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Level of Student's Creative Thinking in Classroom Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

It is reasonable to assume that people are creative, but the degree of creativity is different. The Idea of the level of student's creative thinking has been expressed by experts, such as Gotoh (2004), and Krulik and Rudnick (1999). The perspective of the mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which…

Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

2011-01-01

2

Distributed Creativity : Thinking Outside the Box of the Creative Individual  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists â??outsideâ?? of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of â??distributed creativityâ?? is not commonly used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews theories and empirical examples that help us unpack each of these dimensions and above all, articulate them into a novel and meaningful conception of creativity as a simultaneously psychological and socio-material process. The volume concludes by examining the practical implications in adopting this perspective on creativity.

Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

2014-01-01

3

The Levels of Creative Thinking and Metacognitive Thinking Skills of Intermediate School in Jordan: Survey Study  

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This study is aimed at investigating the levels of creative and metacognitive thinking skills among students as well as the effect of student’s gender on creative and metacognitive thinking skills in the intermediate stage at Al-Balqa Province in Jordan. The method of stratifi ed sampling was selected for the purpose of this study. The metacognitive inventory consisted of (52 items, and Torrance test (Figure B, has been Applied on (372 students.The results showed that there were statistical signifi cant differences between the average performance of males and females on the creative and metacognitive thinking for the benefit of males as well as a high level of Metacognitive thinking from the viewpoint of the students. The researcher recommended that further studies should be focus on training programs for students on metacognitive skills and impact on educational achievement and creative thinking.

Key words: Metacognitive thinking skills; Creative thinking skills; Education; Gender

Majed Mohammad AL-khayat

2012-08-01

4

Creative and Critical Thinking, Teamwork, and Tomorrow's Workplace  

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Creative and critical thinking have been identified by Isaksen, Dorval, and Treffinger (2000) as the ability to "perceive gaps, challenges, or concerns; think of many varied or unusual possibilities; or elaborate and extend alternatives," as well as make meaningful connections that include analyzing, evaluating, and developing options. Business…

Gould, J. Christine; Schoonover, Patricia F.

2009-01-01

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The effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications on creative and logical thinking abilities of prospective teachers  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory method on prospective primary teachers’ creative and logical thinking abilities. This research was conducted with 90 prospective elementary school teachers who were enrolled in two classes of education faculty during the spring semester of the 2004–2005 academic year. Creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications were conducted in the experimental group, and traditional laboratory applications were conducted in the control group. As a result of the investigation, it was determined that the experimental group was more successful than the control group in terms of the logical thinking ability and creativity. Implications for science education at the teacher education level were discussed.

Özlem KORAY

2009-06-01

6

Comment on Gadzella and Penland (1995): creativity and critical thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The moderate correlations reported by Gadzella and Penland in 1995 for scores on the 16PF Creativity scale with scores in the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal are interpreted within the context of literature, suggesting the 16PF Creativity scale may be regarded as reflecting personality traits related to both cognitive style and decision making as well as general ability. This allows development of further hypotheses. PMID:10876332

Bisset, I M

2000-06-01

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The Effects of Thinking in Silence on Creativity and Innovation  

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This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on the effects of thinking in silence on creativity and innovation. In these studies I use a social psychology and cognitive psychology lens to study creativity and innovation at the individual and at the team level of analysis, using randomized experiments to test hypothesized causal relationships. In the first study I find that when the ability to modify self-presentation is low and the sensitivity to expressive behavior of others is hig...

2007-01-01

8

Assessing Creative Thinking in Design-Based Learning  

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Infusing creative thinking competence through the design process of authentic projects requires not only changing the teaching methods and learning environment, but also adopting new assessment methods, such as portfolio assessment. The participants in this study were 128 high school pupils who have studied MECHATRONICS from 10th to 12th grades…

Doppelt, Yaron

2009-01-01

9

Secondary Teachers' Conceptions of Creative Thinking within the Context of Environmental Education  

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Creative thinking in Environmental Education (EE) remains greatly under researched topic. Research on teachers' conceptions of creative thinking within EE context is also limited, although their role in facilitating creative thinking in students is well documented. The small-scale qualitative study presented here investigates Greek secondary…

Daskolia, Maria; Dimos, Athanasios; Kampylis, Panagiotis G.

2012-01-01

10

Thinking about Creativity in Science Education  

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In this paper we discuss the notion of creativity in the contexts of science and science education. In doing so, we consider and reflect on some taken-for-granted ideas associated with school science creativity, such as inquiry science, and integrating art and science, while we search for a notion of scientific creativity that is compatible with both the nature of science and the general notion of creativity, and also realistic in the context of school science education. We then propose a num...

Yannis Hadzigeorgiou; Persa Fokialis; Mary Kabouropoulou

2012-01-01

11

Cultivating the College Students’ Creative Thinking in Industrial Design  

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This paper probes into the source of “originality” in developing the creative thinking of the science students majoring in industrial design. The authors believe that the critical factors for the source of “originality” lie in not only the internal cause, but also the external cause. Whether the science students take a great consideration of art and humanity courses, in other words, whether they are aware of the relationship between artistical thought and industria...

Hua Cen; Chuandong Ma

2013-01-01

12

Cultivating the College Students’ Creative Thinking in Industrial Design  

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Full Text Available This paper probes into the source of “originality” in developing the creative thinking of the science students majoring in industrial design. The authors believe that the critical factors for the source of “originality” lie in not only the internal cause, but also the external cause. Whether the science students take a great consideration of art and humanity courses, in other words, whether they are aware of the relationship between artistical thought and industrial design or not, it is very important. In addition, creative capacity cannot be taught, and it only results from inspiration and guidance of teachers from multidisciplinary.

Hua Cen

2013-08-01

13

Creative thinking in prospective teachers: the status quo and the impact of contextual factors  

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To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation...

Hannetjie Meintjes; Mary Grosser

2010-01-01

14

Evaluation of Children's Creativity: Psychometric Properties of Torrance's "Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement" Test  

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The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of Torrance's "Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement" (TCAM) test and the relationship between TCAM and the Divergent Movement Ability (DMA) test. The TCAM and DMA tests were used for a sample of 115 children, while the whole experimental procedure included three testing…

Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Makri, Anastasia; Pollatou, Elisana

2009-01-01

15

Possibility thinking: culminative studies of an evidence-based concept driving creativity?  

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The authors have for some years studied the concept of ‘possibility thinking’, or ‘what if’ and as if thinking in children aged three to eleven, which generates novelty - and the pedagogical strategies which foster it. They have argued, on the basis of previous qualitative studies, that ‘possibility thinking’ (PT) is at the core of creativity in education.

2012-01-01

16

Creative Thinking from an Information Processing Perspective: A New Approach to Mednick's Theory of Associative Hierarchies.  

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To evaluate Mednick's theory of the creative thinking process, an associative priming paradigm was used to measure latencies to lexical decisions primed by associations of low, medium, or high strength with 20 high-creative and 20 low-creative high school students. Mednick's theory that creative individuals show a flatter associative hierarchy…

Coney, Jeffrey; Serna, Peta

1995-01-01

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Is Think Outside the Box 21st Century Code for Imagination, Innovation, Creativity, Critical Thinking, Intuition?  

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It is the authors' contention that there is no such thing as "thinking outside the box." However, the term has become an iconic phrase for a generation. The discussion presents the authors' thoughts on why there is no box in which to think outside. If there is a box, then accidental learning would never exist for students.

Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

2010-01-01

18

Spotlight on Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The meaning of critical thinking is discussed. Teachers should be able to separate what they mean by critical thinking, creative thinking, and practical thinking. By separating these meanings, teachers can better identify the components of critical thinking and improve their teaching. (RM)

O'Reilly, Kevin

1985-01-01

19

Enhanced Divergent Thinking and Creativity in Musicians: A Behavioral and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study  

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Empirical studies of creativity have focused on the importance of divergent thinking, which supports generating novel solutions to loosely defined problems. The present study examined creativity and frontal cortical activity in an externally-validated group of creative individuals (trained musicians) and demographically matched control…

Gibson, Crystal; Folley, Bradley S.; Park, Sohee

2009-01-01

20

R.E.A.C.H.ing Out to Creative Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is Project Reach (Reaching Educators and Actualizing Children) which is designed for gifted students, and includes exercises in productive thinking, student participation in planning, decision making, forecasting, communication, creative problem solving, and mind stretching. (KC)

Gaffron, Norma Bondeson

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Exploratory Examination of Relationships between Learning Styles and Creative Thinking in Math Students  

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Full Text Available It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate that creative thinking, assessed by RAT, and learning preferences, evaluated by ILS, are not highly correlated. Over all, students in this study show a balanced learning preference across four dimensions. In summary, this study directs a possible path for future researchers to investigate this phenomenon.

Kuan Chen Tsai

2013-08-01

22

Studies of the Turkish form of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production  

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This paper explains the results of multi-year applications of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production in a Turkish context with Turkish participants. The purpose of the study is to present the results of several empirical studies conducted by different Turkish samples, using the instrument which was developed by Jellen and Urban for measuring the creative thinking potentials of individuals. The number of the subjects of all the studies described here totaled to 1529. These participa...

Aysenur Yontar Togrol

2012-01-01

23

A comparison of the effects of divergent thinking, domain knowledge, and interest on creative performance in art and math  

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Previous studies have provided evidences supporting the view that the role of domain general cognitive factors such as divergent thinking is not as critical to creativity as previously thought. Based on this evidence, some creativity researchers have argued that creativity is domain-specific rather than domain-general and that domain-specific knowledge and skills are more important than domain-general creative thinking abilities for creative performance in a given domain. However, few past st...

2008-01-01

24

Visual Material Effect on Academic Achievement, Creative Thinking and Attitude towards Course  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of the visual materials’ usage in Social Sciences on students’ academic achievement, creative thinking skills and their attitudes towards the course. The study was based on the Social Sciences unit titled ‘’Geography and Our World’’ and conducted with a total number of 38 students, (18 of them were in the experimental group and 20 of them were in the control group. The participants were 6th grade students of Koç Primary School in Bolu. For data collection, Social Sciences Achievement Test, Torrance Creative Thinking Test and Attitude Scale were used as instruments. In the statistical analysis of data, Mean, Standard Deviation levels and Mann Whitney-U Test were used. The results of the study revealed that the program designed for the experimental group, increased the participants’ academic achievement and creative thinking skills and had a positive impact on their attitudes towards the course.© 2013 IOJES. All rights reserved

Serap Emir.

2013-08-01

25

THE CREATIVE THINKING LEVELS OF STUDENTS AT SIXTH CLASS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION  

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Full Text Available Today it is necessary to develop an education model that is special to creative individuals and their creativeness. It is also required to discover children and young people who have creative qualities at an early stage and improve creative thinking in their minds. For this aim, it is very important to determine the high-level thinking skills, especially creative thinking levels of children at primary education period. Therefore, there are considerable duties available for the teachers.In this study, the creative thinking levels of two distinct student groups from different primary schools who study at sixth class of primary education are explored and a comparison is made between their levels. The goal of this research is to find out how the fluency, flexibility and originality dimensions of these students differ. In the way of this purpose, there are fourty-three sixth class of primary education students, who study at two different primary schools in ?zmir, formed the research sampling. Twenty-six of these students are female while seventeen students are male. The Torrance Creative Thinking Test Linguistic –A Form is used as a data collecting tool in the study. The application and form evaluation periods have done by the researchers. At the end of the research, there are meaningful differences obtained between the two schools about the fluency, flexibility and originality levels of students attended to the research. When it is considered in terms of total creative levels, it is seen that the fluency points of those two schools attended to this study are the highest while the flexibility points are the lowest. This situation betrays that the students participated in this study can not use their skill of producing many ideas in terms of handling cases from all points of views.

Esen ERSOY

2009-10-01

26

Thinking through systems thinking  

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Systemicity is receiving wider attention thanks to its evident paradox. On the one hand, it occurs as a problem with complex symptoms. On the other, it is sought after as an approach for dealing with the non-linear reality of the world. At once problem and prize, systemicity continues to confound. This book details the mechanics of this paradox as they arise from human epistemological engagement with the world. Guided by an original analysis of the fundamental idea of emergent property, Thinking Through Systems Thinking uncovers the distinct significance, but also inc

Georgiou, Ion

2013-01-01

27

The Creativity Passdown Effect : Sharing Design Thinking Processes with Design Theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Design theory lies at the heart of information systems design science research. One concern in this area is the potential to limit the designerâ??s creativity by over-specifying the meta-design or the design process. This paper explains how design research encapsulates a two-person design team consisting of the design theorist and the artifact instance designer. Design theory embodies a creativity passdown effect in which the creative design thinking is partly executed by the design theorist and the completion of this thinking is deferred to the artifact instance designer. In fact, rather than limiting the instance designerâ??s creativity, the design theorist may create an opportunity for the instance designer to be creative by passing down a design theory. Further, the artifact instance designer operates within the problem domain defined by design theorist, and engages in design thinking to achieve an innovative design by merging theoretical knowledge with experiential knowledge of a design artifact that is being built. The creativity passdown effect was examined through a case that involved developing a tool for multi-outsourcing decision making. The case provides empirical support for the creativity passdown effect.

Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok

2012-01-01

28

Instructional Design as Critical and Creative Thinking: A Journey through a Jamestown-Era Native American Village  

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The role of critical and creative thinking has been debated within the field of instructional design. Through an instructional design and development project we have identified how critical and creative thinking are essential to the instructional design process. This paper highlights a recent project focused on a virtual Native American village…

Baum, Liesl M.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary

2010-01-01

29

Performance on Torrance's Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement as a Predictor of Cognitive Development of Young Children.  

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Ss were administered Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM), traditional Piagetian measures of conservation of number and mass, modification Piagetian tasks, and the Sequential Assessment Mathematics Inventory. Among findings was that creative thinking ability, as assessed by the TCAM, significantly predicts cognitive performances that…

Reisman, Fredericka K.; And Others

1981-01-01

30

From Dichotomous to Relational Thinking in the Psychology of Creativity : A Review of Great Debates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article invites us to think about the role of dichotomies in the psychology of creativity and how they can sometimes lead to a misrepresentation of the phenomenon. Especially when turned into oppositions, which is often the case with dichotomies, distinctions such as those between individual and society, Big C and little c creativity, evolutionary and revolutionary creation, domain generality and domain specificity, product and process, can have detrimental effects on our understanding of the nature and characteristics of creative expression. In contrast, the article advocates for a relational type of logic, supported by socio-cultural and pragmatist sources, one that encourages us to observe the interdependence between categories and the ways in which they are embedded into each other. Examples are given from the five â??debatesâ?ť mentioned above and some consequences of adopting a new way of thinking about creativity discussed towards the end.

Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

2012-01-01

31

A Design Thinking Role Model Enables Creativity in IT: Case of the Financial Industry  

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The challenge banks face to gain advantage over their competitors is being placed under pressure by the ever increasing speed of development which arises from the pace of innovation in computer technology, rapid changes in industry regulation and fast-changing customer needs. Banks have creative heads but the pursuing of efficient customer-centric creative work within an organization is often challenging. This paper presents a design thinking role model which was iteratively designed over nin...

Christophe Vetterli; Walter Brenner; Falk Uebernickel

2013-01-01

32

Bilingualism and Creativity: Benefits in Convergent Thinking Come with Losses in Divergent Thinking  

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Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals toward a relatively focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed...

Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Fischer, Rico; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

2011-01-01

33

Thinking through creativity and culture: Toward an integrated model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Creativity and culture are inherently linked. Society and culture are part and parcel of creativityâ??s process, outcome, and subjective experience.Equally, creativity does not reside in the individual independent of culture and society. Vlad Petre GlÄ?veanuâ??s basic framework includes creators and community, from which new artifacts emerge and existing artifacts are developed. He points to a relationship between self and other, new and old, specific for every creative act. Using this multifaceted system requires that researchers employ ecological research in order to capture the heterogeneity and social dimensions of creativity. GlÄ?veanu uses an approach based on cultural psychology to present creativity in lay terms and within everyday settings. He concludes with a unitary cultural framework of creativity interrelating actors, audiences, actions, artifacts, and affordances.

Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

2014-01-01

34

A generative model of teachers' thinking on musical creativity  

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This article draws on and extends a four-year investigation of creativity in music education with particular reference to the perceptions of six secondary school teachers (Odena & Welch, 2007; Odena, Plummeridge, & Welch, 2005). A comprehensive review of recent literature in musical creativity is provided, which complements and reinforces the theoretical framework of the original study. A qualitative approach was used for data gathering, including a video elicitation interview techniq...

Odena, O.; Welch, G.

2009-01-01

35

Give your ideas some legs: The positive effect of walking on creative thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments demonstrate that walking boosts creative ideation in real time and shortly after. In Experiment 1, while seated and then when walking on a treadmill, adults completed Guilford's alternate uses (GAU) test of creative divergent thinking and the compound remote associates (CRA) test of convergent thinking. Walking increased 81% of participants' creativity on the GAU, but only increased 23% of participants' scores for the CRA. In Experiment 2, participants completed the GAU when seated and then walking, when walking and then seated, or when seated twice. Again, walking led to higher GAU scores. Moreover, when seated after walking, participants exhibited a residual creative boost. Experiment 3 generalized the prior effects to outdoor walking. Experiment 4 tested the effect of walking on creative analogy generation. Participants sat inside, walked on a treadmill inside, walked outside, or were rolled outside in a wheelchair. Walking outside produced the most novel and highest quality analogies. The effects of outdoor stimulation and walking were separable. Walking opens up the free flow of ideas, and it is a simple and robust solution to the goals of increasing creativity and increasing physical activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24749966

Oppezzo, Marily; Schwartz, Daniel L

2014-07-01

36

Activation of Community Television and its Influence on Students’ Creative Thinking Level  

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The goal of the research was to examine whether a relation exists between students’ experience in community television and changes in their creative thinking ability. Community television is a tool that enables the expression of wishes, opinions, ideas, thoughts, experiences and skills via community television broadcasts. Learning in community television affords experience with different types of activities. Each role requires different skills and characteristics. In the present research we...

Michal Aflalo; Baruch Offir

2010-01-01

37

The (B)link Between Creativity and Dopamine: Spontaneous Eye Blink Rates Predict and Dissociate Divergent and Convergent Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Human creativity has been claimed to rely on the neurotransmitter dopamine, but evidence is still sparse. We studied whether individual performance (N=117) in divergent thinking (alternative uses task) and convergent thinking (remote association task) can be predicted by the individual spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), a clinical marker of…

Chermahini, Soghra Akbari; Hommel, Bernhard

2010-01-01

38

Architectural placemaking of technology parks: encouragement of creative thinking ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????  

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The present-day postindustrial or information-oriented society features an ever growing role of creative and intellectual abilities. This trend facilitates transformation of the workforce, as the portion of manual labor is reduced, while the one of intellectual labor goes up. As a result, architectural placemaking has to meet the new requirements driven by the specific nature of social and physiological constituents of the headwork. The aim of the article is the identification of new challeng...

Rykov Kirill Nikolaevich

2012-01-01

39

Shared Thinking Processes with Four Deaf Poets: A Window on "the Creative" in "Creative Sign Language"  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses a new way of thinking about analyzing sign-language poetry. Rather than merely focusing on the product, the method involves observing the process of its creation. Recent years have witnessed increasing literary and linguistic analysis of sign-language poetry, with commentaries on texts and performances being set within and…

West, Donna; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

2012-01-01

40

Creative thinking as orchestrated by semantic processing vs. cognitive control brain networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. "Conceptual expansion" refers to the ability to widen one's conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while "overcoming knowledge constraints" refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition. PMID:24605098

Abraham, Anna

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Creative thinking as orchestrated by semantic processing versus cognitive control brain networks  

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Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. “Conceptual expansion” refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while “overcoming knowledge constraints” refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.

AnnaAbraham

2014-02-01

42

?he Contribution of Music and Movement Activities to Creative Thinking in Pre-School Children  

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Full Text Available As interest in creativity is rising, kindergarten teachers are looking for ways to strengthen the creative potential of young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music and movement activities to creative thinking in preschool children. A three month educational programme was designed and implemented, using an experimental research method. The effect on fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of thought of 5 year old children, as well as how the programme affected creative behaviours, was studied. The results, upon completion of the educational programme, showed that the growth rate of these variables in the experimental group was statistically significant compared to the corresponding rates in the control group. In addition, the emergence of creative behaviours, such as an increased freedom of expression, a tendency to explore and experiment, and a questioning of what is commonly accepted, were considered to be a consequence of the implementation of the specific educational programme. The experimental research produced valuable information about the design and philosophy of educational programmes, and about the teaching methods of music and movement activities in kindergarten.

Elena Chronopoulou

2012-04-01

43

Creative Thinking Development Program for Learning Activity Management of Secondary School Teachers  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: to design a creative thinking development program for learning activity management of secondary school teachers, and to study the program’s efficiency and effectiveness of usage. The results of the study were as follows: the program includes the vision, principles, objectives, content, program development process, evaluation of performance and effectiveness. The process development had 5 stages and 8 activities of construction. The efficiency of the development program in learning activity management of secondary school teachers by 82.15/80.81 was an established requirement. The findings indicated that the teachers attained knowledge, skill and attitude towards creative learning activity management after using the program at a higher than before using the program at .05 significant level.

Sutinan Pukdeewut

2013-11-01

44

Creativity and Thinking Skills Integrated into a Science Enrichment Unit on Flooding  

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Full Text Available Floods that used to happen every hundred years are now occurring more frequently. Human influences on the damage inflicted by flooding need to be well-understood by future voters and property-owners. Therefore, the timely topic of flooding was used as the focus of a special multi-grade enrichment short course taught by two university education professors for 26 preK-8th grade high-achieving and creative students. During the course, students listened to guest speakers (city council member, meteorologist, and environmentalist, watched two flood-related videos, read books on floods, viewed electronic presentations related to dams and recent floods, discussed causes, effects, and mitigations of flooding, and devised creative games from recycled materials to teach peers about flood concepts. The de Bono CoRT Breadth thinking skill system was used to organize many of the course activities. The flood lesson activities were relevant to these students who had experienced a flood of the city’s river the previous year and challenged students more than their typical classroom activities, an important finding considering that many gifted students drop out of school because of irrelevant and non-demanding class work. The course broadened students’ knowledge of floods and assisted them in thinking beyond the immediate situation.

Audrey C. Rule

2012-12-01

45

AUTOMATIC EVOLUTION OF IDEAS THROUGH MULTILAYER EVOLUTIONARY SYSTEM TO SUPPORT CREATIVE THINKING  

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Full Text Available Creativity is a tool that helps in effective problem solving utilizing optimum scarce resources in anybusiness. This paper presents a conceptual framework of a multilayer evolutionary system that supportscreative thinking. The system evolves, using a genetic algorithm, new ideas from a set of basic ideas thatare casually provided through an interactive editor or selected from past transaction records. Thearchitecture proposed here encompasses three layers called system layer, database layer, and queryproducer and user interface layer. Besides the general architecture, the paper also describes the detailedmethodology, genetic procedure to evolve ideas, reproduction operators like modified mutation, crossover and selection; and fitness functions to evolve suitable and strong ideas. The system layer furtherdescribes algorithm of stimulus-generation process. The proposed architecture is easy to develop,generic, domain independent and works with databases, which increases scope and usability of thesystem. Above all, the interactive user interface makes the system friendly and easy to operate.

Priti Srinivas Sajja

2009-08-01

46

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Improvisation on the Development of Children's Creative Thinking in Music  

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This article reports a quasi-experimental study of the effects of improvisation on the development of children's creative thinking in music. The study was conducted in a primary school classroom with two matched groups of 6-year-old children over a period of six months. The music lessons for the experimental group were enriched with a variety of…

Koutsoupidou, Theano; Hargreaves, David J.

2009-01-01

47

Original Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

Ashok Natarajan

2012-04-01

48

Possibility Thinking: Culminative Studies of an Evidence-Based Concept Driving Creativity?  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have, for some years, studied the concept of "possibility thinking" (PT), or "what if" and "as if" thinking in children aged 3-11, which generates novelty -- and the pedagogical strategies which foster it. They have argued, on the basis of previous qualitative studies, that "PT" is at the core of…

Craft, Anna; Cremin, Teresa; Burnard, Pamela; Dragovic, Tatjana; Chappell, Kerry

2013-01-01

49

Developing critical thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. What does critical thinking mean? 2. Critical thinking in school 3. Critical thinking as a process 4. Analysing and evaluating the questionnaire 5. Interview with one of the students 6. Analysis and evaluation of the assignments 7. Conclusion

Baars, Daniela; Bajzi?k, Michal; Pisarc?i?k, Stanislav; Weiser, Ines

2012-01-01

50

On Counter-Stereotypes and Creative Cognition: When Interventions for Reducing Prejudice Can Boost Divergent Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether tasks like this can have benefits beyond…

Goclowska, Malgorzata A.; Crisp, Richard J.

2013-01-01

51

Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success  

Science.gov (United States)

This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

2013-01-01

52

Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

Isaeva E. A.

2008-04-01

53

A Brief Review on Developing Creative Thinking in Young Children by Mind Mapping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mind mapping is a presentation form of radiant thinking, utilizing lines, colors, characters, numbers, symbols, image, pictures or keywords, etc. to associate, integrate and visualize the learned concept and evoke brain potenti...

Wen-Cheng Wang; Chung-Chieh Lee; Ying-Chien Chu

2010-01-01

54

Think First for Teens  

Science.gov (United States)

... Connected Join Team ThinkFirst! Order Products Contact Us Teens VIPs Studies on ThinkFirst Start a Chapter Donate ... Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over Enforcement Invisible Teens Traumatic injuries are the leading cause of death ...

55

The Role of Working Memory in Creative Insight : Correlation analysis of working memory capacity, creative insight and divergent thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an ongoing debate about the components and processes of creativity. Within the subfield of creative insight, which is often considered to be the first measurable part of creativity, the role of working memory is discussed. Since creative insight appears to happen without conscious planning, the involvement of working memory appears to be limited; a hypothesis supported by several studies. However, there are several studies that support an opposing hypothesis. Namely, that creativity,...

Hedblom, Maria

2013-01-01

56

Encouragement for Thinking Critically  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Here we report the results obtained in an innovative teaching experience that encourages the development of Critical Thinking skills through motivational intervention. Understanding Critical Thinking as a theory of action, "we think to solve problems", and accompanying this concept with a program aimed at teaching/learning…

Olivares, Sonia; Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.

2013-01-01

57

Description and Analysis of Educational Facilities Design Criteria Based on Creative thinking from the Perspective of Educational Technology Specialists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is description and analysis of educational facilities design criteria based on creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists. Study's method is descriptive-surveyand it is polling type. Method description - is a survey of surveys. Population consists of full-time faculty members in the field of educational technology at the University of Tehran that are 36 persons. Tools for data collection are questionnaire responses depending on the research questions that the research was conducted on the Likert scale. Questionnaire's reliability obtained based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient that was 74%. To analyze data in statistical methods frequency distribution, percentage, frequency, mean, and statistical tables were used. Results of one-sample z-test were used for statistical analysis. Based on the results, obtained z for standard colors equals to 8.98, because the subjects' average (27.38 and compare it with the hypothetical average of (15 it can be said that obtained average by hypothetical population mean has significant difference. For sound scale (phoneme equals 3.52 based on testees' mean (27.77 and to compare it with society's hypothetical average (17.5 it can be said that that obtained average has significant difference with society's hypothetical average. For thermal condition scale (heat it was equal to 2,.26 because regarding testee's average ( 14.77 and to compare with society's hypothetical average (10 it can be said that obtained average has significant difference with society's hypothetical mean. Therefore it can be concluded that there is a significant relationshipbetween design criteria of educational facilities and increase in students' creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists at the 5% level.

Shahin Valia

2013-02-01

58

"Thinking Schools, Learning Nations" Implementation of Curriculum Review in Singapore  

Science.gov (United States)

"Thinking schools" will be sites of learning for everyone declared the Singapore Prime Minister, Goh Chok and Minister of Education Teo Chee Hean's in 1997 also spoke on the model of "thinking schools, learning nation". Gardner's model was used for the thinking school model in Singapore, in order to develop critical and creative thinking in…

Saravanan, Vanithamani

2005-01-01

59

Adivinanzas audiovisuales para ejercitar el pensamiento creativo infantil Audiovisual Riddles to Stimulate Children’s Creative Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para resolver una adivinanza hay que asociar ideas, analizar metáforas, descubrir analogías. Por eso, impulsar esta forma de entretenimiento infantil es un modo de ejercitar el pensamiento creativo. Sin embargo, existe un problema: las adivinanzas tradicionales son formas literarias que corresponden a una época pre-digital. żCómo lograr, entonces, que tengan mayor aceptación entre los nativos digitales? Una posible solución sería crear adivinanzas audiovisuales diseńadas especialmente para YouTube. En esta investigación se realizaron cinco prototipos de adivinanzas audiovisuales con características creativas diferentes y se validaron con estudiantes de tercero a sexto grado de educación primaria. Los resultados de la validación permitieron identificar las actitudes, reacciones, interpretaciones y modos de razonamiento de los nińos y nińas cuando intentan resolver este tipo de adivinanzas. También se identificaron los recursos de lenguaje y formatos creativos que funcionan mejor en una adivinanza audiovisual. En las conclusiones se destaca la necesidad de formular correctamente los enunciados de las adivinanzas audiovisuales y sus respectivas «pistas» para que los nińos y nińas tengan la satisfacción intelectual y emocional de resolverlas. Se precisa, además, que leer o escuchar una adivinanza tradicional representa una experiencia cognitiva y sensorial muy distinta que interactuar con esa misma adivinanza en un lenguaje multimedia. Finalmente, se discute y analiza el rol mediador del docente y la importancia del aprendizaje colaborativo en los proyectos educativos que emplean tecnologías digitales.Solving riddles involves association of ideas, analysis of metaphors, and discovery of analogies. Therefore, promoting this type of children’s entertainment is a way to develop creative thinking. However, there is a problem: traditional riddles are literary forms that correspond to a pre-digital era. How can we increase its acceptance among the digital natives? One way might be creating audiovisual riddles specially designed for YouTube. In this research we made five prototypes of audiovisual riddles with different creative characteristics and validated them among 8-12 years old students. The validation results helped us to identify the attitudes, reactions, interpretations and ways of thinking of children when they try to solve such riddles. We also identified the resources of language and creative formats that fit best in audio-visual riddles. The outcome of this research emphasizes the need to correctly formulate the audiovisual riddle statements and their «clues» for children; this way we assure an intellectual and emotional satisfaction when solving them. It also concludes that reading or listening to traditional riddles are cognitive and sensory experiences that are very different from interacting with the same riddle in a multimedia language. Finally, we discuss and analyze the mediating role of the teacher and the importance of collaborative learning in educational projects using digital technologies.

Jorge Montalvo Castro

2011-03-01

60

Creative Thinking in Music: Developing a Model for Meaningful Learning in Middle School General Music  

Science.gov (United States)

Creativity can be experienced in many roles of musicianship: performing, improvising, and composing. Yet, activities that encourage creative thought in our music classrooms can be a challenge to implement. A strong music education curriculum for middle school general music is important; as this may be the last time we reach students who do not…

Menard, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffro...

Guillermo Restrepo; Villaveces, Jose? L.

2012-01-01

62

Thinking about thinking - thinking about measurement: a Rasch analysis of recursive thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies were conducted to examine the dimensionality and hierarchical organization of a measure of recursive thinking. In Study 1, Rasch analysis supported the claim that the recursive thinking task measures a single underlying dimension. Item difficulty, however, appeared to be influenced not only by level of embeddedness but also by syntactic features. In Study 2, this hypothesis was tested by adding new items to the recursive thinking measure. Rasch analysis of the modified recursive thinking task produced evidence for the undimensionality and segmentation. However, Study 2 did not support the idea that syntactic features influence item difficulty. PMID:20351449

Müller, Ulrich; Overton, Willis F

2010-01-01

63

All Our Students Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical thinking is the sort of mental activity that uses facts to plan, order, and work toward an end; seeks meaning or an explanation; is self-reflective; and uses reason to question claims and make judgments. Any subject--be it physics, algebra, or auto repair--can promote critical thinking as long as teachers teach the subject matter in…

Noddings, Nel

2008-01-01

64

Vocal Improvisation and Creative Thinking by Australian and American University Jazz Singers: A Factor Analytic Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the author investigated factors underlying vocal improvisation achievement and relationships with the singers' musical background. Participants were 102 college students in Australia and the United States who performed 3 jazz improvisations and 1 free improvisation. Jazz improvisations were rated on rhythmic, tonal, and creative

Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

2008-01-01

65

Thinking Style Diversity and Collaborative Design Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper explores the impact of structured learning experiences that were designed to challenge students’ ways of thinking and promote creativity. The aim was to develop the ability of students, coming from different engineering disciplines and characterized by particular thinking style profiles, to collaboratively work on a project-based learning experience in an educational environment. Three project-based learning experiences were structured using critical thinking methods to stimulate creativity. Pre and post-survey data using a specially modified thinking style inventory for 202 design students indicated a thinking style profile of preferences with a focus on exploring and questioning. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and openness to multiple perspectives.

Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

66

Effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognition, task enjoyment and creative thinking in healthy volunteers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solvin...

Mu?ller, U.; Rowe, J. B.; Rittman, T.; Lewis, C.; Robbins, T. W.; Sahakian, B. J.

2013-01-01

67

Nuclear age thinking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

Depastas, A.N.

1990-01-01

68

Thinking together with material representations : Joint epistemic actions in creative problem solving  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do material representations such as models, diagrams and drawings come to shape and aid collective, epistemic processes? This study investigated how groups of participants spontaneously recruited material objects (in this case LEGO blocks) to support collective creative processes in the context of an experiment. Qualitative micro-analyses of the group interactions motivate a taxonomy of different roles that the material representations play in the joint epistemic processes: illustration, elaboration and exploration. Firstly, the LEGO blocks were used to illustrate already well-formed ideas in support of communication and epistemic alignment. Furthermore, the material concretization of otherwise abstract ideas in LEGO blocks gave rise to elaboration: discussions, requests for clarification and discovery of unnoticed conceptual disagreements. Lastly, the LEGO blocks were used for exploration. That is, the material representations were experimented on and physical attributes were explored resulting in discoveries of new meaning potentials and creative solutions. We discuss these different ways in which material representations do their work in collective reasoning processes in relation to ideas about top-down and bottom-up cognitive processes and division of cognitive labor.

Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne; Fusaroli, Riccardo

2014-01-01

69

Relationships among Bilingualism, Critical Thinking Ability, and Critical Thinking Disposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing students (n=111) completed French and English Cloze Tests, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test. There was insufficient evidence to support a relationship between bilingualism and critical thinking ability or between critical thinking disposition and ability. Bilingualism…

Albert, Raymond T.; Albert, Rachel E.; Radsma, Jenny

2002-01-01

70

Reading as Critical Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reading involves an interactive process in which the reader actively produces meaning through a set of mental processes. There is obviously an ongoing interaction between the reader and the text. Critical reading is related to thinking and that is why we cannot read without thinking. Critical reading involves the following skills: predicting, acknowledging, comparing, evaluating and decision-making. Schemata can be seen as the organized background knowledge, which leads the reader to...

Ibrahim Abu Shihab

2011-01-01

71

A historical marker in the development of critical and creative thinking in psychiatric-mental health nursing education and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This investigation focuses on traumatic events of World War II and postwar reconstruction in US society in the 1940s, taking into account the development of psychiatric nursing as a specialty within the context of nursing education and practice trends. Scotomas of historic world figures, including Hildegard Peplau, renowned educator and psychiatric nurse, are examined. These blind spots profoundly affected their reactions and behaviors, for the betterment of society or the destruction of it. Method: Psychohistory looks at the “why” of historical events and is concerned with the motivation in human behavior and with the underlying meaning lurking beneath the surface of logic. In this psychohistorical exploration, figurative snapshots highlight a historical marker that commemorates a fire that blazed out of control in 1948 at Highland Hospital, a mental institution in Asheville, North Carolina, where Peplau held directorship. This fire served as a springboard for the evolution of the nurse-patient relationship within the nursing profession, as influenced by Peplau. Relevant questions explored are: What nurses were implicated in the fire? What did the characters at the scene believe and perceive? What were the motivations of key players? Who qualified as nurses? What ramifications did the fire have for nursing education and practice in the development of analytical thought and theoretical concepts? Significance: Some view the historic fire as a black mark against nursing. Nurses, however, with the assistance of Peplau’s teachings, can see it as a benchmark that began the process of eradication of resistances that prevent growth and the illumination of educational curricula that promote advancement of critical and creative thinking. Today, nurses can take advantage of their knowledge base learned from the past and can create expansive innovation in nursing education and practice that is supportive of global health and safety in the 21st century.

Christine M. Silverstein

2013-01-01

72

A STUDY OF FIRST YEAR TERTIARY STUDENTSâ?? MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE- CONCEPTUAL AND PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE, LOGICAL THINKING AND CREATIVITY  

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Full Text Available This study focuses on students in first year environmental science degree programs where traditionally mathematical emphasis has been much less than the strict science or math majors. The importance now placed in applied mathematics means that students need to gain more conceptual and quantitative knowledge in not only the environmental degree programs but also in most if not all non-mathematical majors. In this study, the authors attempt to gain insights into why students fail in mathematical courses where the mathematical requirements are not as demanding as other strict math degree programs. This is done by examining student conceptual thinking patterns and strategies as evident in student prepared scripts. A total of 133 students were requested to prepare a focus sheet to summarize their knowledge on topics learned but they were also told that the focus sheets could be used in exams for notes. This motivated their sheet preparation. The students prepared weekly summaries and later revised and summarized them for later use. Detailed examination of such sheets allowed researchers to study studentsâ?? knowledge in terms procedural work, math skills, strategies and conceptual knowledge. A study of linear, quadratic and limit sections led to interesting insights not only regarding revision strategies, knowledge of content, but also conceptual and procedural knowledge base and higher order skills such as problem solving focus. Logical and creative competencies were assessed in terms of how and what student focused upon or linked to in order to facilitate application of knowledge. The results show average levels of procedural and conceptual competence but rather low levels in logical and creative competence in preparation of scripts. Almost 50% lacked competency in procedural work while around 54% lacked conceptual competency. Given the emphasis placed procedural skills by students, the levels were lower than expected. However, the lack of structure in their work and deeper levels of understanding of links between the topics learned was concerning. These findings have implications for the first year mathematics teaching teams at universities especially the non-specialist mathematical majors.

Gurudeo Anand Tularam

2013-01-01

73

Different Types of Thinking of Seven-Year-Old Children and their Achievements in School  

Science.gov (United States)

The theoretical basis of the research was the conception of human intelligence of Sternberg. The aims of the study were: to determine the level of analytical thinking, creative thinking and practical thinking of seven-year-old children; to determine the relations between the level of analytical, practical and creative thinking and pupil's success…

Uszynska-Jarmoc, Janina

2005-01-01

74

Desarrollo del pensamiento creativo en la formación laboral juvenil / Developement of creative thinking in youth work training  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Proyecto de investigación que analiza las representaciones educativo-laborales sobre las atribuciones de valor a la creatividad, motivación e innovación en jóvenes de la educación formal y no formal que se preparan para el mundo del trabajo. La desarticulación educativa entre oferta, demanda y neces [...] idad, exige búsquedas que complementen la didáctica homogénea de un pensamiento convergente con otras vertientes que favorecen el pensamiento divergente. Se asume la creatividad como un concepto teórico, no observable, que difícilmente se da en forma espontánea y se reconoce solo como atributo exclusivo de artistas, siendo necesario generarla en todos los sujetos y disciplinas para una construcción de valores y desarrollo a escala humana. Avanza sobre nuevas aristas didácticas integradoras que cubren un extenso espectro de pertenencias culturales, con disimilitudes de conocimientos, de abstracción, de lenguajes e ideologías. Se opta por una integración metodológica para ampliar las posibilidades de los contextos de descubrimiento y validación priorizando el primero. La metodología comprensivista apunta más directamente a las metas propuestas con los aportes de la etnografía, interaccionismo simbólico y la etnometodología. Los primeros resultados parciales evidencian que las actitudes y motivaciones de los jóvenes, dentro y fuera de las aulas e instituciones, cambian radicalmente, apareciendo estrategias creativas e innovadoras para actividades que responden a intereses diferentes a los contenidos curriculares. En jóvenes alumnos de posgrado en educación, se relevan dificultades para enseńar y desconocimiento de didácticas orientadas al pensamiento divergente, pero interés por interiorizarse en la teoría e instrumentación de las mismas. Abstract in english This research project analyzes the education-labour representations on value attributions to creativity, motivation and innovation in youth with formal and non-formal education that are training for the job world. The educational detachment between offer, demand and need, requests a search that can [...] complement the homogeneous didactics of a converging line of thought with other currents that favour divergent thinking. Creativity is considered a theoretical concept, non observable, that can hardly happen in a spontaneous way and is solely an attribute of artists, but also necessary to be generated in all individuals and disciplines for a construction of values and development at a human scale. It makes progress over new integrating didactic aspects that cover a wide spectrum of cultural belongings, with dissimilar knowledge, of abstraction, of languages and ideologies. A methodological integration is chosen to enlarge the possibilities of the discovery and validation contexts prioritizing the former. The comprehensive methodology aims more directly to intended goals with contributions from ethnography, symbolic interaction and ethnomethodology. The first partial results show that attitudes and motivation in youngsters, inside and outside classrooms and institutions, change radically, giving rise to creative and innovative strategies that respond to different interests to those in curricular contents. Among young postgraduate students in education, difficulties in teaching and both an ignorance but also an interest in didactics oriented to diverging thought are shown.

Rosa, Pérez del Viso de Palou.

75

Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.

José L. Villaveces

2012-05-01

76

Reading as Critical Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reading involves an interactive process in which the reader actively produces meaning through a set of mental processes. There is obviously an ongoing interaction between the reader and the text. Critical reading is related to thinking and that is why we cannot read without thinking. Critical reading involves the following skills: predicting, acknowledging, comparing, evaluating and decision-making. Schemata can be seen as the organized background knowledge, which leads the reader to expect and predict aspects in their interpretation of discourse.

Ibrahim Abu Shihab

2011-07-01

77

ThinkTank  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is a free tool to help students develop and narrow research questions for project-based learning. ThinkTank allows students to create an outline of topics and subtopics, narrow their choices, and export topics to NoteStar, a related cost-free tool. ThinkTank is part of the collection of online tools available through 4Teachers.org, founded to support integration of technology in the K-12 classroom. ***PLEASE NOTE: Some of the pages within this resource are sponsored by commercial vendors.

2009-11-19

78

Conductive Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

Paetkau, Mark

2007-01-01

79

Thinking Aloud Together  

Science.gov (United States)

Thinking Together is a project that began at the Open University in the mid 1990s and grew out of research that showed that children benefit from explicit instruction on how to talk in groups. Its fundamental premise is that the ability to communicate effectively is a key skill that lies at the heart of educational success. A crucial goal arising…

Monaghan, Frank

2006-01-01

80

Bibliographic Instruction and Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addresses the value of integrating critical thinking and information literacy in library instruction for students of all grade levels. Sites specific examples of successful implementation of critical thinking and library instruction and how these promote information literacy. (SR)

Herro, Steven J.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Thinking Outside the Box  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors associated with the radioactive materials they contain. Packages for fissile materials are the most robust ones. However, very low quantities of fissile material, relative to the overall volume of material in which it is contained, do not pose a realistic criticality hazard. More realistic provisions for these fissile-excepted materials would improve safety, reduce dose uptake, and provide significant financial benefits to both industry and the regulator. It is a basic principle of transport safety regulation that safety is vested primarily in the package, and not the mode of conveyance. Safety standards for packages are set internationally by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Packages designs are subject to a rigorous internationally-established test regime; a test regime that takes account both of normal and conceivable realistic accident conditions to demonstrate conclusively that the package will provide adequate protection. Packages will only be licensed for use by national competent authorities on the basis of a convincing safety case. Looking outside the box - when confronted by uncertainty about the safety of radioactive materials transports, it is suggested industry not limit itself to reassuring words about the undeniably excellent safety record of transport over decades but, it should present the safety features of the packages, the rigorous international safety test criteria to ensure the package would survive realistic regulate and accident conditions of transport, and the need to present a convincing safety case to competent authorities before a licence would be issued. While the very low statistical possibility of transport accident cannot be denied attention also should be paid to the consequences of accidents. The communications theme will also be addressed as the 'new media' push the bounds of possibility of how best to increase understanding about nuclear packaging and transport. The world has evolved in a more sceptical age, a permanent full time communications age when people increasingly rely on very short key messages for thei

2009-06-01

82

Creativity—Innovative Thinking—Tolerance in Uncertainty: Views of Undergraduate Students in Greek Universities Based on the Faculty of Their Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovative-creative thinking and tolerance towards uncertain situations concern the field of the present study. Through scenarios and alternative proposals that concern views about the presence (university or the future as well (professional career after the university, the research focuses on undergraduate students in Greek universities. The research took place in2011 ina sample of 836 students, using the questionnaire as an instrument, in a difficult financially and socially conjuncture for the country, with the unemployment galloping especially in young people and graduates.The present study examines the extent to which the type of student’s studies (social science and science differentiates innovative-creative thinking and tolerance towards the uncertainty of subjects. Results showed that undergraduates of Social Science Faculties make more “conservative” choices, both during their studies as well as during the selection of professional perspectives. On the other hand, students of Sciences show higher tolerance in uncertainty, pursuing more challenging working conditions, as well as assessment conditions during their studies, in comparison to students of Social Science Faculties.

Thomas Babalis

2013-02-01

83

Cabbage Worms and Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that an approach to composition instruction that emphasizes critical thinking skills produces a more analytical writer. Describes a school project that examined research on critical thinking, implemented changes in the teaching of thinking and composition, and assessed student learning. (HB)

Braswell, Patricia

1993-01-01

84

Patterns of Thinking in Reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reading teacher needs to be well versed in the teaching of reading, which includes different patterns of thinking in each student. A skilled reader develops patterns of thinking pertaining to content read. Identified patterns of thinking need to be analyzed and incorporated as objectives for student attainment in reading. This paper discusses…

Ediger, Marlow

85

Scientific thinking in ophthalmology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Science, medicine and ophthalmology have all evolved and progressed through varied but powerful influences over the centuries. While the tremendous technological advances in ophthalmology in the past 20 years are readily appreciated, many clinicians fail to grasp the impact of the several clinical trials that have contributed to better patient care. This article briefly traces the history of science, medicine and ophthalmology, and explains how scientific thinking could be applied to the clinical and academic aspects of ophthalmology.

Abraham Chandran

1998-01-01

86

Cognitive training for divergent thinking in schizophrenia: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate deficits in divergent thinking. This ability is indispensable for generating creative solutions and navigating the complexities of social interactions. In a pilot study, seventeen stable schizophrenia outpatients were randomly assigned to a training program for divergent thinking or a control program on convergent thinking. After eight weeks of training, participants in the divergent thinking program had significantly greater improvements on measures of idea fluency, negative symptoms, and interpersonal relations than did participants receiving the control program. These preliminary results suggest that interventions for divergent thinking in schizophrenia may lead to improvements in patients' social functioning. PMID:19733608

Nemoto, Takahiro; Yamazawa, Ryoko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Nobuharu; Chino, Bun; Fujii, Chiyo; Kashima, Haruo; Rassovsky, Yuri; Green, Michael F; Mizuno, Masafumi

2009-11-13

87

Competitive Think Tanks in Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how â??competitiveâ?? think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges the view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate that competitive strategies will become more common in the future.

Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

88

Creating Thinking Schools through "Knowledge and Inquiry": The Curriculum Challenges for Singapore  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of thinking skills in Singapore was seen in the launch of the "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" (TSLN) vision in 1997. This vision aims to develop creative thinking skills, a lifelong passion for learning and nationalistic commitment in the young. In elucidating the concept of "thinking schools" the former Prime Minister, Goh Chok…

Tan, Charlene

2006-01-01

89

Strategic thinking for radiology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have now analyzed the use and benefits of four Strategic Thinking Tools for Radiology: the Vision Statement, the High Five, the Two-by-Two, and Real-Win-Worth. Additional tools will be provided during the tutorial. The tools provided above should be considered as examples. They all contain the 10 benefits outlined earlier to varying degrees. It is extremely important that the tools be used in a manner consistent with the Vision Statement of the organization. The specific situation, the eff...

1997-01-01

90

Strategic thinking for radiology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have now analyzed the use and benefits of four Strategic Thinking Tools for Radiology: the Vision Statement, the High Five, the Two-by-Two, and Real-Win-Worth. Additional tools will be provided during the tutorial. The tools provided above should be considered as examples. They all contain the 10 benefits outlined earlier to varying degrees. It is extremely important that the tools be used in a manner consistent with the Vision Statement of the organization. The specific situation, the eff...

1998-01-01

91

Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhőive tagamisele

Kask, Kalle

2002-01-01

92

Critical Thinking: Ethical Reasoning and Fairminded Thinking, Part II  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last column we introduced the idea of ethical reasoning (see Paul & Elder, 2006) and discussed its importance to education, assuming the intention is to cultivate fairminded critical thinking. We also discussed the problem of intrinsic egocentric thinking as a fundamental barrier to ethical reasoning. In this column we focus on conceptual…

Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

2009-01-01

93

Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…

Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson

2013-01-01

94

Designers' Cognitive Thinking Based on Evolutionary Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research on cognitive thinking is important to construct the efficient intelligent design systems. But it is difficult to describe the model of cognitive thinking with reasonable mathematical theory. Based on the analysis of design strategy and innovative thinking, we investigated the design cognitive thinking model that included the external guide thinking of "width priority - depth priority" and the internal dominated thinking of "divergent thinking - convergent thinking", built a reasoning mechanism of design information with the thinking mathematics theory and established a product image form design model with the generalized interactive genetic algorithm. The example of testing machine form design shows that the method is reasonable and feasible.

Zhang Shutao

2013-09-01

95

Herramientas informáticas para la aplicación de técnicas de desarrollo de pensamiento creativo / Computing tools for the application of creative thinking development techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El sistema educativo no escapa a la renovación de las técnicas para incentivar el pensamiento innovador. El objetivo de esta reflexión monográfica es mostrar la relación entre el desarrollo de la creatividad y los usos de los softwares educativos. Las técnicas seleccionadas son, el mapa mental y el [...] de conceptos, el mandala y las supernotas. Y los softwares empleados, son el Mind Manager, el Inspiración y el CMap Tool. El procedimiento hace referencia a los fundamentos teóricos argumentados por los autores y, a una descripción de las bondades de los tres softwares seleccionados. Como reflexión final se puede decir que los softwares seleccionados cumplen la función de herramienta mental-tecnológica, al desarrollar habilidades para procesar información de forma creativa. Abstract in english The educational system does not escape to renewing the techniques to motivate innovative thinking. The goal of this monographic reflection is to show the relation between creativity development and education software uses. The chosen techniques are, mental and concept map, the mandala and super note [...] -taking. The software used is the Mind Manager, Inspiration, and the CMap Tool. The procedure refers to the theoretical fundaments argued by the authors and, to a description of the goodness of the software used. As a final reflection it can be said that the software work as a mental-technological tool, by developing skills to process information in a creative way.

Anny, Castillo Rojas.

96

Developing a Classroom Culture of Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This publication begins with a dedication to «those teachers who share my belief that the teaching of thinking is an empowering process that will see students of today become critical, creative, and caring adults of tomorrow». In doing so, the author’s intent to provide a very practical and usable resource for teachers is clear from the outset. Pohl’s book provides models and templates aimed at fostering a «classroom culture of thinking» that many teachers would find immediately usable.However, the value of any pragmatically-oriented publication lies within the educational advantages such «models and strategies» will enable. While this book presents clear, accessible and easily understood strategies for diversifying the classroom repertoire, its claim to enabling a «classroom culture of thinking» must be carefully considered.

Mia O'Brien

2002-01-01

97

Assessing Business Student Thinking Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student…

Smith, Gerald F.

2014-01-01

98

Team Based Engineering Design Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective is encompassed in the research question driving this inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

Mentzer, Nathan

2012-01-01

99

Critical thinking in nurse managers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formal education and support is needed for nurse managers to effectively function in their role in the current health care environment. Many nurse managers assume their positions based on expertise in a clinical role with little expertise in managerial and leadership skills. Operating as a manager and leader requires ongoing development of critical thinking skills and the inclination to use those skills. Critical thinking can have a powerful influence on the decision making and problem solving that nurse managers are faced with on a daily basis. The skills that typify critical thinking include analysis, evaluation, inference, and deductive and inductive reasoning. It is intuitive that nurse managers require both the skills and the dispositions of critical thinking to be successful in this pivotal role at a time of transformation in health care. Incorporating critical thinking into education and support programs for the nurse manager is necessary to position the nurse manager for success. PMID:19492771

Zori, Susan; Morrison, Barbara

2009-01-01

100

Do Standardized Tests Penalize Deep-Thinking, Creative, or Conscientious Students?: Some Personality Correlates of Graduate Record Examinations Test Scores  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…

Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Promoting Creative Thinking and Expression of Science Concepts among Elementary Teacher Candidates through Science Content Movie Creation and Showcasing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the phases of design and use of video editing technology as a medium for creatively expressing science content knowledge in an elementary science methods course. Teacher candidates communicated their understanding of standards-based core science concepts through the creation of original digital movies. The movies were assigned…

Hechter, Richard P.; Guy, Mark

2010-01-01

102

Critical Thinking and Legal Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We often lack clear procedures for assessing statements and arguments advanced in everyday conversations, political campaigns, advertisements, and the other multifarious uses to which ordinary language can be put. Critical thinking is a method for evaluating arguments couched in ordinary, non-formal language. Legal education should foster this argumentative skill as an ability to assess the open-end variety of arguments that may arise in legal disputes. I will argue that the ability of critical thinking helps lawyers to thrive even in legal cultures that are hostile to critical thinking. There is, therefore, a happy harmony between professional and moral reasons to teach critical thinking at law schools: it promotes epistemic as well as instrumental rationality.

Guido Pincione

2009-01-01

103

Act local, think global  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive Director Chris Lewis will work with the audience on an interactive basis to outline answers to the following questions: - To what extent was there agreement world-wide on the major communications challenges facing the nuclear industry prior to September 11th, and how to address them locally? - How (and how much) has the nuclear communications agenda changed since then? Are the new challenges the same world-wide? - To what extent is communications strategy - like strategy generally - a question not only of what to do, but also of what not to do? When is lack of transparency justified? - Are the new issues all negative, or do recent global developments also offer nuclear communicators world-wide a new opportunity to 'put across' the key messages they have been trying to communicate for many years past - in particular, the 'place' of nuclear energy in the broader 'energy picture'? (author)

2002-02-03

104

Resilience and Higher Order Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs), i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thi...

Ioan Fazey

2010-01-01

105

Some Paradoxes of Reflective Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The halls of my area’s elementary schools are plastered with various posters and signs direcing the children to «STOP AND THINK.» If one should stop and think about what exactly these signs are intended to accomplish, it’s safe to say that «think» is being used in a special sense here, since not any old thinking will suffice; we are urging the children to take the time necessary to engage in something like what Cumberland reckons to be among our «perfections.» After all,the child at hand will have already thought about what they are doing sufficiently to be doing it (or else we couldn’t direct them to stop, and so directing them to simply think more about it may notbe useful advice-why should they? Apparently (and it is apparent we are trying to get the kids to think in a certain, reflective, way. I am going to scrutinize this «way» somewhat. My thesis is that inan important sense it, or what I will call «the reflective self,» has its origins within a community of inquiry.

Nicholas P. Power

2000-01-01

106

Efectos directos e indirectos entre estilos de pensamiento, estrategias metacognitivas y creatividad en estudiantes universitarios / Direct and indirect effects between thinking styles, metacognitive strategies and creativity in college students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde la psicología educativa se han generado estudios que relacionan los estilos de pensamiento con las estrategias metacognitivas y la creatividad. Aunque existe un cuerpo empírico que explicita relaciones de dependencia y/o predictivas entre estos constructos, no hemos hallado estudios que analic [...] en los efectos directos e indirectos que se establecen entre ellos. Así, el objetivo en este estudio fue probar un modelo teórico mediante modelización con ecuaciones estructurales para estudiar dichos efectos. Participaron 197 estudiantes universitarios. Los instrumentos usados fueron: i) el Inventario de Estilos de Pensamiento (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner y Zhang, 2003) para medir los estilos de pensamiento; ii) La Escala de Estrategias de Aprendizaje (ACRA) (Román y Gallego, 2001) para medir las estrategias metacognitivas; iii) El Test de Inteligencia Creativa (CREA) (Corbalán Berná et al., 2003) para medir la creatividad. Los resultados obtenidos indican que: i) Los estilos de pensamiento judicial y legislativo (Sternberg, 1998) contribuyen de manera positiva y directamente al uso de estrategias metacognitivas e indirecta y positivamente a la creatividad; ii) las estrategias metacognitivas contribuyen de manera directa y positivamente a la creatividad. Sin embargo, no se ha encontrado una relación directa entre los estilos de pensamiento y la creatividad. Abstract in english Previous studies from the field of Educational Psychology have indicated that thinking styles are related to metacognitive strategies and creativity. Although, there is a body of empirical studies which explains the relationship and/ or predictive relations between these constructs, we have not foun [...] d studies examining the direct and indirect effects that arise between them. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling to study these effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling to study these effects. Participants in the present study were 197 university students. Instruments used were: i) the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI-R) (Sternberg, Wagner & Zhan, 2003) to measure thinking styles; ii) The Learning Strategies Scale (ACRA) (Roman & Gallego, 2001) to measure the metacognitive strategies, iii) The Test of Creative Intelligence (CREA) (Corbalan Berna et al., 2003) to measure creativity. The results indicate that: i) The judicial and legislative thinking styles (Sternberg, 1998) contribute to the use of metacognitive strategies directly and in a positive way, and these styles contribute to the creativity indirectly and in a positive way; ii) metacognitive strategies contribute to the creativity directly and in a positively way. However, not found a direct relationship between thinking styles and creativity.

Calixto, Gutierrez-Braojos; Purificación, Salmeron-Vilchez; Ana, Martín-Romera; Honorio, Salmerón.

107

Tools to Enhance Young Children's Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

During a neighborhood walk, preschool children from Ms. Silvia's class took pictures of buildings, businesses, and people. Back in the classroom, Ms. Silvia displayed their pictures on a large screen and used the "See/Think/Wonder" thinking routine to help the children think and talk about their experiences on the walk. Thinking routines are…

Salmon, Angela K.

2010-01-01

108

The role of knowledge in critical thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses the role of knowledge in critical thinking, i.e. a controversial issue of whether critical thinking is general or subject-dependant ability. Analyzed are basic assumptions of the authors who maintain the view of the generality of critical thinking, and those who defend the view that critical thinking is subject dependant, as well as their theoretical and practical arguments in favor of their views. The problem of generality of critical thinking is analyzed on three levels:...

Peši? Jelena

2007-01-01

109

Critical thinking education in 21st Century: korean experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 21st century, advanced countries as well as Asian countries are changing curriculums. According to UNESCO, the characteristics of the change are paradigmatic. The term for paradigmatic change is used; this means the change that knowledge of previous paradigm is completely unusable in new paradigm (Khun 1977).In a word, the major concern of education is changed from teaching consumers of knowledge to teaching producer of knowledge. Critical thinking ability and creative thinking ability is ...

2013-01-01

110

Moving Bodies, Building Minds: Foster Preschoolers' Critical Thinking and Problem Solving through Movement  

Science.gov (United States)

Creative movement is an ideal way to help young children develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Most young children are, by nature, extremely physical. They delight in exploring the world with their bodies and expressing their ideas and feelings through movement. During creative movement experiences, children learn to think before…

Marigliano, Michelle L.; Russo, Michele J.

2011-01-01

111

Spatial Thinking in the Geosciences  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial thinking is critical to the analytical work of the geosciences. Navigating unfamiliar landscapes requires a keen understanding of the lay of the land, as does constructing a cross-section through deformed rocks. This set of thematic resources from the Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College provides teaching activities, visualizations, and print and online references for educators who wish to incorporate these ways of thinking into their classrooms. In the Teaching Activities area, visitors will find 33 different activities, including "Northwest Passage," which is an investigation of changes in polar regions using Google Earth. Visitors can also look through these activities by type, such as Field Activity or Writing Assignment. The Visualizations area includes data related to earthquakes, seafloor topography, and satellite images. Finally, visitors can subscribe to the spatial thinking email list, or browse through the list's archives.

2012-07-13

112

Conceptual thinking of uneducated adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is Vygotsky's thesis that the prerequisite of conceptual thinking and concepts in general is the systematic influence upon the child effectuated by his/her inclusion into the process of education. The aim of this work is to examine characteristics of conceptual thinking of people who have not attended school, by which they have been devoid of formative role of education. Four different methods for examination of conceptual development have been used on the sample consisting of seventeen respondents who have not attended school. The results state that the majority of respondents have not demonstrated that they master the concepts on the highest level of development in none of these four methods. However, some respondents in some tests and some individual tasks within the tests show some characteristics of the high level of the conceptual thinking development.

Pavlovi? Zoran

2006-01-01

113

La cartografía mental y su incidencia en el pensamiento creativo Mental cartography and its impact on creative thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La investigación que acá se reseńa puso a prueba los mapas mentales en grupos de estudiantes. Metodológicamente se apeló a un diseńo cuasi-experimental intragrupos, con el ánimo de establecer si con el uso de mapas mentales los sujetos de investigación mejoraban o no su nivel de originalidad y eficacia con respecto a ideas que se derivaran de procesos creativos que no utilizaran la cartografía mental. Los investigadores obtuvieron un total de 64 ideas, 32 resultantes del uso de mapas mentales y otras 32 provenientes de procesos que no involucraron al mapa mental. Para hacer los comparativos del caso se apeló a evaluaciones cualificadas de la originalidad y la eficacia mediante la utilización de un diferencial semántico que permitió valorar estadísticamente los puntajes dados a cada una de las ideas realizadas por los sujetos de investigación. La hipótesis que se planteó en el sentido de que los mapas mentales mejoran la originalidad de los estudiantes se confirmó, más no otra hipótesis que sugería que con los mapas mentales se incrementaba el nivel de eficacia de las propuestas. No obstante, dependiendo del tipo de mapa mental utilizado, la eficacia puede no verse disminuida, en tanto que la originalidad se incrementa, con toda seguridad, independientemente del tipo de mapa mental utilizado en el proceso. El mapa mental, debidamente utilizado, potencializa en los estudiantes el pensamiento divergente, la flexibilidad espontanea, las jerarquías planas y, en general, su creatividad. The research that is outlined here did tests the metal maps on a group of students. Methodologically the study appealed to a semi-experimental design within groups, with the intention to establish if by using mental maps people’s level of originality and efficacy as to the ideas that came from creative processes were higher than those who didn’t use mental maps. The researchers obtained a total of 64 ides, 32 came from the use of mental maps and the other 32 came from processes that did not involve mental maps at all. In order to compare the study the evaluation qualified the originality and assertiveness by means of a semantic differential that allowed to statistically value the scores given to each of the ideas that came from the students subject to the tests. The proposed hypothesis leading towards the idea that mental maps would enhance the students’ originality was confirmed, yet not a second hypothesis that suggested that with the use of mental maps the level of efficacy would be higher. Regardless, depending on the type f mental map used, efficacy may not be reduced while the originality is sure to be enhanced while using any type of mental map. Such maps, if used adequately promotes diverging though processes in students, spontaneous flexibility, flat hierarchies and creativity in general.

Rodríguez Andrés

2011-01-01

114

How is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?  

CERN Document Server

The Internet, in the memorable words of EDGE founder John Brockman, is 'the infinite oscillation of our collective consciousness interacting with itself. It's not about computers. It's not about what it means to be human - in fact, it challenges, renders trite, our cherished assumptions on that score. It is about thinking'. In How is the Internet Changing the Way you Think?, the latest volume in Brockman's cutting-edge Edge questions series, 154 of the world's leading intellectuals - scientists, artists and creative thinkers - explore exactly what it means to think in the new age of the Inter

Brockman, John

2011-01-01

115

Critical Thinking in Health Sciences Education: Considering “Three Waves”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically, health science education has focused on content knowledge. However, there has been increasing recognition that education must focus more on the thinking processes required of future health professionals. In an effort to teach these processes, educators of health science students have looked to the concept of critical thinking. But what does it mean to “think critically”? Despite some attempts to clarify and define critical thinking in health science education and in other fields, it remains a “complex and controversial notion that is difficult to define and, consequently, difficult to study” (Abrami et al., 2008, p. 1103. This selected review offers a roadmap of the various understandings of critical thinking currently in circulation. We will survey three prevalent traditions from which critical thinking theory emerges and the major features of the discourses associated with them: critical thinking as a set of technical skills, as a humanistic mode of accessing creativity and exploring self, and as a mode of ideology critique with a goal of emancipation. The goal of this literature review is to explore the various ways in which critical thinking is understood in the literature, how and from where those understandings emerge, and the debates that shape each understanding.

Renate Kahlke

2013-12-01

116

Thinking through Language. Book One.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of three related documents produced in response to a need for direct instruction in thinking skills, this program for middle school or junior high school students bases its approach on involvement of students in direct experiences. The book contains four units. Focusing on perception, Unit 1: "Experiencing the Arts" begins with ways sensory…

Kirby, Dan; Kuykendall, Carol

117

Thinking in a straight line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rational human discourse is not as common as we imagine or as we would like it to be. Sometimes it is necessary to use fallacies and fabrication to get to the point we favor. This essay is an illustrated list of 33 handy tools for avoiding thinking straight. PMID:24283034

Chambers, David W

2013-01-01

118

"Thinking about a Sustainable Earth"  

Science.gov (United States)

1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the students thought of were; a rise in the sea level because of melting ice at the north and south poles, floods, the increase of typhoons and cyclones, the increase of droughts, the progression of desertification, etc. Lastly, I asked them to think about what we can do to prevent global warming. The students suggested: saving energy to decrease carbon dioxide emissions, developing further public transportation, using bikes instead of cars, promoting recycling, and decreasing the output of garbage. 3.Conclusion It is very effective to let them think about being sustainable earth after studying Geography, History and Civics at the end of Junior high school to raise awareness concerning sustainable region on the earth, on which we live.

Ikeshita, Makoto

2014-05-01

119

Enhancing Thinking Skills in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

A case study approach was adopted to investigate two thinking skills programmes for a maximum variation sample of five- to six-year-olds in four schools, in two local authorities (LAs), in England and Wales, using multiple methods. School staff interviewed felt that thinking skills programmes enhanced critical thinking skills and improved use of…

Aubrey, Carol; Ghent, Kathryn; Kanira, Eleni

2012-01-01

120

Computer Aided Creativity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

Proctor, Tony

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Standardized measures of critical thinking. Experience with the California Critical Thinking Tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardized measures of student critical thinking are an attractive option for nursing educators under pressure to demonstrate student higher order thinking skills. One program's experience using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test and the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory illustrates some of the problems of using standardized test and potential solutions. PMID:9348885

Leppa, C J

1997-01-01

122

ThinkQuest to help Internet people Think Young!  

CERN Multimedia

The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March.   Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...

2001-01-01

123

The impact of physical exercise on convergent and divergent thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anecdotal literature suggests that creative people sometimes use bodily movement to help overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration. Several studies have shown that physical exercise may sometimes enhance creative thinking, but the evidence is still inconclusive. In this study we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is affected by acute moderate and intense physical exercise in athletes (n=48 and non-athletes (n=48. Exercise interfered with divergent thinking in both groups. The impact on convergent thinking, the task that presumably required more cognitive control, depended on the training level: while in non-athletes performance was significantly impaired by exercise, athletes showed a benefit that approached significance. The findings suggest that acute exercise may affect both, divergent and convergent thinking. In particular, it seems to affect control-hungry tasks through exercise-induced “ego-depletion”, which however is less pronounced in individuals with higher levels of physical fitness, presumably because of the automatization of movement control, fitness-related neuroenergetic benefits, or both.

LorenzaSColzato

2013-12-01

124

Teaching Sociology and Womens’ Critical Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionSociology of Teaching sociology is seen as a fresh new place to explore the importance and role of critical thinking in the sociology of education has been one of the most important issues to consider.Principles of Sociology course ample opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills and attitudes and serves as a missionary spirit, critical thinking has suggested an alternative,Areas has brought the development of critical thinking. Learn the basics of critical thinking as a product of sociology curriculum content.To promote critical thinking skills so that potential learners. Increased emphasis on critical thinking in the university, leads to an increase in the use of critical thinking in the Society. Thinking and critical thinking as well as to social criticism, sociological thinking, and thinking is deemed necessary. Critical thinking involves the ability to judge and evaluate any logical thinking person based on sociological insights Mills provides.Sociologists should be in their classrooms, roads and planning ways to Students in order to enable them to think critically And the ability to create a bridge between personal experience and social events have. Critical thinking is one of the most important concepts that are essential for every individual and also play an important role in social life.Sociological critical thinking skills as one of the fundamental goals of education are considered in the evaluation. One of the most common objectives in the field of sociology of education is to enhance students' critical thinking abilities.Sociological critical thinking as well as product of Skills and sociological knowledge of Individuals.His ability to use that knowledge to properly deal with various topics of social life was sociologically.They show sensitivity to the needs of thereby making it one of the fields of social and cultural awareness is about. Critical thinking in education is a priority. Sociology course many opportunities for growth trends and provides the critical thinking skills.One of the major challenges in teaching sociology in Iran, according to critical thinking is a poor practice.Sociology of expectations and the necessary training in Iran, increased emphasis on critical thinking among students in general and specifically the female students. Women are half of the social construction of Iran, the main aim of the present study investigated the relationship between the sociology of education and critical thinking among students (the students associate degrees and Bachelor of Tourism Management, University of Isfahan Sheikh Bahai will be. Matherial & MethodsSurvey methodology and questionnaire data collection tools and approaches to teaching critical thinking Riketts (2003 respectively.Collection Data Based on total between girls' students (n=67 in introduction sociology class of Schiegh Baheei (Baharestan, Isfahan (Tourism Management,one term, 1390-91.Discussion of Results & ConclutionsThe attitude of students to learn the basics of sociology at the high level and high level of critical thinking in students expressed is. ranked in order of importance are the six components of the ability to understand the lesson, a valuable lesson, the importance of having a sense of enjoyment, motivation, learning and teaching principles of fear and concern of sociology. Drngrsh significant difference between the course Principles of sociology two educational levels (undergraduate interest there.Meaningful relationship between the three components of good feeling, motivation, and also learn important lessons that have students think critically and independently represents the relationship between sociology and education is critical thinking among students.C. Wright Mills, leaning on approach, each student through the process of critical thinking in the sociology of education increases,Identification and analysis of practical realization of the society will be realized by most students.

Mohammad-Ali Zaki

2013-01-01

125

Scheme of thinking quantum systems  

CERN Multimedia

A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

Yukalov, V I

2009-01-01

126

Promoting scientific thinking with robots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article describes an exemplary robot exercise which was conducted in a class for mechatronics students. The goal of this exercise was to engage students in scientific thinking and reasoning, activities which do not always play an important role in their curriculum. The robotic platform presented here is simple in its construction and is customizable to the needs of the teacher. Therefore, it can be used for exercises in many different fields of science, not necessarily ...

Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Assaf, Dorit; Benker, Emanuel

2011-01-01

127

Critical Thinking and Legal Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We often lack clear procedures for assessing statements and arguments advanced in everyday conversations, political campaigns, advertisements, and the other multifarious uses to which ordinary language can be put. Critical thinking is a method for evaluating arguments couched in ordinary, non-formal language. Legal education should foster this argumentative skill as an ability to assess the open-end variety of arguments that may arise in legal disputes. I will argue that the ability of critic...

Guido Pincione

2009-01-01

128

Spatial-Temporal Intelligence: Original Thinking Processes of Gifted Inventors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This psychological phenomenological research analyzed cognition of 7 adult inventors and proposes a theory of original, creative thinking. Spatial intelligence is reviewed. Results provide 7 findings, including cognitive, motivational, affective, and psychokinesthetic factors. Spatial-temporal intelligence is theorized as an abstract model of…

Cooper, Eileen E.

2000-01-01

129

Think outside the Box: A Logic-Defying "Impossible" Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

"Think outside the box" is a very common phrase, routinely used to convey the idea of finding creative and unconventional solutions to problems. Although widely used as a cliche in the business world, this phrase is significantly applicable to people who do science for a living, because scientists are constantly developing and testing new ideas.…

Raje, Sonali

2012-01-01

130

Nurse educators' critical thinking: reflection and measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The critical thinking abilities and dispositions of nurse educators are integral to facilitating the critical thinking of nursing students. This descriptive, exploratory study, which was completed as part of a Master's Degree, measures and describes nurse educators' critical thinking. Using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), quantitative measurements were obtained from 11 full-time nurse educators conveniently sampled from a baccalaureate nursing program in Western Canada. Using the CCTDI, these educators scored highest in the inquisitiveness sub-scale. The results from the CCTST showed nurse educators scored highest in the skill of inductive reasoning. Both instrument total scores indicated these nurse educators' have a moderately high inclination and ability towards critical thinking. Six of the 11 nurse educators also participated in an interview, which captured their varied descriptions of critical thinking; factors that positively and negatively influence their critical thinking; and common approaches they utilize to facilitate critical thinking. The nurse educators who were interviewed preferred to describe critical thinking rather than define it. As well, the interviews highlighted that personal factors related to each nurse educator and conditions within their environment contributed to the facilitation of critical thinking. PMID:19038201

Raymond, Christy L; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

2005-07-01

131

Critical Thinking: Rationality, and the Vulcanization of Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although critical thinking has become a pedagogical industry, its endorsement by educators is uncritical. The conventional critical thinking model assumes that only logical thinking is good thinking. However, good thinking also includes rational but nonlogical cognitive functions. To ignore them is to train students in only one aspect of thinking.…

Walters, Kerry S.

1990-01-01

132

Relationship Between Thinking Style and Organizational Innovation of Senior and Junior Managers of Shiraz Educational Hospitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: The most important principles in an organization are continuous development and survival. Nowadays, creativity and innovation are vital for survival in a competitive world. The thinking style of a manager in an organization is an important factor in his/her creativity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between thinking style and organizational innovation in 84 senior and junior managers of Shiraz educational hospitals in 2008.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 84 top and mid-level managers of Shiraz teaching hospitals were selected by the census method. Data were collected using two standard questionnaires, one for thinking style and one for innovation, the content validity and reliability of which had been confirmed. A preliminary test showed the Cronbachs alpha for the thinking style and organizational questionnaires to be 0.83 and 0.72, respectively. Data analysis was performed using Spearman correlation test. Results: The Spearman correlation analysis showed a statistically significant, although weak, relationship between thinking style of senior and junior managers of Shiraz teaching hospitals and their organizational innovation. A pragmatic thinking style had the strongest association with organizational innovation.Conclusion: The thinking style of a teaching hospital manager plays a vital role in his/her creativity. No thinking style is particularly preferred; any thinking style may give desirable results as regards creativity of a manger, depending on the circumstances and conditions.

A Roshanfard

2009-11-01

133

Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-04-01

134

Students' scientific thinking in higher education : Logical thinking and conceptions of scientific thinking in universities and universities of applied sciences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation investigated the two approaches of scientific thinking, more precisely logical thinking and conceptions of scientific thinking as epistemological beliefs of knowledge and knowing, in different contexts in higher education: in universities and universities of applied sciences (UAS), in three different phases of studies, and in the field of economics and business administration. The balance between theoretical and scientific, and professional and practical orientations both in...

Seppa?la?, Hannele

2013-01-01

135

New thinking about natural gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is about opening our minds to natural gas. Though conventional thinking holds that commercial natural gas resources rank third behind coal and oil, recent studies require that this thinking be challenged. This [open quotes]oil thinking[close quotes] has created a generally accepted perception, even among professionals, that often impedes research, development, innovation, and implementation of much needed new ideas in the realm of natural gas. Even though estimates of the natural gas resource base recently have been revised upward, to the range of 1200 to 1500 Tcf, they are still overly conservative. My estimate of potentially available natural gas resources, based on accepted theories of the origin of oil and natural gas, forecast the US natural gas resource base to be within the range of 3,000 to 4,000 Tcf. On the basis of a large natural gas resource base and other information presented the following predictions are made: (1) that in the United States natural gas will remain an affordable and reliable fuel beyond the middle of the 21st century, (2) that natural gas will replace oil as the United States principal energy source, (3) that the only limits to the use of natural gas will be well in the future when CO[sub 2] emissions from natural gas could possibly begin to exceed limits set by future global warming treaties, and (4) that to use natural gas as a principal energy fuel will be exceptionally beneficial for both developed and developing economies and therefore a great catalyst to the growth of the global economy in a manner that will significantly improve the environment. In developed economies, increased use of natural gas will reduce coal and oil pollution and lower the rate of addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere while enhancing economic efficiency and productivity. 41 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Hefner, R.A. III (GHK Co., Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

1993-01-01

136

Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but qualitative data indicate that the way discussions are used and facilitated is vital for encouraging critical thinking. Online discussions typically have the purpose of creating a space and time for informal, open-ended thinking to occur. Critical thinking appears to be best encouraged among students when a more consistent emphasis is placed on the discussions, and when instructor facilitation is less frequent but more purposeful.

Bridget Arend

2009-01-01

137

Acute provoked reflex seizures induced by thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thinking epilepsy is a rare form of reflex epilepsy that can be induced by specific cognitive tasks, and occurs mainly in idiopathic generalized epilepsies. We report a case of complex partial seizures triggered by thinking in a young man with acute bacterial meningitis and a remote head injury. This case illustrates that thinking-induced reflex seizures can be partial and can be provoked by an acute brain insult. PMID:23114680

Nevler, Naomi; Gandelman-Marton, Revital

2012-11-01

138

Commentary on Study of Contemporary Integrative Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contemporary integrative thinking is an important thinking way of current scientific development. It is continually developed with flourishing of holism, systematic science and complexity theory. It is far from enough the study of academic circles on its theoretical system, and an automatic condition exists in some aspects. This article is going to comment and analyze several important aspects in theoretical establishment of contemporary integrative thinking. Then the authors make clear study...

Jian Wang; Juan Hu

2009-01-01

139

Critical Thinking in Higher Education: Unfulfilled Expectations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Success in adult life and effective functioning in education depends among other things on critical thinking. The present study consisted of two parts. First, critical thinking (CT) skill of a group of 68 students majoring in education in Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch was evaluated. The participants, divided into two experimental and control groups, received California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) which is a 34 item Multiple-Choice test. The students in the control group...

Mehrdad Rezaee; Majid Farahian; Ali Morad Ahmadi

2012-01-01

140

Geometric thinking in a n-space  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What does “thinking geometrically” mean in a n-dimensional vector space, with n>3?According to several authors, like Fischbein, or Harel, a productive reasoning in mathematics always relies upon an intuitively accepted model. A first possibility of model in dimension n is provided by the use of coordinates; the use of that model can be called “analytic thinking”. But other possibilities exist, related with synthetic geometry; in that case the expression “geometric thinking” applie...

Gueudet, Ghislaine

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English  

CERN Document Server

Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

Valerie, Pellatt

2010-01-01

142

Design Thinking and Storytelling in eGovernment: The Case of ThinkData.ch  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ThinkData is an interactive service for raising awareness on data protection and transparency in the organisational context. Originating from a study carried out by an interdisciplinary work group as part of a think tank on services science and innovation (ThinkServices). ThinkData allows its users to become familiar with the concepts of data protection and transparency through short stories, situations involving employees, managers, HR managers and information systems professionals. In this ...

Glassey, Olivier; Morin, Jean-henry

2013-01-01

143

Effects of Emotion and Age on Performance During a Think/No-Think Memory Task  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies have demonstrated that young adults can voluntarily suppress information from memory when directed to. After learning novel word pairings to criterion, participants are shown individual words and instructed either to “think” about the associated word, or to put it out of mind entirely (“no-think”). When given a surprise cued recall test, participants typically show impaired recall for “no-think” words relative to “think” or “control” (un-manipulated) words. ...

Murray, Brendan D.; Muscatell, Keely A.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

144

Reflective Thinking and Teaching Practices: A Precursor for Incorporating Critical Thinking into the Classroom?  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to…

Choy, S. Chee; Oo, Pou San

2012-01-01

145

Development Trend Study of Divergent Thinking among Students from Primary to Middle School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, Williams’ activities test of creative thinking applied as a research tool, every grade studentsfrom the fourth grade in primary school to the third grade in middle school were selected to implementmeasurement, after statistical analysis we found that: (1 divergent thinking trends in various components wereinconsistent. (2 There were significant gender differences among flexibility, original creativity and the titlingcapacity and no significant gender difference among fluency, openness and elaboration.

Weidong Wu

2010-05-01

146

How mathematicians think using ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox to create mathemathics  

CERN Document Server

To many outsiders, mathematicians appear to think like computers, grimly grinding away with a strict formal logic and moving methodically--even algorithmically--from one black-and-white deduction to another. Yet mathematicians often describe their most important breakthroughs as creative, intuitive responses to ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox. A unique examination of this less-familiar aspect of mathematics, How Mathematicians Think reveals that mathematics is a profoundly creative activity and not just a body of formalized rules and results

Byers, William

2007-01-01

147

The Impact of Emotions on Divergent Thinking Processes: A Consideration for Inquiry-Oriented Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovation is a cornerstone of the success of our global society and it is required to generate solutions to today’s challenges. Students will benefit from classrooms that encourage creative thought and innovative self-directed projects. Inquiry is an instructional approach that fosters creativity and divergent thinking. This paper elaborates on one aspect of the creative process—the impact of emotions on divergent thinking. Theory and some existing research are reviewed and a plan for a neurocognitive study using electroencephalography is delineated. Current and previous research is taken into account when reflecting on suggestions for fostering learning environments conducive to creativity and building interdisciplinary collaboration.

Krista C. Ritchie

2011-12-01

148

Promoting scientific thinking with robots  

CERN Document Server

This article describes an exemplary robot exercise which was conducted in a class for mechatronics students. The goal of this exercise was to engage students in scientific thinking and reasoning, activities which do not always play an important role in their curriculum. The robotic platform presented here is simple in its construction and is customizable to the needs of the teacher. Therefore, it can be used for exercises in many different fields of science, not necessarily related to robotics. Here we present a situation where the robot is used like an alien creature from which we want to understand its behavior, resembling an ethological research activity. This robot exercise is suited for a wide range of courses, from general introduction to science, to hardware oriented lectures.

Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Benker, Emanuel

2011-01-01

149

Responses to Hugh Heclo's "On Thinking Institutionally"  

Science.gov (United States)

Hugh Heclo's recent book "On Thinking Institutionally" (Paradigm Publishers, 2008) analyzes changes that have taken place in the past half century in how North Americans tend to think and act in institutions. The volume is receiving particular attention as it can be applied to higher education and to religious denominations, and so deserves…

Fennell, Robert C.; Ascough, Richard S.; Liew, Tat-siong Benny; McLain, Michael; Westfield, Nancy Lynne

2010-01-01

150

Encouraging Historical Thinking at Historic Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to contribute to our understanding of the problem of effectively encouraging historical thinking by (a) evaluating, and modifying Wineburg's heuristics for historical thinking for applicability to the problem-solving activities historians use at historic sites; (b) establishing the efficacy of a hypermedia-based education program…

Baron, Christine

2010-01-01

151

Using Systems Thinking to Change Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems thinking involves seeing relationships between the parts to the whole within the school improvement effort. After providing the key principles and examples of systems thinking, the article emphasizes the importance of staff development, highlighting experiences at a Wellesley (Massachusetts) middle school and an Alaskan high school. (SM)

Asayesh, Gelareh

1993-01-01

152

Critical Thinking and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes limitations of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Suggests that should these weaknesses be addressed, teachers of critical thinking would do well to incorporate REBT into their critical thinking courses. Relates that A. Ellis has suggested that the future of REBT is in integrating it into the educational curriculum as a way of…

Hatcher, Donald; Brown, Tony; Gariglietti, Kelli P.

2001-01-01

153

Teaching Thinking to Chapter 1 Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses ways that students can better be taught to think. It argues that poor/low-achieving students served by Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 could genuinely profit from instruction on thinking and that, for maximum impact, such instruction should be introduced as a course in itself, separate from…

Adams, Marilyn Jager

154

Developmental Critical Thinking: Melding Two Imperatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the genesis of a developmental critical-thinking course offered at Southeastern Louisiana University (SLU) that melds two imperatives: to provide a comprehensive developmental-education program and to satisfy the critical-thinking requirements of the job market and the university. Provides some preliminary evaluation results from faculty…

Harris, Jimmy Carl; Eleser, Chris

1997-01-01

155

A Model for Teaching Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

In an age in which information is available almost instantly and in quantities unimagined just a few decades ago, most educators would agree that teaching adult learners to think critically about what they are reading, seeing, and hearing has never been more important. But just what is critical thinking? Do adult learners agree with educators that…

Emerson, Marnice K.

2013-01-01

156

ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation  

Science.gov (United States)

... 501c3 nonprofit organization. Benefit ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation when you surf or shop 1400+ retailers online. ... Involved Facebook Twitter YouTube ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation 1801 N. Mill Street, Suite F • Naperville, IL ...

157

Critical Thinking as Influenced by Learning Style.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Group Embedded Figures Test and Developing Cognitive Abilities Test were completed by 92 of 196 agriculture seniors. Using multiple linear regression, nine percent of variance in critical thinking was uniquely accounted for by learning style, suggesting that it is a significant variable that must be considered in developing critical thinking

Torres, Robert M.; Cano, Jamie

1995-01-01

158

Efecto de una intervención motriz en el desarrollo motor, rendimiento académico y creatividad en preescolares Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de un Programa Preescolar de Educación Física Integral (PPEFI en el desarrollo motor grueso, el rendimiento académico y la creatividad en un grupo de 39 nińos y nińas de preescolar, con un promedio de edad de 6 ańos. Los nińos(as fueron asignados aleatoriamente a uno de tres grupos: Grupo Control, el cual recibió el programa regular de preescolar (el cual incluye una sesión de 30 minutos de educación física. Grupo Experimental 1, el cual recibe el programa regular más una sesión de 30 minutos por semana de la intervención motriz. Grupo Experimental 2, el cual recibe el programa regular más una sesión de 60 minutos de la intervención motriz; durante 8 semanas. Todos los participantes fueron evaluados con el "Torrance Test of Creative Thinking" (TTCT y con el "Test of Gross Motor Development" antes y después del estudio. El rendimiento académico lo brindó la escuela. Por medio de análisis de varianza de 3 vías con medidas repetidas en el último factor (Grupo x Sexo x Medición, se determinó una interacción triple significativa (Grupo x Sexo x Medición en la variable de manipulación (p=0.01; y una interacción doble significativa (Grupo x Medición para las variables de locomoción (p=0.01 y el coeficiente de desarrollo motor (p=0.01. Luego de los análisis post-hoc realizados se concluye que PPEFI tuvo un efecto positivo en nińos y nińas en el desarrollo motor grueso, pero no presentó efecto significativo en el rendimiento académico, ni en ningún componente de la creatividad en nińos y nińas de preescolar. Palabras Clave: patrones fundamentales de movimiento, actividad física, funcionamiento cognitivo, pensamiento creativo. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

Gerardo Araya

2009-12-01

159

The Effect of Amusement and Task-Framing on Convergent and Divergent Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the effect of amusement and task-framing on measures of divergent (fluency, average creativity and creativity x usefulness) and convergent thinking (insight). To expand existing literature on the mood-creativity paradigm, the effect of a discrete positive emotion (amusement) on the remote associates (RAT) and alternative uses tasks (AUT) was investigated in comparison to a neutral control group. The effect of task-framing on creative performance was also examined. Amus...

Tulloch, Claire

2010-01-01

160

The Efficacy of Play on Divergent Thinking of Adult Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

According to the literature, empirical links between play and divergent thinking in children were found. However, the potential effects of play in adults in terms of promoting creativity are underestimated. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible benefits of play behavior in adult classrooms in order to facilitate creativity. The results of the present study lend some support for the effects of play on divergent thinking in adults. In respect to ideas generation, the results did not show a significant difference between experiment and control groups. Nevertheless, with regard to originality, it showed a significant difference between the two groups. The participants perceived play intervention as producing more unique ideas than the control group. The implication of the findings and future research were also discussed.

Kuan Chen Tsai

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Does Critical Thinking Enhance EFL Learners‘ Receptive Skills?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the effect of Iranian EFL learners’ critical thinking abilities on their receptive English language proficiency skills. With this purpose in mind, the researchers administered the Persian version of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA and the Interchange Objective Placement Test (Lesley, Hansen, & Zukowski-Faust, 2005 to 96 Intermediate EFL learners, and correlated the scores obtained from the two tests to see whether there is any significant relationship between critical thinking and proficiency. Results from Pearson product-moment correlation showed significant correlations between WGCTA subscales and proficiency scores. Furthermore, while logical interpretation was the only important variable in predicting both reading and listening comprehension scores, a stepwise multiple regression consisting of Watson-Glaser subscales 1 (drawing inferences, 2 (recognizing assumptions, and 4 (logical interpretation successfully predicted total proficiency test scores (R = .43. To see to what extent total scores for critical thinking may affect English language proficiency, three groups of High, Mid, and Low were formed based on critical thinking scores. The mean proficiency scores of the three groups were compared. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in the mean proficiency scores among the three groups. The results of the post-hoc Scheffe test revealed that there was a significant difference between the proficiency scores of the high creative group and those of the two other groups. The implications of the results were discussed.

Reza Zabihi

2012-01-01

162

On the Importance of Conceptual Thinking Outside the Simulation Box  

CERN Multimedia

Any ambitious construction project requires architects for its design and engineers who apply the design to the real world. As scientific research shifts towards large groups which focus on the engineering aspects of linking data to existing models, architectural skills are becoming rare among young theorists. Senior researchers should mentor qualified students and postdocs to think creatively about the big picture without unwarranted loyalty to ancient blueprints from past generations of architects.

Loeb, Abraham

2013-01-01

163

Modern information literacy innovates library by systems thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information literacy enables library users to well use modern sources of information in order to both create and apply knowledge. This competency can be more or less holistic with the level of holism having crucial consequences.To describe this particular need for holism systems thinking and information literacy are discussed, especially in relation to their creative and innovative use. We propose a Dialectical Systems Theory which can support this endeavor.

Petermanec, Zdenka; Mulej, Matjaz?

2012-01-01

164

Tree thinking cannot taken for granted: challenges for teaching phylogenetics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tree thinking is an integral part of modern evolutionary biology, and a necessary precondition for phylogenetics and comparative analyses. Tree thinking has during the 20th century largely replaced group thinking, developmental thinking and anthropocentricism in biology. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that tree thinking can be taken for granted. The findings reported here indicate that tree thinking is very much an acquired ability which needs extensive training. I tested a sampl...

2008-01-01

165

Parental thinking: assessment and applications in nursing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research indicates that knowledge of what a parent thinks may be more valuable information than observations of what a parent does. Therefore, maternal-child nurses should have a sound knowledge about not only specific behaviors that promote good parenting but also parental thinking, or the ideas parents hold about child rearing and child development. The authors present the importance of the nursing role in assessment of parental thinking, utilization of an appropriate framework for these assessments, and the considerations of nursing interventions that build on such assessments. PMID:7967750

Carter-Jessop, L; Yoos, L

1994-01-01

166

The Case Files: Unpack Your Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

This handout contains step-by-step instructions for two strategies that promote active learning: Think Aloud Protocol and KWL. Instructions answer these questions: -(1) What is it? -(2) When do I use it? -(3) WhatĂÂs the procedure? -(4) What comes to mind as you reflect on the process? -(5) What are the implications for the learner and future learning? Since this handout was originally used in a workshop with NSCC faculty in August 2002, a group processing tool is included, Think/Pair/Share. The document concludes with an excerpt from Berry Beyer on ĂÂwhat research tells us about teaching thinking skills.ĂÂKeyword: Problem-based learning

Loring, Ruth M.

2009-06-15

167

Knowledge engineering thinking of maintenance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maintenance optimization problem could not always settled mathematically and was obliged to use quasi-optimum solution with omitting non-formulated limiting condition or neglecting part of optimization object. In such a case knowledge engineering thinking was encouraged. Maintenance of complicated plant and artificial system should be considered from artificial object (equipment/facility hardware and system), technical information and knowledge base, and organizational and human aspect or society and institution. Comprehensive management system in organization and society was necessary not only for assuring integrity of equipment but also for attaining higher performance, reliability and economics of system. For better judgment it was important to share mechanism to make use of more information with organization or whole society. It was required to create database and data mining for knowledge base management system of maintenance. Maintenance was called 'last fortress' to assure quality such as reliability and safety of required function of equipment. Strategic approach to develop maintenance technology under cooperation was considered. Life extension R and D road map was launched in 2005. (T. Tanaka)

2007-06-01

168

Thinking with your eye, thinking with your hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractDefining architecture as visual-functional art, Asis Cabrero goes back to the origins of the human species to explain the elements of conscience involved in the work of humankind. Human survival is voluntary, variable, personal and inventive in sharp contrast with the instinct of nature's other species. Humans are intelligent beings whose thinking is determined by their sense of sight, by the ability of their hands to make tools, on top of their predatory nature. This human animal of exchangeable organs is able to specialize himself in the use of tools he makes to be on equal terms with specialized animals. So does man make tools to come face to face with a variable and changing nature, be it a knife, an ax or a shelter.Since Architecture is a product of what your eye sees, it is the functional use of your hand that comes into play in Architectural drawings. According to Cabrero, matter becomes material through tools, to be rigged, to be built. Tools which have evolved over the course of history as matter always remain unchanged in nature. Asís Cabrero has researched five primitive architectures related to five original matters. He has studied the dome structure, the lintel, the framework, the laminated structure and the removable structure in connection with the rational use of clay, stone, wood, branches and skin.The variety of available materials in the professional career of Asís Cabrero, from post-war isolation to the liberalization of the sixties, allow us to set five ages in the work of Francisco de Asís Cabrero according to the material and the tools he uses.Key wordsFrancisco Cabrero, architecture, instruments, material, structure, tools

Juan Manuel Sánchez de la Chica

2013-10-01

169

Tankestoed i Krig. (Thinking Support in War).  

Science.gov (United States)

Human thinking goes in many moods, not least in war. Images from decision theory do not give the whole truth. Other images would focus intuition, commitment, perspectives, change procedures, loyalties, design, discovery, overview and the management of maj...

S. Agrell

1999-01-01

170

Practical Thinking: Innovation in Battle Command Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Instruction on practical thinking skills was developed and implemented in a Command and General Staff Officers Course on Battle Command. A cognitive skills approach was emphasized as opposed to the traditional procedural models used in other Army educatio...

J. J. Fallesen R. R. Michel J. W. Lussier J. Pounds

1996-01-01

171

Simulation thinking: Where design and analysis meet  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Design and analysis have historically been viewed as opposites. However, design and analysis are closely related activities which involve similar types of thinking. This work examines the similarities and differences in cognition and education for design and numerical simulation. The educational pedagogy and educational outcomes of a first year design program and a graduate level finite element analysis course are discussed, and a list of characteristics and cognitive abilities of a good simulator - dubbed "simulation thinking" - is presented.

Thompson, Mary Kathryn

2009-01-01

172

Thinking through Content Instruction: Microteaching Unveils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the extent of critical skills being incorporated in the undergraduates’ lesson as shown in their microteaching sessions. The researcher seeks to find evidence of critical thinking skills in the undergraduates’ content instruction of their respective lessons. She investigates the integration of critical thinking skills via the undergraduates’ lesson plans and the lesson’s implementation. She seeks for inclusion of these skills by viewing the tape...

Nor Hashimah Isa; Hj. Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2011-01-01

173

New thinking: the evolution of human cognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Humans are animals that specialize in thinking and knowing, and our extraordinary cognitive abilities have transformed every aspect of our lives. In contrast to our chimpanzee cousins and Stone Age ancestors, we are complex political, economic, scientific and artistic creatures, living in a vast range of habitats, many of which are our own creation. Research on the evolution of human cognition asks what types of thinking make us such peculiar animals, and how they have been generated by evolu...

Heyes, Cecilia

2012-01-01

174

(e- Mind Thinking with e-Um  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern technology has opened up many new possibilities in learning. Unfortunately, technology's uncritical use can also be damaging. In promoting productive and comprehensive IT learning the essential issue lies within the capability of the teacher and IT material to use computer to promote the basic cognitive aspects of learning and not only to manipulate the learner to remain motivated. Motivation is productive only if used with a focus towards knowledge and understanding. Especially in mathematics the concepts, we try to teach, are simple and logical, but often abstract. Smart use of computers can motivate this abstract concepts through intuitive simulations and animations as well as provide a sophisticated but simple insight into the causality of mathematical thinking. Thus, we argue that preparation of good e-Learning materials requires an almost contemplative focus on what we want to communicate in order not to overwhelm the student with too many effects that the technology offers. The concept and the vision of E-um project has been based on the above premises with a comprehensive system of simple technical, mathematical and didactical guidelines, together with a dynamic and creative system of permanent self evaluation and control. To support those premises new software package based on the Exe open source system has been developed. In order to provide an adequate technical framework for our conceptual ideas new emerging technologies with an emphasis on writing mathematical texts had been used.

Damjan Kobal

2008-04-01

175

Thinking in nursing education. Part I. A student's experience learning to think.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to think critically is a central commitment of nursing education. There is a substantial body of literature describing nursing educators' attempts to define critical thinking (1-3) to differentiate critical thinking from other kinds of thinking (1,4), and to measure students' ability (and changes in ability) to think critically (2,5-7). These efforts were facilitated when the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC) identified critical thinking as an outcome criterion for the accrediation of undergraduate and graduate nursing programs. This change in accreditation led to the proliferation of framework (8,9) and strategies (10,11) for nursing educators to use in demonstrating compliance with this criterion. Describing strategies and frameworks for teaching critical thinking is helpful. However, explicating how teachers teach and students learn critical thinking in actual clinical situations illuminates the contextual aspects of practice that influence learning to think (12). Conventional strategies teachers use to assist students to learn critical thinking include individual and group activities, discussions and interactions between students and teachers, clinical simulations, and problem-solving encounters. Although such strategies are commonly thought to be effective in teaching critical thinking in classroom or laboratory situations, little research has been conducted to evaluate the relationship between specific teaching strategies and students' ability to think critically in specific situations (1). A further limitation of laboratory and classroom strategies is that they need to be supplemented with contextual experiences. Providing students with opportunities to practice critical thinking in actual clinical situations is difficult because the context of care is rapidly changing and schools of nursing continue to allocate limited resources to practice education. This two-year study, which was undertaken to reveal common contemporary approaches to teaching and learning critical thinking in clinical courses, analyzes the lived experiences of 45 students and teachers. Part I describes a typical student's experiences of learning "nurse thinking" in the context of clinical practice. Part II describes a typical teacher's experiences creating opportunities for students to learn and practice critical thinking in a community clinical course. PMID:10754845

Ironside, P M

1999-01-01

176

Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

Jonathan Pugh

2013-05-01

177

Beyond Alignment : Applying Systems Thinking in Architecting Enterprises  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking is a valuable way of thinking about the viable enterprise and how to architect it.

2013-01-01

178

Higher Order Thinking: Definition, Meaning and Instructional Approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication shares current thinking, research, and practice in the area of higher order thinking skills with home economics educators, including teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators. The first three articles provide general discussions of thinking skills. They are "Introduction" (Ruth Pestle); "Can Higher Order Thinking Skills Be…

Thomas, Ruth G., Ed.

179

An Analysis of Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Their Logical Thinking Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the existence of the relationship between mathematics teacher candidates' critical thinking skills and their logical thinking dispositions in terms of the variables of grade level in college, high school type, and gender. The current study utilized relational survey model and included a total of 99 mathematics…

Incikabi, Lutfi; Tuna, Abdulkadir; Biber, Abdullah Cagri

2013-01-01

180

Concept Mapping for Higher Order Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Engineering education is facing a changing world in which how one thinks is becoming more important than what one thinks; that is, our course content is important but constantly changing and we need to help students learn how to think about that content.Today’s students have grown accustomed to immediate rewards, multi-channel stimuli, and rapid-fire communications.  As a result, they are often impatient and suffer a lack of focus. When reflection is called for in the learning process - a time consuming practice - students may find it difficult to overcome the conflict between their typically speedy management of priorities and the focused, time-intensive thinking required to acquire a strong foundation of declarative knowledge.Therefore, the exploration of tools to facilitate the formation of deep knowledge structures is essential. One instructional strategy that shows promise is the use of concept mapping, a learning activity that requires students to explain their understanding of important ideas and the relationships among those ideas.  This paper describes a pilot project to integrate concept mapping into a Mechanical Engineering Course and the preliminary results of that project.This project has been established within the Working Group of “Tools for Developing High Order Thinking Skills”, of the Portuguese Society for Engineering Education, in which the first author is the leader and the other two co-authors, are working group members

Susan Marie Zvacek

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

THINKING SKILL - THE MAIN LEARNING TOOL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of teaching with help of four elementary skills - reading, speaking, writing and listening is definitely inconceivable to teaching any foreign language. But automatic answers following the exercise and students passive memorising does not make speaking language and its learning very natural. This has forced me to find and create the way how to make learners think and realise the point and meaning of learning itself. My paper is about special skill I have tried to apply –thinking skill. I have chosen it to complement other four which teacher normally uses when teaching foreign language (reading, speaking, listening skills. At the same time I put thinking skill into a role to support and enhance learning process. To find and use some methods how to make students think, make their own opinion and also teach them to apply their own experience to learning process was the main goal of this survey. The methods I have applied were provoking students to think before they learn.

Daniela Koteková

2010-06-01

182

Design Thinking as a Phenomenon - Design Thinking as a Contemporary Phenomenon and as an Object of Discussion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Design thinking is fundamentally about how designers think and what tools and methods they use in their profession. During the past decade, design thinking has become a popular topic within design and especially business communities. Business leaders and managers have adapted design thinking as a part of their companies’ innovation process and the business community has given a new flavour to the term. Design thinking has become an exceedingly discussed phenomenon in business and design-rel...

Hanttu, Aino

2013-01-01

183

Parental Approval As A Correlate Of Divergent Thinking Ability In Young Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The significance of ability to think differently and explore many possible solutions to generate creative ideas has been well recognized in the present competitive world. Although there are many factors affecting development of divergent thinking ability in children, parental approval is one of the important factors in the development of divergent thinking ability in children. The present study was carried out to assess the divergent thinking ability of children in the setting selected and analyze it with reference to academic grades and gender. Further, the relationship of parental approval with the development of divergent thinking was assessed. The sample comprised 102 school children (51 boys and 51 girls in the age group 6-9 years and their parents (either father or mother.The entire sample was selected from different schools of urban areas of Jammu (J&K.

Rajni Dhingra

2013-09-01

184

Why Didn't I Think of That? Dodging Big Ruts for Big Ideas in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Though educators are a diverse, most collectively believe that they are forward-thinking, creative, and even innovative. This entrepreneurial mind-set can be observed by the uniform response to marketplace inventions such as the iPhone, Redbox, and TED talks. In this article Frank Shushok Jr. challenges educators to "think free."

Shushok, Frank, Jr.

2014-01-01

185

Understanding Student Computational Thinking with Computational Modeling  

CERN Multimedia

Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...

Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F

2012-01-01

186

Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Outcomes-Based Education (OBE brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content, to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from ‘transmission’ models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30. Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000. Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000. The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005.

MM Chabeli

2006-09-01

187

How can we think the complex?  

CERN Multimedia

This chapter does not deal with specific tools and techniques for managing complex systems, but proposes some basic concepts that help us to think and speak about complexity. We review classical thinking and its intrinsic drawbacks when dealing with complexity. We then show how complexity forces us to build models with indeterminacy and unpredictability. However, we can still deal with the problems created in this way by being adaptive, and profiting from a complex system's capability for selforganization, and the distributed intelligence this may produce.

Gershenson, C; Gershenson, Carlos; Heylighen, Francis

2004-01-01

188

Developing First Year Students’ Critical Thinking Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Critical thinking is a crucial skill that students need to develop while at university. It is important for a well-educated person to be able to make well-informed judgements, be able to explain their reasoning and be able to solve unknown problems. This paper proposes that critical thinking can and should be developed from the first year of university in order for students to cope with their future studies and to be of most use to future employers. The paper then describes four exer...

Theda Ann Thomas

2011-01-01

189

Thinking through Content Instruction: Microteaching Unveils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent of critical skills being incorporated in the undergraduates’ lesson as shown in their microteaching sessions. The researcher seeks to find evidence of critical thinking skills in the undergraduates’ content instruction of their respective lessons. She investigates the integration of critical thinking skills via the undergraduates’ lesson plans and the lesson’s implementation. She seeks for inclusion of these skills by viewing the taped lessons. Recommendations to UPSI are also presented in an effort to inspire awareness on the compelling need for thinkers amongst undergraduates and future teachers.

Hj. Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2011-01-01

190

A Professor's Formula for Teaching Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a formula for writing critical thinking assignments on different academic levels which professors can use in training elementary and secondary educators and in developing critical thinkers at different academic levels. The paper includes lists of terminology, instructional materials, and assignments at various academic levels…

Hepburn, Velma

191

Mathematical Thinking: Studying the Notion of "Transfer".  

Science.gov (United States)

These analyses form part of a three-year project looking at mathematical thinking as a socially organized activity. We revisit data from a University Calculus class using tools from two theoretical perspectives, used increasingly in mathematics education research: (1) semiotic mediation; and (2) discursive practices. We highlight how different…

Carreira, Susana; Evans, Jeff; Lerman, Steve; Morgan, Candia

192

Media, Think Tanks, and Educational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bunkum Awards are a sort of beauty contest for ugly people. Bestowed by the National Education Policy Center housed at the University of Colorado at Boulder, they reward the most "nonsensical, confusing, and disingenuous" studies of education published each year. Contestants are drawn from reports critiqued by the Think Tank Review Project, a…

Yettick, Holly

2011-01-01

193

Strategic Thinking Needed for Transformational Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Service on a college or university board of trustees has always been an honor, and still is. It has always entailed significant responsibilities, and still does. At a time of rising expectations and diminishing resources, of profound demographic and cultural change, of global opportunities and global competition, trustees are called to think

Lovett, Clara M.

2010-01-01

194

Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio  

Science.gov (United States)

The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…

Moffett, Ann-Thomas

2012-01-01

195

Roland Barthes' thinking in concepts of signification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Worlds of Signs investigates Roland Barthes’ writing using the question what it means to think „in concepts of signification“. The purpose of the investigation is to work out the conditions of the possibility of a „sociology of signs“, which Roland Barthes demands.

2010-01-01

196

Effect of GIS Learning on Spatial Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…

Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

2009-01-01

197

The Teen Health Information Network (THINK).  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the Teen Health Information Network (THINK), a grant-funded partnership of Aurora, Illinois, public libraries, schools, and community agencies to provide materials, information, and programming on issues related to teen health. Seven appendixes provide detailed information on survey results, collection evaluation and development,…

Kuzel, Judith; Erickson, Su

1995-01-01

198

Circadian Typology and Style of Thinking Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study aims to investigate the relationship between circadian typology and learning-thinking styles conceptualised as a preference toward information processing typical of the right vs. the left cerebral hemisphere. A sample of 1254 undergraduates (380 boys and 874 girls; mean age=21.86+/-2.37,) was administered the…

Fabbri, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Giorgetti, Marisa; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo

2007-01-01

199

Theory of Change thinking applied in MSPs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On Wednesday 19 September 2012, Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR together with SNV organised a full-day seminar to discuss the application of the now widely used Theory of Change (ToC) thinking in Multi-Stakeholder Processes. This is a report of the seminar.

Verhoosel, K. S.; Leuvenink, A.; Oosterhuis, T.; Mostert, R. H.

2012-01-01

200

Platonic Dialogue, Maieutic Method and Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I offer a reading of one of Plato's later works, the "Sophist", that reveals it to be informed by principles comparable on the face of it with those that have emerged recently in the field of critical thinking. As a development of the famous Socratic method of his teacher, I argue, Plato deployed his own pedagogical method, a…

Leigh, Fiona

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Global Thinking, or the Utility of Trivia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests the case of the British Westland Lysander P12 Ground Strafer aircraft illustrates the problem of narrow thinking. Claims that had the initial designers approached the problem in a broad way, they would have seen in advance that the project would fail. Concludes the case is instructive as an industrial problem, but it also demonstrates the…

Harris, John S.

2001-01-01

202

Constructive Thinking and the Experience of Stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The upper and lower 5% of 456 undergraduate students who completed the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) were subjected to a laboratory stress test. In support of the hypothesis, poor constructive thinkers reacted to the stress with a greater increase in negative thoughts and negative emotions, and exhibited a greater increase in blood…

Katz, Lori S.; Epstein, Seymour

203

Critical Thinking in Higher Education: A Pedagogical Look  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many authorities in higher education did not enthusiastically embrace the idea that college students should receive explicit instruction in how to think. Note that the academic community was opposed to good thinking, but many educators believed that it was a misguided effort. For example, Glaser (1984) cited abundant evidence of Critical Thinking failures in support of his argument that thinking skills are context-bound and do not transfer across academic domains. Glaser and other sceptics we...

Mansoor Fahim; Nima Shakouri Masouleh

2012-01-01

204

The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condi...

2006-01-01

205

Should we teach thinking skills to deaf children?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to identify the benefits of developing thinking skills with KS1 deaf children who used British Sign Language (BSL. It arose as a response to the findings of a variety of researches who had reported a number of ‘failings’ apparent in the educational and learning activity of deaf children. It used a case study approach involving five profoundly deaf Key stage 1 children and explored the extent to which, using materials grounded in the Somerset Thinking Skills Course, the teaching of thinking skills in a supportive environment could remediate some of these issues. The strongly visual nature of the material supported pupil exchanges mediated by the use of sign language. Analysis of video film was used to plot individual pupil development of scanning skills, their use of nouns versus adjectives, micro-skills and macro-abilities. Pupil reasoning skills, how they were supported, their ownership and role of the facilitator were also examined. The results showed that within eight weeks (equivalent to four hours in total the children were more able to express their perceptions. They watched other children in order to access their signed information and appeared to use this to develop, elaborate, extend and provide reasons when it was their turn to present. There was also evidence of enhanced creativity and originality in their contributions. This pilot study urges the need for further research and suggests that a priority should be given to developing this approach in the teaching of deaf children. Due to the complexity of thinking skills it further recommends that this area should be taught as a separate topic that can inform other subjects.

Emma Tamsin Kelty

2006-04-01

206

Components of Statistical Thinking and Implications for Instruction and Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on statistical thinking as the third arm of statistical development. The paper opens with a survey of recent definitions of statistical thinking and then attempts to differentiate statistical thinking from statistical literacy and statistical reasoning. Implications for instruction are traced, emphasizing beginning courses for…

Chance, Beth L.

207

The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students' rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional…

Fessel, Shirley

2006-01-01

208

Jordanian TEFL Graduate Students' Use of Critical Thinking Skills (as Measured by the Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level Z)  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the critical thinking skills of 50 students currently enrolled in the Master's TEFL Programme at Yarmouk University, Jordan. The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level Z is utilised to test the students' use, or lack thereof, of the critical thinking skills of deduction, semantics, credibility, induction, definition and…

Bataineh, Ruba Fahmi; Zghoul, Lamma Hmoud

2006-01-01

209

Professional nursing burnout and irrational thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports how professional, job-related burnout in nurses (N = 192) is examined in relation to a developed index of irrational thinking patterns in a large, urban hospital setting. Based on the constructs of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), the study examines maladaptive thinking patterns related to nursing burnout and provides insight into possible educational and staff interventions for the syndrome. Low mean scores on all but two subscales indicate overall strength and stability among this sample. The demonstration that both burnout thoughts (r = 0.451, p = behaviors (r = 0.350, p = REBT, can foster professional growth and development, decrease workplace conflict and stress, and provide nurses (and other employees) with strategies and tools to disarm the irrational beliefs that build maladaptive cognitive patterns leading to professional burnout. PMID:12759997

Balevre, P

2001-01-01

210

Nietzsche's Thinking in Relationship with the Aesthetical  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper debates the new theories on philosophical and aesthetical discourse, by applying them to Nietzsche?s thinking on art. The article consists in four general subjects, each of them focussing on an essential part of Nietzsche?s special relationship to art: 1 Art generated by the philosophical text itself, through the form of the fragment; 2 The artistic relationship as an interdisciplinary ground for the philosophical knowledge of the world (especially applied in Nietzsche?s and Schopenhauer?s work; 3 A critical debate on Wolfgang Welsch?s theory about the interdisciplinary aspects of the philosophical and aesthetical discourse; 4 The backgrounds of Nietzsche?s aesthetical project explained in Claus Zittel?s theory on Nietzsche?s ?aesthetic turn?. Thus, Nietzsche?s thinking is defined as a relationist project, the ?self-destruction dynamic? of his aesthetical perspectivism.

Stefan Maftei

2003-04-01

211

Perseverative thinking in depression and anxiety  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA). We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA) and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6). Overall, results from path analyse...

Sorg, Sonja; Vo?gele, Claus; Furka, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H.

2012-01-01

212

Intuition and its role in strategic thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Even though intuition is recognized as imperative in strategic thinking management literatureis surprisingly silent on the issue. This inquiry thus provides an historical and hermeneuticreview of philosophical, psychological and management theory on intuition. It reveals thatphilosophers conceive intuition as rational while psychologists tend not to. Philosophers do soprimarily because intuition is anchored in Ideas, Forms and Archetypes, which are perceivedas a priori laws governing and cond...

Henden, Gisle

2004-01-01

213

Counterfactual thinking and functional differences in depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the studies reported in this paper was to evaluate the function of counterfactual thinking (CT) in depression. In Experiment 1, depressed and non-depressed participants were asked to imagine themselves as the protagonist of a hypothetical situation, and to think counterfactually about three different scenarios. The results showed that there was a similar CT style (in terms of direction, structure and focus of mutation) for the depressed and the non-depressed groups. It was also found that the perceived preparation for a future similar situation increased after CT and, contrary to our hypotheses, this effect was observed in both groups. In Experiment 2, a real-life situation was used (a course examination) in which participants experienced a negative outcome (a poor score on the test). Again, it was observed that depressed and non-depressed participants showed the same CT style, but non-depressed participants were more likely to use CT spontaneously. In addition, the second study showed further differences between the two groups: depressed participants not only showed a lack of cognitive benefits from thinking counterfactually (i.e., after CT they do not feel more prepared for future similar events, nor able to avoid a similar bad outcome, in contrast to the non-depressed participants), but also show a lack of behavioural changes (both intentions to change and actual changes over the subsequent week). In conclusion, these results provide evidence about the function of CT both in depressed and in non-depressed thinking, and highlight both the similarities and differences for these two groups. PMID:19115454

Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Power, Mick J; Juhos, Csongor; Senos, Jorge

2008-01-01

214

Mythical Thinking, Scientific Discourses and Research Dissemination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focuses on some principles for understanding. By taking Anna Mikulak’s article “Mismatches between ‘scientific’ and ‘non-scientific’ ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science” (IPBS 2011) as a point of departure, the idea of demarcation criteria for scientific and non-scientific discourses is addressed. Yet this is juxtaposed with mythical thinking, which is supposed to be the most salient trait of non-scientific discourses. The auth...

Hroar Klempe, Sven

2011-01-01

215

The Quest for the Thinking Computer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Can machines think? Alan Turing's decades-old question still influences artificial intelligence because of the simple test he proposed in his article in Mind. In this article, "AI Magazine collects presentations about the first round of the classic Turing Test of machine intelligence, held November 8, 1991 at The Computer Museum, Boston. Robert Epstein, Director Emeritus, Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and an adjunct professor of psychology, Boston University, University of Mass...

1992-01-01

216

Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social–ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and th...

Carl Folke; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan Rockström

2010-01-01

217

Computational thinking in Dutch secondary education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We shall examine the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Computer Science (CS) teachers concerning students’ Computational Thinking (CT) problem solving skills within the context of a CS course in Dutch secondary education and thus obtain an operational definition of CT and ascertain appropriate teaching methodology. Next we shall develop an instrument to assess students’ CT and design a curriculum intervention geared toward teaching and improving students’ CT problem solving skills ...

Grgurina, Natas?a

2013-01-01

218

STRATEGIC THINKING AS A LEARNING PROCESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the central notion that every strategy is always a theory, necessarily a strategy is based on speculations about the expected performance of a system in its environment and, as such, those conjectures should be exposed to refutations with the purpose of enhancing its effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its goals. This succession of conjectures and refutations is at the core of the strategic thinking methodology as a learning process and, therefore, as the Competitive Development thrust.

Alberto, Levy

2012-01-01

219

Improving Project Management with Lean Thinking?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the new business economy, project management has become a central way for undertaking several of the business activities. One of the increasing and most significant concerns with projects is that, projects are behind schedule, over budget and show unsatisfactory performance in terms quality and customer satisfaction. In the last few decades the manufacturing industry successfully improved quality and productivity, by using the concepts of lean thinking. The thesis explores the relevance of...

Aziz, Basit

2012-01-01

220

The nature of thinking, shallow and deep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because the criteria for success differ across various domains of life, no single normative standard will ever work for all types of thinking. One method for dealing with this apparent dilemma is to propose that the mind is made up of a large number of specialized modules. This review describes how this multi-modular framework for the mind overcomes several critical conceptual and theoretical challenges to our understanding of human thinking, and hopefully clarifies what are (and are not) some of the implications based on this framework. In particular, an evolutionarily informed "deep rationality" conception of human thinking can guide psychological research out of clusters of ad hoc models which currently occupy some fields. First, the idea of deep rationality helps theoretical frameworks in terms of orienting themselves with regard to time scale references, which can alter the nature of rationality assessments. Second, the functional domains of deep rationality can be hypothesized (non-exhaustively) to include the areas of self-protection, status, affiliation, mate acquisition, mate retention, kin care, and disease avoidance. Thus, although there is no single normative standard of rationality across all of human cognition, there are sensible and objective standards by which we can evaluate multiple, fundamental, domain-specific motives underlying human cognition and behavior. This review concludes with two examples to illustrate the implications of this framework. The first example, decisions about having a child, illustrates how competing models can be understood by realizing that different fundamental motives guiding people's thinking can sometimes be in conflict. The second example is that of personifications within modern financial markets (e.g., in the form of corporations), which are entities specifically constructed to have just one fundamental motive. This single focus is the source of both the strengths and flaws in how such entities behave. PMID:24860542

Brase, Gary L

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

A Dialogic Understanding of the Relationship between CSCL and Teaching Thinking Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

How to teach flexible thinking and learning skills, particularly creativity and the skill of "learning to learn," is a key concern for CSCL in the context of the emerging Networked Society. The currently dominant paradigms for supporting pedagogical design within CSCL, including socio-cultural theory, are limited in the support that they can offer…

Wegerif, Rupert

2006-01-01

222

PHENOMENOLOGICAL WAY OF THINKING IN THE SCHOOL  

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Full Text Available Education should take into account the phenomenological investigation of individuals in order to encourage students to create and construct their own knowledge. It is known that current educational system mainly approves of objective knowledge and phenomenological ways of thinking of individuals cannot be approved. Thus, individuals leave their own naturalistic ways of thinking and learning that it creates serious problems in current educational system related to students’ learning in school. This study aims at reflecting the subjective knowledge, that is perceptions of students concerning “desire of learning” and also analyzing what those students felt and experienced in reflecting their subjective knowledge related to the given concept. The data were collected from the twelve master students studying at Institute of Educational Sciences between 2006 and 2010. It can be said that the students reach their own meaning related to the concept of “desire of learning”. The phenomenological way of thinking and reflecting should be covered in school study in order to create and construct the authentic knowledge of self.

KIYMET SELVI

2012-05-01

223

Thinking Tools for Successful Collaborative Initiatives - 13351  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful collaboration requires effective communication and collective problem solving. Regardless of the subject area --- environmental remediation, waste management, program planning and budgeting --- those involved must focus their efforts in an orderly and cooperative manner. A thinking tool is a technique used to get individuals to focus on specific components of the task at the same time and to eliminate the 'noise' that accompanies communications among individuals with different objectives and different styles of communicating. For example, one of these thinking tools is a technique which enables a working group to delineate its roles, responsibilities and communication protocols so that it can deliver the right information to the right people at the right time. Another enables a group to objectively and collectively evaluate and improve a policy, plan, or program. A third technique enables a group to clarify its purpose and direction while generating interest and buy-in. A fourth technique makes it possible for a group with polarized opinions to acknowledge their differences as well as what they have in common. A fifth technique enables a group to consider a subject of importance from all perspectives so as to produce a more comprehensive and sustainable solution. These thinking tools make effective communication and collective problem solving possible in radioactive waste management and remediation. They can be used by a wide spectrum of professionals including policy specialists, program administrators, program and project managers, and technical specialists. (author)

Boucher, Laurel A. [The Laurel Co., P.O. Box 218, Wetmore, MI (United States)

2013-07-01

224

An illustration of whole systems thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexity of policy-making in the NHS is such that systemic, holistic thinking is needed if the current government's plans are to be realized. This paper describes systems thinking and illustrates its value in understanding the complexity of the diabetes National Service Framework (NSF); its role in identifying problems and barriers previously not predicted; and in reaching conclusions as to how it should be implemented. The approach adopted makes use of soft systems methodology (SSM) devised by Peter Checkland. This analysis reveals issues relating to human communication, information provision and resource allocation needing to be addressed. From this, desirable and feasible changes are explored as means of achieving a more effective NSF, examining possible changes from technical, organizational, economic and cultural perspectives. As well as testing current health policies and plans, SSM can be used to test the feasibility of new health policies. This is achieved by providing a greater understanding and appreciation of what is happening in the real world and how people work. Soft systems thinking is the best approach, given the complexity of health care. It is a flexible, cost-effective solution, which should be a prerequisite before any new health policy is launched. PMID:16848958

Kalim, Kanwal; Carson, Ewart; Cramp, Derek

2006-08-01

225

Gaming Science: The “Gamification” of Scientific Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well being in the 21st century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

BradleyMorris

2013-09-01

226

Thinking Tools for Successful Collaborative Initiatives - 13351  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Successful collaboration requires effective communication and collective problem solving. Regardless of the subject area --- environmental remediation, waste management, program planning and budgeting --- those involved must focus their efforts in an orderly and cooperative manner. A thinking tool is a technique used to get individuals to focus on specific components of the task at the same time and to eliminate the 'noise' that accompanies communications among individuals with different objectives and different styles of communicating. For example, one of these thinking tools is a technique which enables a working group to delineate its roles, responsibilities and communication protocols so that it can deliver the right information to the right people at the right time. Another enables a group to objectively and collectively evaluate and improve a policy, plan, or program. A third technique enables a group to clarify its purpose and direction while generating interest and buy-in. A fourth technique makes it possible for a group with polarized opinions to acknowledge their differences as well as what they have in common. A fifth technique enables a group to consider a subject of importance from all perspectives so as to produce a more comprehensive and sustainable solution. These thinking tools make effective communication and collective problem solving possible in radioactive waste management and remediation. They can be used by a wide spectrum of professionals including policy specialists, program administrators, program and project managers, and technical specialists. (author)

2013-02-24

227

Perseverative thinking in depression and anxiety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA. We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6. Overall, results from path analyses supported the assumptions of the TMDA, in that negative affectivity was a non-specific predictor for both depression and anxiety whilst lack of positive affectivity was related to depression only. Unexpectedly, perseverative thinking had an effect on the dependency of negative and positive affectivity. Worry was a significant moderator for the path NA – anxiety. All other hypothesized associations were only marginally significant. Alternative pathways as well as methodological implications regarding similarities and differences of the two types of perseverative thinking are discussed.

SonjaSorg

2012-02-01

228

Critical Thinking in Higher Education: Unfulfilled Expectations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Success in adult life and effective functioning in education depends among other things on critical thinking. The present study consisted of two parts. First, critical thinking (CT skill of a group of 68 students majoring in education in Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch was evaluated. The participants, divided into two experimental and control groups, received California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST which is a 34 item Multiple-Choice test. The students in the control group were freshmen and the experimental group, junior students. To the researchers’ dismay, junior education students did not perform significantly better than did the freshman students. Using a qualitative method of research, another study was conducted to see whether the university instructors in the education department who had the responsibility of teaching different courses to the same students were aware of the principles of CT. A semi-structured interview was conducted and eight volunteering faculty members in the department of education took part in the interview. Result revealed that, although these instructors highly valued CT and were aware of its tenets, there were some constraints which did provide a situation to let the students practice CT in their classrooms, and much had to be done to help instructors implement CT in their classrooms.

Mehrdad Rezaee

2012-05-01

229

Gaming science: the "Gamification" of scientific thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:24058354

Morris, Bradley J; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie

2013-01-01

230

Thinking aloud in the presence of interruptions and time constraints  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation and its reactivity is therefore important to the quality of evaluation results. This study investigates whether thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at levels 1 and 2) affects the behaviour of users who perform tasks that involve interruptions and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participantsâ?? fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend longer responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. Our results inform practitioners faced with the decision to either restrict verbalizations in usability evaluation to thinking aloud to avoid reactivity or relax the constraints on verbalization to obtain additional information.

Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

2013-01-01

231

Thinking about think tanks in health care: a call for a new research agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little sociological attention has been given to the role of think tanks in health policy and planning. Existing work in political science and public administration tends to define and categorise think tanks and situate them as a disinterested source of policy expertise. Despite the increasingly visible presence of think tanks in the world of health care, such work has done little to reveal how they operate, by whom and to what ends. Our article seeks to redress this firstly by examining why they have remained relatively hidden in academic analyses and secondly by advocating an interpretive approach that incorporates think tanks within the wider landscape of health policy and planning. In contrast to most existing literature, an interpretive approach acknowledges that much of the messy business of healthcare policy and planning remains hidden from view and that much can be gleaned by examining the range of organisations, actors, coalitions, everyday activities, artefacts and interactions that make up the think tank stage and that work together to shape health policy and planning. Given the paucity of research in this area, we urge the medical sociology community to open the field to further academic scrutiny. PMID:24111597

Shaw, Sara E; Russell, Jill; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Korica, Maja

2014-03-01

232

‘Soglitude’- introducing a method of thinking thresholds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘Soglitude’ is an invitation to acknowledge the existence of thresholds in thought. A threshold in thought designates the indetermination, the passage, the evolution of every state the world is in. The creation we add to it, and the objectivity we suppose, on the border of those two ideas lies our perceptive threshold. No state will ever be permanent, and in order to stress the temporary, fluent character of the world and our perception of it, we want to introduce a new suitable method to think change and transformation, when we acknowledge our own threshold nature. The contributions gathered in this special issue come from various disciplines: anthropology, philosophy, critical theory, film studies, political science, literature and history. The variety of these insights shows the resonance of the idea of threshold in every category of thought. We hope to enlarge the notion in further issues on physics and chemistry, as well as mathematics. The articles in this issue introduce the method of threshold thinking by showing the importance of the in-between, of the changing of perspective in their respective domain. The ‘Documents’ section named INTERSTICES, includes a selection of poems, two essays, a philosophical-artistic project called ‘infraphysique’, a performance on thresholds in the soul, and a dialogue with Israel Rosenfield. This issue presents a kaleidoscope of possible threshold thinking and hopes to initiate new ways of looking at things.For every change that occurs in reality there is a subjective counterpart in our perception and this needs to be acknowledged as such. What we name objective is reflected in our own personal perception in its own personal manner, in such a way that the objectivity of an event might altogether be questioned. The absolute point of view, the view from “nowhere”, could well be the projection that causes dogmatism. By introducing the method of thinking thresholds into a system, be it philosophical, artistic or scientific, it tends to free itself from rigid or fixed models and accepts change and development as the fundamental nature of things. Thinking thresholds as a method of thought progress cannot be done in a single process and therefore asks for participation in its proper nature. The soglitude springs namely from the acceptance of a multitude of points of view, as it is shown by the numerous contributions we present in this issue ‘Seuils, Thresholds, Soglitudes’ of Conserveries mémorielles.

Tatjana Barazon

2010-04-01

233

Using a kinesthetic learning strategy to engage nursing student thinking, enhance retention, and improve critical thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application. [J Nurs Educ. 2014;53(6):348-351.]. PMID:24814353

Wagner, Elissa A

2014-06-01

234

A Research on Critical Thinking Tendencies and Factors that Affect Critical Thinking of Higher Education Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relationship between critical thinking tendencies and levels and thefactors that affect the critical thinking tendencies of higher education students. In the study, critical thinkingtendencies of freshman and senior students were analyzed depending on demographic features, faculties anddepartments.The research was done on the students of U?ak University. In the study, the data collected through surveys wereanalyzed through regression analysis in order to determine the effects of the dependent and independentvariables; frequency and percentage values, reliability, item factor analysis, KAISER-MEYER-OLKIN:measure of sampling adequacy test, Bartlett's test of sphericity using SPSS 18.0.

Ramazan Arslan

2014-04-01

235

The Relationship between Critical Thinking Disposition and Self-Esteem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 289 medical students were selected through stratified random sampling method in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing 3 parts: demographic data, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results were analyzed by SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. Results: Results showed that 98.6% (285 of students had deficiency, 1.4% (4 ambivalence and nobody had positive critical thinking disposition. There was a significantly negative correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem (r=-0.462, P<0.001. Also, there was no a significant relationship between two groups of low self-esteem , high self-esteem , negative and ambivalent Critical Thinking Disposition. Conclusion: It seems that Critical Thinking Disposition, like other psychological variables, is influenced by social factors and social environment plays a role in promoting or undermining it. So, similar studies are recommended to investigate the factors affecting Critical Thinking in medical students.

Shirin Iranfar

2013-12-01

236

Using value-focused thinking in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Value-Focused Thinking (VFT provides a systematic approach to structure complex decisions for subsequent analysis. It is a powerful complement to decision analysis and its application has been growing in recent years. This paper discusses the application of VFT in Brazil to three problems in different contexts: water management, information system/information technology (IS/IT strategic planning, and the disposal of plaster waste. This article describes how the VFT approach was used to structure these decision problems and identify alternatives to stall them, which led to developing qualitative and quantitative models for evaluating the alternatives, and discusses how such structures can be used in other similar problems.

Danielle C. Morais

2013-04-01

237

Indetermination, intertextuality, figurative thinking and linguistic education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article emphasizes the intertextuality which is established by real readers in a social reading event as a fact linked to the determination. Its aim is to map the figures of the intertextuality used in the construction of the poem, as well as to verify the signs of the figurative thinking, especially the analogy, which are in the intertextual linkings by the use of the group protocol. It also discusses how the methodology adopted in the data collect can be a stimulus path to the renewal of the Pedagogy of Reading, one of the branches of Linguistic Education.

Jeni Silva Turazza

2009-12-01

238

Gaining a sustainable IR: thinking SWOT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to reflect about the next steps and challenges to gain sustainably to our Institutional Repositories (IR’s). We first reference the earlier stage of creating and getting start in the IR: what was needed to do, how we make it and how we are right now. As most of the universities have an IR, now we are starting to think about what is going next. The objective is to reflect, in a practical and objective way, what we need to do. And we purpose to present a brief a...

Pinto, Maria Joa?o; Fernandes, Sofia

2011-01-01

239

Think Tanks in Europe : A pilot definition, research design and categorisation of selected think tanks in Brussels, Denmark and Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how and why think tank types converge and diverge across countries and levels of governance, to what extent they are embedded in national contexts and how studies of think tanks can proceed despite methodological problems and disagreement on how to define think tanks.

Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

240

Assessing critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attainment of critical thinking skills of students before and after curriculum revision of a baccalaureate nursing program. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was used to measure the critical thinking ability of the students at program entry, midpoint, and at exist. The sample consisted of three cohorts of students: cohort 1 (n = 55) was the baseline class before curriculum revision, whereas cohorts 2 (n = 55) and 3 (n = 73) were the first two classes to experience the revised curriculum. The results revealed that cohort 2 achieved significantly higher critical thinking scores than the baseline cohort. Cohort 2 also improved dramatically on all subscales from test 1 to test 3. However, cohort 3 failed to demonstrate improved critical thinking scores over time. Findings have implications for measuring critical thinking. PMID:12120107

Beckie, T M; Lowry, L W; Barnett, S

2001-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

An approach to teaching for critical thinking in health education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching for critical thinking represents a vital and emerging priority in school health education. A variety of conceptions of critical thinking and approaches to teaching for critical thinking exist in the literature. This paper explores the relevance of Richard Paul's concept of critical thinking to health education. Paul's work on critical thinking has been widely disseminated and features three inter-related components called the elements of reasoning, intellectual standards, and intellectual traits. Each component appears highly relevant to health education. Paul's approach is also based on natural rather than technical language which improves its utility in learning. Unanswered questions about the approach concern the degree to which the thinking skills and traits can be transferred to health instruction and the lack of evaluation research demonstrating its efficacy. Further inquiry into the applicability and efficacy of the approach is needed. PMID:11044963

Broadbear, J T; Keyser, B B

2000-10-01

242

Study on Theory and Practice of Thinking Innovation Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cognition was spread from creation-energetics to creation-dynamics and thinking innovation-dynamics by study on trinal-creation theory in the creation and thinking innovation. This article expounded the importance of bringing up person with ability, and had importance on development of human being society.
Keywords: thinking innovation, thinking innovation education, creation-energetics, thinking innovation-thermodynamics, thinking innovation -dynamics
Résumé: Le présent article applique la théorie de création ŕ la connaissance de la thermodynamique « trois innovations » et la dynamique de l’innovation idéologique. L’innovation idéologique revęt une grande signification pour le développement de la société humaine.
Mots-clés: innovation idéologique, éducation visant ŕ trois innovations, thermodynamique de l’innovation idéologique, dynamique de l’innovation dynamique
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Li-ping WANG

2007-12-01

243

Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…

Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

2012-01-01

244

"Economists Who Think like Ecologists": Reframing Systems Thinking in Games for Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past several years, educators have been exploring the potential of immersive interactive simulations, or video games for education, finding that games can support the development of disciplinary knowledge, systemic thinking, the production of complex multimodal digital artifacts, and participation in affinity spaces or sites of collective…

DeVane, Ben; Durga, Shree; Squire, Kurt

2010-01-01

245

FEATURES OF COMMUNICATIVE SPHERE OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN COLLABORATIVE THINKING ACTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents research devoted to the issues of the collaborative thinking activity in preschool age. The approach to the study of the collaborative thinking activity as a system that operates on different levels is shown. There is a detailed analysis of the communicative sphere of preschool children collaborative thinking activity provided in the form of some of the characteristics of dialogue.

Alla Konstantinovna Belousova

2013-06-01

246

Mulitplicative thinking in relation to commutativity and forms of representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multiplicative thinking and commutativity in multiplication have proved to be difficult for many children to learn and to use. Different representations of multiplicative situations may enhance the possibilities for children to understand multiplicative properties. In this paper 24 5th grade students’ use of multiplicative thinking is related to their understanding of commutativity and their choice of form of representation. The study discloses that students who use multiplicative thinking ...

Larsson, Kerstin

2013-01-01

247

Rational and irrational thinking in terrorist pronouncements: An REBT analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to explore the thinking of terrorist groups from a content analysis of terrorist pronouncements obtained from the Web. Five main themes were identified: The explicit aims of the group; Oppression; A noble/holy war; Extreme ingroup-outgroup contrasts; and a higher, greater force. These themes were analysed from an REBT perspective. Although there was evidence of rational thinking especially in the aims of the group, the remaining themes exhibited thinking that e...

Ibison, Janet; Davies, Martin F.

2002-01-01

248

New thinking on Japanese community development in the information age  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new-thinking paradigm in economics is first briefly discussed. Then a history of postwar industrial-age community development in Japan is reviewed with a focus on the recent government policy to reactivate local communities. And some new-thinking traits that have been observed in these community developments are discussed. Finally, using this new-thinking economic paradigm several suggestions are made for the advancement of community development in Japan. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

Yamaguchi, K.; Niwa, H.

1994-01-01

249

Have Think Tanks in Washington D.C. Become Politicized?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper addresses the following research question: Have think tanks in Washington D.C. become politicized from 1910 to 2010, and if so why? "Politicization" is made empirically tangible with a new primary database of all D.C. think tanks existent over the last century. Public policy-oriented research and advocacy organizations are studied from an explicitly evolutionary approach for the first time. It is found that while think tanks steadily accumulated until the early 1970s, their numbers ...

Gilroy, Patrick

2012-01-01

250

Fostering Critical Thinking through Socrates' Questioning in Iranian Language Institutes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Critical thinking is a western concept and as its history points out developed and flourished in the western world because the conditions were favorable. Developing critical thinking in non-western societies cannot be pursued unless the local exigencies are carefully considered. Fostering critical thinking in Iran as an Islamic country has its own obstacles and problems. Considering such limitations, this paper tries to offer practical ideas and viable strategies for developing and actualizin...

Mansoor Fahim; Bagheri, Mohammad B.

2012-01-01

251

Using Discussions to Promote Critical Thinking in an Online Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines how the discussion tool is used to promote critical thinking in an online environment at Marshall University. The significance of critical thinking in higher education has been brought to attention at both national and local levels. The paper studies the use of discussions as an approach to promote critical thinking in a number of English as a Second Language (ESL) courses offered by Marshall University's Graduate School of Education and Professional Development (GSEPD) pr...

2008-01-01

252

Methods and Strategies: Think-Alouds in Inquiry Science  

Science.gov (United States)

As teachers, we know that learning through an inquiry approach is helpful for our students. However, not all students are accustomed to learning through inquiry. Some have never experienced an inquiry investigation in science. How can we assist them in the transition from solely learning content to actually applying content and using higher-order thinking skills? A strategy called "think-aloud" can help students progress toward thinking for themselves in questionable, devising investigations, analyzing data, and supporting conclusions with evidence.

Johnson, Jill C.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

2006-09-01

253

Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ideals of OBE?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the cornerstones of the Outcomes-based approach adopted by the South African education and training sector is the so-called Critical Outcomes. Included as one of these outcomes is the ability of learners to identify and solve problems, using creative and critical thinking. Underpinned by the Critical Outcomes, Outcomes-based Education (OBE) was introduced in South African schools in 1997. It can therefore be argued that the critical thinking abilities of the cohort of first-year studen...

2008-01-01

254

Critical Thinking in Higher Education: A Pedagogical Look  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many authorities in higher education did not enthusiastically embrace the idea that college students should receive explicit instruction in how to think. Note that the academic community was opposed to good thinking, but many educators believed that it was a misguided effort. For example, Glaser (1984 cited abundant evidence of Critical Thinking failures in support of his argument that thinking skills are context-bound and do not transfer across academic domains. Glaser and other sceptics were partly correct. Better thinking is not a necessary outcome of traditional, discipline-based instruction. But, increasingly global relationships of culture, people and economic activity make Critical Thinking as necessary as sunrise. This study attempted (1 to examine the predictive relationships of student dispositions and their abilities to think; and (2 to open a refreshed horizon in teaching students to develop their ability of Critical Thinking. Furthermore, the authors believed that to motivate students’ disposition, it is indispensable for the teacher to scaffold them to think critically.

Mansoor Fahim

2012-07-01

255

MENTAL SHIFT TOWARDS SYSTEMS THINKING SKILLS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE  

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Full Text Available When seeking solutions to current problems in the field of computer science – and other fields – we encounter situations where traditional approaches no longer bring the desired results. Our cognitive skills also limit the implementation of reliable mental simulation within the basic set of relations. The world around us is becoming more complex and mutually interdependent, and this is reflected in the demands on computer support. Thus, in today’s education and science in the field of computer science and all other disciplines and areas of life need to address the issue of the paradigm shift, which is generally accepted by experts. The goal of the paper is to present the systems thinking that facilitates and extends the understanding of the world through relations and linkages. Moreover, the paper introduces the essence of systems thinking and the possibilities to achieve mental a shift toward systems thinking skills. At the same time, the link between systems thinking and functional literacy is presented. We adopted the “Bathtub Test” from the variety of systems thinking tests that allow people to assess the understanding of basic systemic concepts, in order to assess the level of systems thinking. University students (potential information managers were the examined subjects of the examination of systems thinking that was conducted over a longer time period and whose aim was to determine the status of systems thinking. . The paper demonstrates that some pedagogical concepts and activities, in our case the subject of System Dynamics that leads to the appropriate integration of systems thinking in education. There is some evidence that basic knowledge of system dynamics and systems thinking principles will affect students, and their thinking will contribute to an improved approach to solving problems of computer science both in theory and practice.

MILDEOVÁ, Stanislava

2012-03-01

256

A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking of Urban Xi'an High School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the development of critical thinking of urban high school students in the Chinese city of Xi'an. It presents the assessment of the students' two components of critical thinking: dispositions towards critical thinking and critical thinking skills, using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and the California…

Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Linna

2007-01-01

257

How criticality affects student's creativity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this chapter, I analyse if there is an inherent paradox between creativity and criticality. With critical thinking being among the core values in higher education, can we then also foster creative thinking? In answering this question, I use the masters degree LAICS (Leadership And Innovation in Complex Systems) as a case study. Interviews with students are used to shed light on creative teaching and learning. It is shown that creativity can be taught by teaching creatively. I conclude that creativity and criticality are not entirely different ways of thinking and both are important in academia, but creativity can be hampered by our norms, rules, and structures.

Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

2010-01-01

258

Using value-focused thinking in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) provides a systematic approach to structure complex decisions for subsequent analysis. It is a powerful complement to decision analysis and its application has been growing in recent years. This paper discusses the application of VFT in Brazil to three problems in differ [...] ent contexts: water management, information system/information technology (IS/IT) strategic planning, and the disposal of plaster waste. This article describes how the VFT approach was used to structure these decision problems and identify alternatives to stall them, which led to developing qualitative and quantitative models for evaluating the alternatives, and discusses how such structures can be used in other similar problems.

Morais, Danielle C.; Alencar, Luciana H.; Costa, Ana Paula C.S.; Keeney, Ralph L..

259

Beyond the fads: Systems thinking for managers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper makes a comparison between research work going on in management science, particularly that taking a systems approach, and the research which underlies what is being offered to managers on the market in the form of the so-called management `fads` - concentrating here on guru theory, total quality management, business process re-engineering and the learning organization. This comparison proves favourable to the systems approach which, with its carefully crafted foundations, seems to offer much more to managers than the fads. Broadening the debate beyond management, a final section discusses the relationship between systems thinking and photomodernism - the latter usually associated with a pessimism about adopting any systemic or systematic approach. 20 refs.

Jackson, M.C. [Univ. of Humberside (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01

260

Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Promoting Conceptual Thinking in Four Upper-Elementary Mathematics Classrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines ways in which classroom practices create a press for conceptual mathematical thinking and how teachers can promote student participation in a classroom community where conceptual understandings are valued and developed. Details four important sociomathematical norms characterizing a high press for conceptual thinking. Concludes that a…

Kazemi, Elham; Stipek, Deborah

2001-01-01

262

Two Questions about Critical-Thinking Tests in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author argues first, that critical-thinking skills do exist independent of disciplinary thinking skills and are not compromised by interaction effects with the major; and second, that standardized tests (e.g., the Collegiate Learning Assessment, or CLA, which is his example throughout the article) are the best way to measure…

Benjamin, Roger

2014-01-01

263

How Critical Is Critical Thinking? FACTC Focus, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

"FACTC Focus" is a publication of Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges (FACTC) with the purpose of presenting diverse views on faculty issues. Included in this issue are: (1) LOL: The Easy ROUTE TO Critical Thinking (Barbara B. Parsons); (2) Critical Thinking: We Know It When We (Don't) See It (Jared Anthony); (3) Critical…

Doerr, Mark, Ed.

2010-01-01

264

Developing Minds: Programs for Teaching Thinking. Revised Edition, Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains 29 articles which address topics related to teaching thinking. The articles include: (1) "Balancing Process and Content" (Marilyn Jager Adams); (2) "Structure of Intellect (SOI)" (Mary N. Meeker); (3) "Instrumental Enrichment" (Francis R. Link); (4) "Thinking to Write: Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills and Abilities"…

Costa, Arthur L., Ed.

265

I Like Chocolate Ice Cream: A Lesson in Thinking Civics  

Science.gov (United States)

In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking

Waterson, Robert A.

2012-01-01

266

Action Research: The Development of Critical Thinking Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical thinking is the focal point missed in many students' educations. Students are taught memorization with little time left for the development of critical thinking skills which allows for a deeper understanding and a richer experience. Learning to ask appropriate questions and deduce information in order to build a deeper connection to the…

LaPoint-O'Brien, Tammy

2013-01-01

267

Thinking in Sex Education: Reading Prohibition through the Film "Desire"  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that sex education must move beyond a focus on compliance so that we may risk the uncertain work of thinking. How might we understand the work of thinking in sex education if we begin from the assumptions that learning is conflicted, that sexuality resists being educated even as it inspires curiosity, and that the subject of sex…

Gilbert, Jen

2013-01-01

268

Tree thinking cannot taken for granted: challenges for teaching phylogenetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tree thinking is an integral part of modern evolutionary biology, and a necessary precondition for phylogenetics and comparative analyses. Tree thinking has during the 20th century largely replaced group thinking, developmental thinking and anthropocentrism in biology. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that tree thinking can be taken for granted. The findings reported here indicate that tree thinking is very much an acquired ability which needs extensive training. I tested a sample of undergraduate and graduate students of biology by means of questionnaires. Not a single student was able to correctly interpret a simple tree drawing. Several other findings demonstrate that tree thinking is virtually absent in students unless they are explicitly taught how to read evolutionary trees. Possible causes and implications of this mental bias are discussed. It seems that biological textbooks can be an important source of confusion for students. While group and developmental thinking have disappeared from most textual representations of evolution, they have survived in the evolutionary tree drawings of many textbooks. It is quite common for students to encounter anthropocentric trees and even trees containing stem groups and paraphyla. While these biases originate from the unconscious philosophical assumptions made by authors, the findings suggest that presenting unbiased evolutionary trees in biological publications is not merely a philosophical virtue but has also clear practical implications. PMID:18247075

Sandvik, Hanno

2008-03-01

269

Scaffolding Critical Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores student experiences of learning to think critically. Twenty-six zoology undergraduates took part in the study for three years of their degree at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Vygotsky's developmental model of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provided a framework as we examined how critical thinking was developed.…

Wass, Rob; Harland, Tony; Mercer, Alison

2011-01-01

270

The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction  

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Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.

Shirley Fessel

2006-01-01

271

Contemporary Approaches to Critical Thinking and the World Wide Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…

Buffington, Melanie L.

2007-01-01

272

Martial Arts and Critical Thinking in the Gifted Education Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines similarities between the goals of Aikido, a martial art, and critical thinking and argues that Aikido promotes the development of thinking in its training and practice. It applies these ideas to the gifted education curriculum. First the paper introduces characteristics of Aikido, Aikido movement and techniques. It equates…

Choo, Lay Hiok; Jewell, Paul D.

273

Gamers and Gaming Context: Relationships to Critical Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Gaming is purported to hold promise for education, in part, because it is thought to develop 21st century skills such as critical thinking. To date, there has been a dearth of generalisable research investigating the relationship between gaming and critical thinking. Results of a survey of 121 adults found that gamers and non-gamers do not differ…

Gerber, Sue; Scott, Logan

2011-01-01

274

Critical Thinking: Why Is It so Hard to Teach?  

Science.gov (United States)

After more than 20 years of lamentation, exhortation, and little improvement, writes the author, perhaps it is time to ask a fundamental question: Can critical thinking actually be taught? People who have sought to teach critical thinking have assumed that it is a skill, like riding a bicycle, and that, like other skills, once learned, it can be…

Willingham, Daniel T.

2008-01-01

275

Oersted Lecture 2013: How should we think about how our students think?  

CERN Document Server

Physics Education Research (PER) applies a scientific approach to the question, "How do our students think about and learn physics?" PER allows us to explore such intellectually engaging questions as, "What does it mean to understand something in physics?" and, "What skills and competencies do we want our students to learn from our physics classes?" To address questions like these, we need to do more than observe student difficulties and build curricula. We need a theoretical framework -- a structure for talking about, making sense of, and modeling how one thinks about, learns, and understands physics. In this paper, I outline some aspects of the Resources Framework, a structure that some of us are using to create a phenomenology of physics learning that ties closely to modern developments in neuroscience, psychology, and linguistics. As an example of how this framework gives new insights, I discuss epistemological framing -- the role of students' perceptions of the nature of the knowledge they are learning a...

Redish, Edward F

2013-01-01

276

Evaluation of magical thinking: validation of the illusory beliefs inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magical thinking has been related to obsessive-compulsive disorder; yet, little research has examined this construct in other anxiety disorders. The Illusory Beliefs Inventory (IBI) is a recently developed measure of magical thinking. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of this new measure and to determine if magical thinking accounts for pathological worry beyond the well-researched constructs of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and perfectionism. A sample of 502 participants completed an online survey. Confirmatory factor analysis identified a three-factor solution for the IBI, and the measure had good internal consistency (? = .92), test-retest reliability (r = .94) and discriminant validity. Magical thinking, IU, and perfectionism all predicted pathological worry; however, magical thinking accounted for less than 1% of unique variance in worry, suggesting that it is not strongly related to worry. Further investigation regarding the validity and clinical utility of the IBI is required. PMID:24957205

Shihata, Sarah; Egan, Sarah J; Rees, Clare S

2014-09-01

277

Evaluation of critical thinking in a baccalaureate nursing program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The assessment of critical thinking traditionally has been accomplished through observation of students by faculty in clinical settings and evaluation of written patient assessments and care plans. Quantitative measurement has become a current focus of nurse educators. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare and contrast critical thinking abilities in beginning and graduating nursing students using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). The CCTST revealed a significant difference in critical thinking from the sophomore year to the senior year. There also were significant differences between sophomores and seniors on the overall score for the CCTDI, with subtest differences in truth-seeking, analyticity, self-confidence, and inquisitiveness. PMID:10102514

McCarthy, P; Schuster, P; Zehr, P; McDougal, D

1999-03-01

278

Encouraging Creativity in the Science Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Although science is a creative endeavor (NRC 1996, p. 46), many students think they are not encouraged--or even allowed--to be creative in the laboratory. When students think there is only one correct way to do a lab, their creativity is inhibited. Park and Seung (2008) argue for the importance of creativity in science classrooms and for the…

Eyster, Linda

2010-01-01

279

Critical thinking disposition as a measure of competent clinical judgment: the development of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing critical thinking skills and disposition is crucial in nursing education and research. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) uses the Delphi Report's consensus definition of critical thinking as the theoretical basis to measure critical thinking disposition. Item analysis and factor analysis techniques were used to create seven disposition scales, which grouped the Delphi dispositional descriptions into larger, more unified constructs: open-mindedness, analyticity, cognitive maturity, truth-seeking, systematicity, inquisitiveness, and self-confidence. Cronbach's alpha for the overall instrument, the disposition toward critical thinking, is .92. The 75-item instrument was administered to an additional sample of college students (N = 1019). The alpha levels in the second sample remained relatively stable, ranging from .60 to .78 on the subscales and .90 overall. The instrument has subsequently been used to assess critical thinking disposition in high school through the graduate level but is targeted primarily for the college undergraduates. Administration time is 20 minutes. Correlation with its companion instrument, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, also based on the Delphi critical thinking construct, was measured at .66 and .67 in two pilot sample groups. PMID:7799093

Facione, N C; Facione, P A; Sanchez, C A

1994-10-01

280

CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main focus of this thesis is on the importance of creativity in advertising. In the first part of the thesis we try to define creativity. We look at the different creative thinking methods and provide some techniques for the development of creative ideas. We explain the phases in a creative process, different approaches to creativity, like the Janusian approach, and the usage of creativity templates. Then we try to find an appropriate definition for advertising to separate it from other k...

Horvat, Simon

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Reflective thinking in clinical nursing education: a concept analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over decades nursing had an interest in clarifying and developing its knowledge base and its conceptual foundation. Reflective thinking has become a popular word in nursing education world wide, but its meaning and effective use remains debatable because of lack of clarity in its meaning (Mackintosh, 1998:553. The researcher engaged in the concept analysis of reflective thinking so as to fully understand its meaning and interpretation, hence the research question to be addressed by this article is: “What is the meaning of reflective thinking in clinical nursing education?”

M. Chabeli

2004-09-01

282

Making the link between critical appraisal, thinking and analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing has become an all-graduate profession; as such, student nurses must develop their skills of critical analysis. The need to develop critical analytical thinking has been identified as the single most important skill in undergraduate education and reaching the academic requirements of level six study. In degree-level healthcare programmes, students are frequently asked to complete a structured critical appraisal of research. This paper examines how critical appraisal activities can be an opportunity for students to develop transferable critical thinking skills. Critical appraisal teaches objectivity, reflection, logic and discipline, which encourage students to think critically in both theory and practice. PMID:24260994

Whiffin, Charlotte Jane; Hasselder, Alison

283

What do we think about coal and rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reports on the results of a SIFO poll on the attitudes of the Swedish general public to different forms of energy, and which were presented for the first time at a public debate on energy policies at Skellefteaa, Sweden recently. Among the attitudes sampled were: For or against coal-fired power stations (57% against); For or against expanding hydroelectric generating capacity (41% against); 'Do you think plans have been drafted for the abandonment of nuclear power' (49% think not); 'Taking the experience we have gained was it good or bad for Sweden to invest in nuclear power' (77% think it was good). (H.J.P.)

1984-10-24

284

Learning, thinking, and emoting with discourse technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an unusual moment in the history of psychology because of landmark advances in digital information technologies, computational linguistics, and other fields that use the computer to analyze language, discourse, and behavior. The technologies developed from this interdisciplinary fusion are helping students learn and think in ways that are sensitive to their cognitive and emotional states. Recent projects have developed computer technologies that help us understand the nature of conversational discourse and text comprehension in addition to improving learning. AutoTutor and other systems with conversational agents (i.e., talking heads) help students learn by holding conversations in natural language. One version of AutoTutor is sensitive to the emotions of students in addition to their cognitive states. Coh-Metrix analyzes texts on multiple levels of language and discourse, such as text genre, cohesion, syntax, and word characteristics. Coh-Metrix can assist students, teachers, principals, and policymakers when they make decisions on the right text to assign to the right student at the right time. Computers are not perfect conversation partners and comprehenders of text, but the current systems are undeniably useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22082403

Graesser, Arthur C

2011-11-01

285

How to think about nuclear war  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mr. Luttwak, a professional defense consultant, observes the arguments of nuclear freeze proponents can be refuted on both strategic and moral grounds. The freeze concept is illogical, he notes, because it is political systems - not state boundaries - that separate sides and because the Warsaw Pact countries are more heavily armed than the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries. An important factor keeping NATO forces at a disadvantage is their defensive orientation, which keeps forces militarily diffuse and dependent on nuclear weapons and preemptive action as a deterrent. Mr. Luttwak feels the shock effect of any use of nuclear weapons would probably shorten a war rather than expand it because of the instinct for survival on both sides; further only nuclear weapons have this awesome power to deter. The proposal for universal disarmament under world government control is not a serious one, he thinks, and reflects an indifference to the possibility of a long non-nuclear war. The effect would be to trade the risk of nuclear death for the inevitability of many non-nuclear casualties. (DCK)

Luttwak, E.N.

1982-08-01

286

The Quest for the Thinking Computer  

Science.gov (United States)

The first large-scale implementation of the Turing Test was set in motion in 1985, with the first contest taking place in 1991. US100,000 in prize money was offered to the developers of a computer program that could fool people into thinking it was a person. The initial contest, which allowed programs to focus on a specific topic, was planned and designed by a committee of distinguished philosophers and computer scientists and drew worldwide attention. The results of the contest showed that although conversational computer programs are still quite primitive, distinguishing a person from a computer when only brief conversations are permitted can be challenging. When the contest judges ranked the eight computer terminals in the event from most to least human, no computer program was ranked as human as any of the humans in the contest; however, the highest-ranked computer program was misclassified as a human by five of the ten judges, and two other programs were also sometimes misclassified. Also of note, one human was mistakenly identified as a computer by three of the ten judges.

Epstein, Robert

287

Pedagogical Factors Stimulating the Self-Development of Students’ Multi-Dimensional Thinking in Terms of Subject-Oriented Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to disclose the essence of students’ multi-dimensional thinking, also to reveal the rating of factors which stimulate the raising of effectiveness of self-development of students’ multi-dimensional thinking in terms of subject-oriented teaching. Subject-oriented learning is characterized as a type of learning where self-abilities and self-processes are systematically actualized. Among them the abilities and processes of students’ self-development in different learning situations are systemically important. 52 students took part in the pedagogical experiment. In order to evaluate the students’ competencies of self-development of their multi-dimensional thinking the 10-point grading scale and the special suggested criteria of self-assessment of multi-dimensional application of systematic, creative, critical and reflexive thinking were used. The obtained results were subjected to statistical processing.

Valentin I. Andreev

2014-06-01

288

Literature stance in developing critical thinking: A pedagogical look  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students in literature classes are expected to think critically and apply their critical and analytical skills to the texts they study. As to the writers, the factors counted by some scholars (e.g. Topping, 1968 as the demerits of the employment of literature in EFL/ESL classes including difficulty level of vocabulary, structural complexity, non-normative use of language, and even remote cultural perspectives are neither persuasive nor logical, but are exactly what can be employed to enrich language learning experiences, and enhance critical thinking. In any way, although providing students with tools of critical thinking, and more importantly, stabilize the stance of literature in its proper position is difficult, it is not far-fetched. The study was an attempt to investigate the efficacy of developing critical thinking through literature reading.

Khatib, Mohammad

2013-01-01

289

Thinking, Memory Problems Tied to Blockages in Neck Artery  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thinking, Memory Problems Tied to Blockages in Neck Artery Researcher ... 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Carotid Artery Disease Memory Mild Cognitive Impairment MONDAY, April 21, 2014 (HealthDay ...

290

Reflections on Measuring Thinking, while Listening to Mozart's "Jupiter" Symphony.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reflects on educators' current preoccupation with assessment of higher order thinking skills. Easy-to-mark, forced-choice, pencil-and-paper tests with single numerical scores may trivialize the wonderful complexity of human capabilities. Includes 17 references. (MLH)

Wasserman, Selma

1989-01-01

291

Exploring functional relationships to foster algebraic thinking in grade 8  

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This article aims to identify the contributions of a teaching unit in fostering grade 8 students’ algebraic thinking. The unit is based on exploratory and investigation tasks about functional relationships. Using a qualitative and interpretative methodology, data collection

Matos, Ana; Ponte, Joa?o Pedro Da

2009-01-01

292

Thinking Skill Education and Transformational Progress in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available This paper intends to highlight the issues in thinking skills development and efforts made in addressing these issues in Malaysia. The education system in Malaysia has undergone a huge transformational progress particularly in the field related to the development of thinking skill. Traditionally, thinking skill was not specifically cultivated in the education syllabus. What moved as a global agenda in the realm of education, thinking skill was embraced as an important subject matter that needs a specific attention. It was later embedded in the teachers’ training activities and translated into many forms, curricular and extra-curricular activities alike. Students are trained right from school up to tertiary levels. The move is ongoing and continuosly progressing.

Nooraini Othman

2014-03-01

293

A Design Thinking Approach to Teaching Knowledge Management  

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Pedagogies for knowledge management courses are still undeveloped. This Teaching Tip introduces a design thinking approach to teaching knowledge management. An induction model used to guide students' real-life projects for knowledge management is presented. (Contains 1 figure.)

Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

2008-01-01

294

Practical Thinking: Review of Cognitive Instruction Programs for Battle Command.  

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ARI developed a program of instruction on thinking reasoning and decision making at the request of the Training and Doctrine Command and the Command and General Staff School. Approaches to cognitive instruction are reviewed in the report. The findings sup...

J. J. Fallesen J. Pounds S. Breeskin T. Saxon

1995-01-01

295

The determination of the critical thinking tendencies of teacher candidates  

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Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the critical thinking tendencies of teacher candidates studying in the educationfaculties of universities in North Cyprus. The study was carried out with the participation of 874 teacher candidates studyingin the North Cyprus. In the research, which was carried out within the frame of the screening model and used the datacollection tool the California Critical Thinking Tendencies Measure, it was concluded that the critical thinking tendencies ofthe teacher candidates were generally on a positive line, and that significant differences existed between teacher candidatesof different gender and nationality. Besides this, no significant differences were detected when the critical thinkingtendencies of teacher candidates were compared with regards if they took courses which coincided with the approach ofcritical thinking.

Cigdem Hürsen

2012-01-01

296

Developing reading skills by means of “critical thinking” technology  

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Full Text Available The article covers different approaches of developing students’ reading skills by means of technology “Critical Thinking”. Several methods are given as the examples to be used at the English language classes.

Kushnaryova E. S.

2011-12-01

297

Violent Video Games Tied to Combative Thinking in Study  

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... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Violent Video Games Tied to Combative Thinking in Study Kids 'start ... 24, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Frequent exposure to violent video games increases the likelihood that children and teens will ...

298

Time and Performance on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the relationship between total scores on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the time taken to complete it. Finds that slower test takers obtained significantly higher scores. Discusses implications of these findings for college instruction. (SG)

Frisby, Craig L.; Traffanstedt, Bobby K.

2003-01-01

299

Thinking in time an introduction to Henri Bergson  

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"In recent years, we have grown accustomed to philosophical language that is intensely self-conscious and rhetorically thick, often tragic in tone. It is enlivening to read Bergson, who exerts so little rhetorical pressure while exacting such a substantial effort of thought. . . . Bergson's texts teach the reader to let go of entrenched intellectual habits and to begin to think differently—to think in time. . . . Too much and too little have been said about Bergson. Too much, because of the various appropriations of his thought. Too little, because the work itself has not been carefully studied in recent decades."—from Thinking in TimeHenri Bergson (1859–1941), whose philosophical works emphasized motion, time, and change, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. His work remains influential, particularly in the realms of philosophy, cultural studies, and new media studies. In Thinking in Time, Suzanne Guerlac provides readers with the conceptual and contextual tools necessary for informed appreciati...

Guerlac, Suzanne

2006-01-01

300

Teaching Tree-Thinking to Undergraduate Biology Students  

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Evolution is the unifying principle of all biology, and understanding how evolutionary relationships are represented is critical for a complete understanding of evolution. Phylogenetic trees are the most conventional tool for displaying evolutionary relationships, and “tree-thinking” has been coined as a term to describe the ability to conceptualize evolutionary relationships. Students often lack tree-thinking skills, and developing those skills should be a priority of biology curricula. ...

Meisel, Richard P.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Does Critical Thinking Enhance EFL Learners‘ Receptive Skills?  

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This study explored the effect of Iranian EFL learners’ critical thinking abilities on their receptive English language proficiency skills. With this purpose in mind, the researchers administered the Persian version of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) and the Interchange Objective Placement Test (Lesley, Hansen, & Zukowski-Faust, 2005) to 96 Intermediate EFL learners, and correlated the scores obtained from the two tests to see whether there is any significant relations...

Mohammad Reza Hashemi; Reza Zabihi

2012-01-01

302

Development of Variational Thinking Skills in Programming Teaching  

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The paper presents an example of methodological approach to the development of variational thinking skills in teaching programming. Various ways in solving a given task are implemented for the purpose. One of the forms, through which the variational thinking is manifested, is related to trail practical actions. In the process of comprehension of the properties thus acquired, students are doing their own (correct or incorrect) conclusions for other, hidden properties and at the same time they ...

Grozdev, Sava; Todorka, Terzieva

2010-01-01

303

On systems thinking in logistics management - A critical perspective  

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Systems thinking. Systems theory. The systems approach. All these concepts have in various guises been claimed as central to logistics management, since its dawning in the mid twentieth century. Such claims are the starting point of this dissertation, the purpose of which is to contribute to an increased understanding of systems thinking in logistics management research, both present and for future advances. The primary unit of analysis in this dissertation is thus logistics management resear...

Lindskog, Magnus

2012-01-01

304

Proceedings from duke resistant hypertension think tank.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify patients at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes, apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as having a blood pressure (BP) above goal despite the use of ?3 antihypertensive therapies of different classes at maximally tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic. In light of growing scientific interest in the treatment of this group, a multistakeholder think tank was convened to discuss the current state of knowledge, improve the care of these patients, and identify appropriate study populations for future observational and randomized trials in the field. Although recent epidemiologic studies in selected populations estimate that the prevalence of aTRH is 10% to 15% of hypertensive patients, further large-scale observational studies will be needed to better elucidate risk factors. To spur the development of therapies for aTRH, the development of an "aTRH" label for pharmacologic and device therapies with a developmental pathway including treatment added to the use of existing therapies is favored. Although demonstration of adequate BP lowering should be sufficient to gain Food and Drug Administration approval for therapies targeting aTRH, assessment of improvement in quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes is also desirable and considered in Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services coverage decisions. Device trials under the aTRH label will need uniform and consistent processes for defining appropriate patient populations as well as postapproval registries assessing both long-term safety and duration of responses. Finally, patients with aTRH are likely to benefit from evaluation by a hypertension team to assure proper patient identification, diagnostic work-up, and therapeutic management before consideration of advanced or novel therapies to lower BP. PMID:24890525

Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Ard, Jamy; Bakris, George L; Bhatt, Deepak L; Brown, Alan S; Cushman, William C; Ferdinand, Keith C; Flack, John M; Fleg, Jerome L; Katzen, Barry T; Kostis, John B; Oparil, Suzanne; Patel, Chet B; Pepine, Carl J; Pińa, Ileana L; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Townsend, Raymond R; Peterson, Eric D; Califf, Robert M; Patel, Manesh R

2014-06-01

305

Charles Lyell and scientific thinking in geology  

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Charles Lyell (1797-1875) was born at Kinnordy, Scotland. His father, an amateur botanist, and his grandfather, a navigator, gave him very soon a taste for the observation of the Nature. He went to the Oxford University to study classical literature, but he also followed the geological course of William Buckland. After having been employed as jurist for some years, in 1827 he decided on a career of geologist and held the chair of geology of the King's College of London, from 1831 on. He was a contemporary of Cuvier, Darwin, von Humboldt, Hutton, Lavoisier, and was elected 'membre correspondant' of the 'Académie des sciences, France', in January 1862. Charles Lyell is one of the eminent geologists who initiated the scientific thinking in geology, in which his famous volumes of the Principles of Geology were taken as the authority. These reference volumes are based on multiple observations and field works collected during numerous fieldtrips in western Europe (principally Spain, France, and Italy) and North America. To his name are attached, among others: ( i) the concept of uniformitarism (or actualism), which was opposed to the famous catastrophism, in vogue at that time, and which may be summarized by the expression "The present is the key to the past"; ( ii) the division of the Tertiary in three series denominated Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene, due to the study of the age of strata by fossil faunas; ( iii) the theory according to which the orogenesis of a mountain chain, as the Pyrenees, results from different pulsations on very long time scales and was not induced by a unique pulsation during a short and intense period. The uniformity of the laws of Nature is undeniably a principle Charles Lyell was the first to state clearly and to apply to the study of the whole Earth's crust, which opened a new era in geology.

Virgili, Carmina

2007-07-01

306

Think manager--Think male in adolescents and its relation to sexism and emotions in leadership.  

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From the perspective of the Think manager--Think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents. PMID:24230951

García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando

2013-01-01

307

Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students  

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Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. Accordingly, problem solving scores increased in parallel to an increase in the critical thinking scores. Problem Solving Inventory is a measuring tool indicating an increase in the problem solving skills in parallel to a decrease in the scores. Therefore, as the critical thinking skills of individuals go up, their problem solving skills also increase. Furthermore, according to the outcomes of the study, critical thinking and problem solving skills of the students did not show any correlation between genders (p>0.05. As a result, we concluded that the mean scores of critical thinking skills were found at medium levels among nursing students and the mean scores of critical thinking and problem-solving skills between the classes displayed no differences. In addition, no relationship between the age and gender of the subjects and their critical thinking and problem solving skills was identified. Moreover, in parallel to an increase in the scores of critical thinking skills, problem solving skills also increased.

Yalç?n KANBAY

2013-12-01

308

A Conceptual Model for Teaching Critical Thinking in a Knowledge Economy  

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Critical thinking, viewed as rational and analytic thinking, is crucial for participation in a knowledge economy and society. This article provides a brief presentation of the importance of teaching critical thinking in a knowledge economy; suggests a conceptual model for teaching thinking; examines research on the historical role of teachers in…

Chadwick, Clifton

2011-01-01

309

Measuring Change in Students' Critical Thinking Ability: Implications for Health Care Education.  

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Physical therapy students (n=28) completed the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) and California Critical Thinking Skills Test before and after the academic year and after clinical placements. Greatest critical thinking improvements occurred in truth-seeking, critical thinking self-confidence, and deduction. Student review…

Bartlett, Doreen J.; Cox, Peter D.

2002-01-01

310

Selecting Video Clips to Promote Mathematics Teachers' Discussion of Student Thinking  

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This study explores the use of video clips from teachers' own classrooms as a resource for investigating student mathematical thinking. Three dimensions for characterizing video clips of student mathematical thinking are introduced: the extent to which a clip provides "windows" into student thinking, the "depth" of thinking shown, and the…

Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; Linsenmeier, Katherine A.; van Es, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

311

Thinking of a sub-field of strategic thinking from a pluralistic approach to knowledge-invention  

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This article elaborates on the need for a sub-field of ‘Strategic Thinking’ as the science exploring the hidden side of strategy emergence. The site of our exploration is the discourse. We will investigate the intersystemic link between self-reflection and communication embedded in discourses among strategists for paradigm deconstruction and reconstruction. The rationale for a sub-field of Strategic Thinking is related to applying new research ‘technologies’. By engaging in action-res...

La Rocca, Santa; Colombo, Gianluca

2005-01-01

312

Ethical thinking and discrimination in health care  

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Full Text Available RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome inequalities has become a cornerstone of excellence in health care.Method: A small quantitative survey of nurses was conducted in one of the departments in a Slovenian hospital. To analyse the results, we used frequency statistics, Spearman's rank correlation test and chi-square test. Results: Providers of health care services are aware of the importance of ethics in its formation. Professional Code is relatively well known; 8.4 % of the respondents were not sure if they clearly define the principles of respect for equality. Discrimination, caused by providers of health care, is of a less extent. Ethical awareness among health care providers does not affect identification with the profession. The education level ofnursing personnel and the perception of discrimination based on religious affiliation influenced one another. Education has no influence on the perception of discrimination based on other circumstances.Organization: Health care organizations should integrate hygieneethical thinking among its strategic goals. Quality is not only quantifying the data. Personal excellence of health care providers, which is difficult to measure, is the basic building block of organizational excellence and patient satisfaction.Originality: There are not many research studies on perceptionsof discrimination in health care. The article raises the sensitive issue that we should talk more about.Limitations: The survey was conducted on a small sample size. Further research should be conducted on perception of discrimination of both sides in health care, both in terms of health care providers as patients. It may be worthwhile to compare the differences in the perception of discrimination in private and in public hospitals.

Aleksander Mlinšek

2012-02-01

313

Thinking in nursing education. Part II. A teacher's experience.  

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Across academia, educators are investigating teaching strategies that facilitate students' abilities to think critically. Because may these strategies require low teacher-student ratios or sustained involvement over time, efforts to implement them are often constrained by diminishing resources for education, faculty reductions, and increasing number of part-time teachers and students. In nursing, the challenges of teaching and learning critical thinking are compounded by the demands of providing care to patients with increasingly acute and complex problems in a wide variety of settings. To meet these challenges, nurse teachers have commonly used a variety of strategies to teach critical thinking (1). For instance, they often provide students with case studies or simulated clinical situations in classroom and laboratory settings (2). At other times, students are taught a process of critical thinking and given structured clinical assignments, such as care plans or care maps, where they apply this process in anticipating the care a particular patient will require. Accompanying students onto clinical units, teachers typically evaluate critical thinking ability by reviewing a student's preparation prior to the experience and discussing it with the student during the course of the experience. The rationales students provide for particular nursing interventions are taken as evidence of their critical thinking ability. While this approach is commonly thought to be effective, the evolving health care system has placed increased emphasis on community nursing (3,4), where it is often difficult to prespecify learning experiences or to anticipate patient care needs. In addition, teachers are often not able to accompany each student to the clinical site. Thus, the traditional strategies for teaching and learning critical thinking common to hospital-based clinical courses are being challenged, transformed, and extended (5). Part II of this article describes findings that suggest how many teachers and students are challenging the conventional approaches to schooling and creating pedagogies that are more responsive to the contemporary context of health care. PMID:10754846

Ironside, P M

1999-01-01

314

Encouraging Creativity in the Science Lab  

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Although science is a creative endeavor (NRC 1996, p. 46), many students think they are not encouraged--or even allowed--to be creative in the laboratory. When students think there is only one correct way to do a lab, their creativity is inhibited. Park and

Eyster, Linda

2010-09-01

315

Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries  

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The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

2010-01-01

316

The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

Hudson, Darlene

317

Using Discussions to Promote Critical Thinking in an Online Environment  

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Full Text Available This paper examines how the discussion tool is used to promote critical thinking in an online environment at Marshall University. The significance of critical thinking in higher education has been brought to attention at both national and local levels. The paper studies the use of discussions as an approach to promote critical thinking in a number of English as a Second Language (ESL courses offered by Marshall University's Graduate School of Education and Professional Development (GSEPD program. At the end of the semester, a qualitative survey was developed to identify the effectiveness of such discussions, and the opportunities for improvement. The survey was sent to all students in these three classes. These students were all full time teachers in Elementary and Secondary schools in West Virginia. Out of 21 students, 15 of them have responded to the three questions asked in the survey. Almost all the respondents have found discussion helpful in enhancing learning and critical thinking. Most students support the involvement of an online instructor in the online discussion, and faculty members involved in these discussions function as helpers in the development of critical thinking skills.

Nega Debela

2008-06-01

318

Psychometric properties of the California Critical Thinking Tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation of critical thinking, as with any other measure, must employ instruments that meet appropriate psychometric standards. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the two California Critical Thinking Tests. Two samples of undergraduate students enrolled in a southern comprehensive university took the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (TST) and the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (TDI). A portion of the participants, who were nursing students, were retested on the TST and TDI two weeks after the initial testing. Some participants also completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA). In both samples the TST had neither sufficient psychometric properties to assess individual abilities nor sufficient stability reliability. In particular, the analysis subscale of the TST demonstrated exceptional weakness in all administrations. In contrast, the TDI demonstrated very good reliability estimates in all administrations of the test. The data did not conform to the subscale structure during factor analysis. Whereas the TST needs further refinement, the TDI demonstrated sufficient reliability for use in attitudinal research. PMID:11881271

Bondy, K N; Koenigseder, L A; Ishee, J H; Williams, B G

2001-01-01

319

Using systems thinking in state health policymaking: an educational initiative  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to limited examples of opportunities for state policymakers to learn about and productively discuss the difficult, adaptive challenges of our health system, the Georgia Health Policy Center developed an educational initiative that applies systems thinking to health policymaking. We created the Legislative Health Policy Certificate Program – an in-depth, multi-session series for lawmakers and their staff – concentrating on building systems thinking competencies and health content knowledge by applying a range of systems thinking tools: behavior over time graphs, stock and flow maps, and a system dynamics-based learning lab (a simulatable model of childhood obesity). Legislators were taught to approach policy issues from the big picture, consider changing dynamics, and explore higher-leverage interventions to address Georgia's most intractable health challenges. Our aim was to determine how we could improve the policymaking process by providing a systems thinking-focused educational program for legislators. Over 3 years, the training program resulted in policymakers' who are able to think more broadly about difficult health issues. The program has yielded valuable insights into the design and delivery of policymaker education that could be applied to various disciplines outside the legislative process.

Minyard, Karen J; Ferencik, Rachel; Ann Phillips, Mary; Soderquist, Chris

2014-01-01

320

Age and gender impact on thinking and creating styles Impacto de la edad y del género en los estilos de pensar y crear  

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Styles of thinking and creating indicate the preferable ways that individuals process information. This study aimed to investigate the impact of sex and age on creative styles. The sample was composed of 1.752 subjects (780 men, 972 women), ages ranging from 17-72, living in 4 Brazilian states. The scale “Style of Thinking and Creating” was administered to groups in various environments. Results analyzed by the Analysis of Variance indicated significant differences between sexes and age r...

Solange Muglia Wechsler

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

A model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education  

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Full Text Available A qualitative, contextual, exploratory and descriptive design for theory generation was used to develop a model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education (Mouton & Marais, 1990:43; Mouton, 1996: 103- 109; Chinn & Kramer 1991:79-120. A model was developed within the existing frameworks of theory generation. Wilson (1963:23-39 and Gift (1997:75,76 provided a theoretical framework for a concept analysis of reflective thinking in phase one of the study. Further conceptual meaning was attained through a perceptual survey where twelve nurse educators participated in a focus group interview with regard to how reflective thinking can be facilitated in clinical nursing education. Classification of the main concepts and sub-concepts was made through a conceptualisation process within Dickoff, James and Wiedenbach’s (1968:415-435 theoretical framework using the six elements of practice theory.

M. Chabeli

2004-09-01

322

Does the teaching of thinking promote language acquisition?  

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Full Text Available Combining the teaching of thinking skills and a second language seems a plausible way to promote language acquisition. The teaching of thinking is explained, with an example from the curriculum of de Bono. Arguments supporting the thinking-L2 combination come from theory, practice, its benefits to teaching skills, national needs, and successful implementation. Research literature is reviewed, and a major study in South Africa is summarized. Die kombinasie van die onderrig van denkvaardighede en tweede taal blyk 'n aanneemlike metode om taalverwerwing te bevorder. Die onderrig van denke word aangedui, met 'n voorbeeld uit die kurrikulum van De Bono. Argumente wat die kombinasie van denke en tweede taal ondersteun, word gebaseer op teorie, praktyk, voordele vir onderwysvaardighede, nasionale behoeftes, en suksesvolle toepassing. Navorsingsartikels word in oi!nskou geneem, en 'n belangrike navorsingstudie word opgesom.

Carol A. Puhl

2013-02-01

323

Blood and Treasure: On Military and Economic Thinking  

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Full Text Available This article argues that there is little different between military thinking and true economic thinking, which is different from accounting-budgetary thinking. Most of the substantive disagreements between military commanders and economists stem from objective difficulties in predicting the future and quantifying the important components of risk, cost, and benefit. Other disagreements result from vested interests or mere egotistical issues. The article will also explore the problematic manner in which the defense budget is drafted, specifically, the lack of clear directions from the cabinet regarding national security posture and priorities and the absence of significant military bodies outside the defense establishment. Reforms instituted in the United States during Robert McNamara's term as Security of Defense and as a result of the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 are instructive in this regard. In 2007, the Brodet Committee attempted to change the process for drafting the defense budget, but was not successful.

Saul Bronfeld

2014-03-01

324

Development of critical thinking in occupational therapy students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Do students who use the Guided Reciprocal Peer Questioning (GRPQ) method increase their ability to think critically? When compared to students in a traditional senior seminar course, the results of this study indicated no significant difference between the groups regarding changes in scores on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test. However, the students in the experimental group asked more questions labelled as critical thinking than the seminar control group. These findings suggest the use of the GRPQ may improve students' skills in asking questions that include application, analysis, and synthesis. Future research regarding the role of questions in stimulating critical analysis and the role of context in the learning environment is warranted. PMID:16715642

Velde, Beth P; Wittman, Peggy P; Vos, Paul

2006-01-01

325

Thinking in physics the pleasure of reasoning and understanding  

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Read this book if you care about students really understanding physics and getting genuine intellectual satisfaction from doing so. Read it too if you fear that this goal is out of reach ? you may be surprised! Laurence Viennot here shows ways to deal with the awkward fact that common sense thinking is often not the same as scientific thinking. She analyses examples of frequent and widespread errors and confusions, which provide a real eye-opener for the teacher. More than that, she shows ways to avoid and overcome them. The book argues against over-emphasis on "fun" applications, demonstratin

Viennot, Laurence

2014-01-01

326

?mier? i my?lenie (DEATH AND THINKING  

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Full Text Available The author presents the history of European thought about death since Socrates and Plato and accepts the recent stance of Levinas and Derrida. According to Hegel the life of spirit is the passing through other and other kinds of deaths. Kierkegaard claims that we can not think about absolute nothing (but we can threaten it. For Nietzsche death is the biggest truism, for Heidegger it is the most certain truth (human being is being to death and for Sartre it is a brutal fact. Levinas and Derrida claim that thinking about death is the beginning of ethics.

Werner Stegmaier

2006-12-01

327

Thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness  

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Full Text Available In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profle (NBPP and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI. The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The researchers found some evidence to support the relationship between thinking style, emotional intelligence (EI and leadership effectiveness. The researchers concluded that facets of brain dominance and emotional intelligence may be potentially useful predictors of transformational leadership behaviours.

Tessie H. Herbst

2008-09-01

328

A Problem With Problem Solving: Teaching Thinking Without Teaching Knowledge  

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Full Text Available Problem solving theory and practice suggest that thinking is more important to solving problems than knowledge and that it is possible to teach thinking in situations where little or no knowledge of the problem is needed. Such an assumption has led problem solving advocates to champion content-less heuristics as the primary element of problem solving while relegating the knowledge base and the application of concepts or transfer to secondary status. In the following theoretical analysis, it will be argued that the knowledge base and transfer of knowledge—not the content-less heuristic—are the most essential elements of problem solving.

Jamin Carson

2007-01-01

329

Thinking Translation A Course in Translation Method French to English  

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Thinking Translation is a comprehensive and revolutionary 20-week course in translation method. It has been fully and successfully piloted at the University of St. Andrews. The course offers a challenging and entertaining approach to the acquisition of translation skills.Translation is presented as a problem-solving discipline. Discussion, examples and a full range of exercise work allows students to acquire the skills necessary for a broad range of translation problems.Thinking Translation draws on a wide range of material from technical texts to poetry and song.

Hervey, Sandor

2012-01-01

330

Peirce, pragmatism, and the right way of thinking.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a summary of and commentary on (a) the seven lectures that C. S. Peirce presented in 1903 on pragmatism and (b) a commentary by P. A. Turrisi, both of which are included in Pragmatism as a Principle and Method of Right Thinking: The 1903 Harvard Lectures on Pragmatism, edited by Turrisi [13]. Peirce is known as the founder of the philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirce's decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the important points in the lectures.

Campbell, Philip LaRoche

2011-08-01

331

Out of Context: Thinking Cultural Studies Diasporically  

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Full Text Available This essay on cultural studies and the African Diaspora argues for a rethinking of cultural studies in two critical ways: firstly, that cultural studies, from its founding institutional and conceptual moment, cannot but be thought diasporically; and, secondly, that cultural studies be thought ‘out of’, or, against, context—that is, cultural studies is most revealing in its political and literary articulation when it is not read, as many of its advocates claim, contextually. This essay offers a broad critique of cultural studies and the (African diaspora but derives its most cogent and creative argument from its ability to read together the work of two diasporic authors, deracinated South African and Australian writers, J. M. Coetzee and David Malouf.

Grant Farred

2011-04-01

332

Counterfactual thinking in moral judgment: an experimental study  

Science.gov (United States)

Counterfactual thinking is thinking about a past that did not happen. This is often the case in “if only…” situations, where we wish something had or had not happened. To make a choice in a moral decision-making situation is particularly hard and, therefore, may be often associated with the imagination of a different outcome. The main aim of the present study is to investigate counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning. We used a modified version of Greene's moral dilemmas test, studying both the time needed to provide a counterfactual in the first and third person and the type of given response (in context-out of context) in a sample of 90 healthy subjects. We found a longer response time for personal vs. impersonal moral dilemmas. This effect was enhanced in the first person perspective, while in the elderly there was an overall slowing of response time. Out of context/omissive responses were more frequent in the case of personal moral dilemmas presented in the first person version, with females showing a marked increase in this kind of response. These findings suggest that gender and perspective have a critical role in counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning, and may have implications for the understanding of gender-related inclinations as well as differences in moral judgment.

Migliore, Simone; Curcio, Giuseppe; Mancini, Francesco; Cappa, Stefano F.

2014-01-01

333

Learning To Teach Mathematics: Focus on Student Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a research and development project, Cognitively Guided Instruction, to illustrate how theory and research inform the teaching and learning of mathematics. The project engaged first grade teachers with research-based knowledge about the development of children's mathematical thinking, studying teachers' use of this knowledge in the…

Franke, Megan Loef; Kazemi, Elham

2001-01-01

334

Thinking in Pictures as a Cognitive Account of Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze the hypothesis that some individuals on the autism spectrum may use visual mental representations and processes to perform certain tasks that typically developing individuals perform verbally. We present a framework for interpreting empirical evidence related to this "Thinking in Pictures" hypothesis and then provide comprehensive…

Kunda, Maithilee; Goel, Ashok K.

2011-01-01

335

Action Learning and Critical Thinking: A Synthesis of Two Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent scholarship and the news media have identified a lack of critical thinking and ethical behavior in the business world. These deficiencies have led to faulty decision-making, ineffective planning, and frequent organizational dysfunction. This situation has focused attention on both practitioners in the field of business and on the university…

Soffe, Stephen M.; Marquardt, Michael J.; Hale, Enoch

2011-01-01

336

Promoting Undergraduate Critical Thinking in Astro 101 Lab Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents results of the first two years of the introduction of a critical thinking (CT) component to standard freshman astronomy lab exercises for nonmajors. The component consists of a series of probing questions folded into the exercises, plus a formal grading rubric. The grading rubric is adapted from the generalized Washington…

Allen, Michael L.; Kelly-Riley, Diane

2005-01-01

337

Why Cultural Studies is the End of Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

This article begins from a consideration of this issue's contention that "central to politicized academic projects... is a critique of the cultural power of institutions" and in particular pedagogical institutions. It argues that is clear enough what the Editor is thinking of here: he names "cultural studies" as his prime…

McQuillan, Martin

2013-01-01

338

Stimulating Critical Thinking in the Undergrad Classroom: The Spanking Debate  

Science.gov (United States)

To encourage critical thinking and expression of viewpoints by undergraduate students, an in-class debate on the issue of spanking as a disciplinary practice and its impact on children's development is presented as a class activity. Specific details on how the debate is conducted are provided. Evaluation results suggest that the activity is…

Walker, Susan K.; Benson, Lisa J.

2010-01-01

339

Thinking with Trickster: Sporadic Illuminations for Educational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Moments of restriction or impasse--situations that are seemingly intransigent, offering no alternatives or poor alternatives, predicaments leading to less than satisfactory resolutions or unhappy compromises--abound in the practice of educational research. This paper speculates on the possibilities offered by thinking with "Trickster"--a shadowy,…

Priyadharshini, Esther

2012-01-01

340

Reggio Emilia: New Ways To Think About Schooling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Reggio Emilia approach to education reveals new ways for promoting children's academic learning; offers documentation as a tool for studying, sharing, and planning children's education experiences; and provokes a new way to think about the role of the teacher. (Contains 17 references.) (MLF)

New, Rebecca S.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Learning to Think Critically: A Visual Art Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines whether exposure to the arts has an effect on the ability of students to engage in critical thinking. We conduct a randomized controlled trial involving 3,811 students who were assigned by lottery to participate in a School Visit Program at the newly opened Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. Students who participated in…

Bowen, Daniel H.; Greene, Jay P.; Kisida, Brian

2014-01-01

342

Action Research: Reflective Thinking Model Applied during Student Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Central Missouri State University, Warrensburg, Missouri, has designed an experience for student teachers in elementary schools to prepare them for reflective thinking in their own classrooms. Student teachers conduct action research by reflecting on what they do in the classroom, identifying…

Lamson, Sharon L.

343

Thinking through a Lesson: Successfully Implementing High-Level Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the Thinking Through a Lesson Protocol (TTLP) that is intended to facilitate the design of lessons based on cognitively challenging mathematics tasks. Included is a discussion of the key features of the TTLP, suggestions on ways in which the protocol can be used as a tool for collaborative lesson planning, and a discussion…

Smith, Margaret S.; Bill, Victoria; Hughes, Elizabeth K.

2008-01-01

344

Enhancing Thinking Skills with School-University Collaboration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a collaborative Purdue University and Twin Lakes School Corporation (Indiana) project to specify and demonstrate research-based instructional models facilitating the development of students' higher thinking skills. The project has developed a special site where student teachers can observe and practice teaching these skills. Includes 10…

McInerney, William D.; Kolter, Gerald E.

1988-01-01

345

Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Artist-Level Jazz Musicians  

Science.gov (United States)

Thought processes of seven artist-level jazz musicians, each of whom recorded an improvised solo, were investigated. Immediately after completing their improvisations, participants listened to recordings of their playing and looked at the notation of their solos as they described in a directed interview the thinking processes that led to the…

Norgaard, Martin

2011-01-01

346

Think Tank Critics Plant a Stake in Policy World  

Science.gov (United States)

After five years of providing critical reviews of education-related reports by nonacademic think tanks, education professors Alex Molnar and Kevin G. Welner hope to expand their own reach with a new, broader research center. The new National Education Policy Center, based at Welner's academic home, the University of Colorado at Boulder, will…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01

347

Thinking around the Corner: The Power of Information Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-first century students are fully engaged in technology, with abundant information flowing from various sources. Educators need to develop thinking dispositions in their students that will serve them "around the corner," beyond what we can see today. An essential skill is information literacy. Students who are information literate develop…

Bush, Gail

2009-01-01

348

Thinking Toward Utopia: Reconstructing the Tradition of the Active Mind.  

Science.gov (United States)

School reformers have not been too radical, but have been unable to sustain their reforming energy and innovative thinking. Reformers are not "tinkering toward Utopia," but are relapsing into habit, meandering back into mediocrity. A remarkably coherent tradition of rethinking schooling is yielding to the forces of inertia, systemization, and…

Bickman, Martin

1998-01-01

349

Overview of Practical Thinking Instruction for Battle Command.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences developed instruction on thinking, reasoning, and decision making at the request of the Training and Doctrine Command and the Command and General Staff School. The instruction went be...

J. J. Fallesen

1995-01-01

350

The Fourth "R": Practical Thinking for the Cautious Teacher.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a conservative approach to critical thinking instruction, which involves introducing a few tools, reinforcing them, and applying them to mastery of a specific course content. Uses the technique of visualization as an example, exploring ways of teaching students to use the technique and ways of assessing it. (MAB)

Miles, Curtis

1994-01-01

351

Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.

BY Uys

2005-09-01

352

Thinking in English: A New Perspective on Teaching ESL  

Science.gov (United States)

"Thinking in English" represents Dr. Muciaccia's unique method of teaching English to non-native English speakers. Unlike any other English as a Second Language (ESL) book, Muciaccia's book features the "cultural immersion" approach that he has developed and practiced to a fine degree. In addition to his methodology, Muciaccia includes words of…

Muciaccia, John B.

2011-01-01

353

Episodic future thinking in children compared to adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Episodic thinking involves the ability to re-create past and to construct future personal events, which contain event-specific (episodic) and general (semantic) details. The richness of episodic thought for past events improves as children move into adolescence. The current study aims to examine changes in episodic future thinking and to establish the cognitive underpinning of these changes. Typically developing children (n = 14) and adolescents (n = 15) were tested using an adapted version of the Child Autobiographical Interview (CAI) that required generation of past and future personally relevant events. Relational memory and executive skills were also examined. Significant developmental gains were found in richness of events recall across temporal directions (past and future) and across different types of details (episodic and semantic). Developmental gains in richness of past events were also shown to correspond to developmental gains in generation of future events. Moreover, developmental changes in relational memory and (to a lesser extent) executive functions were found to relate to increases in the amount of episodic (but not semantic) details provided. Our study highlighted the similarities between past and future episodic thinking in typically developing children and adolescents. It also raises a possibility that children with developmental and neurological disorders with impaired relational memory and/or executive skills may be at risk of difficulties with episodic thinking. PMID:24070495

Gott, Chloe; Lah, Suncica

2014-09-01

354

Effects of the Use of Thinking through Geography Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Expressing the desire that geography should be a more challenging subject that helps pupils to become better learners, a group of academic geographers and geography teachers from northeast England developed teaching strategies to stimulate pupils to think through geography. Teachers in England and the Netherlands report that these strategies are…

van der Schee, Joop; Leat, David; Vankan, Leon

2006-01-01

355

The Influence of Lawyers, Legal Language and Legal Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts to summarize the impact that lawyers, legal language and legal thinking have had on the contemporary practice of industrial psychology; clarifies what for an increasing number of psychologists has become the very trying experience of a Title VII court procedding. (Author/RK)

Sharf, James C.

1976-01-01

356

Continuum Thinking and the Contexts of Personal Information Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Recent personal information management literature has underlined the significance of the contextuality of personal information and its use. The present article discusses the applicability of the records continuum model and its generalisation, continuum thinking, as a theoretical framework for explicating the overlap and evolution of…

Huvila, Isto; Eriksen, Jon; Häusner, Eva-Maria; Jansson, Ina-Maria

2014-01-01

357

The Relationship of the World Wide Web to Thinking Skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses use of the World Wide Web in education and its possibilities for developing higher order critical thinking skills to successfully deal with the demands of the future information society. Suggests that teachers need to provide learning environments that are learner-centered, authentic, problem-based, and collaborative. (Contains 61…

Bradshaw, Amy C.; Bishop, Jeanne L.; Gens, Linda S.; Miller, Sharla L.; Rogers, Martha A.

2002-01-01

358

Peirce, Pragmatism, and the Right Way of Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is a summary of and commentary on (a) the seven lectures that C. S. Peirce presented in 1903 on pragmatism and (b) a commentary by P. A. Turrisi, both of which are included in Pragmatism as a Principle and Method of Right Thinking: The 1903 Ha...

P. L. Campbell

2011-01-01

359

Think or blink --- is the recognition heuristic an ``intuitive'' strategy?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several approaches to judgment and decision making emphasize the effort-reducing properties of heuristics. One prominent example for effort-reduction is the recognition heuristic (RH which proposes that judgments are made by relying on one single cue (recognition, ignoring other information. Our research aims to shed light on the conditions under which the RH is more useful and thus relied on more often. We propose that intuitive thinking is fast, automatic, and effortless whereas deliberative thinking is slower, stepwise, and more effortful. Because effort-reduction is thus much more important when processing information deliberately, we hypothesize that the RH should be more often relied on in such situations. In two city-size-experiments, we instructed participants to think either intuitively or deliberatively and assessed use of the RH through a formal measurement model. Results revealed that, in both experiments, use of the RH was more likely when judgments were to be made deliberatively, rather than intuitively. As such, we conclude that the potential application of heuristics is not necessarily a consequence of ``intuitive'' processing. Rather, their effort-reducing features are probably most beneficial when thinking more deliberatively.

Benjamin E. Hilbig

2010-07-01

360

Thinking and Acting as a Great Programme Manager  

CERN Document Server

This book is based on research into programme management competence conducted by Cranfield School of Management and SP Associates. It brings cutting-edge thinking on a subject of great relevance to professionals and senior managers, providing useful advice on the practice of programme management, and the performance of that role in organizations.

Pellegrinelli, Sergio

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Dichotomous Thinking Leads to Entity Theories of Human Ability  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has indicated that dichotomous thinkers have stereotypic and rigid views of others. This study focuses on the world-view of dichotomous thinkers from the perspective of entity vs. incremental theory. Study 1 explored the relationship between dichotomous thinking and the IPTM (implicit person theory measure) (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong,…

Oshio, Atsushi

2012-01-01

362

Strategic Planning and Strategic Thinking Clothed in STRATEGO  

Science.gov (United States)

This article shares experiences that participants had playing the game of STRATEGO and how the activity may be linked to strategic planning and thinking. Among the human performance technology implications of playing this game are that gamers agreed on a framework for rules, took stock on where they wanted to go in the future, and generated a risk…

Baaki, John; Moseley, James L.

2011-01-01

363

How Literature Learning Shapes Thinking in Secondary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines, in a five-year ethnographic study in secondary schools, issues of how literature learning shapes thinking. Follows 10 students from their English classes into their academic classes over their high school careers. Analyzes literacy events in their literature and content-area classes, including how literacy events functioned and what they…

Miller, Suzanne M.

1998-01-01

364

Teamwork Seminar Practice to Foster Diversified Thinking and Leadership Among Students  

Science.gov (United States)

A new course entitled “Mechanical Engineering Seminar” has begun in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mie University. This course consists of three parts, a teamwork seminar, a creative design seminar and a comprehensive achievement examination. Its aim is to foster a broad social and international outlook, ethical thinking, autonomy, partnership, leadership, presentation ability, originality, overall creativity in students, and to help them become aware of their real ability. The teaching method used in this seminar is based on problem-based learning (PBL) , and pro-active student participation is required. The purpose of this paper is to report the features, teaching method and educational effectiveness of the teamwork seminar, which seeks to educate students with a broad, diversified outlook. The results of a student questionnaire show that these new fields of study stimulate students' will to learn, and they express general satisfaction with the seminar.

Maruyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Kazumi; Yamao, Hidenori

365

MEDITATE TO CREATE: THE IMPACT OF FOCUSSED-ATTENTION AND OPEN-MONITORING TRAINING ON CONVERGENT AND DIVERGENT THINKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practice of meditation has seen a tremendous increase in the western world since the 60s. Scientific interest in meditation has also significantly grown in the past years; however, so far, it has neglected the idea that different type of meditations may drive specific cognitive-control states. In this study we investigate the possible impact of meditation based on focused attention (FA and meditation based on open monitoring (OM on creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking. Here we show that FA meditation and OM meditation exert specific effect on creativity. First, OM meditation induces a control state that promotes divergent thinking, a style of thinking that allows many new ideas of being generated. Second, FA meditation does not sustain convergent thinking, the process of generating one possible solution to a particular problem. We suggest that the enhancement of positive mood induced by meditating has boosted up the effect in the first case and counteract it in the second.

LorenzaSColzato

2012-04-01

366

The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R. Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.

Vuk?evi? Branimir

2010-01-01

367

Mathematics Teachers’ Interpretation of Higher-Order Thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy  

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Full Text Available This study investigated mathematics teachers’ interpretation of higher-order thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Thirty-two high school mathematics teachers from the southeast U.S. were asked to (a define lower- and higher-order thinking, (b identify which thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy represented lower- and higher-order thinking, and (c create an Algebra I final exam item representative of each thinking skill. Results indicate that mathematics teachers have difficulty interpreting the thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy and creating test items for higher-order thinking. Alternatives to using Bloom’s Taxonomy to help mathematics teachers assess for higher-order thinking are discussed.

Tony Thompson

2008-07-01

368

Examining patterns of change in the critical thinking skills of graduate nursing students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although critical thinking in undergraduate nursing education has been explored in depth, little is known about the critical thinking skills of graduate nursing students. Prior research on change in critical thinking scores is based primarily on pretest and posttest assessments that provide minimal information about change. This study used individual growth modeling to investigate how critical thinking skills change during a 2-year graduate nurse program. Scores from the evaluation, inference, and analysis subscales of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test comprised the empirical growth record. Change in the three critical thinking skills was more dynamic than that reported in previous studies. Patterns of change differed by critical thinking skill and in relation to students' initial critical thinking skill levels at program entry. PMID:19552317

McMullen, Maureen A; McMullen, William F

2009-06-01

369

Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ideals of OBE?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One of the cornerstones of the Outcomes-based approach adopted by the South African education and training sector is the so-called Critical Outcomes. Included as one of these outcomes is the ability of learners to identify and solve problems, using creative and critical thinking. Underpinned by the [...] Critical Outcomes, Outcomes-based Education (OBE) was introduced in South African schools in 1997. It can therefore be argued that the critical thinking abilities of the cohort of first-year students who entered higher education institutions in 2006 were challenged somewhere in their school careers. Based on this assumption, a group of first-year education students were required to complete the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) to gauge their critical thinking abilities. The results obtained by this means are discussed and some suggestions made to address the way forward with regard to development of learners' critical thinking abilities.

Lombard, Kobus; Grosser, Mary.

370

The "California Critical Thinking Skills Test" and the National League for Nursing Accreditation Requirement in Critical Thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Criterion 20 of the National League for Nursing's accreditation process requires documentation of critical thinking (CT) as an outcome of nursing education. This raises two questions: What is meant by CT? and How can it be measured? Building on a consensus construct of CT as articulated in the American Philosophical Association 1990 Delphi Report,…

Facione, Noreen C.; Facione, Peter A.

371

"I Never Know What I Think Until I See What I Say," Saul Bellow. (Honing Critical Thinking Skills through Writing).  

Science.gov (United States)

A compilation of program ideas and related newspaper articles, cartoons, and visual aids, this booklet describes the objectives and procedure for the implementation of a pilot program at Frank W. Cox High School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, that emphasizes ethics education and the value of writing as a means to promote critical thinking. The first…

Hallock, Sylvia M.; Downie, Susan L.

372

Creativity in Maths  

Science.gov (United States)

In this 1-hour video, author Derak Haylock lectures preservice elementary teachers on recognizing and encouraging creativity in mathematics. He discusses the role of flexibility in breaking rigid mind sets and suggests strategies for fostering divergent thinking, fluency, originality, and appropriateness. He discusses performance attainment vs. creativity and cites qualities associated with creativity in children.

2010-01-01

373

A Week in Creativity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author recounts a week in October, describing her teaching, writing, thinking, mail, and other activities that relate to her professional and personal work on creativity. This personal creative nonfiction piece also contains poetry and references to her books and lectures. The author chose this form in order to emphasize the autobiographical nature of work in the area of creativity.

Jane Piirto

2012-12-01

374

A case study about supporting the development of thinking by means of ICT and concretisation tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Improving learning and thinking in school has been an objective of the educational community for a long time. Computer applications and especially mind tools can be helpful in reaching this objective. Control software that operates a connected physical micro world and is used as a kind of mind tool, delivers possibilities to develop and support learning and thinking of pupils in school. We studied pupils' thinking behaviour (thinking skills and habits of mind) by analysing the progressi...

Slangen, Lou; Fanchamps, Nardie; Kommers, Piet

2008-01-01

375

Think tanks: their development, global diversity and roles in international affairs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The London-based Royal United Services Institute, one of the oldest continuously existing think tanks in the world, is celebrating the 180th anniversary of its founding this year. Other British and American think tanks with a focus on international affairs have been popping up for the past hundred years or so and have strong global reputations. Think tanks have not remained a British or American phenomenon. Rather, thousands of think tanks have been founded in many other parts of the world...

Köllner; Patrick; Giga, German Institute Of Global And Area Studies-leibniz-institut Fu?r Globale Und Regionale Studien

2011-01-01

376

Strategic thinking in the context of the future designer psychology professional demand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presented analysis of the design, as actual professional activity. Re¬view of the studies is given in the field of psychologies of the thinking, strategic thinking. Motivated need of designing vocational training in the field of design with standpoint of the development of the design thinking future designer. The cho-senned particularities of the manifestation of the strategic thinking beside designer in accordance with re-quirements of the state standard to master of the design

Valentina Chernyavskaya

2013-09-01

377

Critical thinking dispositions and skills of senior nursing students in associate, baccalaureate, and RN-to-BSN programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the critical thinking dispositions and skills of senior nursing students. Study participants were students enrolled in associate (n = 137), baccalaureate (n = 102), and RN-to-BSN (n = 66) programs accredited by the Korean Ministry of Education. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) and California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) were used. A comparison of the CCTDI scores revealed a statistically significant difference between the students enrolled in different programs (F = 4.159, p = 0.017), as did a comparison of the CCTST scores (F = 24.205, p < 0.0001). Within the total sample (n = 305), the relationship between CCTDI and CCTST scores was significant (r = 0.305, p = 0.000). Developments in medical technology, the growing number of older adults and patients with chronic illnesses, and the demand for high-quality nursing care have led to various, increasingly complex, professional, legal, and educational issues within the nursing workplace. Therefore, nurses need creativity and critical thinking skills to make the decisions required of them in their nursing practice. In line with this, when conducting a survey of the effectiveness of nursing education, the necessity of critical thinking skills cannot be overlooked. In fact, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC) (1999) and American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) (1998) require the concept of critical thinking be included as one of the core elements of curricula and that it be measured as an outcome when evaluating nursing education. In 1998, during the evaluation of colleges of nursing conducted by the South Korean Council for University Education, several universities presented the fostering of critical thinking as one of the terminal learning goals of nursing education based on the idea that critical thinking is important not only in the nursing workplace, but also in nursing education. To evaluate the effectiveness of Korea's current nursing education curriculum, focus was placed on current students in South Korea's three systems of nursing education. Each curriculum's effectiveness can be evaluated by indexing critical thinking dispositions and skills. This article intends to offer insight into the first steps necessary in reorganizing nursing education by comparing these evaluations of each of the three systems. To this end, we conducted a comparative study of the critical thinking dispositions and skills of students in 3-year associate degree (ADN), 4-year baccalaureate (BSN), and 5-year RN-to-BSN programs. The RN-to-BSN program requires students to finish a separate 2-year program after the initial 3-year ADN program. PMID:16780012

Shin, Kyungrim; Jung, Duk Yoo; Shin, Sujin; Kim, Myoung Soo

2006-06-01

378

WebQuests: Can They Be Used To Improve Critical Thinking Skills in Students?  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses WebQuest, an inquiry-oriented Web-based classroom learning tool, in terms of its applicability to classroom learning situations, particularly its ability to inspire critical thinking. Compares WebQuest to a critical thinking framework to determine its effectiveness in inspiring critical thinking skills. (Author/LRW)

Vidoni, Kimberly L.; Maddux, Cleborne D.

2002-01-01

379

Exploring the Structure of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal: One Scale or Many Subscales?  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical thinking (CT) has been of longstanding interest among scholars, educators, and others who are concerned with thinking skills. The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) is the oldest and among the most widely used and studied CT measure. It was constructed around five subscales (or CT skills): inference, recognition of…

Bernard, Robert M.; Zhang, Dai; Abrami, Philip C.; Sicoly, Fiore; Borokhovski, Evgueni; Surkes, Michael A.

2008-01-01

380

Critical Thinking in Political Science: Evidence from the Introductory Comparative Politics Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Political Science programs have long seen part of their mission as the cultivation of "critical thinking" among their undergraduates. But what exactly does critical thinking mean in our Political Science courses? Can we foster critical thinking in our classes and, if so, how? This article, based on a yearlong systematic study of an introductory…

Olsen, Jonathan; Statham, Anne

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Graph/Chart Interpretation and Reading Comprehension as Critical Thinking Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

In contemporary academic literature and in many national curricula, there is a widespread acceptance that critical thinking should be an important dimension of Education. Teachers and researchers recognize the importance of developing students critical thinking, but there are still great difficulties in defining and assessing critical-thinking

Malamitsa, Katerina; Kokkotas, Panagiotis; Kasoutas, Michael

2008-01-01

382

Using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test in Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Critical Thinking Skills Test: College Level (CCTST) is a standardized test that targets core college-level critical thinking skills. It has been characterized as the best commercially available critical thinking skills assessment instrument. Building from CCTST validation studies in 1989 and 1990, this paper proposes avenues for…

Facione, Peter A.

383

Critical Thinking Skills of Baccalaureate Nursing Students at Program Entry and Exit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The critical-thinking skills and dispositions of 38 nursing students were measured at entry and graduation using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test and Dispositions Inventory. Nursing curriculum significantly improved critical-thinking abilities, especially evaluation and inductive reasoning. Dispositions also improved. (SK)

Thompson, Cesarina; Rebeschi, Lisa M.

1999-01-01

384

Teaching Creativity to Business Students: How Well Are We Doing?  

Science.gov (United States)

As calls for enhancing the ability of business students to think creatively and develop innovative goods and services have become universal, researchers in the area of creativity have expressed concerns that the U.S. educational system may not foster creative thinking. The authors' research is based on a sample of 442 undergraduate business…

Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

2014-01-01

385

Justifying the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criteria for the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools that allow educators to justifywhat they do are described within a wider framework of learning theory and research into bestpractice. Based on a meta-analysis of best practice, results from a three year project designedto evaluate the effectiveness of a secondary school literacy initiative in New Zealand, togetherwith recent research from cognitive and neuro-psychologists, it is argued that the design andselection of literacy and thinking tools used in elementary schools should be consistent with (iteaching focused (ii learner focused, (iii thought linked (iv neurologically consistent, (vsubject specific, (vi text linked, (vii developmentally appropriate, and (viii assessment linkedcriteria.

David Whitehead

2008-10-01

386

Advancing socio-technical systems thinking: a call for bravery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-technical systems thinking has predominantly been applied to the domains of new technology and work design over the past 60 years. Whilst it has made an impact, we argue that we need to be braver, encouraging the approach to evolve and extend its reach. In particular, we need to: extend our conceptualization of what constitutes a system; apply our thinking to a much wider range of complex problems and global challenges; and engage in more predictive work. To illustrate our agenda in novel domains, we provide examples of socio-technical perspectives on the management of crowd events and environmental sustainability. We also outline a research and development agenda to take the area forward. PMID:23664481

Davis, Matthew C; Challenger, Rose; Jayewardene, Dharshana N W; Clegg, Chris W

2014-03-01

387

Nietzsche’s Thinking in Relationship with the Aesthetical  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper debates the new theories of philosophical and aesthetical discourse by applying them to Nietzsche’s thinking on art. The article consists of four general subjects, each of them focusing on an essential part of Nietzsche’s special relationship to art: 1 Art generated by the philosophical text itself, through the form of the fragment; 2 The artistic relationship as an interdisciplinary ground for philosophical knowledge of the world (especially as applied in Nietzsche’s and Schopenhauer’s work; 3 A critical debate on Wolfgang Welsch’s theory about the interdisciplinary aspects of the philosophical and aesthetic discourse; 4 The backgrounds of Nietzsche’s aesthetics project explained in Claus Zittel’s theory on Nietzsche’s “aesthetic turn.” Thus, Nietzsche’s thinking is defined as a relationist project, emphasizing the “self-destruction dy- namic” of his aesthetical perspectivism.

Stefan Maftei

2003-04-01

388

Evaluation of critical thinking outcomes of a BSN program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following a curriculum revision, which emphasized critical thinking, a school of nursing selected the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) as a standardized outcomes measure for its bachelor's of science in nursing (BSN) program. Students in three tracks of the program were administered the CCTST on entry into the nursing curriculum and again on exit. Paired t tests for dependent samples were used to analyze pretest-posttest differences of all students (N = 136) in the program. Results for students in each of the three tracks demonstrated significantly improved (P < or = .05) CCTST scores on all subscales and total scores, with one exception. RN to BSN students' scores on the Analysis subscale approached but did not reach significance (P = .058). Implications for evaluation are discussed. PMID:12120108

Spelic, S S; Parsons, M; Hercinger, M; Andrews, A; Parks, J; Norris, J

2001-04-01

389

Stakeholder Thinking in Sustainability Management : The Case of Novozymes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose â?? The objective of the paper is to describe and discuss how the biotech company Novozymes integrates stakeholder thinking into everyday sustainability practices. Design/methodology/approach â?? The paper is based on first-hand experiences as well as secondary information from Novozymes' stakeholder-oriented sustainability activities. Findings â?? The paper illustrates how a company is striving to transform the general stakeholder principles into concrete, manageable actions. Moreover, the paper describes some of the needs, challenges, and paradoxes experienced by an organisation that is trying to make sense of stakeholder thinking. Originality/value â?? The contribution of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how various stakeholder relations management methods can be used in practice to integrate sustainability in an organisation.

Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Hove Henriksen, Morten

2013-01-01

390

Surrey Think Tank – Reconceptualising Visiting Friends & Relatives (VFR) Travel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper summarizes the major outcomes of the Surrey Tourism Research Center’s “Reconceptualising Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR Travel)” think tank held on July 13th 2013, at the University of Surrey in Guildford, U.K. This conference communication will briefly highlight the context, approach and main discussion themes of the event. In addition, it will summarize the implications and key outcomes, leading to the identification of further research topics.

Palovic, Z.; Kam, S.; Janta, H.; Cohen, Sa; Williams, A.

2014-01-01

391

The billion dollar paperclip think smarter about your data  

CERN Document Server

Inspired by the human mind, the new field of contextual analytics is revolutionizing how data and technology can empower everyday business decisions. The information to make your business more profitable is likely available to you, but either dormant or disconnected from your decision making process. Explore how to think smarter about your data and discover how to deliver maximum value in The Billion Dollar Paperclip.

Short, Gregory

2014-01-01

392

Designing Innovation: Prototypes and Team Performance in Design Thinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates design thinking innovation teams working on three different innovation tasks: business model innovation, service innovation, and product innovation. Each task involves the generation of many prototypes, one of which needs to be selected as the final prototype. Further, one of the teams collaborated through virtual collaboration. By measuring both subjective and objective performances of the teams, we compared the different innovation tasks and their impact on design th...

Christophe Vetterli; Friederike Hoffmann; Walter Brenner; Eppler, Martin J.; Falk Uebernickel

2012-01-01

393

Rumination, experiential avoidance, and dysfunctional thinking in eating disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The majority of research in eating disorders (ED) has investigated the content of disorder-specific thoughts, while few studies have addressed underlying cognitive-affective processes. A better understanding of processes underpinning ED may have important implications for treatment development. Two studies were conducted that investigated levels of rumination, beliefs about rumination, experiential avoidance, and aspects of schematic thinking in individuals with eating pathology. The latter w...

Rawal, Adhip; Park, Rebecca J.; Williams, J. Mark G.

2010-01-01

394

A tool for thought! When comparative thinking reduces stereotyping effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stereotypes have pervasive, robust, and often unwanted effects on how people see and behave towards others. Undoing these effects has proven to be a daunting task. Two studies demonstrate that procedurally priming participants to engage in comparative thinking with a generalized focus on differences reduces behavioral and judgmental stereotyping effects. In Study 1, participants who were procedurally primed to focus on differences sat closer to a skinhead – a member of a negatively stereoty...

Corcoran, Katja; Hundhammer, Tanja; Mussweiler, Thomas

2009-01-01

395

A tool for thought! When comparative thinking reduces stereotyping effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Stereotypes have pervasive, robust, and often unwanted effects on how people see and behave towards others. Undoing these effects has proven to be a daunting task. Two studies demonstrate that procedurally priming participants to engage in comparative thinking with a generalized focus on differences reduces behavioral and judgmental stereotyping effects. In Study 1, participants who were procedurally primed to focus on differences sat closer to a skinhead – a member of a...

2009-01-01

396

On the definition of the concepts thinking, consciousness, and conscience.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A complex system (CS) is defined as a set of elements, with connections between them, singled out of the environment, capable of getting information from the environment, capable of making decisions (i.e., of choosing between alternatives), and having purposefulness (i.e., an urge towards preferable states or other goals). Thinking is a process that takes place (or which can take place) in some of the CS and consists of (i) receiving information from the environment (and from itself), (ii) me...

Monin, A. S.

1992-01-01

397

Thinking after Fukushima. Epistemic shift in social sciences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Fukushima catastrophe is a turning point in the conception, role and management of technology in industrial societies. As did Hiroshima (on another dimension) after 1945, the Fukushima's nuclear accident questions and transforms established conceptions and values concerning the relations between technology, politics, industry, society and the environment. It has become impossible to think after Fukushima as we did before. This catastrophe initiates a major epistemic and conceptual shift w...

Rieu, Alain-marc

2013-01-01

398

Oracle ThinkQuest Library Security Issue Clean-up  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the Internet evolves and security attacks become more sophisticated, security has become one of the most challenging issues for website development and maintenance. Oracle Education Foundation (OEF funded by Oracle Corporation) maintains 7000 websites in ThinkQuest Library. These websites are developed by elementary school students, with PHP, Perl, and MySQL technologies. Because they have insufficient knowledge in website security, their websites may contain security issues and are hard f...

Liu, Hao

2010-01-01

399

Life Cycle Thinking and Waste Policy : Between Science and Society  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the application of life cycle thinking (LCT) and life cycle assessment (LCA) in the field of waste management from perspectives based in the social sciences. LCT is explored through the theoretical construct of regimes, drawing theoretical resources from a combination of the ‘pragmatic turn’, the economics of conventions and transition theory.This work is based on eight papers treating theoretical arguments, qualitative and quantitative analysis, case studies and s...

Lazarevic, David

2012-01-01

400

Thinking in English a new perspective on teaching ESL  

CERN Multimedia

Thinking in English represents Dr. Muciaccia's unique method of teaching English to non-native English speakers. Unlike any other English as a Second Language (ESL) book, Muciaccia's book features the "cultural immersion" approach that he has developed and practiced to a fine degree. In addition to his methodology, Muciaccia includes words of encouragement and reviews from people who have benefited from his approach to teaching and learning English.

Muciaccia, John B

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Educar, dialogar y pensar / Educate, dialog and think  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo presenta argumentos para comprender las dificultades de los docentes al comunicarse en condiciones de crisis. Su finalidad es aportar ideas que relacionen la triada: educar, pensar y dialogar; para conseguirlo, muestra qué entender por cada uno de sus elementos. Así mismo, presenta rela [...] ciones que siguen al inclinarse por los principios epistemológicos: identidad, dialéctico y dialógico. La intención última es abrir paso a una forma de educar distinta a explicar, emitir comunicados o desdeńar estudiantes: dialogar y pensar. El énfasis está puesto en debatir con el sentido común vigente que contrapone maniqueamente, por ejemplo, moderno versus tradicional. Sus conclusiones pretenden mover al compromiso con la utopía, al educar-pensar-dialogar. Enseguida se plantean problemas, no se ofrecen certezas: se problematizan las relaciones existentes entre educar-dialogar-pensar y se ofrecen algunas propuestas para pensarlas y, en su caso, retomarlas. Abstract in english This article presents arguments in order to understand better the difficulties that the teachers experience when communicating in crisis conditions. It aims to offer ideas able to establish connections between the triad educate, think and dialogue; to do so, it shows what each of those terms mean, a [...] nd then presents the relations that ensuefrom leaning on the following epistemologicalprinciples: identity, dialectical and dialogical. The final purpose is to pave the way towards a different way to educate that does not exclusively explains, issue releases or despise students. The emphasis is put on struggling with the in force common sense that opposes in a black-and-white setting, for instance, modern vs. traditional. The conclusions have as purpose to motivate to a certain commitment towards Utopia, to the triad educate-think-dialog. The article presents problems and does not offer certainty, since it challenges the existing relations between educate, dialog and think and offer some proposals to think about them and, if necessary, to take them up again.

Ibarra Rivas, Luis Rodolfo.

402

Thinking in action: Some insights from cognitive sport psychology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically, cognitive researchers have largely ignored the domain of sport in their quest to understand how the mind works. This neglect is due, in part, to the limitations of the information processing paradigm that dominated cognitive psychology in its formative years. With the emergence of the embodiment approach to cognition, however, sport has become a dynamic natural laboratory in which to investigate the relationship between thinking and skilled action. Therefore, the purpose of this...

Moran, Aidan P.

2012-01-01

403

Elaborating on systems thinking in health promotion practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Health and well-being are the result of a series of complex processes in which an individual interacts with other people and the environment. A systematic approach ensures incorporation of individual, ecological, social and political factors. However, interactions between these factors can be overlooked within a systematical approach. A systemic approach can provide additional information by incorporating interactions and communication. The opportunities of a systems thinking perspective for ...

Naaldenberg, J.; Vaandrager, L.; Koelen, M. A.; Wagemakers, A.; Dehoog, C.

2009-01-01

404

Reading Strategies to Develop Higher Thinking Skills for Reading Comprehension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports an action research project which examined the foreign language reading comprehension of public school eighth graders who experienced a directed reading-thinking approach with strategies for comprehension and application. The strategies used were prediction, prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and questions. Data analyzed included participants’ perceptions of the usefulness of the strategies and students’ work on the graphic organizers and reading worksheets. Findings s...

2010-01-01

405

Should or should not forensic psychiatrists think about free will?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The forensic psychiatrist's task is often considered to be tightly connected to the concept of free will. Yet, there is also a lack of clarity about the role of the concept of free will in forensic psychiatry. Recently, Morse has argued that forensic psychiatrists should not mention free will in their reports or testimonies, and, moreover, that they should not even think about free will. Starting from a discussion on Morse's claims, I will develop my own view on how forensic psychiatrists are...

2009-01-01

406

Learning System Thinking : The role of semiotic and cognitive resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the course of our educational life we are introduced to various subject areas, each with its specific way of representing knowledge. The challenge for the learner is to be able to think in ways that are supported by, and match, the representational format. A fundamental question for the science of learning concerns how this is achieved. In this thesis, it will be argued that by observing individuals collaboratively constructing their own graphic representations in a subject area that is ne...

2009-01-01

407

Introducing pupils to theoretical thinking: the case of algebra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the theoretical framework of Vygotsky's theory, the paper presents a teaching experiment concerning the introduction of pupils to algebraic theoretical thinking. Starting from the results of a previous study project concerning the use of Cabrě Gčométre to introduce pupils to geometry theory, the experiment is based on the use a algebra microworld "L'Algebrista". Outlines of the classroom experimentation are followed by the analysis of some protocols, according the Vygotskian...

2002-01-01

408

ADaPPT: Enterprise Architecture Thinking for Information Systems Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enterprises have architecture: whether it is visible or invisible is another matter. An enterprises' architecture determines the way in which it works to deliver its business objectives and the way in which it can change to continue to meet its evolving business objectives. Enterprise architectural thinking can facilitate effective strategic planning and information systems development. This paper reviews enterprise architecture (EA) and its concepts. It briefly considers EA frameworks. It de...

Hanifa Shah; Paul Golder

2011-01-01

409

Interview - The thinking of J. A. Samaranch i Torrelló  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to keep the life and works of J.A. Samaranch alive in the memory of the Olympic section of the Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, the Editorial Committee has decided to recover a previously unpublished interview from the fieldwork of lecturer Ma José Martinez-Patińo. The interview gives an insight into the thinking of our close friend on subjects which still continue to represent a model of Olympic thought today.

Marti?nez Patin?o, Mari?a Jose?; Pe?rez Turpin, Jose? Antonio

2011-01-01

410

Interview - The thinking of J. A. Samaranch i Torrelló  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to keep the life and works of J.A. Samaranch alive in the memory of the Olympic section of the Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, the Editorial Committee has decided to recover a previously unpublished interview from the fieldwork of lecturer MŞ José Martinez-Patińo. The interview gives an insight into the thinking of our close friend on subjects which still continue to represent a model of Olympic thought today.

MŞ JOSÉ MARTÍNEZ-PATIŃO

2011-06-01

411

Thinking Between Cultures. Pragmatism, Rorty and Intercultural Philosophy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses Rorty’s critique and special relation to intercultural thinking. It looks into the history of both pragmatism and intercultural philosophy, discusses some of their possible points of convergence, and finally follows the implications of this encounter for our intercultural understanding of Rorty’s version of pragmatism, especially in the context of a contemporary North-South intercultural dialogue.

Lenart Skof

2008-12-01

412

Thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profle (NBPP) and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The researcher...

Herbst, Tessie H.; Maree, Kobus G.

2008-01-01

413

Thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profile (NBPP) and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The res...

Herbst, H. H.; Maree, Kobus; Maree, J. G.

2008-01-01

414

Design Thinking and Participation: Lessons Learned from Three Case Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines how design thinking and serious games approaches can be used to support participation through the analysis of three case studies. Indeed we will analyze these approaches in three different contexts: (i) a state-owned multi-utilities company; (ii) a political party; (iii) an information system strategic committee. Our analysis framework relies on the concepts of "perceived usefulness" and "perceived ease of use" and we will use it to discuss the lessons learned. Our main fi...

Glassey, Olivier; Morin, Jean-henry; Genoud, Patrick; Pauletto, Giorgio

2011-01-01

415

Thinking FORTH: a language and philosophy for solving problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thinking Forth is a book about the philosophy of problem solving and programming style, applied to the unique programming language Forth. Published first in 1984, it could be among the timeless classics of computer books, such as Fred Brooks' The Mythical Man-Month and Donald Knuth's The Art of Computer Programming. Many software engineering principles discussed here have been rediscovered in eXtreme Programming, including (re)factoring, modularity, bottom-up and incremental design. Here you'...

Brodie, Leo

2004-01-01

416

Blue burner: how the oil crisis changed our thinking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil crises that occurred during the 70s shook the world into thinking about how we are utilizing disposable energy resources. For example, investigations into industrial oil consumption have revealed that unsuitable methods of firing, lack of control, inadequate burner equipment, obsolete furnaces, etc. all contribute to unnecessarily high oil usage. This led to the development of the more-efficient Blue Burner, which is ready for commercialization. 2 figures, 1 table.

Moeller, L.

1981-01-01

417

First Year ESL Students Developing Critical Thinking: Challenging the Stereotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reporting a case study of two high-achieving Chinese students studying at a university in Hong Kong, this paper presents evidence that poses an anti-thesis to the stereotypes of first year university students as holding naďve beliefs about learning and of ‘Chinese learners’ as lacking in critical thinking. Many studies have examined Chinese students’ learning experiences within local educational contexts, yet we know very little what beliefs individual Chinese ESL students hold abou...

Yongyan Li

2013-01-01

418

Collective Innovation Practice through User-centred Design Thinking  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Establishing a collective innovative practice within a value chain is vital as competition often takes place between supply chains rather than individual companies (Lambert, 2006). This requires new new innovative approaches and an adaptive learning culture (Tyre and von Hippel 1997). User driven innovation has added significant aspects to the field of innovation management (e.g. Chesbrough, 2003) and companies can innovate with user collaboration or amplified notion of user together with hybrid collaborative constellations and new ways of working (von Hippel 2005). This paper examines how design thinking with its principles and mind-set can facilitate a common and collaborative effort within a value chain towards a joint innovative practice. Design thinking is unfolded through existing literature and itâ??s virtue as a facilitating and joining approach is tested through the application within the research project Innodoors. It is concluded user-centred material through the video media can enable practitioners from a value chain to establish a common understanding of innovation paths â?? potential directions for innovation. In addition it is concluded that design thinking can be adapted by practitioners with little or none design experience and thereby be applied in a collaborative and innovative setting.

Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

2012-01-01

419

'Think Baby': online learning for student health visitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Think Baby' is an innovative online learning resource which has been developed to help student health visitors (and other specialist community public health nurses) build their skills in observing and assessing mother-infant interactions. The project's development and pilot work was funded by a small grant from the Higher Education Academy. It builds on the findings of the team's previous research, which found health visitors' initial training had left them ill-prepared to assess the intricacies of mother-infant relationships. The 'Think Baby' project sought to develop online training resources for student health visitors using video footage of mothers and babies to illustrate different types of interactions. A small group of student health visitors were engaged in reviewing and evaluating the materials and considering their acceptability. Once developed, the materials were piloted with student health visitors from three universities, community practice teachers and a health visitor academic, and they were then adapted for wider roll out. 'Think Baby' enables student health visitors to develop their core skills in assessment, which is really important in identifying when early help and support are needed for mothers and infants. PMID:24974552

Appleton, Jane V; Harris, Margaret; Kelly, Cat; Huppe, Irmgard

2014-06-01

420

A NEW THINKING FOR A NEW WORLD. REPRESENTATIONS FROM ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An incursion, even a succinct one, incomplete, in the universal history, in the world economic history and not in the least in the real world gives more and more credit to the idea according to which the movement is the main form of existence- working and evolution- of the society, economy, and of all the structures they are made of. Its "force motrice", its internal cause is represented, in our opinion, the unity and interaction of opposites. The changes, the transformations taking place in society and in its economy have direct or indirect authors the human beings who, using their minds, "leaven bread" and express at the beginning through thinking, the objectives that are going to complete or lessen reality. The positive changes and transformations that the people operate renew the world. For more than half of a century, the humankind has been in a vast and very complex process of transformation, changes with innovative character. In other words, a process of building a new world. Hence, the need to create a new thinking. "A new thinking for a new world" Making a halt in the field of economy -theory, science and practice - we are trying to bring to attention to those interested a few considerations concerning the truth value of some paradigms in the theoretical circuit, including their degree of rationality or irrationality.

Negucioiu Aurel

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
421

Constructive thinking, rational intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate rational and experiential intelligence in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS sufferers.METHODS: We recruited 100 subjects with IBS as per Rome II criteria (50 consulters and 50 non-consulters and 100 healthy controls, matched by age, sex and educational level. Cases and controls completed a clinical questionnaire (including symptom characteristics and medical consultation and the following tests: rational-intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition; experiential-intelligence (Constructive Thinking Inventory; personality (NEO personality inventory; psychopathology (MMPI-2, anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory and life events (social readjustment rating scale. Analysis of variance was used to compare the test results of IBS-sufferers and controls, and a logistic regression model was then constructed and adjusted for age, sex and educational level to evaluate any possible association with IBS.RESULTS: No differences were found between IBS cases and controls in terms of IQ (102.0 ± 10.8 vs 102.8 ± 12.6, but IBS sufferers scored significantly lower in global constructive thinking (43.7 ± 9.4 vs 49.6 ± 9.7. In the logistic regression model, global constructive thinking score was independently linked to suffering from IBS [OR 0.92 (0.87-0.97], without significant OR for total IQ.CONCLUSION: IBS subjects do not show lower rational intelligence than controls, but lower experiential intelligence is nevertheless associated with IBS.

Constructive thinking, rational intelligence, irritable bowel syndrome

2009-07-01

422

Development of Reflective Thinking through Distance Teacher Education Programs at AIOU Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study aims to investigate the possibilities of developing reflective thinking among learners through distance education programs. The case of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU Islamabad, Pakistan is examined to achieve this task. The study is based on Mezirow’s theory of reflective thinking, which divides thinking in four categories. The Questionnaire of Reflective Thinking (QRT developed by Kember et al. (2000 based on Mezirow (1991 was administered to 450 AIOU students. The thinking and learning practices of students governed by their habitual actions, understanding, reflection, and critical reflection are statistically examined to meet the research objectives. Findings reveal that AIOU teacher education programs have a stronger tendency to promote understanding and reflective thinking among learners. The need to integrate content for developing critical reflection among learners is highlighted. The study also discovers the significant impacts of students’ job status and previous qualifications on their thinking patterns.

Muhammad Ayub Buzdar

2013-07-01

423

Pensar con el ojo, pensar con la mano = Thinking with your eye, thinking with your hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenDefiniendo Asís Cabrero la arquitectura como un arte visual-utilitario, se remonta a los orígenes de la especie para explicar cuáles son elementos de la consciencia que intervienen en la obra del hombre. La táctica de supervivencia humana se basa en una técnica voluntaria, variable, personal e inventiva, en contraste con el instinto de los demás seres de la naturaleza. A este animal rapaz, cuyo pensamiento está determinado por su sentido de la vista, se le ańade la inteligencia que proviene de la habilidad de la mano para fabricar herramientas. Este animal de órganos intercambiables es capaz de especializarse con cada una de las herramientas que construye para igualarse a cada uno de los animales especializados. Así, el hombre construye herramientas para hacer frente a una naturaleza variable y cambiante, ya sea un cuchillo, un hacha o un refugio.Siendo la arquitectura causa del sentir óptico, es principalmente el pensamiento útil de la mano el que interviene en la elaboración de la arquitectura. Para Cabrero, la materia se convierte en material a través de la herramienta, para ser aparejado, para poder construir. Son las herramientas las que evolucionan a lo largo de la historia, permaneciendo la materia siempre igual en la naturaleza. Asís Cabrero investiga cinco arquitecturas primitivas relacionadas con cinco materias primeras. Así, estudia la estructura cupular, el dintel, el entramado, la estructura laminar y la estructura desmontable en relación con el uso racional del barro, la piedra, la madera, el ramaje y la piel.La diversa disponibilidad material en la trayectoria profesional de Asís Cabrero, desde el aislamiento de la posguerra a la apertura de los ańos sesenta, hace que podamos establecer diferentes edades en la obra de Francisco de Asís Cabrero según el material y las herramientas que utiliza.Palabras claveFrancisco Cabrero, arquitectura, instrumentos, material, estructura, herramientasAbstractDefining architecture as visual-functional art, Asis Cabrero goes back to the origins of the human species to explain the elements of conscience involved in the work of humankind. Human survival is voluntary, variable, personal and inventive in sharp contrast with the instinct of nature's other species. Humans are intelligent beings whose thinking is determined by their sense of sight, by the ability of their hands to make tools, on top of their predatory nature. This human animal of exchangeable organs is able to specialize himself in the use of tools he makes to be on equal terms with specialized animals. So does man make tools to come face to face with a variable and changing nature, be it a knife, an ax or a shelter.Since Architecture is a product of what your eye sees, it is the functional use of your hand that comes into play in Architectural drawings. According to Cabrero, matter becomes material through tools, to be rigged, to be built. Tools which have evolved over the course of history as matter always remain unchanged in nature. Asís Cabrero has researched five primitive architectures related to five original matters. He has studied the dome structure, the lintel, the framework, the laminated structure and the removable structure in connection with the rational use of clay, stone, wood, branches and skin.The variety of available materials in the professional career of Asís Cabrero, from post-war isolation to the liberalization of the sixties, allow us to set five ages in the work of Francisco de Asís Cabrero according to the material and the tools he uses.Key wordsFrancisco Cabrero, architecture, instruments, material, structure, tools

Juan Manuel Sánchez de la Chica

2013-10-01

424

Systems thinking and science-based controversies for learning, teaching, and collaboration: What do student teachers think?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although recommendations differ, groups as diverse as the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future and the Fordham Foundation agree that the traditional system of teacher preparation is inadequate (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Finn, Kanstoroom, & Petrilli, 1999). Reviews of research on how teachers learn to teach reveal the importance of using preservice teachers' beliefs as the basis for building better pedagogic practices and providing opportunities for collaboration and systemic, consistent support (Wideen, Mayer-Smith, & Moon, 1998). The need for system-wide improvement is reflected in calls for aligning teacher education with K-12 reform, bringing coherence to components of teacher education programs, and coordinating teacher preparation and professional development (Goodlad, 1994; Lampert & Ball, 1999). In this design study, the paradigm of systems thinking was used to guide a group of 12 preservice teachers with different disciplinary expertise through the process of developing curriculum based on a contemporary controversy, as their culminating project in an interdisciplinary methods course. Data collected by questionnaires, classroom observations, and post-course interviews revealed different values and beliefs related to their personal goals and subject matter expertise, which were reflected in their pedagogic commitments and attitudes towards interdisciplinary teaching and collaboration. In general, they revealed a basic understanding of the nature of systems, but with some important knowledge gaps and alternative conceptions; a range in dynamic thinking skills similar to those of graduate students at MIT, and a mixture of naive and relatively sophisticated understandings about the nature of scientific models. Interviews with five preservice teachers revealed generally positive responses to systems thinking, based on their perceptions that it supports holistic thinking, making connections, and seeking multiple causes and effects in complex problems. Science-based controversies were positively perceived as increasing student motivation, promoting deeper thinking, connecting disciplinary learning with relevant problems, and supporting authentic collaboration with other subject matter teachers. The greater positive responses to controversies may have been influenced by two prior course experiences with controversies. Novices may benefit from multiple encounters with discipline-crossing paradigms and methods, and multiple opportunities for adapting them to disciplinary and interdisciplinary content areas.

Fruland, Ruth M.

425

Think Tanks, saber experto y formación de agenda política en el Chile actual / Think tanks, expert knowledge and political agenda setting in Chile today / Think tanks, conhecimento especializado e definiçăo da agenda política no Chile hoje  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O artigo explora os canais de influęncia dos think tanks no processo de definiçăo de agenda política no Chile. Um esquema de classificaçăopara as organizaçőes no país é proposto, caracterizando as características de grupos de reflexăo acadęmica, a defesa think tanks, grupos de reflexăo e festa contr [...] atothink tanks. Pretende-se descrever o desempenho de diferentes tipos deorganizaçőes, e determinar o papel de especialista em gestăo do conhecimento nadefiniçăo de temas da agenda política. Abstract in spanish El artículo indaga en los canales de influencia de los centros deestudio privados o think tanks en el proceso de formación de agenda política enChile. Un esquema de clasificación para las organizaciones existentes en el país espropuesto, caracterizando los rasgos de centros académicos, centros de ap [...] oyo, centros partidarios y centros de gestión. Se busca describir el desenvolvimiento de lasdistintas organizaciones y determinar el rol de la gestión de saber experto en ladefinición de asuntos para la agenda política. Abstract in english The paper explores the channels of influence of think tanks inthe process of political agenda setting in Chile. A classification scheme fororganizations in the country is proposed, characterizing the features of academicthink tanks, advocacy think tanks, party think tanks and contract think tanks. I [...] tseeks to describe the performance of different types of organizations, and determine the role of knowledge expert management in defining issues of the politicalagenda.

Pablo Pinilla, Juan.

426

Assessing the critical thinking skills of faculty: What do the findings mean for nursing education?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine the critical thinking skills of nurse faculty and to examine the relationship between epistemological position and critical thinking. Most participants reported having no education on critical thinking. Data were collected using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the Learning Environment Preferences (LEP). Findings from the CCTST indicated that faculty varied considerably in their ability to think critically; LEP findings suggested that participants had not reached the intellectual level needed for critical thinking. In addition, 12 faculty participated in one-hour telephone interviews in which they described experiences in which students demonstrated critical thinking. Despite a lack of clarity on the definition of critical thinking, faculty described clinical examples where students engaged in analysis, inference, and evaluation. Based on these findings, it is recommended that faculty transfer their ability to engage students in critical thinking in the clinical setting to the classroom setting. Benchmarks can be established based on the ability of faculty to engage in critical thinking. PMID:17036684

Zygmont, Dolores M; Schaefer, Karen Moore

2006-01-01

427

What Are the Differences between Scientifically Gifted and Normal Students in the Aspects of Creativity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares and analyzes three different measures of creativity in (n=135) gifted and (n=161) normal students to understand the nature of creativity and propose guidelines for measuring creativity. Uses Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking (TTCT), Test of Creative Problem Solving and Finding in Science (CPFS), and Creative Behavior Checklist in…

Shin, Ji-Eun; Han, Ki-Soon; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Park, Byung-Gun; Choe, Seung-Urn

2002-01-01

428

Connecting Philosophy of Ancient Egyptians to Modern Thinking  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Associating any knowledge from ancient Egyptians to modern civilization and thinking was important and had its own value. The process of understanding knowledge related to ancient Egyptians is actually based on the nature of philosophical thought. Approach: In the discussion of ancient Egypt philosophy, it is important to look at it from the perspectives of the four branches of philosophy; metaphysics, epistemology, axiology and logic. Metaphysics has two elements, which are ontology and cosmology. Arguments in ontology explain why most activities of people from the ancient Egypt involved agriculture and how they perceived their lives in the midst of this activity, this includes the concept of human creator; treatment to man and woman; and Egyptians? Gods and Goddesses. In addition, cosmology analyses the universe; everything inside and out of it, as well as what makes them stay and move. Results: Whereas, epistemology refers to how ancient Egyptians appreciated the existence of knowledge among them by considering the sources, types, categories and importance of particular knowledge that was gained in different ways. Besides, the aspects of axiology are also discussed here, especially in the ancient Egypt?s hieroglyphics. This writing discusses the level of aesthetical value posed by all these Egyptians, even at the time of about 3000 B.C. They could discuss to form pictographic as their written language. This activity lasted for thousands of years. Conclusion: Last but not the least, logic is another aspect that can be used in the discussion across metaphysics, epistemology and also axiology, for instance, the thinking of the philosophy behind Egyptians life. This writing relates the philosophy of ancient Egypt with the life of the modern world, not only in Egypt, but also in another part of the world, which exist from the impact of the philosophy of ancient Egypt. Modern views of Egyptians? thinking are often vastly based on what their people had and thought of in the ancient days.

Aminuddin Hassan

2012-01-01

429

Do orthologous gene phylogenies really support tree-thinking?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Darwin's Origin of Species, reconstructing the Tree of Life has been a goal of evolutionists, and tree-thinking has become a major concept of evolutionary biology. Practically, building the Tree of Life has proven to be tedious. Too few morphological characters are useful for conducting conclusive phylogenetic analyses at the highest taxonomic level. Consequently, molecular sequences (genes, proteins, and genomes likely constitute the only useful characters for constructing a phylogeny of all life. For this reason, tree-makers expect a lot from gene comparisons. The simultaneous study of the largest number of molecular markers possible is sometimes considered to be one of the best solutions in reconstructing the genealogy of organisms. This conclusion is a direct consequence of tree-thinking: if gene inheritance conforms to a tree-like model of evolution, sampling more of these molecules will provide enough phylogenetic signal to build the Tree of Life. The selection of congruent markers is thus a fundamental step in simultaneous analysis of many genes. Results Heat map analyses were used to investigate the congruence of orthologues in four datasets (archaeal, bacterial, eukaryotic and alpha-proteobacterial. We conclude that we simply cannot determine if a large portion of the genes have a common history. In addition, none of these datasets can be considered free of lateral gene transfer. Conclusion Our phylogenetic analyses do not support tree-thinking. These results have important conceptual and practical implications. We argue that representations other than a tree should be investigated in this case because a non-critical concatenation of markers could be highly misleading.

Leigh J

2005-05-01

430

The Thaayorre think of time like they talk of space  

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Full Text Available Around the world, it is common to both talk and think about time in terms of space. But does our conceptualization of time simply reflect the space/time metaphors of the language we speak? Evidence from the Australian language Kuuk Thaayorre suggests not. Kuuk Thaayorre speakers do not employ active spatial metaphors in describing time. But this is not to say that spatial language is irrelevant to temporal construals: non-linguistic representations of time are shown here to correlate with the linguistic system of describing space. This article contrasts two populations of ethnic Thaayorre from Pormpuraaw—one comprising Kuuk Thaayorre/English bilinguals and the other English-monolinguals—in order to distinguish the effects of language from environmental and other factors. Despite their common physical, social and cultural context, the two groups differ in their representations of time in ways that are congruent with the language of space in Kuuk Thaayorre and English respectively. Kuuk Thaayorre/English bilinguals represent time along an absolute east-to-west axis, in alignment with the high frequency of absolute frame of reference terms in Kuuk Thaayorre spatial description. The English-monolinguals, in contrast, represent time from left-to-right, aligning with the dominant relative frame of reference in English spatial description. This occurs in the absence of any east-to-west metaphors in Kuuk Thaayorre, or left-to-right metaphors in English. Thus the way these two groups think about time appears to reflect the language of space and not the language of time. Around the world, it is common to both talk and think about time in terms of space. But does our conceptualization of time simply reflect the space/time metaphors of the language we speak? Evidence from the Australian language Kuuk Thaayorre suggests not. Kuuk Thaayorre speakers do not employ active spatial metaphors in describing time. But this is not to say that spatial language is irrelevant to temporal co

AliceGaby

2012-08-01

431

Implementation of environmental thinking into a manufactory company  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the development of a tool for manufacturing companies to facilitate environmental thinking for the integration of environmental concerns into their business operations according to their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) while obtaining direct benefits for the business. By understanding the end-usesâ?? perception, drivers, limitations and wants towards green products and gaining a general understanding of the Product environmental impacts, the company can detect environmental improvement options that are feasible to achieve and which consumers are interested in buying, therefore obtaining results that are good for the business and good for the environment.

Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

2011-01-01

432

Why do German retailers think and act as they do?  

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German consumers say one thing and do the other. They say they are willing to pay extra for fresh pork in order to get quality meat. But they act quite differently when they shop in the supermarket and the price becomes a decisive factor. At least that is what most German retail buyers of pork think. A recent MAPP study looked at how German retailers perceive themselves, how they perceive and interpret the world around them (their customers, competitors and suppliers etc.) and which quality a...

Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

2005-01-01

433

Accurate Programming: Thinking about programs in terms of properties  

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Full Text Available Accurate programming is a practical approach to producing high quality programs. It combines ideas from test-automation, test-driven development, agile programming, and other state of the art software development methods. In addition to building on approaches that have proven effective in practice, it emphasizes concepts that help programmers sharpen their understanding of both the problems they are solving and the solutions they come up with. This is achieved by encouraging programmers to think about programs in terms of properties.

Walid Taha

2011-09-01

434

Diagrammatic thinking: Notes on Peirce’s semiotics and epistemology  

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In this paper, I discuss the role of diagrammatic thinking within the larger context of cognitive activity as framed by Peirce’s semiotic theory of and its underpinning realistic ontology. After a short overview of Kant’s scepticism in its historical context, I examine Peirce’s attempt to rescue perception as a way to reconceptualize the Kantian “manifold of senses”. I argue that Peirce’s redemption of perception led him to a series of problems that are as fundamental as those tha...

Radford, Luis

2008-01-01

435

Lean Thinking in systems with non-negligible process variability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones) improves quality, cost and delivery through the relentless elimination of wastes. For example, the exemplar of Lean, the Toyota Production system, focuses on improvement through the continual elimination of seven categorised wastes (Ohno). Time compression (Stalk and Hout) is a key weapon in attacking this waste. By compressing time, quality issues are revealed driving improvement and cost reduction. When the value stream is mapped (Hines and Rich), inventory is usually the largest target for time compression. As inventory is removed from process buffers, process time variability has a deleterious impact on throughput. Lean production fundamentals (housekeeping, standardisation & waste elimination) focuses on reducing this variability. In this paper we investigate a production scenario with high variability - a multi-class and re-entrant system (Dai). For this system this paper makes two contributions: 1. Simulates the relationship between buffer size and throughput performance. 2. Investigates the potential for improvement through Lean Thinking There is an intricate relationship between loss of throughput and allowed inventory buffer sizes along the production flow. In simple cases, as for instance in single product unidirectional flows, there will normally be a strong reciprocal trade-off, whenever buffers are squeezed towards zero, but in production systems where the workflow can be characterised as multi-class and re-entrant, there is much more complexity, requiring simulation to gain understanding. Process buffer capacity is strongly dependent on the capacity, variability, overall workflow and scheduling priority. This suggests that a systems view is necessary in order to understand the trade-offs between loss of throughput and lack/excess of buffer capacity in such systems. The findings are put into a long-term perspective based on Lean Thinking recommendations. Based on systems thinking (Towill and Naim), four generic sequential steps to Lean Supply and Distribution have been developed within the Lean Paradigm (Simons and Kiff) - Control, Time, Centralisation and Structure. Control focuses on removing variability from the information and physical flows through standardisation of processes. Empirical evidence from automotive after-sales demonstrated that simulation could identify the areas of variability with greatest leverage on cost and quality (Simons, Kiff and Cheiux). Hence, as well as understanding the trade-offs in the current scenario, this paper generically investigates the opportunities for re-balancing the throughput and buffer capacity of the system.

Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Simons, David

2000-01-01

436

Lean Thinking in Systems with Non-Negligible Process Variability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones) improves quality, cost and delivery through the relentless elimination of the wastes. For example, the exemplar of Lean, the Toyota Production system, focuses on improvement through the continual elimination of seven categorised wastes (Ohno). Time compression (Stalk and Hout) is a key weapon in attacking this waste. By compressing time, quality issues are revealed driving improvement and cost reduction. When the value stream is mapped (Hines and Rich), inventory is usually the largest target for time compression. As inventory is removed from process buffers, process time variability has a deleterious impact on throughput. Lean production fundamentals (housekeeping, standardisation & waste elimination) focuses on reducing this variability. In this paper we investigate a production scenario with high variability - a multi-class and re-entrant system (Dai). For this system this paper makes two contributions: - 1. Simulates the relationship between buffer size and throughput performance. 2. Investigates the potential for improvement through Lean Thinking There is an intricate relationship between loss of throughput and allowed inventory buffer sizes along the production flow. In simple cases, as for instance in single product unidirectional flows, there will normally be a strong reciprocal trade-off, whenever buffers are squeezed towards zero, but in production systems where the workflow can be characterised as multi-class and re-entrant, there is much more complexity, requiring simulation to gain understanding. Process buffer capacity is strongly dependent on the capacity, variability, overall workflow and scheduling priority. This suggests that a systems view is necessary in order to understand the trade-offs between loss of throughput and lack/excess of buffer capacity in such systems. The findings are put into a long-term perspective based on lean thinking recommendations. Based on systems thinking (Towill and Naim), four generic sequential steps to Lean Supply and Distribution have been developed within the Lean Paradigm (Simons and Kiff) - Control, Time, Centralisation and Structure. Control focuses on removing variability from the information and physical flows through standardisation of processes. Empirical evidence from automotive after-sales demonstrated that simulation could identify the areas of variability with greatest leverage on cost and quality (Simons, Kiff and Cheiux). Hence, as well as understanding the trade-offs in the current scenario, this paper generically investigates the opportunities for re-balancing the throughput and buffer capacity of the system.

Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Simons, David

2000-01-01

437

Creating Radiant Thinking of Young Children through Mind Mapping  

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Mind mapping is a presentation form of radiant thinking, utilizing lines, colors, characters, numbers, symbols, image, pictures or keywords, etc. to associate, integrate and &l...

Wen Cheng Wang; Chung-Chieh Lee; Ying-Chien Chu

2011-01-01

438

[An approach to the thinking of Edmund D. Pellegrino (II)].  

Science.gov (United States)

This second approach to the doctrine and thinking of Edmund D. Pellegrino presents the basics of the author's proposal to reform medical ethics, based on the rehabilitation of beneficence principle in health care. It describes the research and interest of our bioethicist towards the concept of 'good' of the patient and his four components. Pellegrino's classic concepts of 'healing' and 'help' are also analyzed, as distinctive aspects of the new ethics structure. Ultimately, the debate about the identity of Medicine is also introduced, along with the concepts of essentialism and its social constructivism, a capital issue for the author for the future of Medicine. PMID:24836029

de Santiago, Manuel

2014-01-01

439

Critical thinking and learning styles of nursing students at the Baccalaureate nursing program in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to examine the critical thinking dispositions and learning styles, as well as the relationships between critical thinking and learning styles of nursing students enrolled in Baccalaureate nursing programs in Korea. The convenient sample consisted of 724 students from five cities. The learning style inventory of Kolb (1976) and critical thinking disposition inventory of Rudd et al (2000) were used for collecting data. Learning styles of the subjects were Diverging 315 (43.5%), Accommodating 223 (30.4%), Assimilating 78 (10.8%), and Converging 65 (9.0%). There were no significant differences in learning styles among grades (p=.197). The level of critical thinking significantly differed among learning styles (p=.000), and grades (p=.043). Critical thinking positively related to learning styles (r=.219) and grades (r=.097). This study suggested that adopting Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation modes of pedagogy may promote critical thinking. PMID:18844547

Gyeong, Ju An; Myung, Sook Yoo

2008-05-01

440

Exploring Parenting as a Predictor of Criminogenic Thinking in College Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crime-promoting cognitions and attitudes, globally labeled as criminogenic thinking, are shown to perpetuate maladaptive and antisocial behavior in criminals and nonoffenders. In the nonoffender population, these thinking patterns may not lead to illegal behavior, but can result in irresponsible or maladaptive behavioral consequences. Theories suggest that early childhood parent-child interactions may be partly responsible for the development of criminogenic thinking. While the relationship between parenting and antisocial behavior is well documented, the connection between parenting and the development of criminogenic thinking styles has not yet been explored. The current study examined the nature of the relationship between exposure to parenting behaviors and subsequent criminogenic thoughts in a nonoffender, college population. The sample included 119 undergraduates. Results indicate that parenting may affect general criminogenic thinking as well as specific types of criminogenic thinking styles. Relevance and importance of the findings with regard to clinical work and parenting are also discussed. PMID:23640809

Gonzalez, Rose; Mandracchia, Jon T; Nicholson, Bonnie; Dahlen, Eric

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
441

The evaluation of students' reflective writing for evidence of critical thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to establish interrater reliability of the Critical Thinking Scale (CTS), a teacher-accessible tool designed to measure the critical thinking of baccalaureate nursing students as evidenced in their reflective writing about their practice experiences.The study is an extension of an earlier pilot test of the CTS. Graduating students from a nursing program at a small liberal arts college were asked to write about a significant practice experience encountered during their last clinical course. Three teachers used the CTS to independently evaluate the students' writing. California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) scores provided a standard measure of critical thinking. Results indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the CCTST total critical thinking score and mean teacher ratings using the CTS. Meaningfully significant interrater reliability ratings for the CTS were also found. With further development, the CTS has promise as an appropriate tool to evaluate students' reflective writing for evidence of critical thinking. PMID:17036685

Kennison, Monica Metrick

2006-01-01

442

Critical thinking selfdevelopment opportunities of andragogy speciality students in the university study process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article deals with concepts and meanings of students’ critical thinking; the necessity of selfeducation is grounded. Based on the experience of Lithuanian and foreign researchers, conditions, strategies, methods of students’ critical thinking are disclosed. Data obtained during the empirical research enable to state that opportunities of students’ critical thinking depend on strategies applied in university studies, such as: autonomous search for knowledge, comprehension, analysis o...

2010-01-01

443

A study on common factors between critical thinking and religious education  

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Critical thinking (CT) has been one of the most popular interests among many scholars, educators, and others who are concerned with thinking skills. There are many evidences to believe that critical thinking skills can lead to more prepared, productive and employable students in the workforce. On the other hand, religious educations have been increasing subject of interest in different countries. When the rules and regulations in a country are based on religious, it is necessary to use religi...

2012-01-01

444

Nursing Student’s Critical Thinking Skills in Tabriz Nursing and Midwifery Faculty  

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Critical Thinking (CT) is the life-blood of all educational programs. Today critical thinking is an expected competency of nurses at all levels of education and practice. This study has conducted to compare the critical thinking skills of nursing students enrolled in a 4-year baccalaureate program in Tabriz nursing and midwifery faculty. By cross-sectional design data collection occurred during regularly scheduled classes. A volunteer convenience sample of 172 students from all 4- years bacca...

Nafea Ali Reza; Lakdizaji Sima; Oshvandi Khodayar; Fathi Azar Eskandar; Ghojazadeh Morteza

2008-01-01

445

Using Self-Experimentation and Single-Subject Methodology to Promote Critical Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Critical thinking is often absent from classroom endeavor because it is hard to define (Gelder, 2005 or is difficult to assess (Bissell & Lemons, 2006. Critical thinking is defined as application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Browne & Minnick, 2005. This paper shows how self-experimentation and single-subject methodology can be used to promote many levels of critical thinking in an Applied Behavior Analysis course. Two classroom assignment examples of this process and a grading rubric are provided.

David Langdon

2006-01-01

446

An innovative model for developing critical thinking skills through mathematical education  

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In a challenging and constantly changing world, students are required to develop advanced thinking skills such as critical systematic thinking, decision making and problem solving. This challenge requires developing critical thinking abilities which are essential in unfamiliar situations. A central component in current reforms in mathematics and science studies worldwide is the transition from the traditional dominant instruction which focuses on algorithmic cognitive skills to...

Aizikovitsh, Einav; Amit, Miriam

2012-01-01

447

The relationship between the locus of control and thinking styles of teacher candidates  

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The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between the thinking styles and locus of control situations of university students. In addition, the differences in students' academic achievement levels according to their thinking styles and locus of control were searched. Differences in thinking styles and locus of control levels were also sought according to some study variables such as age, gender, parents' education level, the place most of the lifetime spent, and economi...

2009-01-01

448

Critical reading and critical thinking The State of the Art Critical reading and critical thinking The State of the Art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. Thus, they need to read selectively, sorting out the bits and pieces that are interesting and useful for them. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. Thus, they need to read selectively, sorting out the bits and pieces that are interesting and useful for them.

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-04-01

449

'When you think of the Taleban, think of the Nazis': Teaching Americans '9-11' in NBC's the West Wing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Only three weeks after the events of 11 September 2001 (hereafter 9/11), Aaron Sorkin’s The West Wing delivered a special one-off episode, outside of usual storylines. The episode, titled ‘Isaac and Ishmael’, is interesting because it adopts an explicitly pedagogical theme to teach viewers how to think about the events of 9/11. The episode can thus be read as an instance in the wider construction of the meaning of those events. In this respect, this article argues that the production of...

Holland, J.

2011-01-01

450

A Model of Spatial Thinking for Computational Intelligence  

CERN Document Server

Trying to be effective (no matter who exactly and in what field) a person face the problem which inevitably destroys all our attempts to easily get to a desired goal. The problem is the existence of some insuperable barriers for our mind, anotherwords barriers for principles of thinking. They are our clue and main reason for research. Here we investigate these barriers and their features exposing the nature of mental process. We start from special structures which reflect the ways to define relations between objects. Then we came to realizing about what is the material our mind uses to build thoughts, to make conclusions, to understand, to form reasoning, etc. This can be called a mental dynamics. After this the nature of mental barriers on the required level of abstraction as well as the ways to pass through them became clear. We begin to understand why thinking flows in such a way, with such specifics and with such limitations we can observe in reality. This can help us to be more optimal. At the final step...

Sorudeykin, Kirill A

2011-01-01

451

Adolescent development of the neural circuitry for thinking about intentions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this fMRI study, we investigated the development during adolescence of the neural network underlying thinking about intentions. A total of 19 adolescent participants (aged 12.1-18.1 years), and 11 adults (aged 22.4-37.8 years), were scanned using fMRI. A factorial design was employed with between-subjects factor age group and within-subjects factor causality (intentional or physical). In both adults and adolescents, answering questions about intentional causality vs physical causality activated the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal poles and precuneus bordering with posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, there was a significant interaction between group and task in the medial PFC. During intentional relative to physical causality, adolescents activated part of the medial PFC more than did adults and adults activated part of the right STS more than did adolescents. These results suggest that the neural strategy for thinking about intentions changes between adolescence and adulthood. Although the same neural network is active, the relative roles of the different areas change, with activity moving from anterior (medial prefrontal) regions to posterior (temporal) regions with age. PMID:17710201

Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; den Ouden, Hanneke; Choudhury, Suparna; Frith, Chris

2007-06-01

452

The relationship between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency of prospective teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report on the relationships that exist between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency ofa group of first-year prospective teachers at a South African university (n = 89. The results revealed the nature of the critical thinking skills as well as the academic language proficiency of the students. Significant correlations between academic language proficiency and making inferences, as well as between academic language proficiency and critical thinking as a general competency, were noted. The article concludes with recommendations on how to enhance critical thinking and language proficiency in the teacher-training curriculum.

M M (Mary Grosser

2013-01-01

453

Research on the Participation of the Folk Think-Tanks in Chinese Government Policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The think-tank is an important institution in modern state’s policy consulting, which also is a significant component of national “soft power” and plays an indispensable role in the scientification of policy-making. When the government policy field appears the characteristics of explosive and leap-type, there needs more and more participation of folk think-tank in the government policy agenda to play its function of “policy advisory and populace inspiration”. This paper analyzes the function and development obstacle of the folk think-tank and proposes related strategy suggestion to improve the evolution of Chinese folk think-tank.

Xia CHENG

2014-04-01