Sanz de Acedo; Baquedano, Maria Teresa Sanz de Acedo; Villanueva, Oscar Ardaiz

2012-01-01

307

Psychological Intervention in Thinking Skills with Primary Education Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the instruction method "Thinking Actively in an Academic Context" (TAAC) in the thinking skills of 6th grade students in primary education. The sample consisted of 58 subjects, aged between 11- and 13-years-of-age, 27 in the experimental group and 31 in the control group. A pre-test…

Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, Maria Luisa; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, Maria Teresa; Oliver, Maria Soria

2010-01-01

308

Does Critical Thinking Enhance EFL Learners‘ Receptive Skills?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explored the effect of Iranian EFL learners’ critical thinking abilities on their receptive English language proficiency skills. With this purpose in mind, the researchers administered the Persian version of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) and the Interchange Objec...

Mohammad Reza Hashemi; Reza Zabihi

309

Oersted Lecture 2013: How should we think about how our students think?  

CERN Multimedia

Physics Education Research (PER) applies a scientific approach to the question, "How do our students think about and learn physics?" PER allows us to explore such intellectually engaging questions as, "What does it mean to understand something in physics?" and, "What skills and competencies do we want our students to learn from our physics classes?" To address questions like these, we need to do more than observe student difficulties and build curricula. We need a theoretical framework -- a structure for talking about, making sense of, and modeling how one thinks about, learns, and understands physics. In this paper, I outline some aspects of the Resources Framework, a structure that some of us are using to create a phenomenology of physics learning that ties closely to modern developments in neuroscience, psychology, and linguistics. As an example of how this framework gives new insights, I discuss epistemological framing -- the role of students' perceptions of the nature of the knowledge they are learning a...

Redish, Edward F

2013-01-01

310

"Thinking aloud" as a strategy to improve clinical decision making.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although "thinking aloud" has been used as a research method to collect data about nurses' knowledge and cognitive processes, it has not been used widely for instruction. We suggest that thinking aloud can be an effective teaching strategy for staff development. Two techniques are described for incorporating thinking aloud into dialogue among experienced nurses and into mentoring activities between experts and novices. An excerpt from a transcript of one nurse's thinking aloud while making a triage decision is presented to illustrate the types of knowledge and cognitive processes that can be elicited and revealed by using this strategy. Potential educational benefits are identified, along with suggestions for implementing thinking aloud as an instructional method.

Corcoran S; Narayan S; Moreland H

1988-09-01

311

"Thinking aloud" as a strategy to improve clinical decision making.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although "thinking aloud" has been used as a research method to collect data about nurses' knowledge and cognitive processes, it has not been used widely for instruction. We suggest that thinking aloud can be an effective teaching strategy for staff development. Two techniques are described for incorporating thinking aloud into dialogue among experienced nurses and into mentoring activities between experts and novices. An excerpt from a transcript of one nurse's thinking aloud while making a triage decision is presented to illustrate the types of knowledge and cognitive processes that can be elicited and revealed by using this strategy. Potential educational benefits are identified, along with suggestions for implementing thinking aloud as an instructional method. PMID:3417458

Corcoran, S; Narayan, S; Moreland, H

1988-09-01

312

Critical-thinking types among nursing and management undergraduates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Watson and Glaser (1994) developed a short version, Form S, of their long-established Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA), as a quickly administered measure of critical thinking. This exploratory study used scores from the five sub-tests in Form S, with samples from two professional schools, nursing (n=233) and management (n=131) undergraduates, to identify the typology of critical-thinking types. Four clusters were identified, using a two-stage clustering procedure, in both samples. Discriminant analyses showed that 96% of participants were correctly classified using cluster membership and scores from the five sub-tests as discriminating variables. Implications and recommendations for education and training in critical thinking are presented as well as recommendations for future research on critical-thinking types.

Thorpe K; Loo R

2003-11-01

313

Radiant thinking and the use of the mind map in nurse practitioner education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concept of radiant thinking, which led to the concept of mind mapping, promotes all aspects of the brain working in synergy, with thought beginning from a central point. The mind map, which is a graphical technique to improve creative thinking and knowledge attainment, utilizes colors, images, codes, and dimensions to amplify and enhance key ideas. This technique augments the visualization of relationships and links between concepts, which aids in information acquisition, data retention, and overall comprehension. Faculty can promote students' use of the technique for brainstorming, organizing ideas, taking notes, learning collaboratively, presenting, and studying. These applications can be used in problem-based learning, developing plans of care, health promotion activities, synthesizing disease processes, and forming differential diagnoses. Mind mapping is a creative way for students to engage in a unique method of learning that can expand memory recall and help create a new environment for processing information.

Spencer JR; Anderson KM; Ellis KK

2013-05-01

314

Encouraging Creativity in the Science Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

|Although science is a creative endeavor (NRC 1996, p. 46), many students think they are not encouraged--or even allowed--to be creative in the laboratory. When students think there is only one correct way to do a lab, their creativity is inhibited. Park and Seung (2008) argue for the importance of creativity in science classrooms and for the…

Eyster, Linda

2010-01-01

315

Utilitarianism and Double Standards: A Discussion of R. M. Hare's "Moral Thinking."  

Science.gov (United States)

Criticizes R. M. Hare's theory of moral thinking. Hare identifies two levels of moral thinking: critical and intuitive thinking. The author argues that Hare's theory suggests a double standard and makes moral conflicts appear trivial. (AM)

Annas, Julia

1982-01-01

316

Creativity in the Science Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Though many teachers would like to incorporate creative activities into their teaching, there are few practical suggestions to help them accomplish this goal (Yager 2000). In this article, the authors introduce four strategies to help integrate creative-thinking skills into high school science instruction: SCAMPER; Six Thinking Hats; Agreement, Disagreement, and Irrelevance; and Creative Problem Solving.

Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye

2008-09-01

317

Critical thinking of registered nurses in a fellowship program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Critical thinking is essential to nursing practice. This study examined differences in the critical thinking dispositions of registered nurses (RNs) in a nursing fellowship program. METHODS: Control and experimental groups were used to compare differences in scores on the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) of RNs at three points during a fellowship program: baseline, week 7, and month 5. The control group consisted of RNs who received no education in critical thinking. The experimental group received education in critical thinking using simulated scenarios and reflective journaling. RESULTS: CCTDI scores examined with analysis of variance showed no significant difference within groups over time or between groups. The baseline scores of the experimental group were slightly higher than those of the control group. Chi-square analysis of demographic variables between the two groups showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Critical thinking dispositions are a combination of attitudes, values, and beliefs that make up one's personality based on life experience. Lack of statistical significance using a quantitative approach did not capture the development of the critical thinking dispositions of participants. A secondary qualitative analysis of journal entries is being conducted.

Zori S; Kohn N; Gallo K; Friedman MI

2013-08-01

318

Assessment of the critical thinking skills of student radiographers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skills.

Castle, Alan [University of Portsmouth, Centre for Radiography Education, St George' s Building, Portsmouth PO1 2HY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: alan.castle@port.ac.uk

2006-05-15

319

Positive-thinking and life satisfaction amongst Koreans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The present study examined the positive-thinking and life satisfaction of the general Korean population. In particular, we examined the role of positive-thinking on participants' life satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey of 409 respondents (194 males, 215 females). The participants provided self-reports on their positive thinking, life satisfaction and demographic information. RESULTS: The results showed that age, education, occupation, and family income had an influence on positive- thinking as well as life satisfaction in Korea. Specifically, younger respondents and persons with high incomes or higher education degrees were more likely to have higher positive scores and thus higher life satisfaction scores. However, after controlling for the demographic variables, positive thinking significantly affected life satisfaction(R(2) Change=0.170, F= 88.56, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We provided empirical evidence that positive thinking may indeed play a significant role in life satisfaction. Therefore, positive thinking would offer important direction for the growth of life satisfaction and interventions aiming to remediate the effects of demographic variables on life satisfaction.

Jung JY; Oh YH; Oh KS; Suh DW; Shin YC; Kim HJ

2007-06-01

320

Learning, thinking, and emoting with discourse technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an unusual moment in the history of psychology because of landmark advances in digital information technologies, computational linguistics, and other fields that use the computer to analyze language, discourse, and behavior. The technologies developed from this interdisciplinary fusion are helping students learn and think in ways that are sensitive to their cognitive and emotional states. Recent projects have developed computer technologies that help us understand the nature of conversational discourse and text comprehension in addition to improving learning. AutoTutor and other systems with conversational agents (i.e., talking heads) help students learn by holding conversations in natural language. One version of AutoTutor is sensitive to the emotions of students in addition to their cognitive states. Coh-Metrix analyzes texts on multiple levels of language and discourse, such as text genre, cohesion, syntax, and word characteristics. Coh-Metrix can assist students, teachers, principals, and policymakers when they make decisions on the right text to assign to the right student at the right time. Computers are not perfect conversation partners and comprehenders of text, but the current systems are undeniably useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22082403

Graesser, Arthur C

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Learning, thinking, and emoting with discourse technologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is an unusual moment in the history of psychology because of landmark advances in digital information technologies, computational linguistics, and other fields that use the computer to analyze language, discourse, and behavior. The technologies developed from this interdisciplinary fusion are helping students learn and think in ways that are sensitive to their cognitive and emotional states. Recent projects have developed computer technologies that help us understand the nature of conversational discourse and text comprehension in addition to improving learning. AutoTutor and other systems with conversational agents (i.e., talking heads) help students learn by holding conversations in natural language. One version of AutoTutor is sensitive to the emotions of students in addition to their cognitive states. Coh-Metrix analyzes texts on multiple levels of language and discourse, such as text genre, cohesion, syntax, and word characteristics. Coh-Metrix can assist students, teachers, principals, and policymakers when they make decisions on the right text to assign to the right student at the right time. Computers are not perfect conversation partners and comprehenders of text, but the current systems are undeniably useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

Graesser AC

2011-11-01

322

Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social–ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain). Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social–ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan Rockström

2010-01-01

323

How to think about nuclear war  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mr. Luttwak, a professional defense consultant, observes the arguments of nuclear freeze proponents can be refuted on both strategic and moral grounds. The freeze concept is illogical, he notes, because it is political systems - not state boundaries - that separate sides and because the Warsaw Pact countries are more heavily armed than the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries. An important factor keeping NATO forces at a disadvantage is their defensive orientation, which keeps forces militarily diffuse and dependent on nuclear weapons and preemptive action as a deterrent. Mr. Luttwak feels the shock effect of any use of nuclear weapons would probably shorten a war rather than expand it because of the instinct for survival on both sides; further only nuclear weapons have this awesome power to deter. The proposal for universal disarmament under world government control is not a serious one, he thinks, and reflects an indifference to the possibility of a long non-nuclear war. The effect would be to trade the risk of nuclear death for the inevitability of many non-nuclear casualties. (DCK)

Luttwak, E.N.

1982-08-01

324

Beyond the Reductionist Thinking-Doing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drawing upon Castoriadis’ work, modernity is conceived to emerge as a conflict and mutual contamination between the two great projects of the West, the project of freedom, which has been pursued by different social movements as individual and social autonomy, and the project of the unlimited expansion of "rational mastery" over the world, which has been pursued by the institutions of capitalism as a ceaseless economic growth, associated to a ceaseless scientific and technological development. Both these projects have been emerged within a reductionist logic-ontology, which presupposes the determinacy and the identity-unity of being, and which thereby posits an imperative upon the Western thinking-doing: to provide a rational foundation of its projects – of freedom and of "rational mastery". As en epoch, postmodernity is defined by the retreat from the project of autonomy and by the increasing domination and globalization of the project of (pseudo-)rational (pseudo-)mastery. As an intellectual current, it has deconstructed the reductionism of modernity and thereby relativezed its political and socioeconomic projects, falling however into a political embarrassment and into the principle of "anything goes".

Theodridis, Fotis

2008-01-01

325

"Thinking aloud": data collection in the natural setting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of how nurses make decisions is a desirable outcome of research. However, there currently exists an inadequacy in the techniques used to examine such decision making. In this article, the authors describe the techniques used in two studies incorporating "thinking aloud" to successfully examine the decision making of expert critical care practitioners in the natural setting. Both techniques of thinking aloud were found to provide useful information regarding decision making in the natural setting. No ethical implications were experienced in conducting these studies in the natural setting. In conclusion, the use of thinking aloud in the natural setting is an effective means of data collection. PMID:11077551

Aitken, L M; Mardegan, K J

2000-11-01

326

"Thinking aloud": data collection in the natural setting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Knowledge of how nurses make decisions is a desirable outcome of research. However, there currently exists an inadequacy in the techniques used to examine such decision making. In this article, the authors describe the techniques used in two studies incorporating "thinking aloud" to successfully examine the decision making of expert critical care practitioners in the natural setting. Both techniques of thinking aloud were found to provide useful information regarding decision making in the natural setting. No ethical implications were experienced in conducting these studies in the natural setting. In conclusion, the use of thinking aloud in the natural setting is an effective means of data collection.

Aitken LM; Mardegan KJ

2000-11-01

327

Logical thinking in pattern differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the application of logic to pattern differentiation for treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). METHODS: Comparing logic reasoning of syllogism with the logical thinking of TCM pattern differentiation for treatment. RESULTS: TCM logical thinking depends on symbolic and intuitive judgment with abstractive reasoning integrated into the process. Although it lacks quantitative measurement, it pays great attention to the comprehensive analysis of a disease's cause and its development patterns to get insight into the essence of illness. CONCLUSION: TCM diagnosis reasoning method may lack rigorousness, continuity, systematic induction and deduction, but its logical thinking still can attain its goal following a process with rigorous, regulated and scientific formal logic.

Zhou J; Zhu J; Chen M; Jiang M; Zhang Z; Zhan Z; Zhang X

2013-02-01

328

Episodic Future Thinking in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The capacity to imagine oneself experiencing future events has important implications for effective daily living but investigation of this ability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. This study investigated future thinking in 30 children with high functioning ASD (IQ > 85) and 30 typically developing children. They completed the Adapted Autobiographical Interview, a measure which required participants to describe personal past events (indexing episodic memory) and plausible future events (indexing episodic future thinking). The results showed that there are ASD-related deficits in future thinking, and also provided preliminary evidence regarding cognitive mechanisms that may (and may not) contribute to these difficulties. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

Terrett G; Rendell PG; Raponi-Saunders S; Henry JD; Bailey PE; Altgassen M

2013-03-01

329

A social work study on relationship between thinking styles, self-esteem and socio-economic conditions among university students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have overlap with each other. In addition, students with better socio-economic conditions are more creative and use complex style of thinking. The study also provides some guidelines for practically implementing the results of our survey among other students.

Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi; Abbass Mokhtari

2013-01-01

330

Exploring how students think: a new method combining think-aloud and concept mapping protocols.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: A key element of medical competence is problem solving. Previous work has shown that doctors use inductive reasoning to progress from facts to hypotheses and deductive reasoning to move from hypotheses to the gathering of confirmatory information. No individual assessment method has been designed to quantify the use of inductive and deductive procedures within clinical reasoning. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and reliability of a new method which allows for the rapid identification of the style (inductive or deductive) of clinical reasoning in medical students and experts. METHODS: The study included four groups of four participants. These comprised groups of medical students in Years 3, 4 and 5 and a group of specialists in internal medicine, all at a medical school with a 6-year curriculum in France. Participants were asked to solve four clinical problems by thinking aloud. The thinking expressed aloud was immediately transcribed into concept maps by one or two 'writers' trained to distinguish inductive and deductive links. Reliability was assessed by estimating the inter-writer correlation. The calculated rate of inductive reasoning, the richness score and the rate of exhaustiveness of reasoning were compared according to the level of expertise of the individual and the type of clinical problem. RESULTS: The total number of maps drawn amounted to 32 for students in Year 4, 32 for students in Year 5, 16 for students in Year 3 and 16 for experts. A positive correlation was found between writers (R = 0.66-0.93). Richness scores and rates of exhaustiveness of reasoning did not differ according to expertise level. The rate of inductive reasoning varied as expected according to the nature of the clinical problem and was lower in experts (41% versus 67%). CONCLUSIONS: This new method showed good reliability and may be a promising tool for the assessment of medical problem-solving skills, giving teachers a means of diagnosing how their students think when they are confronted with clinical problems.

Pottier P; Hardouin JB; Hodges BD; Pistorius MA; Connault J; Durant C; Clairand R; Sebille V; Barrier JH; Planchon B

2010-09-01

331

A Design Thinking Approach to Teaching Knowledge Management  

Science.gov (United States)

|Pedagogies for knowledge management courses are still undeveloped. This Teaching Tip introduces a design thinking approach to teaching knowledge management. An induction model used to guide students' real-life projects for knowledge management is presented. (Contains 1 figure.)|

Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

2008-01-01

332

Defining and assessing critical thinking skills for student radiographers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developing critical thinking skills is a key aim of higher education and is important in preparing student radiographers for their future careers in clinical practice. The aim of this paper was to attempt to devise and assess six key components of critical thinking appropriate for radiographic practice. Each of the six components was divided into three dimensions and a Critical Thinking Skills Scoring Chart (CTSSC) devised to assess students' written performance against each dimension. Scores revealed that approximately 30% of students were rated as good and approximately 10% of students were rated as poor in each component, although there was some variability between different dimensions. It is suggested that educators need to encourage and support students to develop their critical thinking skills by reviewing their curriculum to clearly define specific skills and ensure that they are appropriately taught and assessed.

Castle, Alan [University of Portsmouth, School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Centre for Radiography Education, James Watson Building, 2 King Richard 1st Road, Portsmouth PO1 2FR (United Kingdom)], E-mail: alan.castle@port.ac.uk

2009-02-15

333

Defining and assessing critical thinking skills for student radiographers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developing critical thinking skills is a key aim of higher education and is important in preparing student radiographers for their future careers in clinical practice. The aim of this paper was to attempt to devise and assess six key components of critical thinking appropriate for radiographic practice. Each of the six components was divided into three dimensions and a Critical Thinking Skills Scoring Chart (CTSSC) devised to assess students' written performance against each dimension. Scores revealed that approximately 30% of students were rated as good and approximately 10% of students were rated as poor in each component, although there was some variability between different dimensions. It is suggested that educators need to encourage and support students to develop their critical thinking skills by reviewing their curriculum to clearly define specific skills and ensure that they are appropriately taught and assessed.

2009-01-01

334

Teaching Analytical Reasoning Through Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving.  

Science.gov (United States)

A thinking aloud pair problem solving (TAPPS) procedure--two students work cooperatively on a collection of short problems--is outlined, and reading comprehension exercises and sample student thought process protocols are presented. (Author/MLW)

Lochhead, Jack; Whimbey, Arthur

1987-01-01

335

Developing reading skills by means of “critical thinking” technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article covers different approaches of developing students’ reading skills by means of technology “Critical Thinking”. Several methods are given as the examples to be used at the English language classes.

Kushnaryova E. S.

2011-01-01

336

Students’ Critical Thinking Level as to Educational Degrees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking level and dispositions of students at the end of primary, secondary and higher education. Participants of this descriptive study were 395 students in primary school’s 8. Class (110 students), high school’ 12. class (145 students) and faculty’s 4. Class (140 students). Data of the study were based on literature review and on scores on California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. Its alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.88. Data analyses were involve determination of descriptive statistics and use of t-test (p<0.05). As a result; Critical thinking level and dispositions of students is found medium. It is also determined high school courses are effect on critical thinking level and dispositions of students negatively. On the other hands faculty courses are effect on it positively, but it is not enough.

Özgen KORKMAZ; Rü?tü YE??L

2009-01-01

337

Literature stance in developing critical thinking: A pedagogical look  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students in literature classes are expected to think critically and apply their critical and analytical skills to the texts they study. As to the writers, the factors counted by some scholars (e.g. Topping, 1968) as the demerits of the employment of literature in EFL/ESL classes including difficulty level of vocabulary, structural complexity, non-normative use of language, and even remote cultural perspectives are neither persuasive nor logical, but are exactly what can be employed to enrich language learning experiences, and enhance critical thinking. In any way, although providing students with tools of critical thinking, and more importantly, stabilize the stance of literature in its proper position is difficult, it is not far-fetched. The study was an attempt to investigate the efficacy of developing critical thinking through literature reading.

Khatib, Mohammad; Shakouri, Nima

2013-01-01

338

[Critical thinking skills in the nursing diagnosis process].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to identify the critical thinking skills utilized in the nursing diagnosis process. This was an exploratory descriptive study conducted with seven nursing students on the application of a clinical case to identify critical thinking skills, as well as their justifications in the nursing diagnosis process. Content analysis was performed to evaluate descriptive data. Six participants reported that analysis, scientific and technical knowledge and logical reasoning skills are important in identifying priority nursing diagnoses; clinical experience was cited by five participants, knowledge about the patient and application of standards were mentioned by three participants; Furthermore, discernment and contextual perspective were skills noted by two participants. Based on these results, the use of critical thinking skills related to the steps of the nursing diagnosis process was observed. Therefore, that the application of this process may constitute a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills.

Bittencourt GK; Crossetti Mda G

2013-04-01

339

A Design Thinking Approach to Teaching Knowledge Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Pedagogies for knowledge management courses are still undeveloped. This Teaching Tip introduces a design thinking approach to teaching knowledge management. An induction model used to guide students' real-life projects for knowledge management is presented. (Contains 1 figure.)

Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

2008-01-01

340

An innovative thinking-based intelligent information fusion algorithm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study proposes an intelligent algorithm that can realize information fusion in reference to the relative research achievements in brain cognitive theory and innovative computation. This algorithm treats knowledge as core and information fusion as a knowledge-based innovative thinking process. Furthermore, the five key parts of this algorithm including information sense and perception, memory storage, divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and evaluation system are simulated and modeled. This algorithm fully develops innovative thinking skills of knowledge in information fusion and is a try to converse the abstract conception of brain cognitive science to specific and operable research routes and strategies. Furthermore, the influences of each parameter of this algorithm on algorithm performance are analyzed and compared with those of classical intelligent algorithms trough test. Test results suggest that the algorithm proposed in this study can obtain the optimum problem solution by less target evaluation times, improve optimization effectiveness, and achieve the effective fusion of information.

Lu H; Hu L; Liu G; Zhou J

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The determination of the critical thinking tendencies of teacher candidates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the critical thinking tendencies of teacher candidates studying in the educationfaculties of universities in North Cyprus. The study was carried out with the participation of 874 teacher candidates studyingin the North Cyprus. In the research, which was carried out within the frame of the screening model and used the datacollection tool the California Critical Thinking Tendencies Measure, it was concluded that the critical thinking tendencies ofthe teacher candidates were generally on a positive line, and that significant differences existed between teacher candidatesof different gender and nationality. Besides this, no significant differences were detected when the critical thinkingtendencies of teacher candidates were compared with regards if they took courses which coincided with the approach ofcritical thinking.

Cigdem Hürsen; Aylin Kaplan

2012-01-01

342

Critical thinking inside law schools. An outline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The intention of this work is to do the mapping of the many problems that critical thinking (CT) is confronted with in the inside of law schools, taking these in their institutional role as well as tangible manifestations of legal culture. I address the significance of CT, reflecting on its philosophical origins and its possibility in our time, a time that is marked by a crisis of paradigms. We will move from theory to a more pragmatic approach based on skills, only to find different sets of difficulties. Today’s higher education institutional learning tradition is characterised by the conception and implementation of reforms which, in turn, are dominated by notions of business and commercial ethics, that are adding up to the positivist predominance that is still reigning upon legal education. Este trabajo pretende realizar una descripción de los numerosos problemas con que se encuentra el pensamiento crítico (PC) dentro de las escuelas de derecho, entendidas desde su papel institucional pero también como manifestaciones tangibles de la cultura legal. Se destaca la importancia del PC, reflexionando sobre sus orígenes filosóficos y su posibilidad en el momento actual, marcado por una crisis de paradigmas. Después de realizar un análisis teórico, se va a pasar a realizar un enfoque más pragmático basado en habilidades, sólo para encontrar diferentes tipos de dificultades. La tradición actual de la educación superior institucional se caracteriza por la concepción e implementación de reformas que, en cambio, están dominadas por nociones de ética empresarial y comercial, que se suman al predominio positivista que sigue reinando en la educación jurídica. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2115429

Raquel Medina Plana

2012-01-01

343

Principles of radiation protection in medical thinking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors consider the issue of principles of radiation protection in medicine as being of great interest for the following reasons: health care practitioners exposed to ionizing radiation represent 75% of all world-wide radiation exposed workers; they are also the ones who, by their radiological practice lead to medical exposure of the population (which represents the largest part among artificial exposure to ionizing radiation of the public - about 11%); the superior medical staff are the advisors and prescribers for radiological investigations and treatments. The authors' experience shows that training in radiation protection system is weak, leading sometimes to abusive use of ionizing radiation in both diagnostic and treatment. Medical staff's perception on the importance and role of radiation protection principles is sometimes distorted by unskilled backgrounds in the field. There are recommendations and regulations on radiation protection principles in the relevant legislation, but there are situations in which they are formally considered, or they are regarded as an obligation and not as a form of personal and patient protection. At a national level, the expansion of informing the public about the principles of radiation protection and its role is required by introducing a corresponding training since elementary school. A beneficial aspect that has developed recently is the introduction of radiation protection courses within university and postgraduate training. They are important for a correct and updated training on the principles of radiation protection, a field in which there are permanent updates and changes, and new concepts are set, such as the 'culture of radiation protection'. Medical thinking and medical research have had a contribution on developing and upgrading the radiation protection principles. (authors)

2011-10-18

344

How system designers think: a study of design thinking in human factors engineering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper presents a descriptive study of design thinking in human factors engineering. The objective of the study is to analyse the role of interpretation in design thinking and the role of design practice in guiding interpretation. The study involved 10 system designers undertaking the allocation of cognitive functions in three production planning and control task scenarios. Allocation decisions were recorded and verbal protocols of the design process were collected to elicit the subjects' thought processes. Verbal protocol analysis showed that subjects carried out the design of cognitive task allocation as a problem of applying a selected automation technology from their initial design deliberations. This design strategy stands in contrast to the predominant view of system design that stipulates that user requirements should be thoroughly analysed prior to making any decisions about technology. Theoretical frameworks from design research and ontological design showed that the system design process may be better understood by recognizing the role of design hypotheses in system design, as well as the diverse interactions between interpretation and practice, means and ends, and design practice and the designer's pre-understanding which shape the design process. Ways to balance the bias exerted on the design process were discussed.

Papantonopoulos S

2004-11-01

345

How system designers think: a study of design thinking in human factors engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a descriptive study of design thinking in human factors engineering. The objective of the study is to analyse the role of interpretation in design thinking and the role of design practice in guiding interpretation. The study involved 10 system designers undertaking the allocation of cognitive functions in three production planning and control task scenarios. Allocation decisions were recorded and verbal protocols of the design process were collected to elicit the subjects' thought processes. Verbal protocol analysis showed that subjects carried out the design of cognitive task allocation as a problem of applying a selected automation technology from their initial design deliberations. This design strategy stands in contrast to the predominant view of system design that stipulates that user requirements should be thoroughly analysed prior to making any decisions about technology. Theoretical frameworks from design research and ontological design showed that the system design process may be better understood by recognizing the role of design hypotheses in system design, as well as the diverse interactions between interpretation and practice, means and ends, and design practice and the designer's pre-understanding which shape the design process. Ways to balance the bias exerted on the design process were discussed. PMID:15697068

Papantonopoulos, Sotiris

2004-11-01

346

Towards the determination of capabilities relevant for expert thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper starts from the assumption that expert thinking is a complex manner of thinking of higher order, comprising higher mental functions and complex capabilities based on deep structures and knowledge patterns. It is a domain-determined and specialized thinking developed through systematic education. Particular aspects of ability, selected for this study, primarily concern the relation between abilities and knowledge and the relation between general and specific abilities. Particular emphasis was laid on the key concepts of the theories presented, relevant for the study of the complex nature of expert thinking. Special attention was paid to mediated intelligence and the process of systemogenesis of knowledge, Katel’s definition of crystallized intelligence, Gardener’s work on multiple intelligences in the context of knowledge and experience as well as Sternberg’s two-facet subtheory. The capability for abstract thought and the ability to select what is important as well as the domain of relevant specific capability are assumed to be of special relevance for understanding expert thinking and, as such, they were articulated and examined. Expert thinking-abstract, specialized and domain-specific, seems to be based on general and specific capabilities and their interaction.

Krnjai? Zora T.

2006-01-01

347

A model for critical thinking measurement of dental student performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The educational application of critical thinking has increased in the last twenty years with programs like problem-based learning. Performance measurement related to the dental student's capacity for critical thinking remains elusive, however. This article offers a model now in use to measure critical thinking applied to patient assessment and treatment planning across the four years of the dental school curriculum and across clinical disciplines. Two elements of the model are described: 1) a critical thinking measurement "cell," and 2) a list of minimally essential steps in critical thinking for patient assessment and treatment planning. Issues pertaining to this model are discussed: adaptations on the path from novice to expert, the role of subjective measurement, variations supportive of the model, and the correlation of individual and institutional assessment. The critical thinking measurement cell consists of interacting performance tasks and measures. The student identifies the step in the process (for example, chief complaint) with objective measurement; the student then applies the step to a patient or case with subjective measurement; the faculty member then combines the objective and subjective measurements into an evaluation on progress toward competence. The activities in the cell are then repeated until all the steps in the process have been addressed. A next task is to determine consistency across the four years and across clinical disciplines.

Johnsen DC; Finkelstein MW; Marshall TA; Chalkley YM

2009-02-01

348

Think tank (1) - Its definition and the overseas situation  

Science.gov (United States)

The definition as organization is that 1) the think tank should be policy oriented and propose the current issues, 2) it should be interdisciplinary and future oriented, and 3) it should be independent without any outside interference upon it. It is divided into three types in terms of business activity; 1) policy proposing, 2) R&D undertaking and 3) business consulting think tanks. Historically the U.S. has been leading the world because the first think tank was born in this country, and three types of think tanks have brought out the mature business undertakings there. Most of the countries other than the U.S. has held policy proposing type think tanks. The notable think tanks are Brookings Research Institute, Rand Research Institute, Battelle Memorial Institute, Arthur D. Little Co. Ltd. SRI International in the U.S.A., IFO Economic Research Institute, German Economic Research Institute in Germany, France International Relations Research Institute in France, Royal International Relations Research institute, International Strategic Matters Research Institute in the U.K., and Korean Development Research Institute, Korean industrial Research Institute in Korea. All of these have been active in the areas of politics, economics, industry and technology.

Obara, Michio

349

The Use of Think-aloud Methods in Qualitative Research An Introduction to Think-aloud Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Think-aloud is a research method in which participants speak aloud any words in their mind as they complete a task. A review of the literature has shown that think-aloud research methods have a sound theoretical basis and provide a valid source of data about participant thinking, especially during language based activities. However, a researcher needs to design a process which takes into account a number of concerns, by selecting a suitable task, a role for the researcher, a source of triangulation, and, most importantly, an appropriate method of interpretation. This paper argues that think-aloud research can be effectively interpreted through a qualitative lens. A qualitative approach also has implications for the choice of participant(s) and the treatment of the data. Participants should be treated as quasi-researchers, and their efforts rewarded with reciprocity.

Elizabeth Charters

2003-01-01

350

The Use of Think-aloud Methods in Qualitative Research An Introduction to Think-aloud Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Think-aloud is a research method in which participants speak aloud any words in their mind as they complete a task. A review of the literature has shown that think-aloud research methods have a sound theoretical basis and provide a valid source of data about participant thinking, especially during language based activities. However, a researcher needs to design a process which takes into account a number of concerns, by selecting a suitable task, a role for the researcher, a source of triangulation, and, most importantly, an appropriate method of interpretation. This paper argues that think-aloud research can be effectively interpreted through a qualitative lens. A qualitative approach also has implications for the choice of participant(s) and the treatment of the data. Participants should be treated as quasi-researchers, and their efforts rewarded with reciprocity.

Elizabeth Charters

2010-01-01

351

Creativity: Some Definitions: The Creative Personality; The Creative Process; The Creative Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

The four dimensions of the creative personality--thinking, sensing, intuition, and feeling--are described, as are the creative process (including preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification) and ways in which teachers can assess and promote creativity. Creative classroom environments and teaching methods are detailed. (CB)

Wallace, Belle

1986-01-01

352

Emotional stability, positive and wishful thinking, and consequences of coping in a Spanish sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between scores on Emotional Stability and on two cognitive coping strategies-Positive Thinking and Wishful Thinking-and the Consequences of Coping scale were examined in a group of 99 Spanish undergraduates. Positive Thinking was associated with high Emotional Stability and positive consequences, whereas Wishful Thinking was associated with low Emotional Stability and negative consequences. PMID:16342582

Ruiz, Víctor M

2005-10-01

353

Emotional stability, positive and wishful thinking, and consequences of coping in a Spanish sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between scores on Emotional Stability and on two cognitive coping strategies-Positive Thinking and Wishful Thinking-and the Consequences of Coping scale were examined in a group of 99 Spanish undergraduates. Positive Thinking was associated with high Emotional Stability and positive consequences, whereas Wishful Thinking was associated with low Emotional Stability and negative consequences.

Ruiz VM

2005-10-01

354

A Conceptual Model for Teaching Critical Thinking in a Knowledge Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical thinking, viewed as rational and analytic thinking, is crucial for participation in a knowledge economy and society. This article provides a brief presentation of the importance of teaching critical thinking in a knowledge economy; suggests a conceptual model for teaching thinking; examines research on the historical role of teachers in…

Chadwick, Clifton

2011-01-01

355

The human thinking mechanism. [For developing the natural resources on the earth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Creative discoveries are indispensible to society. As population increases, the limited resources of the earth must be distributed to a larger number of people. Moreover, these resources become more difficult to obtain. Lower quality or more remote ores must be mined. Agricultural land of lower productivity must be pressed into cultivation. The higher costs due to this deterioration of resources would steadily reduce the standard of living throughout the world. The only factor resisting that trend, and occasionally reversing it, is creative ideas. New tools, new techniques, new products, new institutions, and new relationships among people are all needed and are attainable only through creative thinking. It is worth all the skill and effort we can devote to promote it.

Pacifico, C.

1983-08-01

356

A poster presentation as an evaluation method to facilitate reflective thinking skills in nursing education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article seeks to establish whether the poster presentation of a specific theme can facilitate the student's thinking skills in nursing education. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design where twenty students volunteered to take part in the study by signing an informed consent was followed. Descriptive naïve sketches were used for data collection followed by individual interviews to validate the findings. Data was analysed by means of the descriptive method of open coding of Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). DENOSA's ethical standards for research (1998:7) were considered. The findings indicated both positive and negative perceptions. The positive perceptions were: a poster presentation as an evaluation method facilitates creative, critical and reflective thinking skills; group work facilitates student participation; it facilitates problem solving skills; it increases the student's independence and a sense of ownership; and the evaluation is fair. The negative perceptions were that there was a lack of clarity on the student's expectations and that group activity is difficult. Trustworthiness was maintained in accordance with Lincoln and Guba's principles (1985:290-327). It is concluded that a poster presentation, used effectively as an evaluation method, can facilitate the learner's critical and reflective thinking skills. It is recommended that other learner-centred methods of assessment and evaluation be researched for their effective use in facilitating the higher order thinking skills of learners. PMID:12434633

Chabeli, M M

2002-08-01

357

A poster presentation as an evaluation method to facilitate reflective thinking skills in nursing education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article seeks to establish whether the poster presentation of a specific theme can facilitate the student's thinking skills in nursing education. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design where twenty students volunteered to take part in the study by signing an informed consent was followed. Descriptive naïve sketches were used for data collection followed by individual interviews to validate the findings. Data was analysed by means of the descriptive method of open coding of Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). DENOSA's ethical standards for research (1998:7) were considered. The findings indicated both positive and negative perceptions. The positive perceptions were: a poster presentation as an evaluation method facilitates creative, critical and reflective thinking skills; group work facilitates student participation; it facilitates problem solving skills; it increases the student's independence and a sense of ownership; and the evaluation is fair. The negative perceptions were that there was a lack of clarity on the student's expectations and that group activity is difficult. Trustworthiness was maintained in accordance with Lincoln and Guba's principles (1985:290-327). It is concluded that a poster presentation, used effectively as an evaluation method, can facilitate the learner's critical and reflective thinking skills. It is recommended that other learner-centred methods of assessment and evaluation be researched for their effective use in facilitating the higher order thinking skills of learners.

Chabeli MM

2002-08-01

358

Effects of an instruction method in thinking skills with students from compulsory secondary education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects caused by the instruction method "Think actively in academic contexts, TAAC", an adaptation of Wallace and Adams' (1993) method of thinking skills, creativity, self-regulation, and academic learning, with students from the second grade of Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE). We used a pretest-intervention-posttest design with control group. The sample was made up of 110 participants, aged between 13 and 15 years, 58 of them in the experimental group and 52 in the control group. Six assessment instruments were administered before and after applying the method in order to measure the dependent variables. The method, divided into eight stages, was used in all the didactic units of the syllabus content of Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and Language, during one academic course, and allowed the conjoint teaching of thinking skills and the syllabus content. The results of the analyses of variance indicate positive impact of the intervention, as the experimental subjects improved significantly in thinking skills and academic achievement. Some interesting reflections for research and education are derived from this study.

de Acedo Lizarraga ML; de Acedo Baquedano MT; Pollán Rufo M

2010-05-01

359

Novel Program to Promote Critical Thinking among Higher Education Students: Empirical Study from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) underwent this program during the thinking skills course. The effectiveness of the program was examined using a critical thinking assessment instrument that evaluated five critical thinking skills: causal explanation, determining the reliability of sources, argument, prediction, and determining parts-whole relationships. The data demonstrated statistically significant gains in the five critical thinking skills tested.Thus, this study provides a framework for creating teaching methods that provide effective direct instruction for the development of critical thinking skills of college students.

Huda Umar Alwehaibi

2012-01-01

360

Ethical thinking and discrimination in health care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome inequalities has become a cornerstone of excellence in health care.Method: A small quantitative survey of nurses was conducted in one of the departments in a Slovenian hospital. To analyse the results, we used frequency statistics, Spearman's rank correlation test and chi-square test. Results: Providers of health care services are aware of the importance of ethics in its formation. Professional Code is relatively well known; 8.4 % of the respondents were not sure if they clearly define the principles of respect for equality. Discrimination, caused by providers of health care, is of a less extent. Ethical awareness among health care providers does not affect identification with the profession. The education level ofnursing personnel and the perception of discrimination based on religious affiliation influenced one another. Education has no influence on the perception of discrimination based on other circumstances.Organization: Health care organizations should integrate hygieneethical thinking among its strategic goals. Quality is not only quantifying the data. Personal excellence of health care providers, which is difficult to measure, is the basic building block of organizational excellence and patient satisfaction.Originality: There are not many research studies on perceptionsof discrimination in health care. The article raises the sensitive issue that we should talk more about.Limitations: The survey was conducted on a small sample size. Further research should be conducted on perception of discrimination of both sides in health care, both in terms of health care providers as patients. It may be worthwhile to compare the differences in the perception of discrimination in private and in public hospitals.

Aleksander Mlinšek

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Children's Creative Potential: An Empirical Study of Measurement Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

|Relations between measures of creative potential and different scoring methods were examined in 154 French schoolchildren. The "Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production" (TCT-DP), parallel lines task from the "Torrance Test for Creative Thinking," and an object-based creative drawing task were used. Factor analysis of TCT-DP subscores showed…

Lubart, Todd; Pacteau, Chantal; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Caroff, Xavier

2010-01-01

362

Comparative Thinking as a Fundamental Method of Interdisciplinary Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general target of this paper is to establish methodological guidelines for comparative thinking that will show the latter’s merits for the development of global thinking in cultural and human sciences. Furthermore, the paper solves questions of how the inter-action of cultures and the intra-relation of societies and communication work for the benefit of human beings of various cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the purpose of this project is not limited to pure methodology. The project shows in detail how comparative thinking works in every aspect of human sciences and how effective it is as applied cultural philosophy. Contrary to materialist and physical reductionism, the comparative method opens a wide gate to understanding the principles of cultures, including various dimensions of the inter-action of different thinking methods. From this viewpoint, comparative thinking shows an effective way of interdisciplinary thinking which supports the basis of human and cultural sciences in this globalizing world. The special focus of this work is on how comparative thinking grasps the basic terminology of the cultural philosophies of East and West, e.g., the basic thoughts of Heidegger about being, life, death and nothingness versus the same problems treated by D?gen, one of the most important thinkers and authors of Zen Buddhism in Japan and East Asia. Until about ten years ago, many philosophers regarded Heidegger and Buddhist thinkers in a harmonized one-sided dimension. The effort was successful, and we have entered an era of intercultural “oneness philosophy.” Starting from this point a further step leads to a better understanding of the basic differences of insight into similar problems approached by Heidegger and D?gen. An intensified dialogue and a more lively inter-action will lead to the emergence of profound conceptions and hermeneutics, capable of constructing a new philosophy in the contemporary world.

Hisaki Hashi

2013-01-01

363

An Exploration of Critical Thinking Necessities, Barriers and CAT MAGIC Notion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years Critical Thinking has become blurry and complicated and it is entered in almost all areas and for decades, it has been conducted a substantial body of research on critical thinking. But there are very little researches in the area of critical thinking and management of organizations sphere. This paper aims at reviewing the critical thinking and the necessities and barriers of implementing critical thinking in the organizations as well.

Mohammad Reza Noruzi; José G. Vargas Hernández,

2010-01-01

364

Thinking about "Think Again" in Canada: assessing a social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign. PMID:17558789

Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A

2007-06-01

365

Thinking about "Think Again" in Canada: assessing a social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign.

Lombardo AP; Léger YA

2007-06-01

366

Does intellectual giftedness affect the factor structure of divergent thinking? Evidence from a MG-MACS analysis  

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Full Text Available This study explored the latent structure of divergent thinking as a cognitive ability across gifted and non-gifted samples of students utilizing multiple-group analysis of mean and covariance structures (MG-MACS). Whereas Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates lower g saturation of cognitive tests with increasing ability level and consequently, a lower correlation of cognitive abilities in more gifted samples, recent evidence from creativity research has shown that correlations of divergent thinking with intelligence are unaffected by ability level. In order to investigate this conflicting state of affairs with respect to divergent thinking, we utilized increasingly restrictive MG-MACS models that were capable of comparing latent variances, covariances, and means between gifted (IQ > 130) and non-gifted (IQ ? 130) groups of students. In a sample of 1070 German school students, we found that a MG-MACS model assuming partial strict measurement invariance with respect to the postulated factor model of verbal, figural, and numerical divergent thinking could not be rejected. Further, latent variances and covariances of latent divergent thinking factors did not significantly differ between groups, whereas the gifted group exhibited significantly higher latent means. Finally, implications of our results for future research on the latent structure of divergent thinking are discussed.

HEINZ HOLLING; JÖRG-TOBIAS KUHN

2008-01-01

367

Encouraging Creativity in the Science Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Although science is a creative endeavor (NRC 1996, p. 46), many students think they are not encouraged--or even allowed--to be creative in the laboratory. When students think there is only one correct way to do a lab, their creativity is inhibited. Park and

Eyster, Linda

2010-09-01

368

When conflicts are good: Nonconscious goal conflicts reduce confirmatory thinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Kleiman T; Hassin RR

2013-09-01

369

The Metacognitions About Desire Thinking Questionnaire: Development and Psychometric Properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Recent research has suggested that specific metacognitions may play a role in the activation and escalation of desire thinking and craving. The goal of this research project was to develop the first self-report instrument of metacognitions about desire thinking. METHOD: We conducted three studies with nonclinical samples (N = 213, N = 279, N = 60) to construct the Metacognitions about Desire Thinking Questionnaire (MDTQ) and test its structure and psychometric properties. A fourth study was added to test the predictive validity of MDTQ in a sample of alcohol abusers (N = 75). RESULTS: Explorative and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution: positive metacognitions about desire thinking, negative metacognitions about desire thinking, and need to control desire related thoughts. Internal consistency, divergent validity, temporal stability were also examined in a community sample and predictive validity was confirmed even in a sample of alcohol abusers. CONCLUSIONS: The MDTQ was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as divergent and predictive validity within the populations that were tested.

Caselli G; Spada MM

2013-06-01

370

Using Discussions to Promote Critical Thinking in an Online Environment  

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Full Text Available This paper examines how the discussion tool is used to promote critical thinking in an online environment at Marshall University. The significance of critical thinking in higher education has been brought to attention at both national and local levels. The paper studies the use of discussions as an approach to promote critical thinking in a number of English as a Second Language (ESL) courses offered by Marshall University's Graduate School of Education and Professional Development (GSEPD) program. At the end of the semester, a qualitative survey was developed to identify the effectiveness of such discussions, and the opportunities for improvement. The survey was sent to all students in these three classes. These students were all full time teachers in Elementary and Secondary schools in West Virginia. Out of 21 students, 15 of them have responded to the three questions asked in the survey. Almost all the respondents have found discussion helpful in enhancing learning and critical thinking. Most students support the involvement of an online instructor in the online discussion, and faculty members involved in these discussions function as helpers in the development of critical thinking skills.

Nega Debela; Berlin Fang

2008-01-01

371

Correlations among impairment, daily activities and thinking operations after stroke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the hypothesis that ADL tests dependent on cortical functions could be used to assess outcome in stroke patients. MATERIALS AND METHOD: 27 right-handed stroke patients were evaluated on National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale and thinking process items of Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA). RESULTS: Correlations between thinking process subtests of LOTCA and different items of NIHSS such as consciousness, arm movement, aphasia, ataxia and inattention was significant. Spearman correlation of thinking process and BI tasks showed no relationship, although Structured Riska of thinking process evaluation was correlated to both self-care and mobility areas of the BI. Thinking process was strongly related to IADL total score (p = 0.004). The total NIHSS correlated significantly with BI and IADL total scores. CONCLUSION: Higher-order functions, such as categorization, sorting and reasoning, are related to IADL performance which depends on complicated cognitive abilities. In contrast, the BI depends heavily on motoric function, and does not correlate with higher-order functions. Further confirmation is needed, but our data suggest that commonly used IADL tests could serve to as valid, reliable tests of cognitive impairment and recovery in stroke victims.

Akbari S; Lyden PD; Kamali M; Fahimi MA

2013-01-01

372

Registered nurses' thinking strategies on malnutrition and pressure ulcers in nursing homes: a scenario-based think-aloud study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the thinking strategies and clinical reasoning processes registered nurses use during simulated care planning for malnutrition and pressure ulcers in nursing home care. BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning is an essential component of nursing practice. Registered nurses' thinking strategies and clinical reasoning have received limited attention in nursing science. Further research is needed to understand registered nurses' clinical reasoning, especially for prevention of malnutrition and pressure ulcers as they are important quality indicators of resident care in nursing homes. DESIGN: A qualitative explorative design was used with a think-aloud interview technique. METHODS: The transcribed verbalisations were analysed with qualitative deductive content analysis. Data were collected during six months in 2007-2008 from 30 registered nurses at nine nursing homes in Norway. RESULTS: The registered nurses used a variety of thinking strategies, but there were differences in the frequency of use of the different strategies. The three most commonly used thinking strategies were 'making choices', 'forming relationships' and 'drawing conclusions'. None of the nurses performed a structured risk assessment of malnutrition or pressure ulcers. Registered nurses started with assessing data from the scenarios, but after a short and elementary assessment they moved directly to planning. CONCLUSION: Many different thinking strategies were used in registered nurses' clinical reasoning for prevention of malnutrition and pressure ulcers. The thinking strategy 'making choices' was most commonly used and registered nurses' main focus in their reasoning was on planning nursing interventions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study showed that most of the registered nurses go directly to planning when reasoning clinically about residents in nursing homes. A lack of systematic risk assessments was identified. The insight gained from this study can be used to recommend improvements in tools designed for nursing homes to support the registered nurses.

Fossum M; Alexander GL; Göransson KE; Ehnfors M; Ehrenberg A

2011-09-01

373

INTERDISCIPLINARY COMMUNICATION INFLUENCING THE PROFESSIONAL THINKING OF THE DESIGNER  

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Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the direct and indirect interdisciplinary communication, didactic units of discipline «Computer software of project design», including vector graphics, raster graphics, three-dimensional graphics, with units of other special disciplines. Considered such disciplines, as «Descriptive geometry and technical drawing», «The fundamentals of composition in industrial design», «Fundamentals of design graphics», «Design and modelling of industrial products», the VPO standard in «Industrial design» speciality. Also, is considered the mutual influence of the didactic units of discipline on the various elements of professional thinking, forming the general professional thinking of students studying design during laboratory work. Formation of professional thinking most effectively will take place under the condition of coherence and complementarity between educational areas, as well as orientation on modern technical and technological changes in industry.

Ahmetova Albina Maratovna; Savitsky Sergey Konstantinovich

2013-01-01

374

Episodic future thinking in children with autism spectrum disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The capacity to imagine oneself experiencing future events has important implications for effective daily living but investigation of this ability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. This study investigated future thinking in 30 children with high functioning ASD (IQ > 85) and 30 typically developing children. They completed the Adapted Autobiographical Interview, a measure which required participants to describe personal past events (indexing episodic memory) and plausible future events (indexing episodic future thinking). The results showed that there are ASD-related deficits in future thinking, and also provided preliminary evidence regarding cognitive mechanisms that may (and may not) contribute to these difficulties. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23504377

Terrett, Gill; Rendell, Peter G; Raponi-Saunders, Sandra; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Altgassen, Mareike

2013-11-01

375

The 'whys' and 'whens' of individual differences in thinking biases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although human thinking is often biased, some individuals are less susceptible to biases than others. These individual differences have been at the forefront of thinking research for more than a decade. We organize the literature in three key accounts (storage, monitoring, and inhibition failure) and propose that a critical but overlooked question concerns the time point at which individual variance arises: do biased and unbiased reasoners take different paths early on in the reasoning process or is the observed variance late to arise? We discuss how this focus on the 'whens' suggests that individual differences in thinking biases are less profound than traditionally assumed, in the sense that they might typically arise at a later stage of the reasoning process.

De Neys W; Bonnefon JF

2013-04-01

376

A model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education  

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Full Text Available A qualitative, contextual, exploratory and descriptive design for theory generation was used to develop a model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education (Mouton & Marais, 1990:43; Mouton, 1996: 103- 109; Chinn & Kramer 1991:79-120). A model was developed within the existing frameworks of theory generation. Wilson (1963:23-39) and Gift (1997:75,76) provided a theoretical framework for a concept analysis of reflective thinking in phase one of the study. Further conceptual meaning was attained through a perceptual survey where twelve nurse educators participated in a focus group interview with regard to how reflective thinking can be facilitated in clinical nursing education. Classification of the main concepts and sub-concepts was made through a conceptualisation process within Dickoff, James and Wiedenbach’s (1968:415-435) theoretical framework using the six elements of practice theory.

M. Chabeli; M. Muller

2004-01-01

377

Positive thinking: an unfair burden for cancer patients?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This presentation challenges the purveyors of the importance of "positive thinking" in the cure of cancer. Psychological support should allow the patient to come to terms with his or her situation in a way that works for that individual within a caring and realistic environment. In no way should psychological support add an extra burden to an already devastated patient. By forcing "positive mental attitude", health-care professionals are not allowing patients to face reality. Promoters of the "cure" that comes with positive thinking are quoted, as well as authors who question the promoters' intent and outcome. It is felt that "positive thinking" may be appropriate as one of many successful coping strategies. To attribute more to it or, worse, to insist that patients believe in its power to cure may be courting emotional disaster.

Rittenberg CN

1995-01-01

378

Do doctors, nurses and managers have different thinking styles?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of the preferred thinking styles among senior health professionals is reported. A total of 49 medical consultants, 50 senior nurses and 53 health managers from two public teaching hospitals in Adelaide, Australia, were invited via a personal letter to complete a questionnaire comprising measures of thinking style (the Rational Experiential Inventory) and cognitive style (two dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator). Managers reported a higher preference for 'rational' reasoning than nurses, whereas medical consultants reported a lower preference for 'experiential' reasoning than both managers and nurses. Cognitive style was largely homogenous. Although generalisation of the findings may be limited due to small sample sizes and the self-selection of participants, an understanding of the thinking styles of senior health professionals will likely inform the design and evaluation of future change strategies.

Sladek RM; Bond MJ; Phillips PA

2010-08-01

379

Implementation of lean thinking: one health system's journey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lean Thinking is a management philosophy derived from the manufacturing industry, where Toyota has long been the gold standard. Health care organizations have started to apply this approach to patient care. After initial experimentation, the University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) has adopted Lean Thinking as its uniform approach to quality improvement and is striving to become a complete Lean organization. PROJECTS: In 2005, the senior leadership selected an initial set of projects in areas that traced the patient's journey across different care settings within our health system. Four of the projects were as follows: orthopedic surgery clinic scheduling, radiation oncology therapy, peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) services, and coordination of care to the outpatient setting. LESSONS FROM LEAN THINKING: Lean Thinking encourages service providers to focus on value as defined by the customer and the relentless elimination of waste that impedes the flow of value. A series of learning projects were conducted to test whether Lean methods would work at UMHS. The following factors were found to be key to LEAN PROJECT SUCCESS: expert guidance for initial efforts, leadership in the form of clinical champions and senior management support of the improvement work, frontline worker engagement in mapping out "current state" processes, identifying waste and designing an improved "future state," using metrics to develop and track interventions, and defining realistic project scope. FINAL REFLECTIONS: As UMHS's experience applying Lean Thinking to our patient care processes has grown, so have support, enthusiasm, and expertise within the organization. UMHS's Lean Thinking system, now known as the Michigan Quality System, has emerged as the core improvement strategy.

Kim CS; Spahlinger DA; Kin JM; Coffey RJ; Billi JE

2009-08-01

380

Thinking ahead. The Project of a comprehensive civil society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Few intellectuals are naturally born or bred democrats. Rather, self-reliant thinkers are likely to be dissenters to conventional wisdom, and spurners of democratic compromise. And the democratic public does not appreciate intellectuals either. Their adventures of thinking, after all, are not mass products. Yet, the project of democracy is one of the few successful historic experiments to generate spaces of civil conduct and a successful search for a better future. Its history is rich with the best trials and errors of mankind, and the diversity of its inner discourse deserves but every energy of thinking individuals.

Christopher Gohl

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Constructing futures industry leaders and futures thinking in construction  

CERN Multimedia

There is growing interest in future scenario planning of the construction industry but a disconnect between thinking about the future at the policy-making level and implementing real change. Constructing Futures: industry leaders and futures thinking in construction takes a thematic approach to the future of the UK construction industry by presenting the results of a series of in-depth interviews conducted with leading construction figures and structuring this material into chapters addressing the key contemporary issues in the industry. These high-profile figures are drawn from a w

Chan, Paul

2010-01-01

382

Mathematical Thinking How to Develop It in the Classroom  

CERN Document Server

Developing mathematical thinking is one of major aims of mathematics education. In mathematics education research, there are a number of researches which describe what it is and how we can observe in experimental research. However, teachers have difficulties developing it in the classrooms. This book is the result of lesson studies over the past 50 years. It describes three perspectives of mathematical thinking: Mathematical Attitude (Minds set), Mathematical Methods in General and Mathematical Ideas with Content and explains how to develop them in the classroom with illuminating examples.

Isoda, Masami

2012-01-01

383

Peirce, pragmatism, and the right way of thinking.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a summary of and commentary on (a) the seven lectures that C. S. Peirce presented in 1903 on pragmatism and (b) a commentary by P. A. Turrisi, both of which are included in Pragmatism as a Principle and Method of Right Thinking: The 1903 Harvard Lectures on Pragmatism, edited by Turrisi [13]. Peirce is known as the founder of the philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirce's decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the important points in the lectures.

Campbell, Philip LaRoche

2011-08-01

384

Thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profle (NBPP) and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The researchers found some evidence to support the relationship between thinking style, emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership effectiveness. The researchers concluded that facets of brain dominance and emotional intelligence may be potentially useful predictors of transformational leadership behaviours.

Tessie H. Herbst; Kobus G. Maree

2008-01-01

385

What About Albert Einstein? Using Biographies to Promote Studentsâ Scientific Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Who hasnât heard of Einstein? Science educators everywhere are familiar with Einsteinâs genius and general theory of relativity. Students easily recognize Einsteinâs image by his white flyaway hair and bushy mustache. It is well known that Einstein was a brilliant physicist and an abstract thinker who often used his creativity and imagination in his scientific thought process (Parker 2003). Clearly, if students had opportunities to study Einstein and other scientists, it might increase their interest in science and encourage them to think more like scientists. To that end, this article describes how Einstein can be highlighted in a biography unit for the middle grades.

Fingon, Joan C.; Fingon, Shallon D.

2009-03-01

386

Pleasantness of Creative Tasks and Creative Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine the impact of emotion on creative potential, experimental studies have typically focused on the impact of induced or spontaneous mood states on creative performance. In this report the relationship between the perceived pleasantness of tasks (using divergent thinking and story writing tasks) and creative performance was examined.…

Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

2011-01-01

387

Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013. Emerging Contexts for Systemic Design Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013. Emerging Contexts for Systemic Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AHO – Oslo School of Architecture & Design, Norway, invites to the Relating Systems Thinking and Design to a free and open symposium over two days 9th-11th October 2013, with a preceding full day with diverse workshops and a subsequent special issue in FORMakademisk.AHO – Oslo School of Architecture & Design, Norway, invites to the Relating Systems Thinking and Design to a free and open symposium over two days 9th-11th October 2013, with a preceding full day with diverse workshops and a subsequent special issue in FORMakademisk.

Birger Sevaldson

2013-01-01

388

Critical Thinking: Conceptual Clarification and Its Importance in Science Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In different countries efforts have been made to integrate critical thinking into science curricula, recognizing that it is necessary to live in a plural society with citizenship competence. However, this objective has not been appropriately implemented in classrooms. One of the obstacles is the fact that teachers do not have a clear idea about…

Vieira, Rui Marques; Tenreiro-Vieira, Celina; Martins, Isabel P.

2011-01-01

389

Integrating Critical Thinking Skills into American Literature Classes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is argued that the need for critical thinking in university education is accentuated in response to the rapidly changing world and the complexity of today’s world where people are required to comprehend, judge, and participate in generating new knowledge and processes. It is also argued ...

Nazmi Al-Shalabi; Shadi Neimneh; Kifah Omary; Halla Shureteh; Maisoun Abu-Joudeh

390

Thinking and Acting as a Great Programme Manager  

CERN Multimedia

This book is based on research into programme management competence conducted by Cranfield School of Management and SP Associates. It brings cutting-edge thinking on a subject of great relevance to professionals and senior managers, providing useful advice on the practice of programme management, and the performance of that role in organizations.

Pellegrinelli, Sergio

2008-01-01

391

The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negati...

Vuk?evi? Branimir

392

Additional Responses to Hugh Heclo's "On Thinking Institutionally"  

Science.gov (United States)

Issue 13:3 of this journal (July 2010) included a "Conversation" on Hugh Heclo's recent publication "On Thinking Institutionally" (Paradigm Publishers, 2008) with a book review by Robert Fennell and responses by Richard Ascough, Tat-siong Benny Liew, Michael McLain, and Lynne Westfield. Here we publish two additional responses to this same book.…

Lincoln, Timothy D.; Fennell, Robert C.

2011-01-01

393

Coping with Faculty Resistance to Teaching Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reluctance of college faculty to teach critical thinking may be due to many factors. Proactive strategies for reducing resistance include creating a positive context for change, communicating expertness and credibility, creating a sense of safety and trust, countering sources of student resistance, and creating high hopes and expectations for…

Haas, Paul F.; Keeley, Stuart M.

1998-01-01

394

Learning by Exploration: Thinking Aloud while Exploring an Information System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a study of university students that examined the ability of people to learn a computer system by exploration and discusses the role of thinking aloud and reflection to obtain information about the goals of the user. Considers display-based, exploratory learning in relation to planning and problem solving. (Author/LRW)

Van Oostendorp, Herre; De Mul, Sjaak

1999-01-01

395

Modern information literacy innovates library by systems thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information literacy enables library users to well use modern sources of information in order to both create and apply knowledge. This competency can be more or less holistic with the level of holism having crucial consequences.To describe this particular need for holism systems thinking and informa...

Petermanec, Zdenka; Mulej, Matjaž

396

Thinking in English: A New Perspective on Teaching ESL  

Science.gov (United States)

|"Thinking in English" represents Dr. Muciaccia's unique method of teaching English to non-native English speakers. Unlike any other English as a Second Language (ESL) book, Muciaccia's book features the "cultural immersion" approach that he has developed and practiced to a fine degree. In addition to his methodology, Muciaccia includes words of…

Muciaccia, John B.

2011-01-01

397

Teaching Critical Reading as a Way of Teaching Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of five writing assignments that focus on the critical thinking skills needed for the intelligent reading of political articles that appear in newspapers and popular magazines was developed for use in a political science course at Oakton Community College (Illinois). Each of the assignments begins with a lesson that teaches the specific…

Taylor, William M.

398

Critical thinking and the role of the clinical ultrasound tutor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As radiographers continue to extend their role and take on more procedures associated traditionally with radiologists, it is essential that their critical thinking abilities keep pace with the new practical skills they are learning. This is particularly important in ultrasound where student sonographers must master a number of new skills including the technical dexterity required to perform a scan, the ability to form and discard hypotheses when trying to interpret the image, and the communication of their findings as a written report. Interpreting the image and producing an accurate, appropriate report involves the higher level cognitive processes of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In other words, the student sonographer must be able to think critically to become a successful practitioner. This paper attempts to define and discuss critical thinking, and considers a range of simple strategies that the clinical teacher of ultrasound can employ to help develop critical thinking skills in their students. These methods are appropriate for use not only by clinical teachers of ultrasound but for all teachers and mentors wishing to improve reasoning skills in their pupils.

Edwards, Hazel [Ultrasound Department, James Paget Healthcare NHS Trust, Gorleston, Norfolk NR31 6LA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: hazel.edwards@jpaget.nhs.uk

2006-08-15

399

Episodic future thinking in children compared to adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Episodic thinking involves the ability to re-create past and to construct future personal events, which contain event-specific (episodic) and general (semantic) details. The richness of episodic thought for past events improves as children move into adolescence. The current study aims to examine changes in episodic future thinking and to establish the cognitive underpinning of these changes. Typically developing children (n = 14) and adolescents (n = 15) were tested using an adapted version of the Child Autobiographical Interview (CAI) that required generation of past and future personally relevant events. Relational memory and executive skills were also examined. Significant developmental gains were found in richness of events recall across temporal directions (past and future) and across different types of details (episodic and semantic). Developmental gains in richness of past events were also shown to correspond to developmental gains in generation of future events. Moreover, developmental changes in relational memory and (to a lesser extent) executive functions were found to relate to increases in the amount of episodic (but not semantic) details provided. Our study highlighted the similarities between past and future episodic thinking in typically developing children and adolescents. It also raises a possibility that children with developmental and neurological disorders with impaired relational memory and/or executive skills may be at risk of difficulties with episodic thinking.

Gott C; Lah S

2013-09-01

400

Psychology Is a Science: At Least Some Students Think So  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Psychological Association's (2007) curricular guidelines recommend that students develop both an understanding of how psychologists do research and an appreciation for why scientific thinking is necessary. We surveyed a large sample of psychology majors on specific interests, as well as individual difference variables relevant to…

Holmes, Jeffrey D.; Beins, Bernard C.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

China's foreign policy think tanks: Changing roles and structural conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides an overview of the landscape of Chinese foreign policy think tanks, classifies them according to the activities they pursue, and offers some explanations as to how they have developed their particular characteristics - both at the level of individual institutes as well as in the ...

Abb, Pascal

402

Design Thinking in Elementary Students' Collaborative Lamp Designing Process  

Science.gov (United States)

Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

403

Thinking in English: A New Perspective on Teaching ESL  

Science.gov (United States)

"Thinking in English" represents Dr. Muciaccia's unique method of teaching English to non-native English speakers. Unlike any other English as a Second Language (ESL) book, Muciaccia's book features the "cultural immersion" approach that he has developed and practiced to a fine degree. In addition to his methodology, Muciaccia includes words of…

Muciaccia, John B.

2011-01-01

404

Critical Thinking as Dialectics: A Hegelian-Marxist Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

|Admitting that the peculiarity of education doesn't merely lie in the acquisition of knowledge, as a compilation of data, but that it refers to the fostering, within the pedagogical relationship, of universal human capabilities, the ability to think being cardinal among them, and if, the critical examination of things is considered as the…

Pavlidis, Periklis

2010-01-01

405

Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.

BY Uys; SM Meyer

2005-01-01

406

Schizotypy, self-referential thinking and the Barnum effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The tendency for people to endorse, as an accurate description of themselves, personality descriptions that are essentially bogus is well-attested. The study tested whether the so-called 'Barnum' effect could be predicted by individual differences in self-referential thinking, and beyond this, schizotypy more generally. METHODS: 130 Participants completed four different measures of the Barnum effect followed by measures of schizotypy and self-referential thinking. RESULTS: Both self-referential thinking and positive schizotypy independently predicted the degree of agreement with several Barnum measures including both favorable and unfavorable personality descriptions, as well as computer-generated and horoscope-based readings. LIMITATIONS: The sample is heavily represented by students and is not representative of the general population. Testing at a single point in time may have reduced differences between different indices of the Barnum effect. CONCLUSIONS: Self-referential thinking and schizotypy more generally are key contributors to the Barnum effect across a wide range of indices.

Mason OJ; Budge K

2011-06-01

407

Penetration of Mathematics Teaching and Thinking in Junior High School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical thinking is the essence of the mathematics in the phase of middle school, in which penetration mathematical thinking method contributes to the teaching efficiency in practice. This paper has listed some thinking methods, such as, penetration symbolic method that improves students’ adaptive ability on the transformation from arithmetic to algebra; penetration normalization method that contributes to the problem-solving ability; penetration of the combination of characters and graphics method that improves the competence both on the transformation between characters and graphics, and knowledge migration; penetration inductive method that strengthens their innovation both on thought and practical ability; penetration equation and function that is responsible for the cultivation of their modeling ability; and penetration classified discussion method that is conductive to the competence on observation all-round and handling problem flexibly. It is of much significance to propel the application of mathematical thinking in teaching practice for the goal of improved teaching quality and the cultivation of highly competent talent.

Ailing Wang; Guanjun Jia; Anyong Liu

2013-01-01

408

The Art and Science of Constructivist Research in Teacher Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses decisions that must be addressed when using repertory grid techniques to study teacher thinking, suggesting there is an art and a science to conducting constructivist research. The article illustrates the use of the repertory grid, snake, and self-characterization sketch to help student teachers consider their views on teacher…

Pope, Maureen; Denicolo, Pam

1993-01-01

409

Occupational Thinking and Its Relation to School Dropout  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this longitudinal research is to explore whether poorly organized occupational thinking contributes to school dropout. The 377 students in the sample were 15-16 years old when they participated in an evaluative study on career education. Kelly's method of measuring vocational constructs, the repertory grid technique, was used to measure…

Vilhjalmsdottir, Gudbjorg

2010-01-01

410

Reggio Emilia: New Ways To Think About Schooling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Reggio Emilia approach to education reveals new ways for promoting children's academic learning; offers documentation as a tool for studying, sharing, and planning children's education experiences; and provokes a new way to think about the role of the teacher. (Contains 17 references.) (MLF)

New, Rebecca S.

2003-01-01

411

The Critical Thinking Movement in Kazakhstan: A Progress Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Having gained independence in 1991, Kazakhstan is making major adjustments in its educational system to meet the demands of its changing workplace. To that end, the Ministry of Education has mandated that critical thinking be incorporated into all levels. Given the importance of this goal, the authors surveyed teachers' understanding and use of…

Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat

2010-01-01

412

Exploring Adolescents' Thinking about Globalization in an International Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examined US high school students' thinking about economic and cultural globalization during their participation in an international education program. The findings mapped the students' categories for the two aspects of globalization and showed that the students' positions were shaped by relatively stable narratives characterizing the…

Myers, John P.

2010-01-01

413

Think-Share-Write: An Effective Strategy for Group Quizzes  

Science.gov (United States)

Group Quizzes using the Think-Share-Write strategy can be very effective in engaging students and enhancing their learning in the classroom. In this article, I describe my experiences in implementing this method in both lower division and upper division Mathematics courses. (Contains 1 figure.)

Gopalakrishnan, Hema

2004-01-01

414

Strategic Planning and Strategic Thinking Clothed in STRATEGO  

Science.gov (United States)

This article shares experiences that participants had playing the game of STRATEGO and how the activity may be linked to strategic planning and thinking. Among the human performance technology implications of playing this game are that gamers agreed on a framework for rules, took stock on where they wanted to go in the future, and generated a risk…

Baaki, John; Moseley, James L.

2011-01-01

415

Coping with Speech Anxiety: The Power of Positive Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports two studies probing the link between speech anxiety and positive thinking. Finds that there is a correlation between communication anxiety and positive and negative thoughts; and the use of visualization lowered self-reported speech anxiety and increased the proportion of positive to negative thoughts. (MS)

Ayres, Joe

1988-01-01

416

Design Thinking in Elementary Students' Collaborative Lamp Designing Process  

Science.gov (United States)

|Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

417

Teamwork Seminar Practice to Foster Diversified Thinking and Leadership Among Students  

Science.gov (United States)

A new course entitled “Mechanical Engineering Seminar” has begun in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mie University. This course consists of three parts, a teamwork seminar, a creative design seminar and a comprehensive achievement examination. Its aim is to foster a broad social and international outlook, ethical thinking, autonomy, partnership, leadership, presentation ability, originality, overall creativity in students, and to help them become aware of their real ability. The teaching method used in this seminar is based on problem-based learning (PBL) , and pro-active student participation is required. The purpose of this paper is to report the features, teaching method and educational effectiveness of the teamwork seminar, which seeks to educate students with a broad, diversified outlook. The results of a student questionnaire show that these new fields of study stimulate students' will to learn, and they express general satisfaction with the seminar.

Maruyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Kazumi; Yamao, Hidenori

418

The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R). Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.

Vuk?evi? Branimir

2010-01-01

419

Critical Thinking and Constructivism: Mambo Dog Fish to the Banana Patch  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivist pedagogies cannot achieve their critical thinking ambitions. Constructivism, and constructivist epistemological presuppositions, actively thwarts the critical thinking process. Using Wittgenstein's private language argument, this paper argues that corrective mechanisms--the ability to correct a student's propositions and cognitions…

Boghossian, Peter

2012-01-01

420

Critical thinking and the bible in the age of new media  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A collection of chapters devoted to various dimensions of how new media interact with diverse conceptions of critical thinking and various traditional understandings of the relationship between critical thinking and faith traditions and claims.

Ess, Charles

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Think tanks: their development, global diversity and roles in international affairs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

existing think tanks in the world, is celebrating the 180th anniversary of its founding this year. Other British and American think tanks with a focus on international affairs have been popping up for the past hundred y...

Köllner; Patrick; GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies - Leibniz-Institut für Globale und Regionale Studien

422

Application of Six Thinking Hats with the Theme „Profession of Sociologist”. Transcript of the Sequence of Green Hat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study is the transcription of the sequence of green hat from the application of the creative technique Six Thinking Hats (Edward de Bono’s creation) that I did at the workshop with the theme „Profession of Sociologist”, of the international colloquium of social sciences ACUM 2008. The colloquium ACUM is the most important of the scientific manifestations organized by the Faculty of Law and Sociology of „Transilvania” University of Bra?ov.

Gheorghe Onu?

2009-01-01

423

Learning styles and critical thinking relationship in baccalaureate nursing education: A systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. OBJECTIVES: To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. METHODS: Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. RESULTS: Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. CONCLUSIONS: Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies identical learning styles were found to be positively or negatively related to critical thinking. However comparative findings across studies revealed that all learning styles might be positive determinants toward critical thinking evolution, suggesting that there is a relationship between learning styles and critical thinking. Certain links between learning styles and critical thinking were supported in given settings and given nursing student populations. Further field exploration is required.

Andreou C; Papastavrou E; Merkouris A

2013-07-01

424

Strategic thinking in the context of the future designer psychology professional demand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presented analysis of the design, as actual professional activity. Re¬view of the studies is given in the field of psychologies of the thinking, strategic thinking. Motivated need of designing vocational training in the field of design with standpoint of the development of the design thinking future designer. The cho-senned particularities of the manifestation of the strategic thinking beside designer in accordance with re-quirements of the state standard to master of the design

Valentina Chernyavskaya; Igor Polivanov; Antonina Sydorgina

2013-01-01

425

Creativity in Maths  

Science.gov (United States)

In this 1-hour video, author Derak Haylock lectures preservice elementary teachers on recognizing and encouraging creativity in mathematics. He discusses the role of flexibility in breaking rigid mind sets and suggests strategies for fostering divergent thinking, fluency, originality, and appropriateness. He discusses performance attainment vs. creativity and cites qualities associated with creativity in children.

2010-01-01

426

Creating Critical Thinking Writers in Middle School: A Look at the Jane Schaffer Model  

Science.gov (United States)

A key component of good writing is the use of critical thinking skills. Without deeper levels of reflection and thinking, writing becomes superficial, less interesting, and harder to follow. Too many essays do not reflect the use of critical thinking. This paper examines the effects of the Jane Schaffer method and the degree to which it has…

Roybal, Richard A.

2012-01-01

427

Teaching Critical Thinking: An Investigation of a Task in Introductory Macroeconomics  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is an investigation of understandings of critical thinking from two teaching perspectives: academic staff and tutors. It explores critical thinking as situated within an assessment task in introductory macroeconomics. This study found that while the two academic staff conceptualized critical thinking as a set of concrete cognitive…

Jones, Anna

2004-01-01

428

Do College Students Know How to "Think Critically" When They Graduate?  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the goals of higher education is to develop the students' ability to think critically. However, little research has been done to indicate the impact of college on students' critical thinking skills. A study conducted at a midwestern university measured the critical thinking capability of college seniors. Subjects, 37 volunteers derived from…

Browne, M. Neil; Keeley, Stuart M.

1988-01-01

429

Playing science? Environmentally focused think tanks and the new scientific paradigm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although research published by think tanks is generally studied for its contributions to policy discourses, this study finds that think tank–authored studies also affect scientific scholarly communications. Think tanks clearly represent political interests. However, this study shows that their...

Kimberly L. Douglass; University of Tennessee; Sarah Tanner; University of Tennessee

430

Congruency in Defining Critical Thinking by Nurse Educators and Non-nurse Scholars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurse educators (n=201) identified their concept of critical thinking and agreement with nonnurse experts (a Delphi panel of academic scholars) on critical thinking items. They agreed on skills and dispositions, but nurse educators were more likely to consider research, problem solving, decision making, and planning as critical thinking

Gordon, Joanne M.

2000-01-01

431

ESP pedagogy: Blending low and high order thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional teaching of English has followed a gradual and linear procedure of learning –from vocabulary to phrase to sentence to paragraph. We are familiar with classroom situations where the teacher starts with lecturing about the target language: Firstly, going through a list of vocabulary, then translating words; singling out phrases where a word may be used, then, reading a sentence where the words may be used; finally, walking students through paragraphs, slowly and carefully explaining the grammatical and contextual information in them. In the present Techo-Info Age, however, this approach to learning may prove irrelevant given the amount of information we see, read and hear in different parts of the world at varying contexts and at distinct phases of the development of the language. This paper reports a study on Technology-based pedagogy; it describes and defines the elements of Genre-based pedagogical framework, an ICT-supported set of procedures of teaching Business English at Higher Education which includes showcasing, highlighting, transferring, in order for students to notice, compare and integrate - cognitive skills that encompass both low and high order thinking. Adopting Fink’s (2003) instructional procedures and taking into account Schmidt’s (1990) Noticing Hypothesis; the framework identifies three aspects of consciousness within language learning: awareness, intention and knowledge thus, seeking to arrive at significant, deliberate learning. Guided by this principle, the last section of the paper proposes a proto-syllabus (Breen, 1989) which elaborates the components of a Business English course. Intermeshing knowledge and skills into teaching, the proto-syllabus contains the following: (1) authentic materials which include genre-specific resources (e.g., writing training course leaflet, writing press release, etc.) and straightforwardly demonstrate the elements of commercial documents and the criteria for evaluating integrated works [projects]; and (2) a glossary of meta-cognitive skills which enables students to know the processes of completing creative tasks for a specific context. These elements predict to aid students to become independent learners and catalysts for continuous, equitable learning in their present learning community and beyond, specifically in their future workplace.

Yuvienco, Janette Custodio

2012-01-01

432

Creativity in the Classroom...Do We Really Want It?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article criticizes classroom traditions and environmental factors that serve to limit and impair students' creativity. Steps required for a more creative classroom are discussed, including adequate "think time," conducive supplies and surroundings, a risk-free environment, empowerment to think independently, and teachers who model creative

Goree, Krystal

1996-01-01

433

Quantifying accurate calorie estimation using the "think aloud" method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Clients often have limited time in a nutrition education setting. An improved understanding of the strategies used to accurately estimate calories may help to identify areas of focused instruction to improve nutrition knowledge. METHODS: A "Think Aloud" exercise was recorded during the estimation of calories in a standard dinner meal (415 kcal) in 15 nutrition-trained and 15 untrained subjects. Accuracy of participant estimation was assessed, and estimation strategies were compared in accurate vs inaccurate estimators. RESULTS: Accurate participants were more likely to demonstrate an ability to convert between common portion size measurements and serving sizes, possess some knowledge of energy density, and properly implement basic math skills. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The "Think Aloud" methodology was informative in assessing the cognitive processes behind a nutrition exercise, and further use is warranted. Focused instruction in portion size conversion, energy density, and the use of math skills may enhance calorie estimation accuracy.

Holmstrup ME; Stearns-Bruening K; Rozelle J

2013-01-01

434

Critical Thinking as a Resilience Factor in an Engineering Program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current context of technical higher education in Mexico, there have been changes affecting the school community. The massification phenomenon and the implementation of a competence-based model are both challenges that college students must face. We present the preliminary results of the following research “Resilience skills development through protective and risk factors in engineering students”. In social sciences, resilience is presented as the individual’s ability to identify and solve problems, which impacts their own transformation and growth (Cyrulnik, 2004; Vanistendael, 2006; Melillo & Suarez, 2004). Developing resilience depends on certain resilience skills which through critical thinking strengthen students’ analysis and decision making. We used a mixed methodology because resilience emanates from the individual’s subjectivity. A quantitative study was applied to a sample of 105 students of which 23 were identified as having resilient characteristics. In the qualitative study the results show that 12 of these students had critical thinking as a protective factor.

Benítez  ; Canales  

2013-01-01

435

Thinking Scientifically About Controversial Issues: Clones, Cats, and Chemicals  

Science.gov (United States)

Does human cloning present a threat or an opportunity? Do common cats constitute a major threat to wildlife? Will the development of new chemical and biological weapons deter war or lead to it? If you want students to think-- really think --about the science behind some of today's toughest controversies, this book will give you the facts and the framework to provoke fascinating debates. Clones, Cats, and Chemicals examines 10 dilemmas from the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, Earth science, technology, and mathematics and helps you challenge students to confront scientific and social problems that offer few black-and-white solutions. Each question is presented as a two-part unit: concise scientific background with possible resolutions and a reference list for further teacher reading, and a reproducible essay, questions, and activities to guide students in debating and decision making.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

436

Stakeholder Thinking in Sustainability Management : The Case of Novozymes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The objective of the paper is to describe and discuss how the biotech company Novozymes integrates stakeholder thinking into everyday sustainability practices. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on first-hand experiences as well as secondary information from Novozymes' stakeholder-oriented sustainability activities. Findings – The paper illustrates how a company is striving to transform the general stakeholder principles into concrete, manageable actions. Moreover, the paper describes some of the needs, challenges, and paradoxes experienced by an organisation that is trying to make sense of stakeholder thinking. Originality/value – The contribution of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how various stakeholder relations management methods can be used in practice to integrate sustainability in an organisation.

Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Hove Henriksen, Morten

2013-01-01

437

Justifying the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criteria for the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools that allow educators to justifywhat they do are described within a wider framework of learning theory and research into bestpractice. Based on a meta-analysis of best practice, results from a three year project designedto evaluate the effectiveness of a secondary school literacy initiative in New Zealand, togetherwith recent research from cognitive and neuro-psychologists, it is argued that the design andselection of literacy and thinking tools used in elementary schools should be consistent with (i)teaching focused (ii) learner focused, (iii) thought linked (iv) neurologically consistent, (v)subject specific, (vi) text linked, (vii) developmentally appropriate, and (viii) assessment linkedcriteria.

David Whitehead

2008-01-01

438

Critical Thinking Skills Needed for Today’s International Leaders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evolving international management challenges like succession planning as members “baby boomer” generation retire, avoiding marketing myopia in the auto industry, managing employee generational conflict, valuing cultural diversity, and developing adaptive strategy have made decision making for international  professionals more perplexing and almost overwhelming. Even with the best strategic planning there is likelihood to mishandle a crisis or leadership strategy decision. How does an international manager make the correct leaders decisions when the unexpected occurs, existing plans are insufficient, and important organizational core values and goals are threatened? The development of critical thinking skills in today’s professionals has never been more vital. The engagement in managerial critical thinking is about learning to apply both experience-based, team based, and formal problem solving methods to situations. It is essential to develop a keen ability to overcome and become self aware of biases, false assumptions, myths, and faulty paradigms that can hamper effective decision making.

Darrell Norman Burrell; Asila Safi

2009-01-01

439

Learning to Think Like Scientists with the PET Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Instructional techniques based on research in cognitive science and physics education have been used in physics courses to enhance student learning. While dramatic increases in conceptual understanding have been observed, students enrolled in these courses tend to shift away from scientist-like views of the discipline (and views of learning within the discipline) and toward novice-like views. Shifts toward scientist-like views are found when course materials and instruction explicitly address epistemology, the nature of science, and the nature of learning. The Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum has specific goals for helping non-science majors explicitly reflect on the nature of science and the nature of science learning. We show that in PET courses with small and large enrollments, shifts toward scientist-like thinking ranged from +4% to +16.5% on the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey. These results are compared to results from other studies using a variety of similar assessment instruments.

Otero, Valerie K.; Gray, Kara E.

2009-06-25

440

Critical thinking competence and disposition of clinical nurses in a medical center.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Critical thinking is essential in nursing practice. Promoting critical thinking competence in clinical nurses is an important way to improve problem solving and decision-making competence to further improve the quality of patient care. However, using an adequate tool to test nurses' critical thinking competence and disposition may provide the reference criteria for clinical nurse characterization, training planning, and resource allocation for human resource management. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure the c