Identifies four characteristics of the creative endeavor: (1) musical imagination; (2) model of the creative process; (3) measures of creative aptitude; and (4) the observation of creative behavior. Examines the role of technology in creativity, and contends that creative thinking can be measured. Includes suggested readings. (RW)
Webster, Peter R.
Discusses the meaning of creativity, focusing on music education. Emphasizes the four "p's" while examining the meaning of creativity: (1) the creative person; (2) the creative process; (3) the creative product; and (4) the creative place. Addresses how creative thinking can be at the center of teaching. (CMK)
Hickey, Maud; Webster, Peter
It is internationally recognized that teachers play a significant role in developing suitable values in their pupils. Students also learn strategies for identifying problems, making decisions, and finding solutions both in and out of school. Among them creative thinking skills play a prominent role in their learning process. Techniques developed specifically to teach creative thinking and examine how they may be applied to the classroom, are precise things to be considered. Awareness with ...
This article discusses how creative thinking can be encouraged in students through such classic tools as brainstorming and the productive thinking elements of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration. It describes how fairy tales can be used to foster these thinking skills and suggests classroom activities. (Contains two references.) (CR)
Discusses several problems confronting education in the United States, argues that music educators are among the most guilty of avoiding and even discouraging creative thinking. Presents a model of creative thinking in music and examines the conditions of motivation and environment that are important for child development. (GEA)
Webster, Peter R.
Posits that any model of creative thinking in music must deal with how factual content in music serves as the foundation for the creative process. Maintains that music technology is an exciting and meaningful avenue for both convergent and divergent thinking but that creative thinking can occur without technology. (KM)
Webster, Peter R.
This paper suggests that there are ways to organize the literature, both within music and in related fields of study, so that the interested professional can engage in an active organized study of creative thinking in music. There are also ways of defining musical behaviors that are indicative of creative thinking in children as well as adults.…
Webster, Peter R.
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the notion of creativity in the contexts of science and science education. In doing so, we consider and reflect on some taken-for-granted ideas associated with school science creativity, such as inquiry science, and integrating art and science, while we search for a notion of scientific creativity that is compatible with both the nature of science and the general notion of creativity, and also realistic in the context of school science education. We then propose a number of activities/strategies that encourage creativity, and more specifically imaginative/creative thinking, through the learning of school science.
Creative thinking is a critical link in the teaching-learning process, one that enhances problem solving in nursing practice. This article describes a conceptualization of creativity based on focus groups with 12 post-RN students and two nurse educators. Inherent within the major theme, striving for balance, were three subthemes-enhancing self-esteem, working within structure, and making time for reflection (i.e., process). When participants achieved balance, both personally and professionally, they experienced increased creative energy that resulted in creative expression, subsequently displayed in educational endeavors and clinical practice (i.e., product). Strategies for fostering creativity and criteria for evaluating creativity are offered, and implications for nurse educators, managers, and practitioners are examined. PMID:12180769
Kalischuk, Ruth Grant; Thorpe, Karran
While it is important to nurture creativity in young children, it is popularly associated more with the arts than the sciences. This paper reports on a series of studies designed to explore teachers’ conceptions of creative thinking in primary school science. Study #1 examines pre-service primary teachers’ ideas of what constitutes creativity in science lessons, using a phenomenographic analysis. The study found that their conceptions tend to be narrow, focusing on practical investigation...
Newton, L. D.; Newton, D. P.
This research was done on 41 subjects consisted of 6th year students at Mehmet Çelik Primary School in Bolu, Yeniça?a. According to ANCOVA results, pre-test values of the students from different instruction systems compared to the corrected post-test values andcreative thinking average values showed a significant difference in favor of education in which creative course activities were used. In research, two-factored ANNOVA was used for complex measurements for the research question about ...
O?zcan, Seher; Karatas?, Serc?in
Full Text Available Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals towards a strongly focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed by creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking, this predicts that high-proficient bilinguals should outperform low-proficient bilinguals in convergent thinking, while low-proficient bilinguals might be better in divergent thinking. Comparing low- and high-proficient bilinguals on convergent-thinking and divergent-thinking tasks indeed showed a high-proficient bilingual advantage for convergent thinking but a low-proficient bilingual advantage for fluency in divergent thinking. These findings suggest that bilingualism should not be related to “creativity” as a unitary concept but, rather, to the specific processes and mechanisms that underlie creativity.
In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking…
Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens
Full Text Available This research was done on 41 subjects consisted of 6th year students at Mehmet Çelik Primary School in Bolu, Yeniça?a. According to ANCOVA results, pre-test values of the students from different instruction systems compared to the corrected post-test values andcreative thinking average values showed a significant difference in favor of education in which creative course activities were used. In research, two-factored ANNOVA was used for complex measurements for the research question about whether the learners’ cognitiveachievement scores, related to learning environment, change or not, according to groups. According to the findings, cognitive achievement scores showed a significant difference in favor of experimental group.
Creativity in engineering design had become an economic necessity and not merely the privilege of unique individuals. The search for new, innovative and effective ideas in engineering design stands in center of daily creative performance. This search requires sensitivity to gaps of knowledge and information, and the ability to evoke numerous, different and unique ideas about engineering problems. The source of such information or knowledge can be either extrinsic-such as provided by an instructor or expert or intrinsic, which might involve transformation from one field or context to another. Furthermore, interaction with an exterior source as well as developing an inherent drive, have an impact on the motivation to perform creatively. This article, which is based on a study conducted among Israeli practical engineering students, deals with the variations in creative thinking during various stages of a design project and the relation between creative thinking and motivation factors.
Waks, Shlomo; Merdler, Moti
Infusing creative thinking competence through the design process of authentic projects requires not only changing the teaching methods and learning environment, but also adopting new assessment methods, such as portfolio assessment. The participants in this study were 128 high school pupils who have studied MECHATRONICS from 10th to 12th grades…
This paper shows how the design thinking skills of students learning at a distance can be consciously developed, and deliberately applied outside of the creative industries in what are termed 'embedded' contexts. The distance learning model of education pioneered by The Open University is briefly described before the technological…
The assumption underlying the ideas presented in this study is that each of these two types of scientific creativity is accompanied by a specific psychological approach on the part of the scientist to his or her world of experience. A schema is presented for illustrating the processes of scientific perception, thinking, formulation, testing, and…
Van Norren, B.
Creative achievements are the basis for progress in our world. Although creative achievement is influenced by many variables, the basis for creativity is held to lie in the generation of high-quality, original, and elegant solutions to complex, novel, ill-defined problems. In the present effort, we examine the cognitive capacities that make…
Mumford, Michael D.; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Partlow, Paul J.
The present health care environment requires creative change, a thought that evokes both excitement and apprehension and offers a clear challenge for the contemporary nurse. In this era of capitation, re-engineering, and redesign in the health care system, nursing programs must prepare nurses who can successfully perform in an environment that demands innovative problem solving. Integrating creative problem solving into this BSN program has (1) provided students with information and experience in the creative process, (2) fostered the personal creative development of nurses, (3) challenged students to use creative thinking in solving nursing problems, and most important, (4) further established and reinforced a new, higher level of nursing practice--a level that appropriately sees the nurse as a creative and innovative member of the health care team. PMID:10227031
Le Storti, A J; Cullen, P A; Hanzlik, E M; Michiels, J M; Piano, L A; Ryan, P L; Johnson, W
In this paper we discuss the notion of creativity in the contexts of science and science education. In doing so, we consider and reflect on some taken-for-granted ideas associated with school science creativity, such as inquiry science, and integrating art and science, while we search for a notion of scientific creativity that is compatible with both the nature of science and the general notion of creativity, and also realistic in the context of school science education. We then propose a num...
Yannis Hadzigeorgiou; Persa Fokialis; Mary Kabouropoulou
Focuses on ways to foster and access creativity in engineering students. Presents three case studies that demonstrate the importance of establishing freedom in the learning process as well as providing motivation be it extrinsic or intrinsic. Describes how to monitor the level of success in fostering creativity in students. (Author/PVD)
Baillie, Caroline; Walker, Paul
Increased international recognition of the value of supporting creative thinking suggests the value of development of approaches to its identification in children. Development of an observation-led framework, the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) framework, is described, and a case made for the validity of inferring creative…
Full Text Available This paper probes into the source of “originality” in developing the creative thinking of the science students majoring in industrial design. The authors believe that the critical factors for the source of “originality” lie in not only the internal cause, but also the external cause. Whether the science students take a great consideration of art and humanity courses, in other words, whether they are aware of the relationship between artistical thought and industrial design or not, it is very important. In addition, creative capacity cannot be taught, and it only results from inspiration and guidance of teachers from multidisciplinary.
This guide is part of a program designed to teach both cognitive skills (thinking skills) and cognitive strategies (thinking procedures) necessary for productive problem solving, mindful decision making, and creative ideation by all students in kindergarten through grade 12 settings. The program is a comprehensive staff development model in which…
Fogarty, Robin; Bellanca, James
Use of metacognitive strategies, creative problem solving, and creative thinking techniques in intermediate grade writing instruction can promote students' thinking and creativity. Metacognitive strategies can help students attack the writing task in an orderly fashion. Answering specific questions for descriptive, expository, narrative, or…
Laney, James D.
It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any) of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate ...
Kuan Chen Tsai; Matthew Shirley
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context [...] assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA) and a Partial Least Squares (PLS) exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.
Hannetjie, Meintjes; Mary, Grosser.
Full Text Available Recent studies have emphasized group creativity within a socio-cultural context rather than at an individual level, but not many researchers reported strategies for developing group creativity. This paper aims to explore strategies to enhance group creativity based on the theoretical basis of thinking styles by Sternberg. The hypothesis was that groups with members of diverse thinking styles would show greater gains in creative performance. In this study, the participants (n=72 were divided into 24 three-person groups. Each group was given the task to create a game using Scratch programming language. Among the 24 groups, eleven groups (n=33 consisted of heterogeneous thinking styles, and the other thirteen groups (n=39 consisted solely of homogeneous thinking styles. All divided groups performed same creative task. The empirical results supported the hypothesis that group formation of diverse thinking style shows better group creativity.
This study examined the creative thinking of interior design graduate students in an online learning community. This study considered potential changes in creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration) about design research resulting from peer-led online discussions. It further studied the learner characteristics of…
Ransdell, Marlo Evelyn
This work assessed the effect of trait anxiety (measured on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and the Scamper technique on figural creative thinking, measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. An analysis of covariance with 52 gifted students in a summer camp gave no significant main effect of treatment for trait anxiety, or their interaction. Scamper may not effectively improve figural creativity and anxiety may not influence figural creativity the same way it influences verbal creativity, at least as measured. PMID:8332693
Mijares-Colmenares, B E; Masten, W G; Underwood, J R
Empirical studies of creativity have focused on the importance of divergent thinking, which supports generating novel solutions to loosely defined problems. The present study examined creativity and frontal cortical activity in an externally-validated group of creative individuals (trained musicians) and demographically matched control…
Gibson, Crystal; Folley, Bradley S.; Park, Sohee
Logical thinking of students should be enhanced at all levels of their studies. There are many possibilities how to achieve it. In the paper one possible way within the subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization” dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be presented. These mathematical disciplines are powerful tools for teachers allowing them to develop logical thinking of students, increase their imagination and make them familiar with...
Creativity assessment commonly uses open-ended divergent thinking tasks. The typical methods for scoring these tasks (uniqueness scoring and subjective ratings) are time-intensive, however, so it is impractical for researchers to include divergent thinking as an ancillary construct. The present research evaluated snapshot scoring of divergent…
Silvia, Paul J.; Martin, Christopher; Nusbaum, Emily C.
Full Text Available It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate that creative thinking, assessed by RAT, and learning preferences, evaluated by ILS, are not highly correlated. Over all, students in this study show a balanced learning preference across four dimensions. In summary, this study directs a possible path for future researchers to investigate this phenomenon.
Kuan Chen Tsai
Full Text Available Ayudar a los estudiantes a pensar de forma creativa suele considerarse uno de los objetivos clave de la educación. Sin embargo, muchas universidades de todo el mundo muestran cierta preocupación al respecto que sugiere que los estudiantes no están preparados para un mundo en el que necesitarán resolver problemas desordenados y desestructurados que no tienen fácil solución. Este artículo presenta el «design thinking» como una metodología para la innovación centrada en las personas, que se ha implementado en un programa para la innovación en el diseño de la Universidad de Stanford, así como en una de las consultoras de diseño más exitosas. Después de un breve resumen del concepto de design thinking, se ilustran los elementos clave de esta pedagogía para la innovación a través de su aplicación en una universidad en Colombia. Rendida cuenta del elevado potencial de esta metodología para la construcción de confianza y capacidad creativa en los estudiantes de todas las disciplinas, y del evidente poder de la próxima generación de tecnologías de la información y la colaboración, así como de los medios sociales, el autor propone nuevos proyectos de investigación y desarrollo que aportarán más creatividad a los programas de educación a distancia y semipresenciales gracias a la aplicación del «design thinking».Helping students think creatively is consistently cited as one of the key goals of education. Yet, across universities around the world, alarms have been sounding off suggesting that students are not prepared for a world where they are expected to solve messy, unstructured problems that don't have easy answers. This paper introduces design thinking, a human-centered innovation methodology that has been implemented in a design innovation program at Stanford University as well as at one of the most successful design consultancies. After a brief overview of design thinking, the author illustrates the key elements of this innovation pedagogy through its implementation at a university in Colombia. Realizing the potential of this methodology for building creative competence and confidence among students from all disciplines, and recognizing the power of the next generation of information and collaboration technologies and social media, the author proposes new research and development projects that will bring more creativity to traditional distance and blended learning programs through an infusion of design thinking.
Conditions which call for the discovery of a problem were introduced in a divergent-thinking exercise by inserting blank cards in Pattern Meanings and Line Meanings, two tests from the Wallach and Kogan battery. Twenty-three fifth graders were administered the modified tests and responded divergently to their own patterns and lines as well as to…
Wakefield, John F.
Full Text Available This essay offers two novel thinking-modes, “body thinking” and “story thinking,” both intrinsically interrelated, as alternative reasoning to usual analytical logic, and claims that they facilitate understanding “religion” as our ultimate living in the Beyond. Thus body thinking, story thinking, and religion naturally gather into a threefold thinking synonymy. This essay adumbrates in story-thinking way this synonymy in four theme-stages, one, appreciating body thinking primal at our root, to, two, go through story-thinking that expresses body thinking to catalyze religion, to, three, reach religious living in holistic nisus to the Beyond. But then, four, religion is surprisingly harder than expected; we require a strange adult detour to come back home to body thinking in story thinking. These four themes are body-thought through many stories, some of which are argumentative. Thus this essay itself body thinks in story thinking
Systemicity is receiving wider attention thanks to its evident paradox. On the one hand, it occurs as a problem with complex symptoms. On the other, it is sought after as an approach for dealing with the non-linear reality of the world. At once problem and prize, systemicity continues to confound. This book details the mechanics of this paradox as they arise from human epistemological engagement with the world. Guided by an original analysis of the fundamental idea of emergent property, Thinking Through Systems Thinking uncovers the distinct significance, but also inc
Full Text Available Orientation: An important evaluation function is to determine whether creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed through training and to assess whether these skills, on their own, are sufficient to ignite innovation in organisations.Research purpose: The evaluation question that the present study aimed to address is whether employees in a corporate context, such as a financial services organisation, can develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills through an intervention such as a workshop.Motivation for the study: A financial services organisation commissioned the primary author of this article to design a workshop with the intent to develop the creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of their employees in order to ignite innovation and competitiveness.Research design, approach and method: This study employed mainly qualitative research. Utilisation-focused evaluation (UFE was employed and findings from the literature review, questionnaires, pen-and-paper tests and interviews were used. The unit of analysis was a niche business unit in a South African financial services organisation.Main findings: From this study’s point of view, the most critical finding related to the confirmation that individuals can acquire creative and innovative thinking and problemsolving skills. The acquisition of these skills, however, is not sufficient on its own to establish a culture supportive of creativity and sustainable innovation.Practical/managerial implications: The development of creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of employees is not sufficient on its own to support sustainable innovation. Managers should consciously establish determinants on an organisational as well as an individual level to create an environment supportive of sustainable innovation.Contribution/value-add: The present study indicated how a workshop can assist individuals to develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills. The acquisition of these skills is not sufficient on its own to ignite sustainable innovation.
Cherylene De Jager
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of the visual materials’ usage in Social Sciences on students’ academic achievement, creative thinking skills and their attitudes towards the course. The study was based on the Social Sciences unit titled ‘’Geography and Our World’’ and conducted with a total number of 38 students, (18 of them were in the experimental group and 20 of them were in the control group. The participants were 6th grade students of Koç Primary School in Bolu. For data collection, Social Sciences Achievement Test, Torrance Creative Thinking Test and Attitude Scale were used as instruments. In the statistical analysis of data, Mean, Standard Deviation levels and Mann Whitney-U Test were used. The results of the study revealed that the program designed for the experimental group, increased the participants’ academic achievement and creative thinking skills and had a positive impact on their attitudes towards the course.© 2013 IOJES. All rights reserved
Full Text Available Logical thinking of students should be enhanced at all levels of their studies. There are many possibilities how to achieve it. In the paper one possible way within the subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization” dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be presented. These mathematical disciplines are powerful tools for teachers allowing them to develop logical thinking of students, increase their imagination and make them familiar with solutions to various problems. Thanks the knowledge gained within the subjects students should be able to describe various practical situations with the aid of graphs, solve the given problem expressed by the graph, and translate the solution back into the initial situation. Student engagement is crucial for successful education. Practical tasks and puzzles attract students to know more about the explained subject matter and to apply gained knowledge. There are an endless number of enjoyable tasks, puzzles and logic problems in books like “Mathematics is Fun”, in riddles magazines and on the Internet. In the paper, as an inspiration, four puzzles developing logical thinking appropriate to be solved using graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be introduced. On these puzzles of different level of difficulty the students’ ability to find out the appropriate graph-representation of the given task and solve it will be discussed as well. The author of the paper has been prepared with her students various multimedia applications dealing with objects appropriate to subject matter for more than 15 years. In the paper we also discuss a benefit of multimedia applications used as a support of subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization”.
Full Text Available Today it is necessary to develop an education model that is special to creative individuals and their creativeness. It is also required to discover children and young people who have creative qualities at an early stage and improve creative thinking in their minds. For this aim, it is very important to determine the high-level thinking skills, especially creative thinking levels of children at primary education period. Therefore, there are considerable duties available for the teachers.In this study, the creative thinking levels of two distinct student groups from different primary schools who study at sixth class of primary education are explored and a comparison is made between their levels. The goal of this research is to find out how the fluency, flexibility and originality dimensions of these students differ. In the way of this purpose, there are fourty-three sixth class of primary education students, who study at two different primary schools in ?zmir, formed the research sampling. Twenty-six of these students are female while seventeen students are male. The Torrance Creative Thinking Test Linguistic –A Form is used as a data collecting tool in the study. The application and form evaluation periods have done by the researchers. At the end of the research, there are meaningful differences obtained between the two schools about the fluency, flexibility and originality levels of students attended to the research. When it is considered in terms of total creative levels, it is seen that the fluency points of those two schools attended to this study are the highest while the flexibility points are the lowest. This situation betrays that the students participated in this study can not use their skill of producing many ideas in terms of handling cases from all points of views.
Design theory lies at the heart of information systems design science research. One concern in this area is the potential to limit the designer’s creativity by over-specifying the meta-design or the design process. This paper explains how design research encapsulates a two-person design team consisting of the design theorist and the artifact instance designer. Design theory embodies a creativity passdown effect in which the creative design thinking is partly executed by the design theorist and the completion of this thinking is deferred to the artifact instance designer. In fact, rather than limiting the instance designer’s creativity, the design theorist may create an opportunity for the instance designer to be creative by passing down a design theory. Further, the artifact instance designer operates within the problem domain defined by design theorist, and engages in design thinking to achieve an innovative design by merging theoretical knowledge with experiential knowledge of a design artifact that is being built. The creativity passdown effect was examined through a case that involved developing a tool for multi-outsourcing decision making. The case provides empirical support for the creativity passdown effect.
Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok
Full Text Available Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s. None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants’ real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.
The role of critical and creative thinking has been debated within the field of instructional design. Through an instructional design and development project we have identified how critical and creative thinking are essential to the instructional design process. This paper highlights a recent project focused on a virtual Native American village…
Baum, Liesl M.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary
This article invites us to think about the role of dichotomies in the psychology of creativity and how they can sometimes lead to a misrepresentation of the phenomenon. Especially when turned into oppositions, which is often the case with dichotomies, distinctions such as those between individual and society, Big C and little c creativity, evolutionary and revolutionary creation, domain generality and domain specificity, product and process, can have detrimental effects on our understanding of the nature and characteristics of creative expression. In contrast, the article advocates for a relational type of logic, supported by socio-cultural and pragmatist sources, one that encourages us to observe the interdependence between categories and the ways in which they are embedded into each other. Examples are given from the five “debates” mentioned above and some consequences of adopting a new way of thinking about creativity discussed towards the end.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This strategy is to provide health education teacher candidates with critical and creative thinking tools to explore gardening as a vehicle to integrate health education content with other subjects. According to the Competency-Based Framework for the Health Education Specialist (2010a), entry-level health educators should have skills and…
Ausherman, Judith A.; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Kowalski, Jacqueline
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop model of Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including: 1 to synthesize the tentative model for Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology, 2 to develop the tentative model for Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including, and 3 to evaluate for certifying the tentative model for Development of Creative Economy Thinking with Idea Marathon System via Cloud Computing Technology by the research methodology including, by using revision technique from experts called Expert review through the Opinion Survey, Interview, and Focus group discussion in order to synthesize as conceptual framework of design. Data were analyzed by using statistic of Percentage, Mean, and Standard Deviation, and interview tape deciphering. Then, the obtained data were explained, interpreted, and concluded. The research findings found that: 1 the appropriateness of details in tentative model found that the appropriateness was in “the Highest” level, 2 the appropriateness of details in tentative model in the steps and instructional activities by the research methodology including, found that the appropriateness was in “High” level.
Creativity and culture are inherently linked. Society and culture are part and parcel of creativity’s process, outcome, and subjective experience.Equally, creativity does not reside in the individual independent of culture and society. Vlad Petre Gl?veanu’s basic framework includes creators and community, from which new artifacts emerge and existing artifacts are developed. He points to a relationship between self and other, new and old, specific for every creative act. Using this multifaceted system requires that researchers employ ecological research in order to capture the heterogeneity and social dimensions of creativity. Gl?veanu uses an approach based on cultural psychology to present creativity in lay terms and within everyday settings. He concludes with a unitary cultural framework of creativity interrelating actors, audiences, actions, artifacts, and affordances.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…
Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
Guilford's (1967) divergent production tests and Wallach and Kogan's (1965) associative creative thinking tests are designed to measure abilities central to the creative process. However, results with these two batteries have been used to support alternative conceptions of creative ability. This research makes a beginning at studying these tests…
Richards, Ruth L.
Full Text Available This paper explains the results of multi-year applications of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production in a Turkish context with Turkish participants. The purpose of the study is to present the results of several empirical studies conducted by different Turkish samples, using the instrument which was developed by Jellen and Urban for measuring the creative thinking potentials of individuals. The number of the subjects of all the studies described here totaled to 1529. These participants were of various ages and at various levels of ability, and they included primary school students, university students, and adults, as well as 369 gifted students, and 64 subjects with neurological problems. The author introduces the evaluation procedures, discusses the culturally fair characteristics of the test, and makes a case for the utility of the instrument in Turkey with a comparison of existing data in the literature related to the instrument.
Aysenur Yontar Togrol
Full Text Available It is reputed that “Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration”, but it can also be noted that “sometimes, 1% inspiration is more important than 99% perspiration.” As this 1% is so important, can it be understood, and even learned? If so, how can cognition be used to enlighten a scientist's inspiration (creative thinking? Both questions are considered on the basis of cognitive theory in the paper. We illustrate our ideas with examples from computer science.
Creativity is a tool that helps in effective problem solving utilizing optimum scarce resources in anybusiness. This paper presents a conceptual framework of a multilayer evolutionary system that supportscreative thinking. The system evolves, using a genetic algorithm, new ideas from a set of basic ideas thatare casually provided through an interactive editor or selected from past transaction records. Thearchitecture proposed here encompasses three layers called system layer, database layer, ...
Priti Srinivas Sajja; Rajendra Akerkar; David Camacho
Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. “Conceptual expansion” refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while “overcoming knowledge constraints” refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.
The study was aimed to explore the features of interaction between cortical areas during figural creative task performance in high- and low-creative men and women. We divided the participants into two groups with high and low creativity by the median of originality score. EEG was recorded at rest and during task performance (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking "Incomplete figures"). The EEG coherence was computed in six frequency bands from theta1 to beta2. We analyzed the total values of coherence for each of 16 sites, calculated separately for intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connections. In the theta2, alphal, and alpha2 bands, coherence values decreased in task performance as compared to baseline in subjects with lower originality scores, whereas in subjects with higher scores, they increased in the theta2 and alpha1 bands. The decrease in the alpha2 band in the higher-creativity group was significantly lower in comparison with the decrease in the lower-score group. In the alpha2 band, the interaction of gender, creativity, laterality, and electrode position factors was also found during analysis of task-induced coherence changes. Further examination of the interaction showed the similarity of EEG coherence patterns in men and women with opposite creative abilities and higher values of task-induced coherence changes in the anterior regions of the left hemisphere and posterior regions of the right hemisphere in high-creative in comparison with low-creative men. The findings are discussed in terms of different cognitive strategies used by men and women that may have the same results in creative problem solving. PMID:19795805
Vol'f, N V; Tarasova, I V; Razumnikova, O M
Full Text Available Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Empathizing is the drive to identify the mental status of other individuals and respond to it with an appropriate emotion; systemizing is the drive to analyze a system. Recently, it has been proposed that low empathizing and high systemizing characterize individuals with autistic spectrum conditions (ASCs. It has been proposed that this higher systemizing underlies the academic achievement of these individuals, suggesting the possible positive association between creativity and systemizing. However, previous findings on the association between ASCs and creativity were conflicting. Conversely, previous studies have suggested an association between prosocial traits and creativity, indicating the possible association between empathizing and systemizing. Here we investigated the association between creativity measured by divergent thinking (CDT and empathizing, systemizing, and the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing, which is called D score. CDT was measured using the S-A creativity test and the score of empathizing (EQ and that of systemizing (SQ, and D score was measured via a validated questionnaire. The results showed that higher CDT was significantly and positively correlated with both the score of empathizing and the score of systemizing but not with D score. These results suggest that CDT is positively associated with one of the characteristics of ASCs (analytical aspects, while exhibiting a negative association with another (lower social aspects. Therefore, the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing, which is strongly associated with autistic tendency, was not associated with CDT.
The nurturing of creative thinking skills is one of the cornerstones of Outcomes-Based Education (OBE). This study investigated to what extent teachers nurture the development of creative thinking through the choice of teaching methods, which include the application of teaching strategies and the utilization of resources, in the Grade 9 Social Sciences classroom. A literature study was undertaken to highlight the importance and nature of the development of creative thinking skills, and to est...
Bunt, Byron John
Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that there is moderate to strong correlation between creative thinking and empathy with self-awareness as three important skills in human life and the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between these three aspects of life skills. The participants in the study contained of 96(54 males and 42 females 10 grade of high school students from Mysore in India. Life skill questionnaire - India (LSQI, carried out on the group sample and date analyzed through Pearson correlation and multiple regression using SPSS soft ware.The results revealed that self-awareness significantly has positive correlation with creative thinking (r=31, p<.01 and empathy(r=36, p<.01. Analysis of regression also shows that multiple relationships between three variables is significant (MR=0.36 and RS = .12, p<.01 and 12 percent of variation of self-awareness can be predicts by empathy and creative thinking.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste breve artigo, com base em uma análise dos recentes discursos acadêmicos e políticos sobre a criatividade, apresenta-se uma reflexão teórica sobre a necessária articulação dialética do pensamento crítico e criativo em estudos de Comunicação. Em uma primeira etapa, são questionados os pressupost [...] os com o objetivo de construir um novo paradigma social e econômico baseado na criatividade. Coloca-se em dúvida, em particular, as hipóteses teóricas e metodológicas de Richard Florida sobre a emergência de uma classe criativa. Em uma segunda etapa, é mostrado como é fácil para os políticos que promovem a criatividade como um valor positivo tornar-se uma pedra angular no desenvolvimento da sociedade da informação. Como conclusão, destaca-se a renovação do pensamento crítico como um complemento necessário da valorização do processo criativo nos estudos de Comunicação. Abstract in spanish Este breve artículo, basado en un análisis de los recientes discursos académicos y políticos en la creatividad, presenta una reflexión teórica sobre la necesaria articulación dialéctica del pensamiento creativo y crítico en los estudios sobre Comunicación. En una primera etapa, los supuestos son cue [...] stionados con el fin de construir un nuevo paradigma basado en la creatividad social y económica. El pone en duda, en particular, los supuestos teóricos y metodológicos Richard Florida en el surgimiento de una clase creativa. En un segundo paso, se muestra lo fácil que es para los políticos que promueven la creatividad como un valor positivo para convertirse en una piedra angular en el desarrollo de la sociedad de la información. En conclusión, es expuesta una renovación del pensamiento crítico como un complemento necesario de la apreciación del proceso creativo en los estudios sobre comunicación. Abstract in english In this short paper, based on an analysis of recent academic and political discourses on creativity, is develops a theoretical reflexion on the necessary dialectical articulation of creative and critical thinking in communication studies. In a first step, are questions the assumptions aiming to buil [...] d a new social and economic paradigm based on creativity. It doubts, in particular, Richard Florida's theoretical and methodological hypotheses regarding the emergence of a creative class. In a second step, is showing how it is easy for politicians to promote creativity as a positive value making it a corner stone in the development of the information society. As a conclusion, it is showing that the renovation of critical thinking as a necessary complement of the promotion of creative process in communication studies.
If history teachers' aim is to teach students how to think, why not ask: What forms of thought do historians use, and what specific techniques will inculcate these forms? In this article, the author proposes a fundamental shift, from courses with a focus on the mastery of data to courses with a priority on learning the historian's craft. The…
Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.
There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…
Kim, Kyung Hee
Thinking Blocks is an interactive Flash tool for modeling and solving math problems visually. Students represent quantities and relationships by placing blocks and braces on a work space and using the tools to resize and label them accordingly. Users can change the color of blocks, move them, copy them, divide them into equal parts, and separate them. A pencil tool and keyboard are also available. The site includes video tutorials demonstrating how to use the tool and how to model a wide variety of problem types. It also contains a bank of hundreds of word problems.
This article examines cognitive links between romantic love and creativity and between sexual desire and analytic thought based on construal level theory. It suggests that when in love, people typically focus on a long-term perspective, which should enhance holistic thinking and thereby creative thought, whereas when experiencing sexual encounters, they focus on the present and on concrete details enhancing analytic thinking. Because people automatically activate these processing styles when in love or when they experience sex, subtle or even unconscious reminders of love versus sex should suffice to change processing modes. Two studies explicitly or subtly reminded participants of situations of love or sex and found support for this hypothesis. PMID:19690153
Förster, Jens; Epstude, Kai; Ozelsel, Amina
Because of changes in the medical environment, nurses must maintain the ability of divergent thinking to solve the health problems of patients. However, many nurses whose work in clinical practice has become routine have lost the ability of creativity. To cultivate nurses creativity should be a goal of nursing education. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a nursing concepts teaching protocol by utilizing teaching strategies directed toward creativity to promote creativity in two-year RN-BSN students. This study design is a time series and one group experiment utilizing multiple instances of treatment. Teaching strategies for creativity were applied to a teaching unit and 52 two-year RN-BSN students were tested for creativity before the end of each semester. This study was conducted from March, 1999 to May, 2000, but only 30 students completed all tests and reached a 58% return rate. Torrance s (1974) definitions of creativity includ fluency, flexibility, and uniqueness were followed and the instrument, a questionnaire on Creativity in the application of the Nursing Process Tool (CNPT), was designed based on Emerson (1988). The content validity of Chinese-version CNPT was.79. The inter-coder reliability between two researchers was.84 following a coding guide that ten nursing education experts had established. The results indicated that 30 two-year RN-BSN students had improved fluency and flexibility. The improvements reached a significant level after the third semester. Only uniqueness declined. It is suggested that nursing faculty apply teaching strategies uniqueness more often in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts. By utilizing teaching strategies of creativity in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts, it is expected that two-year RN-BSN students can acquire characteristics of creativity for problem-solving skills in clinical settings. PMID:12119595
Ku, Ya-Lie; Kao Lo, Chi-Hui; Wang, Jing-Jy; Lee Hsieh, Jane; Chen, Kuei-Min
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Isaeva E. A.
Previous studies revealed that there is moderate to strong correlation between creative thinking and empathy with self-awareness as three important skills in human life and the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between these three aspects of life skills. The participants in the study contained of 96(54 males and 42 females) 10 grade of high school students from Mysore in India. Life skill questionnaire - India (LSQI), carried out on the group sample and date analyzed th...
Ayatollah Karimi; Venkatesh Kumar, G.
Introduction: Here we report the results obtained in an innovative teaching experience that encourages the development of Critical Thinking skills through motivational intervention. Understanding Critical Thinking as a theory of action, "we think to solve problems", and accompanying this concept with a program aimed at teaching/learning…
Olivares, Sonia; Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.
On the basis of a previous study carried out with Spanish-speaking children which indicates that the Creativity construct, operationalized by means of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT)-Figural, consists of two factors –Innovation and Adaptation– (Krumm, Lemos & Arán Filippetti, in press), the objective of the present work was to prove whether this structure is invariant across age. A sample of 652 Spanish-speaking children and adolescents aged 9-17 years of both sexes was te...
Krumm, Gabriela L.; Vanessa Arán Filippetti; María Aranguren; Viviana Lemos; Jael Vargas Rubilar
It can be rationalised that the education of high ability students is of immense importance to society, based on the principle that many of tomorrow's pioneers within the field of science will originate from this group of individuals. Consequently, these students must be equipped with critical and creative thinking skills to fulfil their…
Slatter, Christopher John
Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffro...
Villaveces, Jose? L.; Guillermo Restrepo
Full Text Available Para resolver una adivinanza hay que asociar ideas, analizar metáforas, descubrir analogías. Por eso, impulsar esta forma de entretenimiento infantil es un modo de ejercitar el pensamiento creativo. Sin embargo, existe un problema: las adivinanzas tradicionales son formas literarias que corresponden a una época pre-digital. ¿Cómo lograr, entonces, que tengan mayor aceptación entre los nativos digitales? Una posible solución sería crear adivinanzas audiovisuales diseñadas especialmente para YouTube. En esta investigación se realizaron cinco prototipos de adivinanzas audiovisuales con características creativas diferentes y se validaron con estudiantes de tercero a sexto grado de educación primaria. Los resultados de la validación permitieron identificar las actitudes, reacciones, interpretaciones y modos de razonamiento de los niños y niñas cuando intentan resolver este tipo de adivinanzas. También se identificaron los recursos de lenguaje y formatos creativos que funcionan mejor en una adivinanza audiovisual. En las conclusiones se destaca la necesidad de formular correctamente los enunciados de las adivinanzas audiovisuales y sus respectivas «pistas» para que los niños y niñas tengan la satisfacción intelectual y emocional de resolverlas. Se precisa, además, que leer o escuchar una adivinanza tradicional representa una experiencia cognitiva y sensorial muy distinta que interactuar con esa misma adivinanza en un lenguaje multimedia. Finalmente, se discute y analiza el rol mediador del docente y la importancia del aprendizaje colaborativo en los proyectos educativos que emplean tecnologías digitales.Solving riddles involves association of ideas, analysis of metaphors, and discovery of analogies. Therefore, promoting this type of children’s entertainment is a way to develop creative thinking. However, there is a problem: traditional riddles are literary forms that correspond to a pre-digital era. How can we increase its acceptance among the digital natives? One way might be creating audiovisual riddles specially designed for YouTube. In this research we made five prototypes of audiovisual riddles with different creative characteristics and validated them among 8-12 years old students. The validation results helped us to identify the attitudes, reactions, interpretations and ways of thinking of children when they try to solve such riddles. We also identified the resources of language and creative formats that fit best in audio-visual riddles. The outcome of this research emphasizes the need to correctly formulate the audiovisual riddle statements and their «clues» for children; this way we assure an intellectual and emotional satisfaction when solving them. It also concludes that reading or listening to traditional riddles are cognitive and sensory experiences that are very different from interacting with the same riddle in a multimedia language. Finally, we discuss and analyze the mediating role of the teacher and the importance of collaborative learning in educational projects using digital technologies.
Jorge Montalvo Castro
Creativity can be experienced in many roles of musicianship: performing, improvising, and composing. Yet, activities that encourage creative thought in our music classrooms can be a challenge to implement. A strong music education curriculum for middle school general music is important; as this may be the last time we reach students who do not…
When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…
In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648
Some cognitive dimensions are internationally considered by psychologists to describe and to assess creativity. For example, (Guilford, P. (1976). Creatividad y Educacion. Buenos Aires. Ed. Paidos) and (Torrance, E. P. (1977). Discovery and nurturance of giftedness in the culturally different. Reston, VA: Council on Exceptional Children) suggested…
Almeida, Leandro S.; Prieto, Lola Prieto; Ferrando, Mercedes; Oliveira, Emma; Ferrandiz, Carmen
The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives. PMID:25005405
How do material representations such as models, diagrams and drawings come to shape and aid collective, epistemic processes? This study investigated how groups of participants spontaneously recruited material objects (in this case LEGO blocks) to support collective creative processes in the context of an experiment. Qualitative micro-analyses of the group interactions motivate a taxonomy of different roles that the material representations play in the joint epistemic processes: illustration, elaboration and exploration. Firstly, the LEGO blocks were used to illustrate already well-formed ideas in support of communication and epistemic alignment. Furthermore, the material concretization of otherwise abstract ideas in LEGO blocks gave rise to elaboration: discussions, requests for clarification and discovery of unnoticed conceptual disagreements. Lastly, the LEGO blocks were used for exploration. That is, the material representations were experimented on and physical attributes were explored resulting in discoveries of new meaning potentials and creative solutions. We discuss these different ways in which material representations do their work in collective reasoning processes in relation to ideas about top-down and bottom-up cognitive processes and division of cognitive labor.
Stege BjØrndahl, Johanne; Fusaroli, Riccardo
This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…
Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John
Full Text Available This study focuses on students in first year environmental science degree programs where traditionally mathematical emphasis has been much less than the strict science or math majors. The importance now placed in applied mathematics means that students need to gain more conceptual and quantitative knowledge in not only the environmental degree programs but also in most if not all non-mathematical majors. In this study, the authors attempt to gain insights into why students fail in mathematical courses where the mathematical requirements are not as demanding as other strict math degree programs. This is done by examining student conceptual thinking patterns and strategies as evident in student prepared scripts. A total of 133 students were requested to prepare a focus sheet to summarize their knowledge on topics learned but they were also told that the focus sheets could be used in exams for notes. This motivated their sheet preparation. The students prepared weekly summaries and later revised and summarized them for later use. Detailed examination of such sheets allowed researchers to study studentsâ?? knowledge in terms procedural work, math skills, strategies and conceptual knowledge. A study of linear, quadratic and limit sections led to interesting insights not only regarding revision strategies, knowledge of content, but also conceptual and procedural knowledge base and higher order skills such as problem solving focus. Logical and creative competencies were assessed in terms of how and what student focused upon or linked to in order to facilitate application of knowledge. The results show average levels of procedural and conceptual competence but rather low levels in logical and creative competence in preparation of scripts. Almost 50% lacked competency in procedural work while around 54% lacked conceptual competency. Given the emphasis placed procedural skills by students, the levels were lower than expected. However, the lack of structure in their work and deeper levels of understanding of links between the topics learned was concerning. These findings have implications for the first year mathematics teaching teams at universities especially the non-specialist mathematical majors.
Gurudeo Anand Tularam
Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.
José L. Villaveces
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Proyecto de investigación que analiza las representaciones educativo-laborales sobre las atribuciones de valor a la creatividad, motivación e innovación en jóvenes de la educación formal y no formal que se preparan para el mundo del trabajo. La desarticulación educativa entre oferta, demanda y neces [...] idad, exige búsquedas que complementen la didáctica homogénea de un pensamiento convergente con otras vertientes que favorecen el pensamiento divergente. Se asume la creatividad como un concepto teórico, no observable, que difícilmente se da en forma espontánea y se reconoce solo como atributo exclusivo de artistas, siendo necesario generarla en todos los sujetos y disciplinas para una construcción de valores y desarrollo a escala humana. Avanza sobre nuevas aristas didácticas integradoras que cubren un extenso espectro de pertenencias culturales, con disimilitudes de conocimientos, de abstracción, de lenguajes e ideologías. Se opta por una integración metodológica para ampliar las posibilidades de los contextos de descubrimiento y validación priorizando el primero. La metodología comprensivista apunta más directamente a las metas propuestas con los aportes de la etnografía, interaccionismo simbólico y la etnometodología. Los primeros resultados parciales evidencian que las actitudes y motivaciones de los jóvenes, dentro y fuera de las aulas e instituciones, cambian radicalmente, apareciendo estrategias creativas e innovadoras para actividades que responden a intereses diferentes a los contenidos curriculares. En jóvenes alumnos de posgrado en educación, se relevan dificultades para enseñar y desconocimiento de didácticas orientadas al pensamiento divergente, pero interés por interiorizarse en la teoría e instrumentación de las mismas. Abstract in english This research project analyzes the education-labour representations on value attributions to creativity, motivation and innovation in youth with formal and non-formal education that are training for the job world. The educational detachment between offer, demand and need, requests a search that can [...] complement the homogeneous didactics of a converging line of thought with other currents that favour divergent thinking. Creativity is considered a theoretical concept, non observable, that can hardly happen in a spontaneous way and is solely an attribute of artists, but also necessary to be generated in all individuals and disciplines for a construction of values and development at a human scale. It makes progress over new integrating didactic aspects that cover a wide spectrum of cultural belongings, with dissimilar knowledge, of abstraction, of languages and ideologies. A methodological integration is chosen to enlarge the possibilities of the discovery and validation contexts prioritizing the former. The comprehensive methodology aims more directly to intended goals with contributions from ethnography, symbolic interaction and ethnomethodology. The first partial results show that attitudes and motivation in youngsters, inside and outside classrooms and institutions, change radically, giving rise to creative and innovative strategies that respond to different interests to those in curricular contents. Among young postgraduate students in education, difficulties in teaching and both an ignorance but also an interest in didactics oriented to diverging thought are shown.
Rosa, Pérez del Viso de Palou.
Examines the process by which teachers learn to teach thinking in the classroom. The paper describes the evolution of thinking skills in three phases: thinking skills acquisition, critical and creative thinking processes, and thoughtful application. Teachers pass through the three-stage process as they learn how to teach thinking. (SM)
Fogarty, Robin; McTighe, Jay
Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…
Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt
The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time fport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors associated with the radioactive materials they contain. Packages for fissile materials are the most robust ones. However, very low quantities of fissile material, relative to the overall volume of material in which it is contained, do not pose a realistic criticality hazard. More realistic provisions for these fissile-excepted materials would improve safety, reduce dose uptake, and provide significant financial benefits to both industry and the regulator. It is a basic principle of transport safety regulation that safety is vested primarily in the package, and not the mode of conveyance. Safety standards for packages are set internationally by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Packages designs are subject to a rigorous internationally-established test regime; a test regime that takes account both of normal and conceivable realistic accident conditions to demonstrate conclusively that the package will provide adequate protection. Packages will only be licensed for use by national competent authorities on the basis of a convincing safety case. Looking outside the box - when confronted by uncertainty about the safety of radioactive materials transports, it is suggested industry not limit itself to reassuring words about the undeniably excellent safety record of transport over decades but, it should present the safety features of the packages, the rigorous international safety test criteria to ensure the package would survive realistic regulate and accident conditions of transport, and the need to present a convincing safety case to competent authorities before a licence would be issued. While the very low statistical possibility of transport accident cannot be denied attention also should be paid to the consequences of accidents. The communications theme will also be addressed as the 'new media' push the bounds of possibility of how best to increase understanding about nuclear packaging and transport. The world has evolved in a more sceptical age, a permanent full time communications age when people increasingl
The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors associated with the radioactive materials they contain. Packages for fissile materials are the most robust ones. However, very low quantities of fissile material, relative to the overall volume of material in which it is contained, do not pose a realistic criticality hazard. More realistic provisions for these fissile-excepted materials would improve safety, reduce dose uptake, and provide significant financial benefits to both industry and the regulator. It is a basic principle of transport safety regulation that safety is vested primarily in the package, and not the mode of conveyance. Safety standards for packages are set internationally by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Packages designs are subject to a rigorous internationally-established test regime; a test regime that takes account both of normal and conceivable realistic accident conditions to demonstrate conclusively that the package will provide adequate protection. Packages will only be licensed for use by national competent authorities on the basis of a convincing safety case. Looking outside the box - when confronted by uncertainty about the safety of radioactive materials transports, it is suggested industry not limit itself to reassuring words about the undeniably excellent safety record of transport over decades but, it should present the safety features of the packages, the rigorous international safety test criteria to ensure the package would survive realistic regulate and accident conditions of transport, and the need to present a convincing safety case to competent authorities before a licence would be issued. While the very low statistical possibility of transport accident cannot be denied attention also should be paid to the consequences of accidents. The communications theme will also be addressed as the 'new media' push the bounds of possibility of how best to increase understanding about nuclear packaging and transport. The world has evolved in a more sceptical age, a permanent full time communications age when people increasingly rely on very sh
Green, Lorne [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 310-312 Regent Street, London, W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)
Critical thinking is a phase that is being heard frequently in nursing education. Nurse educators are encouraged to teach students to think critically because of the higher-order thinking skills that are required in our complex health care delivery system. The challenge to educators is the selection, development, and implementation of appropriate teaching strategies. This article describes a variety of strategies for teaching critical thinking within the context of nursing. PMID:1754128
Pond, E F; Bradshaw, M J; Turner, S L
Argues that an approach to composition instruction that emphasizes critical thinking skills produces a more analytical writer. Describes a school project that examined research on critical thinking, implemented changes in the teaching of thinking and composition, and assessed student learning. (HB)
The reading teacher needs to be well versed in the teaching of reading, which includes different patterns of thinking in each student. A skilled reader develops patterns of thinking pertaining to content read. Identified patterns of thinking need to be analyzed and incorporated as objectives for student attainment in reading. This paper discusses…
Full Text Available This paper argues that in the context of human activity systems, the concept of purpose is critically important and that giving purpose a central role in the development and management of human activity systems can lead to more flexible, effective and autonomous systems. The systems thinking literature is reviewed in order to consolidate and assess current thinking about purpose. The importance of intrinsic purpose is highlighted. Implications for practice in terms of information systems design are illustrated by contrasting two different approaches to the design of knowledge management systems. An analysis of corporations as purposeful systems highlights some of the benefits of a purposeful systems approach. Directions for future research with a focus on purpose are suggested.
Geology is not something that people tend to think about in their day-to-day lives; at least, not until it is time to dig out the dusty old rock collection from the back of the science cupboard and teach the rocks and soils unit again! Geology is very much part of people's lives. Geology is about so much more than just looking at rocks and…
A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning
In this essay, I discuss poetry as an important style of thinking and exploration. Poetry, I maintain, is a leap, a risk, a gambit that opens unexpected linguistic possibilities and imaginative opportunities. Based on my own experience of teaching poetry, I suggest strategies in this essay for encouraging students to take the kinds of risks that engender sense and confront nonsense. The central claim of this essay is that by creating new and surprising associations, poetry teaches us differen...
Anecdotal literature suggests that creative people sometimes use bodily movement to help overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration. Several studies have shown that physical exercise may sometimes enhance creative thinking, but the evidence is still inconclusive. In this study we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is affected by acute moderate and intense physical exercise in athletes (n = 48) and non-athletes (n = 48). Exercise interfered with div...
One goal of education is to help students become well-rounded citizens who can think broadly across boundaries. In addition, individuals with interdisciplinary thinking skills can be valuable contributors to modern research challenges by understanding and recognizing interdisciplinary connections and working in diverse teams. However, little research exists on the connection between interdisciplinary thinking and physics education. What aspects of physics classroom practices and experiences foster interdisciplinary thinking? What effect does interdisciplinary thinking have on the development of studentsâ physics identities? Using a physics identity theoretical framework with data from a national survey, this study found that self-reported characteristics of interdisciplinary thinking are significantly correlated with higher levels of physics identity development. Also, several factors of the physics classroom environment and pedagogies are significantly related to interdisciplinary thinking.
Scott, Tyler D.; Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff
Full Text Available On the basis of a previous study carried out with Spanish-speaking children which indicates that the Creativity construct, operationalized by means of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT-Figural, consists of two factors –Innovation and Adaptation– (Krumm, Lemos & Arán Filippetti, in press, the objective of the present work was to prove whether this structure is invariant across age. A sample of 652 Spanish-speaking children and adolescents aged 9-17 years of both sexes was tested. It was in turn divided into three age groups: (a 9-10, (b 11-13 and (c 16 -17 years. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA showed that in each group of the sample, the structure of the TTCT is composed of two correlated factors, namely Innovation and Adaptation. In addition, Multigroup CFA demonstrated that the two-factor solution was actually invariant (configural and metric across age, meaning that children and adolescents equally conceptualize the Creativity construct. Finally, MANOVA showed a significant age effect on every subscale. These data suggest the relevance of considering the age factor when assessing the creative potential through the TTCT-Figural.
Gabriela L. Krumm
The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities. PMID:19126073
Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary
Using R. J. Sternberg's (1988, 1997) theory of thinking styles and W. G. Perry's (1970) theory of cognitive development, the author investigated the nature of thinking styles as they relate to cognitive development. Eighty-two Hong Kong university students (44 male, 38 female) responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) and the Zhang Cognitive Development Inventory (L. F. Zhang, 1997). Statistical analyses provided varying degrees of support for the predi...
Thinking in Systems is a concise and crucial book offering insight for problem-solving on scales ranging from the personal to the global. This essential primer brings systems thinking out of the realm of computers and equations and into the tangible world, showing readers how to develop the systems-thinking skills that thought leaders across the globe consider critical for 21st-century life.While readers will learn the conceptual tools and methods of systems thinking, the heart of the book is grander than methodology. Donella Meadows was known as much for nurturing positive outcomes as she was
Although textbooks routinely include exercises to improve critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of these exercises has not been closely examined. Additionally, the connection between critical thinking skills and formal operational thought is also relatively understudied. In the study reported here, college students completed measures of…
Cotter, Ellen M.; Tally, Carrie Sacco
Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web
What pupils think about mathematics often features in discussion between mathematics educators. But, how often is "what learners think about their mathematics lessons" a feature of enquiry? It could be a "high risk" strategy to garner honest comment that relates to the "classroom experience". Notions of "risk" apart, the process of collecting data…
Learning a language is closely connected to learning to think critically in specific subject matter. Teachers need to teach not only the technical basics of reading and writing to English language learners but also the critical thinking skills that these students need both in and out of school. Various question-seeking activities can promote…
Dong, Yu Ren
Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.
Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the trust game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another (the trustee). As expected, trustors transferred significantly more money to trustees after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated) cognitive states. PMID:24936194
Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W; van de Groep, Suzanne; Colzato, Lorenza S
Formal education and support is needed for nurse managers to effectively function in their role in the current health care environment. Many nurse managers assume their positions based on expertise in a clinical role with little expertise in managerial and leadership skills. Operating as a manager and leader requires ongoing development of critical thinking skills and the inclination to use those skills. Critical thinking can have a powerful influence on the decision making and problem solving that nurse managers are faced with on a daily basis. The skills that typify critical thinking include analysis, evaluation, inference, and deductive and inductive reasoning. It is intuitive that nurse managers require both the skills and the dispositions of critical thinking to be successful in this pivotal role at a time of transformation in health care. Incorporating critical thinking into education and support programs for the nurse manager is necessary to position the nurse manager for success. PMID:19492771
Zori, Susan; Morrison, Barbara
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El sistema educativo no escapa a la renovación de las técnicas para incentivar el pensamiento innovador. El objetivo de esta reflexión monográfica es mostrar la relación entre el desarrollo de la creatividad y los usos de los softwares educativos. Las técnicas seleccionadas son, el mapa mental y el [...] de conceptos, el mandala y las supernotas. Y los softwares empleados, son el Mind Manager, el Inspiración y el CMap Tool. El procedimiento hace referencia a los fundamentos teóricos argumentados por los autores y, a una descripción de las bondades de los tres softwares seleccionados. Como reflexión final se puede decir que los softwares seleccionados cumplen la función de herramienta mental-tecnológica, al desarrollar habilidades para procesar información de forma creativa. Abstract in english The educational system does not escape to renewing the techniques to motivate innovative thinking. The goal of this monographic reflection is to show the relation between creativity development and education software uses. The chosen techniques are, mental and concept map, the mandala and super note [...] -taking. The software used is the Mind Manager, Inspiration, and the CMap Tool. The procedure refers to the theoretical fundaments argued by the authors and, to a description of the goodness of the software used. As a final reflection it can be said that the software work as a mental-technological tool, by developing skills to process information in a creative way.
Anny, Castillo Rojas.
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O artigo propõe uma viagem em torno dos pressupostos ecológicos ou atributos do pensamento ecológico. Identifica as suas principais quatro qualidades e procura demonstrar como se podem fundamentar em evidência empírica. A primeira das premissas focaliza-se na inter-dependência das pessoas e os seus [...] ambientes sociais, a segunda que as metodologias de investigação podem ser congruentes com a cultura de um lugar ou de um contexto concretos. Em terceiro lugar que ao(à) psicólogo(a) comunitário é requerido que desenvolva relações de confiança e a quarta que na sua busca de entendimento acerca da comunidade aprenda mais sobre si próprio(a). Abstract in english The article proposes a journey on the ecological premises or attributes of ecological thinking. Identifies its four main qualities and probes to demonstrate how at present there is some empirical evidence upon which such premises may be anchored. The first is focused on the interdependencies of pers [...] ons and social environments, the second is that research methodologies may be congruent with the culture of place, the third that to the community psychologist is required to establish trust relationships, and the fourth that understanding a community means learning about oneself.
James G., Kelly.
Be aware of what attachments you open and what Internet programs you agree to download, the simple click of a mouse can be enough to introduce a virus at CERN and cause widespread damage. Modern viruses are a serious threat to our computers and networks. CERN limits the security risks that these programs pose through the use of its firewall, by constantly updating its anti-virus software, by detecting un-patched security holes, and by blocking many dangerous attachments as they pass through e-mail gateways, but these defenses do not guarantee 100% security. Our habits of clicking "ok" automatically on the Internet and opening attachments without thinking, are the behaviors that modern viruses are using to get past our security protections. Viruses can sit on the Internet waiting for us to activate them as we surf the web. Many of us simply click 'ok' when presented with dialogue boxes and this is exactly what the virus wants: clicking can be enough to download and infect our computers. Viruses can travel as...
Science projects can be a wonderful opportunity for learning and creativity, or a gigantic headache for teachers. After several years of implementation, experience, and revision, the author has put together a fun and engaging project centered on machines that is appropriate for middle school students. This project came to be known simply as "The Thinking Machine Project," which draws its origin from the national Rube Goldberg Machine competition held each year at Purdue University. Here is one way to bring technology, writing, drawing, creativity, and hands-on ingenuity together in a single fun and successful project.
Noting that the ability to think critically and creatively can be encouraged even in the very young, this book provides practical strategies and lesson plans for introducing children in kindergarten through grade 3 to the fun and rigors of skillful thinking. The first set of four lessons is designed to start children thinking and to lay the…
Fogarty, Robin; Opeka, Kay
The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.
This article states that research shows 93% of teacher questions are focusing on recall of facts and that type of questioning does not stimulate the mathematical thinking of students who are engaged in open ended investigations. To improve the quality of teacher questioning techniques, the author suggests dividing questions into four main categories: starter questions, questions to stimulate mathematical thinking, assessment questions and final discussion questions and then to follow with a rigorous question. A link to an addendum to the article provides a table of generic questions that can be used by teachers to guide children through a mathematical investigation, and at the same time prompt higher order thinking, as espoused by Bloom and others.
Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is Vygotsky's thesis that the prerequisite of conceptual thinking and concepts in general is the systematic influence upon the child effectuated by his/her inclusion into the process of education. The aim of this work is to examine characteristics of conceptual thinking of people who have not attended school, by which they have been devoid of formative role of education. Four different methods for examination of conceptual development have been used on the sample consisting of seventeen respondents who have not attended school. The results state that the majority of respondents have not demonstrated that they master the concepts on the highest level of development in none of these four methods. However, some respondents in some tests and some individual tasks within the tests show some characteristics of the high level of the conceptual thinking development.
The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to show a link between reflective thinking and its ability to stimulate critical thinking. Teachers often perceive that critical thinking skills need to...
Chee Choy, S.; Pou San Oo
Full Text Available La investigación que acá se reseña puso a prueba los mapas mentales en grupos de estudiantes. Metodológicamente se apeló a un diseño cuasi-experimental intragrupos, con el ánimo de establecer si con el uso de mapas mentales los sujetos de investigación mejoraban o no su nivel de originalidad y eficacia con respecto a ideas que se derivaran de procesos creativos que no utilizaran la cartografía mental. Los investigadores obtuvieron un total de 64 ideas, 32 resultantes del uso de mapas mentales y otras 32 provenientes de procesos que no involucraron al mapa mental. Para hacer los comparativos del caso se apeló a evaluaciones cualificadas de la originalidad y la eficacia mediante la utilización de un diferencial semántico que permitió valorar estadísticamente los puntajes dados a cada una de las ideas realizadas por los sujetos de investigación. La hipótesis que se planteó en el sentido de que los mapas mentales mejoran la originalidad de los estudiantes se confirmó, más no otra hipótesis que sugería que con los mapas mentales se incrementaba el nivel de eficacia de las propuestas. No obstante, dependiendo del tipo de mapa mental utilizado, la eficacia puede no verse disminuida, en tanto que la originalidad se incrementa, con toda seguridad, independientemente del tipo de mapa mental utilizado en el proceso. El mapa mental, debidamente utilizado, potencializa en los estudiantes el pensamiento divergente, la flexibilidad espontanea, las jerarquías planas y, en general, su creatividad. The research that is outlined here did tests the metal maps on a group of students. Methodologically the study appealed to a semi-experimental design within groups, with the intention to establish if by using mental maps people’s level of originality and efficacy as to the ideas that came from creative processes were higher than those who didn’t use mental maps. The researchers obtained a total of 64 ides, 32 came from the use of mental maps and the other 32 came from processes that did not involve mental maps at all. In order to compare the study the evaluation qualified the originality and assertiveness by means of a semantic differential that allowed to statistically value the scores given to each of the ideas that came from the students subject to the tests. The proposed hypothesis leading towards the idea that mental maps would enhance the students’ originality was confirmed, yet not a second hypothesis that suggested that with the use of mental maps the level of efficacy would be higher. Regardless, depending on the type f mental map used, efficacy may not be reduced while the originality is sure to be enhanced while using any type of mental map. Such maps, if used adequately promotes diverging though processes in students, spontaneous flexibility, flat hierarchies and creativity in general.
The Internet, in the memorable words of EDGE founder John Brockman, is 'the infinite oscillation of our collective consciousness interacting with itself. It's not about computers. It's not about what it means to be human - in fact, it challenges, renders trite, our cherished assumptions on that score. It is about thinking'. In How is the Internet Changing the Way you Think?, the latest volume in Brockman's cutting-edge Edge questions series, 154 of the world's leading intellectuals - scientists, artists and creative thinkers - explore exactly what it means to think in the new age of the Inter
Contends that as techniques to motivate, empower and reward staff become ever more sophisticated and expensive, one of the most obvious, though overlooked, ways of tapping the creativity of employees is the suggestion scheme. A staff suggestion scheme may well be dismissed as a simplistic and outdated vehicle by proponents of modern management methods, but to its owners it can be like a classic model--needing just a little care and attention in order for it to run smoothly and at a very low cost. Proposes that readers should spare some time to consider introducing a suggestion scheme as an entry level initiative and a precursor to more sophisticated, elaborate and costly change management mechanisms. PMID:10161782
Lloyd, G C
Three experiments investigated use of vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena by 5- and 10-year-olds and by adults. Results replicated the original Japanese finding of vitalistic thinking among English-speaking 5-year-olds, identified the more active component of vitalism as a belief in the transfer of energy during biological processes,…
Morris, Suzanne C.; Taplin, John E.; Gelman, Susan A.
In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…
In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…
Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda
Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...
This set of 25 interactive challenges gives students practice solving problems, using logical thinking, spatial orientation, and movement along a path. Learners must control the movements of one or more ducks to achieve an unstated goal. The music and sound effects add to the realism.
A study in which Logo programming was used to teach problem-solving skills to fourth to eighth grade students is described. The results, and their implications for further use of the computer to teach higher order thinking skills, are discussed. The possible use of Prolog programming to teach reasoning skills is described. (JL)
Black, John B.; And Others
1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the students thought of were; a rise in the sea level because of melting ice at the north and south poles, floods, the increase of typhoons and cyclones, the increase of droughts, the progression of desertification, etc. Lastly, I asked them to think about what we can do to prevent global warming. The students suggested: saving energy to decrease carbon dioxide emissions, developing further public transportation, using bikes instead of cars, promoting recycling, and decreasing the output of garbage. 3.Conclusion It is very effective to let them think about being sustainable earth after studying Geography, History and Civics at the end of Junior high school to raise awareness concerning sustainable region on the earth, on which we live.
The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March. Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...
Augustine's concept of the deep self provides a basis for a complex and many-faceted account of critical thinking. He uncovers the moral sources of thinking in the inner depths of the self and shows that critical thinking presupposes radical self-reflection ready to face the truth about oneself. Self-knowledge assumes transparency, consciousness…
The Measure of Offender Thinking Styles (MOTS) was originally developed to examine the structure of dysfunctional thinking exhibited by criminal offenders. In the initial investigation, a three-factor model of criminal thinking was obtained using the MOTS. These factors included dysfunctional thinking characterized as Control, Cognitive…
Mandracchia, Jon T.; Morgan, Robert D.
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
Despite educators' strong recommendation for teaching students measurement skills--and specifically the metric system--measurement continues to be among the lowest scoring mathematics content areas in the United States for students. But, it doesn't have to be this way. This article provides a series of simple activities that can help students in grades 4-6 conceptualize metric units of measurement and thus improve their ability to think in metric units.
Donna R. Sterling
Full Text Available Anecdotal literature suggests that creative people sometimes use bodily movement to help overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration. Several studies have shown that physical exercise may sometimes enhance creative thinking, but the evidence is still inconclusive. In this study we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is affected by acute moderate and intense physical exercise in athletes (n=48 and non-athletes (n=48. Exercise interfered with divergent thinking in both groups. The impact on convergent thinking, the task that presumably required more cognitive control, depended on the training level: while in non-athletes performance was significantly impaired by exercise, athletes showed a benefit that approached significance. The findings suggest that acute exercise may affect both, divergent and convergent thinking. In particular, it seems to affect control-hungry tasks through exercise-induced “ego-depletion”, which however is less pronounced in individuals with higher levels of physical fitness, presumably because of the automatization of movement control, fitness-related neuroenergetic benefits, or both.
The critical thinking abilities and dispositions of nurse educators are integral to facilitating the critical thinking of nursing students. This descriptive, exploratory study, which was completed as part of a Master's Degree, measures and describes nurse educators' critical thinking. Using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), quantitative measurements were obtained from 11 full-time nurse educators conveniently sampled from a baccalaureate nursing program in Western Canada. Using the CCTDI, these educators scored highest in the inquisitiveness sub-scale. The results from the CCTST showed nurse educators scored highest in the skill of inductive reasoning. Both instrument total scores indicated these nurse educators' have a moderately high inclination and ability towards critical thinking. Six of the 11 nurse educators also participated in an interview, which captured their varied descriptions of critical thinking; factors that positively and negatively influence their critical thinking; and common approaches they utilize to facilitate critical thinking. The nurse educators who were interviewed preferred to describe critical thinking rather than define it. As well, the interviews highlighted that personal factors related to each nurse educator and conditions within their environment contributed to the facilitation of critical thinking. PMID:19038201
Raymond, Christy L; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne
Full Text Available The critical aspect of cultivating mathematical ability is the training of mathematics thinking. In the process of mathematics education, it should coach the creative thinking continually, and College mathematics will play an important role in training students’ thinking ability. As the matter of fact, mathematics can explain many phenomena simply and accurately. Through the living feeling, leading students to study these things, which can form the habit of being happy to analyze mathematics and communicate with each other. It could strengthen students’ awareness of applying mathematics and improve the ability of using mathematics. According to three effective ways of coaching students, in order to apply mathematic knowledge in all kinds of social topics, the author will study how to train student’s mathematical thinking from the perspective of college mathematical teaching in this topic.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.
Loni Kreis Taglieber
Many people find doing origami relaxing, and others find it can be even a fine group activity to while away many pleasant hours. This particular website offers up some ways to use origami to teach mathematical thinking. Created by Daniel Meyer, Jeanine Meyer, and Aviva Meyer, this site includes a background essay on this art, a set of teaching strategies for incorporating origami into the classroom, and some sample models. The "Teaching Strategies" area is a good place to look after reading the background essay, and users should also make use of the "Origami Sources" area, as it features external links to other origami sites.
Meyer, Aviva; Meyer, Daniel; Meyer, Jeanine
Nudging is increasingly acknowledged as a way to encourage change in behavior. Research shows that through the use of persuasive techniques individuals can be steered towards more effective decision-making. Using explicit nudging strategies in entrepreneurship education may create awareness about choice patterns and change the way individuals think about their entrepreneurial potential. Nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring students beyond the unseen boundaries of the self towards the kind of learning (growth) that develops self-efficacy and an entrepreneurial mindset. Thus, nudging techniques may promote, strengthen and develop learning beyond the limitations of what we already do.
Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle
The aim of this paper was to identify the strategies of constructive thinking that are used by university students. Constructive thinking is the automatic representation of the world, ourselves, and the future, it direct our actions to solve everyday problems. Results show that, there are no significant differences in global constructive thinking between male and female students. Although, exist differences in the copy style: men are better at emotional copies, they diminish the emotional cos...
Ofelia Contreras Gutiérrez; Margarita Chávez Becerra; Laura Edna Aragón Borja; Miriam Velázquez Ortiz
In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant ?zzet ...
Pi?ji? Ku?c?u?k, Duygu; Uzun, Yusuf Bar?s?
Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this areahave begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners’ mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was conducted partly to seek the answers to the issue. A brief training on critical thinking and critical attitude was given to a group of language learner...
Patrisius Istiarto Djiwandono
Contemporary integrative thinking is an important thinking way of current scientific development. It is continually developed with flourishing of holism, systematic science and complexity theory. It is far from enough the study of academic circles on its theoretical system, and an automatic condition exists in some aspects. This article is going to comment and analyze several important aspects in theoretical establishment of contemporary integrative thinking. Then the authors make clear study...
Jian Wang; Juan Hu
Full Text Available Contemporary integrative thinking is an important thinking way of current scientific development. It is continually developed with flourishing of holism, systematic science and complexity theory. It is far from enough the study of academic circles on its theoretical system, and an automatic condition exists in some aspects. This article is going to comment and analyze several important aspects in theoretical establishment of contemporary integrative thinking. Then the authors make clear study venation of the academic circles, and meanwhile, propose instructive opinions about the theoretical groundwork, scientific essence and practical application of contemporary integrative thinking.
The purpose of this article is to discuss a cognitive approach to therapy with a language impaired adult. Two types of productive thinking are explored in this research: concept awareness and problem solving. These are dynamic and creative processes underlying the development and use of cognition and language. This single subject study follows an ABAB design and describes techniques used in therapy and methods for measuring productive thinking in a 66-yr-old moderately language impaired adult. Results indicate a sharp increase in the subject's thought productivity in a variety of contexts. A critical appraisal of reasons for therapy effectiveness are given. PMID:7263932
Jenning, E A; Lubinski, R B
Even though statistical thinking and critical thinking appear to have strong links from a theoretical point of view, empirical research into the intersections and potential interrelatedness of these aspects of competence is scarce. Our research suggests that thinking skills in both areas may be interdependent. Given this interconnection, it should be possible to stimulate both forms of thinking through the one task. This paper explores the implications of an exploratory qualitative study into...
Aizikovitsh-udi, Einav; Clarke, David; Kuntze, Sebastian
ThinkData is an interactive service for raising awareness on data protection and transparency in the organisational context. Originating from a study carried out by an interdisciplinary work group as part of a think tank on services science and innovation (ThinkServices). ThinkData allows its users to become familiar with the concepts of data protection and transparency through short stories, situations involving employees, managers, HR managers and information systems professionals. In this ...
Glassey, Olivier; Morin, Jean-henry
In Study 1, an experiential factor divided into the following 3 factors when 3 or more factors were extracted: intuition, emotionality, and imagination; whereas a rational factor retained its coherence. In Study 2, an experiential but not a rational thinking style was positively associated with performance measures of creativity, humor, aesthetic judgment, and intuition and with self-report measures of empathy and social popularity. A rational thinking style was associated with several measures of adjustment. Both thinking styles were positively related to personal growth. Support was provided from several sources for the discriminant validity of the experiential facets. In a third study, the independence of the 2 thinking styles and of gender differences in self-reported data were verified by observations by others of participants' thinking styles. The importance of identifying facets of an experiential thinking style and of discovering previously unrecognized favorable attributes of this thinking style was discussed. PMID:21241307
Norris, Paul; Epstein, Seymour
This article describes an exemplary robot exercise which was conducted in a class for mechatronics students. The goal of this exercise was to engage students in scientific thinking and reasoning, activities which do not always play an important role in their curriculum. The robotic platform presented here is simple in its construction and is customizable to the needs of the teacher. Therefore, it can be used for exercises in many different fields of science, not necessarily related to robotics. Here we present a situation where the robot is used like an alien creature from which we want to understand its behavior, resembling an ethological research activity. This robot exercise is suited for a wide range of courses, from general introduction to science, to hardware oriented lectures.
Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Benker, Emanuel
Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation
The Productive Thinking Program (PTP), consisting of 16 programmed lessons designed to develop productive thinking skills, was used as the basis of a program conducted with 546 fifth graders in 21 classes in four upstate New York school districts. One hundred and twenty students from one of these districts were involved in a modified Solomon Four…
For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…
Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle
This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…
Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia
Describes a lesson based on Taba's Inductive Thinking Model that offers a set of strategies to enhance the teaching of higher order thinking skills with the use of databases. Analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information are discussed, and strategies for guiding class discussion are presented. (eight references) (LRW)
Watson, Jim; Strudler, Neal
Hugh Heclo's recent book "On Thinking Institutionally" (Paradigm Publishers, 2008) analyzes changes that have taken place in the past half century in how North Americans tend to think and act in institutions. The volume is receiving particular attention as it can be applied to higher education and to religious denominations, and so deserves…
Fennell, Robert C.; Ascough, Richard S.; Liew, Tat-siong Benny; McLain, Michael; Westfield, Nancy Lynne
In an age in which information is available almost instantly and in quantities unimagined just a few decades ago, most educators would agree that teaching adult learners to think critically about what they are reading, seeing, and hearing has never been more important. But just what is critical thinking? Do adult learners agree with educators that…
Emerson, Marnice K.
Development of critical thinking abilities is essential for students in clinical disciplines of the health sciences. Past research has shown that critical thinking is a learned skill that can be fostered through teaching strategies. Ten educational strategies that were developed and tested by the authors in online courses are presented to assist…
Lunney, Margaret; Frederickson, Keville; Spark, Arlene; McDuffie, Georgia
Critical thinking is a learned skill that requires instruction and practice. Business education instructors at both the secondary and post-secondary levels can enhance students' critical thinking skills by (1) using instructional strategies that actively engage students in the learning process rather than relying on lecture and rote memorization,…
Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Snyder, Mark J.
To many outsiders, mathematicians appear to think like computers, grimly grinding away with a strict formal logic and moving methodically--even algorithmically--from one black-and-white deduction to another. Yet mathematicians often describe their most important breakthroughs as creative, intuitive responses to ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox. A unique examination of this less-familiar aspect of mathematics, How Mathematicians Think reveals that mathematics is a profoundly creative activity and not just a body of formalized rules and results
In the present study, Williams’ activities test of creative thinking applied as a research tool, every grade studentsfrom the fourth grade in primary school to the third grade in middle school were selected to implementmeasurement, after statistical analysis we found that: (1) divergent thinking trends in various components wereinconsistent. (2) There were significant gender differences among flexibility, original creativity and the titlingcapacity and no significant...
Critical thinking is one of the eight basic skills in the primary school curriculum which has been prepared with a constructivist approach. Teaching critical thinking in Turkish language lessons has an importance in reaching curricular aims. Critical thinking has bonds with skills such as creative thinking, communication, research making, problem solving, using ICT, entrepreneurship, and using Turkish appropriatelyCritical thinking is involved with questioning, interpreting and decision makin...
Maintenance optimization problem could not always settled mathematically and was obliged to use quasi-optimum solution with omitting non-formulated limiting condition or neglecting part of optimization object. In such a case knowledge engineering thinking was encouraged. Maintenance of complicated plant and artificial system should be considered from artificial object (equipment/facility hardware and system), technical information and knowledge base, and organizational and human aspect or society and institution. Comprehensive management system in organization and society was necessary not only for assuring integrity of equipment but also for attaining higher performance, reliability and economics of system. For better judgment it was important to share mechanism to make use of more information with organization or whole society. It was required to create database and data mining for knowledge base management system of maintenance. Maintenance was called 'last fortress' to assure quality such as reliability and safety of required function of equipment. Strategic approach to develop maintenance technology under cooperation was considered. Life extension R and D road map was launched in 2005. (T. Tanaka)
Full Text Available AbstractDefining architecture as visual-functional art, Asis Cabrero goes back to the origins of the human species to explain the elements of conscience involved in the work of humankind. Human survival is voluntary, variable, personal and inventive in sharp contrast with the instinct of nature's other species. Humans are intelligent beings whose thinking is determined by their sense of sight, by the ability of their hands to make tools, on top of their predatory nature. This human animal of exchangeable organs is able to specialize himself in the use of tools he makes to be on equal terms with specialized animals. So does man make tools to come face to face with a variable and changing nature, be it a knife, an ax or a shelter.Since Architecture is a product of what your eye sees, it is the functional use of your hand that comes into play in Architectural drawings. According to Cabrero, matter becomes material through tools, to be rigged, to be built. Tools which have evolved over the course of history as matter always remain unchanged in nature. Asís Cabrero has researched five primitive architectures related to five original matters. He has studied the dome structure, the lintel, the framework, the laminated structure and the removable structure in connection with the rational use of clay, stone, wood, branches and skin.The variety of available materials in the professional career of Asís Cabrero, from post-war isolation to the liberalization of the sixties, allow us to set five ages in the work of Francisco de Asís Cabrero according to the material and the tools he uses.Key wordsFrancisco Cabrero, architecture, instruments, material, structure, tools
Juan Manuel Sánchez de la Chica
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify the strategies of constructive thinking that are used by university students. Constructive thinking is the automatic representation of the world, ourselves, and the future, it direct our actions to solve everyday problems. Results show that, there are no significant differences in global constructive thinking between male and female students. Although, exist differences in the copy style: men are better at emotional copies, they diminish the emotional cost of the events, and overcame faster negative experiences, they also show higher self-esteem. Women, on the other hand, show better strategies in order to solve problems (behavioral copy.
Ofelia Contreras Gutiérrez
This study explores how university students' thinking styles changed over a single academic year by twice administering the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II to 256 deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) students and 286 hearing students from art and design academic disciplines in China. Results showed that after having studied at the university for one academic year, hearing students showed increased use of Type I thinking styles (more creativity generated, less structured, and more complex) and less use of Type II thinking styles (more norm favoring, more structured, and more simplistic), whereas DHH students demonstrated increased use of both Type I and Type II thinking styles. Moreover, students' changes in thinking styles differed across university class levels. The contributions, limitations, and implications of the present research are discussed. PMID:25583705
Cheng, Sanyin; Zhang, Li-Fang
Full Text Available This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE and non economy (TE in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed randomly into 3 groups (KPMs1, KPMs2 and KKv. Two hypotheses have been tested. The ANOVA procedure was applied to detect whether there are significant differences in the mean score of critical thinking among these three groups. The research findings showed that students from the KPMs1 group obtained the highest mean score in critical thinking. Likewise, students based on economy in the KPMs1 group showed the highest mean score in the Cornell Post-Test (Critical Thinking. The implications of the finding are discussed.
Khoo Yin Yin
Artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms are often quoted in discussions about the contribution of biological systems thinking to engineering design. This paper reviews work on the neuromuscular system, a field in which biological systems thinking could make specific contributions to the development and design of automatic control systems for mechatronics and robotics applications. The paper suggests some specific areas in which a better understanding of this biological control syste...
Murray-smith, D. J.
Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model cha...
Lukas Schoenenberger; Andrea Schenker-Wicki; Mathias Beck
The method of teaching with help of four elementary skills - reading, speaking, writing and listening is definitely inconceivable to teaching any foreign language. But automatic answers following the exercise and students passive memorising does not make speaking language and its learning very natural. This has forced me to find and create the way how to make learners think and realise the point and meaning of learning itself. My paper is about special skill I have tried to apply –thinking ...
This paper investigates the extent of critical skills being incorporated in the undergraduates’ lesson as shown in their microteaching sessions. The researcher seeks to find evidence of critical thinking skills in the undergraduates’ content instruction of their respective lessons. She investigates the integration of critical thinking skills via the undergraduates’ lesson plans and the lesson’s implementation. She seeks for inclusion of these skills by viewing the tape...
Nor Hashimah Isa; Hj. Kamaruzaman Jusoff
Design ingenuity and sustainability can, and should, work together. Designers have an ethical responsibility to provide ideas that do no harm, and better yet, create positive solutions that nourish the environment, social and cultural structures, and the economy. This approach, referred to as sustainable systems thinking--in contrast to more common design approaches--looks at a problem as an integrated component of an entire network. Sustainable systems thinking helps designers, clients, and ...
Perullo, Yvette M.
This Web site is a course in statistics appreciation; i.e., acquiring a feeling for the statistical way of thinking. It is an introductory course in statistics that is designed to provide you with the basic concepts and methods of statistical analysis for decision making under uncertainties. Materials in this Web site are tailored to meet your needs in making good decisions by fostering statistical thinking.
Although still innovative and not largely disseminated, Computational Thinking is being considered as a critical skill for students in the 21st century. It involves many skills, but programming abilities seem to be a core aspect since they foster the development of a new way of thinking that is key to the solution of problems that require a combination of human mental power and computing power capacity. This paper presents an exploratory study developed to select psychological assessm...
Ambrosio, Ana Paula; Almeida, Leandro S.; Macedo, Joaquim; Franco, Amanda Helena Rodrigues
Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.
Argues that the preceding article in this periodical, written by Stephen Norris, about research related to critical thinking and the teaching of critical thinking, fails to demonstrate the scope of the research that has been done and overemphasizes a kind of specialized, compartmentalized thinking at the expense of dialectical thinking. (PGD)
Paul, Richard W.
Methods for teaching higher order thinking skills to students with special needs are considered. These include microthinking skills (e.g., classification); critical thinking skills; and major thinking operations (e.g., problem solving, decision making, and conceptualizing). Strategies for teaching individual skills and for incorporating thinking…
Lombardi, Thomas P.; Savage, Louise
This paper develops a dialogic theory of thinking and of learning to think that has implications for education. The theory is offered as a contrast to theories that are based on both Piaget and Vygotsky. The paper proceeds by unpacking and interweaving three key concepts: dialogue, thinking and learning in order to argue that learning to think can…
An explicit link between the issues of development and critical thinking is provided by Elder and Paul (1996). In their stage theory of critical thinking, Elder and Paul argued that the first stage beyond unreflective thinking is that of the challenged thinker. The challenged thinker is one who has become aware of the actual role of thinking in…
Riggs, Larry W.; Hellyer-Riggs, Sandra
This longitudinal case-study aimed at examining whether purposely teaching for the promotion of higher order thinking skills enhances students' critical thinking (CT), within the framework of science education. Within a pre-, post-, and post-post experimental design, high school students, were divided into three research groups. The experimental…
Miri, Barak; Ben-Chaim, David; Zoller, Uri
Full Text Available The method of teaching with help of four elementary skills - reading, speaking, writing and listening is definitely inconceivable to teaching any foreign language. But automatic answers following the exercise and students passive memorising does not make speaking language and its learning very natural. This has forced me to find and create the way how to make learners think and realise the point and meaning of learning itself. My paper is about special skill I have tried to apply –thinking skill. I have chosen it to complement other four which teacher normally uses when teaching foreign language (reading, speaking, listening skills. At the same time I put thinking skill into a role to support and enhance learning process. To find and use some methods how to make students think, make their own opinion and also teach them to apply their own experience to learning process was the main goal of this survey. The methods I have applied were provoking students to think before they learn.
Full Text Available Engineering education is facing a changing world in which how one thinks is becoming more important than what one thinks; that is, our course content is important but constantly changing and we need to help students learn how to think about that content.Today’s students have grown accustomed to immediate rewards, multi-channel stimuli, and rapid-fire communications. As a result, they are often impatient and suffer a lack of focus. When reflection is called for in the learning process - a time consuming practice - students may find it difficult to overcome the conflict between their typically speedy management of priorities and the focused, time-intensive thinking required to acquire a strong foundation of declarative knowledge.Therefore, the exploration of tools to facilitate the formation of deep knowledge structures is essential. One instructional strategy that shows promise is the use of concept mapping, a learning activity that requires students to explain their understanding of important ideas and the relationships among those ideas. This paper describes a pilot project to integrate concept mapping into a Mechanical Engineering Course and the preliminary results of that project.This project has been established within the Working Group of “Tools for Developing High Order Thinking Skills”, of the Portuguese Society for Engineering Education, in which the first author is the leader and the other two co-authors, are working group members
Susan Marie Zvacek
Futures thinking involves a structured exploration into how society and its physical and cultural environment could be shaped in the future. In science education, an exploration of socio-scientific issues offers significant scope for including such futures thinking. Arguments for doing so include increasing student engagement, developing students' values discourse, fostering students' analytical and critical thinking skills, and empowering individuals and communities to envisage, value, and work towards alternative futures. This paper develops a conceptual framework to support teachers' planning and students' futures thinking in the context of socio-scientific issues. The key components of the framework include understanding the current situation, analysing relevant trends, identifying drivers, exploring possible and probable futures, and selecting preferable futures. Each component is explored at a personal, local, national, and global level. The framework was implemented and evaluated in three classrooms across Years 4-12 (8 to 16-year olds) and findings suggest it has the potential to support teachers in designing engaging science programmes in which futures thinking skills can be developed.
Jones, Alister; Buntting, Cathy; Hipkins, Rose; McKim, Anne; Conner, Lindsey; Saunders, Kathy
Full Text Available In the US a dismal truth exists about the citizenry’s lack of understanding of economic fundamentals whether it is amongst our political leaders or our university graduates. This then leads one to ask, “What can be done to help people become literate in economics?” Perhaps the answer lies in the area of systems thinking, which is a way of thinking about the interconnections between the parts of a system and their synthesis into a unified view of the whole system. More specifically, this means incorporating systems thinking and design in primary, secondary, and tertiary curricula. In this paper, the author gives a cursory review of General Systems Theory (GST as developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy and extended by others in the systems thinking field to illustrate the confluences of thought among Ludwig von Mises and systems scientists. From this the author argues the need for systems thinking and design in curricula and makes reference to non-prescriptive teaching and learning applications for the fostering of economic literacy.
Michael F. Reber
Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to explore the concept of thinking skills in three different contexts, i.e. Formal Logic, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking. The essay traces some contemporary historical connections between these approaches and illustrates differences and overlap between them by referring to the content pages of textbooks which are representative of the different approaches. In evaluating the historical developments sketched in the essay, the conclusion is reached that the open and pragmatic way in which Critical Thinking handles the topic of thinking skills has advantages for interdisciplinary contact and cooperation. However, this pragmatic approach also has a possible downside: the concept of thinking skills can become so vague as to be of no use.
Pieter van Veuren
Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". 9th Grade students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than observational) terms tended to have more success in the programming exercise.
Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Douglas, Scott S.; Burk, John B.; Scanlon, Erin M.; Thoms, Brian D.; Schatz, Michael F.
This handout contains step-by-step instructions for two strategies that promote active learning: Think Aloud Protocol and KWL. Instructions answer these questions: -(1) What is it? -(2) When do I use it? -(3) WhatÂ?s the procedure? -(4) What comes to mind as you reflect on the process? -(5) What are the implications for the learner and future learning? Since this handout was originally used in a workshop with NSCC faculty in August 2002, a group processing tool is included, Think/Pair/Share. The document concludes with an excerpt from Berry Beyer on Â?what research tells us about teaching thinking skills.Â?Keyword: Problem-based learning
Loring, Ruth M.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking level and dispositions of teachers. Participants of this descriptive study were 110 teachers and lecturers. Data of the study were based on literature review and on scores on California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. Its alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.88. Data analyses were involve determination of descriptive statistics, use of t-test, analysis of variance and Scheffe’s test (p<0.05. As a result; Critical thinking level and dispositions of teachers is found medium. It is also determined education level, type of institution, filed of study, seniority and gender, factors aren’t effect on it.
Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...
Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F
When thinking under uncertainty, people often do not consider appropriately each of the relevant branches of a decision tree, as required by consequentialism. As a result they sometimes violate Savage's sure-thing principle. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, for example, many subjects compete when they know that the opponent has competed and when they know that the opponent has cooperated, but cooperate when they do not know the opponent's response. Newcomb's Problem and Wason's selection task are also interpreted as manifestations of nonconsequential decision making and reasoning. The causes and implications of such behavior, and the notion of quasi-magical thinking, are discussed. PMID:1473331
Shafir, E; Tversky, A
Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent of critical skills being incorporated in the undergraduates’ lesson as shown in their microteaching sessions. The researcher seeks to find evidence of critical thinking skills in the undergraduates’ content instruction of their respective lessons. She investigates the integration of critical thinking skills via the undergraduates’ lesson plans and the lesson’s implementation. She seeks for inclusion of these skills by viewing the taped lessons. Recommendations to UPSI are also presented in an effort to inspire awareness on the compelling need for thinkers amongst undergraduates and future teachers.
Nor Hashimah Isa
Full Text Available This study examines whether the shortage of females in science and engineering is linked to possible gender-based differences in school-aged children’s divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a direct measure of creativity and an important characteristic in science and engineering. A survey instrument designed to measure divergent thinking was administered to 8th and 11th graders in a mid-western United States school district. Results showed that there were no difference between girls and boys on the three measures of divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, and originality. These results indicate little reason as to why participation in science and engineering is male dominated, and support the notion that additional exposure to science and engineering through divergent-thinking activities will provide girls with the self-knowledge that they are capable of solving open-ended problems and engineering tasks.
Innovative thinking is an innate human capacity geared towards adaptation and survival. Theories of education accordingly aim at developing teaching-learning strategies that promote creative, problem-solving reasoning referred to as higher order thinking. This essay briefly explains some of the assumptions underlying this concept, and then suggests how they may be reconfigured in a strategy suitable for education in and through music. The strategy involves a basic process of analysis...
Kruger, J.; Merwe, L.
This article describes the Biology Critical Thinking (BCT) project in which carefully designed activities for developing specific critical thinking skills are incorporated into the biology curriculum. The objectives were to find out whether the BCT project contributes to the development of critical thinking skills in various biological and nonbiological topics and how it affects students' biological knowledge and classroom learning environment. The study consisted of 678 seventh graders who were assigned randomly into two groups that studied the same seventh-grade biology textbook. Only one group, the experimental, completed the BCT activities. The results indicate that the students in the experimental group improved their critical thinking skills compared to their own initial level and compared to their counterparts in the control group. Improved critical thinking skills were observed in a new biological context and nonbiological everyday topics, suggesting generalization of thinking skills across domains. The experimental students scored significantly higher than the control on a knowledge test, suggesting that knowledge of facts as one educational goal and learning to think as another, need not conflict, but rather can interact with each other. Finally, the results show that BCT involvement decreased the frequency of teacher-centered teaching and enhanced student-centered, more active learning.
Zohar, Anat; Weinberger, Yehudith; Tamir, Pinchas
Increasing student critical thinking and active engagement with course content is an ongoing challenge in tertiary education. The present article explores the use of photography in two health sciences courses as a catalyst for the encouragement of critical thinking, creativity, engagement, and problem solving. The authors adapted photography…
Walter, Katherine Ott; Baller, Stephanie L.; Kuntz, Aaron M.
Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005). PMID:17131612
Chabeli, M M
Full Text Available Outcomes-Based Education (OBE brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content, to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from ‘transmission’ models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30. Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000. Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000. The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005.
Discusses the use of invented spelling to help kindergarten students learn to spell. It provides a natural foundation for building spelling abilities by making students think about words and generate new knowledge. Activities are suggested and guidelines are presented for a developmentally sensitive spelling program. (SM)
Spann, Mary Beth
This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…
Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel
This study revisits a classic yet still intriguing question regarding information technology (IT): what difference does IT "really" make, in terms of people's thinking? In order to explore this question, the effects of IT in authentic research settings were studied through retrospective interviews with 24 academic researchers. Analysis of the…
Barzilai, Sarit; Zohar, Anat
Comparison is one of the most ubiquitous and versatile mechanisms in human information processing. Previous research demonstrates that one consequence of comparative thinking is increased judgmental efficiency: Comparison allows for quicker judgments without a loss in accuracy. We hypothesised that a second potential consequence of comparative…
Mussweiler, Thomas; Posten, Ann-Christin
'How do you think you're doing?' To a student, this opening question from a mentor can generate feelings ranging from optimism to anxiety. It is, however, just that - an opening question, and an opportunity for the student to talk about their clinical experiences and progress. PMID:25492798
Courses, curriculum, and classrooms can be designed to affirm students in their adulthood, empowering them to draw on their experiences, interests, and self-motivation to learn. Starting at the introductory level and continuing through specialty courses and electives, critical thinking, learning contracts, self-directed learning, and sharing…
Leith, Karen Pezza
Presents the T-H-E-M-E-S system for designing interdisciplinary learning activities for middle school students. Participating teachers are urged to think up a monstrous list of themes, hone the list and group themes into three manageable lots, extrapolate selection criteria, manipulate and process themes, expand into activities triggered by…
Drawing from psychologist Eric Fromm's work, this article confronts the relationship between individualism on one hand, and the ability for individuals to think collectively and transform social structures on the other. States that in this context, atomization becomes a dimension of both fascism and capitalism, one that positions freedom as the…
Weiner, Eric J.
The perceptions of nursing faculty teaching critical thinking (CT) affective attributes and cognitive skills are described in this quantitative, descriptive study. The study sample consisted of nurse educators from the National League of Nursing database. The purpose of the study was to gain nursing faculty perception of which teaching strategies…
Clark, Doris A.
The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…
A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…
Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert
Introduces an issue on promoting thinking via peer learning. Articles address decisions needed when using peer learning, focusing on who learns in a group, what changes in those interactions, and how to assess learning from peer interaction. Influences on peer learning are described (e.g., the anticipated nature of collaboration, the teacher's…
Hoy, Anita Woolfolk, Ed.; O'Donnell, Angela M., Ed.
These analyses form part of a three-year project looking at mathematical thinking as a socially organized activity. We revisit data from a University Calculus class using tools from two theoretical perspectives, used increasingly in mathematics education research: (1) semiotic mediation; and (2) discursive practices. We highlight how different…
Carreira, Susana; Evans, Jeff; Lerman, Steve; Morgan, Candia
On Wednesday 19 September 2012, Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR together with SNV organised a full-day seminar to discuss the application of the now widely used Theory of Change (ToC) thinking in Multi-Stakeholder Processes. This is a report of the seminar.
Verhoosel, K. S.; Leuvenink, A.; Oosterhuis, T.; Mostert, R. H.
National policy and standards documents, including the National Assessment of Educational Progress frameworks, the "Common Core State Standards" and the "Next Generation Science Standards," assert the need to assess critical-analytic thinking (CAT) across subject areas. However, assessment of CAT poses several challenges for…
Brown, Nathaniel J.; Afflerbach, Peter P.; Croninger, Robert G.
Anderson and Green (2001) had subjects learn paired associates and then selectively suppress responses to some of them. They reported a decrease in final cued recall for responses that subjectshad been instructed not to think of and explained their data as resulting from cognitive suppression, a laboratory analog of repression. We report three experiments designed to replicate the suppression/repression results. After subjects learned a series of A-B word pairs (e.g., ordsea-roach), they were then asked to respond to some items and not to think of other items when shown their cues 1, 8, or 16times. During a final recall test, they were cued with either asame (direct)probe (ordeal-__) or a n independent(indirect) probe (insect-r__) . None of our experiments showed reliable suppression effects with either the same or independent-probe tests. Suppression is apparently not a robust experimental phenomenon in the think/no-think paradigm. PMID:17489284
Bulevich, John B; Roediger, Henry L; Balota, David A; Butler, Andrew C
Castoriadis views the project of autonomy as central to both political action and philosophical thinking. Although he acknowledges that the political project has retreated,he insists on its thinkability as a viable project. We argue that this insistence gives rise to an unresolved tension. Specifically, Castoriadis’ substantive response to the question ‘what ought we to think?’, which he gives in terms of the pursuit of the philosophical project of autonomy, ultimately fails to recognis...
Toula Nicolacopoulos; George Vassilacopoulos
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between critical thinking tendencies and levels and thefactors that affect the critical thinking tendencies of higher education students. In the study, critical thinkingtendencies of freshman and senior students were analyzed depending on demographic features, faculties anddepartments.The research was done on the students of U?ak University. In the study, the data collected through surveys wereanalyzed through regression analysi...
Ramazan Arslan; Hakan Gulveren; Erhan Aydin
Full Text Available This paper describes knowledge as an element of thinking styles, which are properties of thinking collectives. According to the theory outlined here, the choice of a thinking style to solve a certain problem is relative, but once the thinking has been chosen, realism prevails. This paper also describes the genesis and development of thinking styles and, with them, of facts. The theoretical concepts are illustrated with two examples of thinking styles: a description of the thinking styles of circuit theorists and circuit designers (theory vs. practice, and a comparison of the thinking styles of two closely related technical societies of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE. Applications of the theory are also presented in this paper; they include information management, documentation tools, and writing styles, and mainly draw from the author's own experience with these topics.
The purpose of this report is: - to clarify what is meant by thinking skills and their relationship to technology - to identify the role of ICT in promoting thinking skills - to produce guidelines for the development of digital learning resources to support the teaching and learning of thinking skills - to evaluate the general direction of research in this area and how this should inform educational practice. The use of new technologies is often linked to the development of thinking skills or...
Full Text Available Based on 64 definitions of critical thinking in the recent study, it can be concluded that scholars take judgment, argument, questioning, information processing, problem solving, meta-cognition, skill and disposition as the nature of critical thinking. Scholar’s disciplinary background directly affect their opinions of critical thinking, interdisciplinary research should be paid more attention to promote the development of critical thinking.
Full Text Available Students entering the new millennium will encounter challenges not known to their seniors a decade ago. They must come fully equipped with skills that enable them to think for themselves and be self-initiating, self-modifying and self-directing. They will require skills that cannot be gained by learning content alone. Needed skills go beyond processing capabilities in just fixing problems. Rather they must be visionary and anticipate future challenges and search more consciously for more creative solutions. (Costa, 2001 The McREL researchers have identified six general thinking and reasoning skills in a majority of the content areas (Kendall and Marzano, 2000: 1. Identifying similarities and differences (found in all subjects 2. Problem-solving and trouble-shooting (found in 83 percent of the subjects 3. Argumentation (found in 83 percent of the subjects 4. Decision making (found in 75 percent of the subjects 5. Hypothesis testing and scientific inquiry (found in 58 percent of the subjects 6. Use of logic and reasoning (found in 50 percent of the subjects Of the twelve subjects covered in the McREL study, science tops in the share of reference to thinking and reasoning (27.2%. Science has a share of 8.3% for identifying similarities and differences, 11.8% for problem-solving and trouble-shooting, 22.9% for argumentation, 3.1% for decision making, 32.3% for hypotheses testing and scientific inquiry and 21.8% for the use of logic and reasoning. (Marzano and Pollock, 2001 There is an important emphasis on the study of science in all nations as science and technology lay the foundation for the development of industry, biotechnology, information technology and defence technology for a nation. In the book, Education for 1.3 Billion by the former Vice-Premier of China, Li Lanqing, special mention is made on the overhauling of the Chinese science and technology management system. Among all curricular subjects, science appears to the most suitable subject through which thinking and reasoning skills could be taught and applied. However, the traditional pedagogy of science teaching involving factual information, verification of scientific theories, and application of theories to problems would not foster and develop in students the higher order thinking skills needed to cope with the unpredictable challenges in the 21st century. It is necessary for teachers to make pedagogical changes and set thought-provoking tasks and higher-order assessment questions to promote and foster thinking in their students.
CHANG Shook Cheong Agnes
This article discusses how a school librarian can help students improve their critical thinking and strengthen their higher order thinking skills through the inquiry process. First, it will use a Guided Inquiry approach to examine how higher order thinking skills are taught within an inquiry paradigm. Next, it will consider how formative…
Maniotes, Leslie K.
Higher-order thinking is an instructional strategy supported by research. Often referred to as critical thinking skills, it is more than simple recall of facts or information. It is a function of the interaction between cognitive strategies, meta-cognition, and nonstrategic knowledge when solving problems. Higher-order thinking is based on the…
Using Singapore as an example, we argue that schools need to equip and encourage teachers to adopt authentic assessment in teaching and learning so as to develop the students' higher-order thinking. The importance of teaching and assessing higher-order thinking in Singapore classrooms is encapsulated in the vision of "Thinking Schools" launched by…
Koh, Kim H.; Tan, Charlene; Ng, Pak Tee
This study examines three questions: What kinds of think-aloud statements, in particular what kinds of inferences, are made by middle school students while reading expository text? Does thinking aloud affect comprehension as measured by recall and answers to questions? Does thinking aloud add value to the assessment of comprehension beyond what is…
Caldwell, JoAnne; Leslie, Lauren
An exploratory action research case study was conducted at Moanalua Middle School from 2006-2009 to examine the impact of Thinking Maps on student achievement. Thinking Maps are not just another set of graphic organizers but a set of eight of unique visual mind maps with each linked to a specific higher-order thinking pattern. This study tells the…
Kessler, Cristy; Zuercher, Deborah K.; Wong, Caroline S.
Objective:: To help close the gap between health promotion research and practice by using systems thinking. Methods: We review 3 national US tobacco control initiatives and a project (ISIS) that has introduced systems thinking to tobacco control, speculating on ways in which systems thinking may add value to health promotion dissemination and…
Best, Allan; Moor, Gregg; Holmes, Bev; Clark, Pamela I.; Bruce, Ted; Leischow, Scott; Buchholz, Kaye; Krajnak, Judith
Critical thinking continues to be an educational concern even though many school systems, educators, and academic articles have stressed its importance. To teach critical thinking, teachers need to learn what it is and how it is taught. It is unknown to what extent critical thinking skills are taught and assessed in classrooms. The purpose of this…
Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to identify the benefits of developing thinking skills with KS1 deaf children who used British Sign Language (BSL. It arose as a response to the findings of a variety of researches who had reported a number of ‘failings’ apparent in the educational and learning activity of deaf children. It used a case study approach involving five profoundly deaf Key stage 1 children and explored the extent to which, using materials grounded in the Somerset Thinking Skills Course, the teaching of thinking skills in a supportive environment could remediate some of these issues. The strongly visual nature of the material supported pupil exchanges mediated by the use of sign language. Analysis of video film was used to plot individual pupil development of scanning skills, their use of nouns versus adjectives, micro-skills and macro-abilities. Pupil reasoning skills, how they were supported, their ownership and role of the facilitator were also examined. The results showed that within eight weeks (equivalent to four hours in total the children were more able to express their perceptions. They watched other children in order to access their signed information and appeared to use this to develop, elaborate, extend and provide reasons when it was their turn to present. There was also evidence of enhanced creativity and originality in their contributions. This pilot study urges the need for further research and suggests that a priority should be given to developing this approach in the teaching of deaf children. Due to the complexity of thinking skills it further recommends that this area should be taught as a separate topic that can inform other subjects.
Emma Tamsin Kelty
Full Text Available Estudo sobre a Teoria da Forma concebida no início do século XX pelo artista plástico Paul Klee e publicado no livro O Pensamento Criativo (KLEE, 1920. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é uma demonstração do pensamento artístico que adota pressupostos formais, previamente estabelecidos para resultar na prática da representação artística. Klee identificou as relações formais entre a música e as artes visuais, apresentando conexões entre a linha melódica e a linha no desenho; o ritmo e as seqüências de módulos e sub-módulos; os tempos dos compassos e as divisões da pintura; a métrica da música e a modulação da forma e da cor nas artes visuais. Klee também apresentou suas experiências com superposição de cores e texturas para representar visualmente a polifonia. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é um exemplo de estudo que pressupõe modelos formais para a elaboração artística e projetual.Study on the Theory of Form conceived in the early twentieth century by artist Paul Klee and published in the book The Creative Thinking (KLEE, 1920. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is a demonstration of an artistic thought that adopts the previously established formal prerequisites that result in the practice of artistic representation. Klee identified the formal relationship between music and the visual arts, providing connections between the melodic line and the line in the drawing, rhythm and sequence of modules and sub-modules, the pulses of the measures and the divisions of the painting, metrics in music and the modulation of shape and color in the visual arts. Klee also presented his experiences with overlapping colors and textures to visually represent polyphony. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is an example of a study that requires formal models for the artistic and design elaboration.
Rosana Costa Ramalho de Castro
Post-formal relativistic-dialectical thinking has been widely claimed to be a new developmental stage of intellectual development. Other theoretical models come very close to post-formal thinking, with overlapping features such as the study of wisdom and epistemic understanding, as well as models of expertise, critical thinking, and scepticism. No coherent theory exists in the fields of post-formal and relativistic-dialectical thinking, though scholars have claimed that there is some similari...
Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.
Full Text Available This paper debates the new theories on philosophical and aesthetical discourse, by applying them to Nietzsche?s thinking on art. The article consists in four general subjects, each of them focussing on an essential part of Nietzsche?s special relationship to art: 1 Art generated by the philosophical text itself, through the form of the fragment; 2 The artistic relationship as an interdisciplinary ground for the philosophical knowledge of the world (especially applied in Nietzsche?s and Schopenhauer?s work; 3 A critical debate on Wolfgang Welsch?s theory about the interdisciplinary aspects of the philosophical and aesthetical discourse; 4 The backgrounds of Nietzsche?s aesthetical project explained in Claus Zittel?s theory on Nietzsche?s ?aesthetic turn?. Thus, Nietzsche?s thinking is defined as a relationist project, the ?self-destruction dynamic? of his aesthetical perspectivism.
Software intensive systems are an increasing part of new products, which make the business impact significant. This is especially true for the automotive industry where a very large part of new innovations are realized through the use of software. The architecture of the software intensive system will enable value creation when working properly or, in the worst case, prevent value creation. Lean thinking is about focusing on the increase of customer value and on the people who add value. Th...
Full Text Available Because the criteria for success differ across various domains of life, no single normative standard will ever work for all types of thinking. One method for dealing with this apparent dilemma is to propose that the mind is made up of a large number of specialized modules. This review describes how this multi-modular framework for the mind overcomes several critical conceptual and theoretical challenges to our understanding of human thinking, and hopefully clarifies what are (and are not some of the implications based on this framework. In particular, an evolutionarily informed “deep rationality” conception of human thinking can guide psychological research out of clusters of ad hoc models which currently occupy some fields. First, the idea of deep rationality helps theoretical frameworks in terms of orienting themselves with regard to time scale references, which can alter the nature of rationality assessments. Second, the functional domains of deep rationality can be hypothesized (non-exhaustively to include the areas of self-protection, status, affiliation, mate acquisition, mate retention, kin care, and disease avoidance. Thus, although there is no single normative standard of rationality across all of human cognition, there are sensible and objective standards by which we can evaluate multiple, fundamental, domain-specific motives underlying human cognition and behavior. This review concludes with two examples to illustrate the implications of this framework. The first example, decisions about having a child, illustrates how competing models can be understood by realizing that different fundamental motives guiding people’s thinking can sometimes be in conflict. The second example is that of personifications within modern financial markets (e.g., in the form of corporations, which are entities specifically constructed to have just one fundamental motive. This single focus is the source of both the strengths and flaws in how such entities behave.
Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well being in the 21st century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we en...
Can machines think? Alan Turing's decades-old question still influences artificial intelligence because of the simple test he proposed in his article in Mind. In this article, "AI Magazine collects presentations about the first round of the classic Turing Test of machine intelligence, held November 8, 1991 at The Computer Museum, Boston. Robert Epstein, Director Emeritus, Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and an adjunct professor of psychology, Boston University, University of Massachu...
Because the criteria for success differ across various domains of life, no single normative standard will ever work for all types of thinking. One method for dealing with this apparent dilemma is to propose that the mind is made up of a large number of specialized modules. This review describes how this multi-modular framework for the mind overcomes several critical conceptual and theoretical challenges to our understanding of human thinking, and hopefully clarifies what are (and are not) some of the implications based on this framework. In particular, an evolutionarily informed "deep rationality" conception of human thinking can guide psychological research out of clusters of ad hoc models which currently occupy some fields. First, the idea of deep rationality helps theoretical frameworks in terms of orienting themselves with regard to time scale references, which can alter the nature of rationality assessments. Second, the functional domains of deep rationality can be hypothesized (non-exhaustively) to include the areas of self-protection, status, affiliation, mate acquisition, mate retention, kin care, and disease avoidance. Thus, although there is no single normative standard of rationality across all of human cognition, there are sensible and objective standards by which we can evaluate multiple, fundamental, domain-specific motives underlying human cognition and behavior. This review concludes with two examples to illustrate the implications of this framework. The first example, decisions about having a child, illustrates how competing models can be understood by realizing that different fundamental motives guiding people's thinking can sometimes be in conflict. The second example is that of personifications within modern financial markets (e.g., in the form of corporations), which are entities specifically constructed to have just one fundamental motive. This single focus is the source of both the strengths and flaws in how such entities behave. PMID:24860542
Brase, Gary L
Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social–ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and th...
Terry Chapin; Marten Scheffer; Brian Walker; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Carl Folke; Johan Rockström
In this paper, we present THINK, our distributed systems architecture, and the research we have conducted to provide the system programmer with an architecture he can use to build ef?cient and secure operating systems. By specifying and implementing elementary tools that can be used by the system programmer to implement a chosen security policy, we prove that ?exibility can be guaranteed in an operating system without compromising security. Our work focuses on protection against denial of...
Rippert, Christophe; Stefani, Jean-bernard
We shall examine the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Computer Science (CS) teachers concerning students’ Computational Thinking (CT) problem solving skills within the context of a CS course in Dutch secondary education and thus obtain an operational definition of CT and ascertain appropriate teaching methodology. Next we shall develop an instrument to assess students’ CT and design a curriculum intervention geared toward teaching and improving students’ CT problem solving skills ...
Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premi...
The purposes of this study were to assess the critical thinking skills of theological students in Indonesia and to explore the relationships between these students' critical thinking skills and their demographic profiles, critical thinking dispositions, and college experiences. All third-year students who pursued either the Sarjana Theologi (a…
Full Text Available The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA. We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6. Overall, results from path analyses supported the assumptions of the TMDA, in that negative affectivity was a non-specific predictor for both depression and anxiety whilst lack of positive affectivity was related to depression only. Unexpectedly, perseverative thinking had an effect on the dependency of negative and positive affectivity. Worry was a significant moderator for the path NA – anxiety. All other hypothesized associations were only marginally significant. Alternative pathways as well as methodological implications regarding similarities and differences of the two types of perseverative thinking are discussed.
Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:24058354
Morris, Bradley J; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie
Full Text Available Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well being in the 21st century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.
Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:24058354
Morris, Bradley J.; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie
This paper explores what can be understood by learning based on agential realist thinking. An agential realist thinking about learning is sensitive to the complexity that characterizes learning as a phenomenon. Thus, learning, from an agential realist perspective, is a dynamic and emergent phenomenon, characterized by constantly being in processes of becoming and by expanding the range of components involved in the constitutive processes thereto. This paper focuses on material-discursivity, spatiality and temporality. The meta-theoretical position which lies behind agential realism is post human, which means that it is not only the human and the discursive possessing empowerment in relation to learning; the non-human also is woven into - and makes constitutive difference to - human learning processes. An excerpt from a field note will be used to illustrate these mutual shaping processes. This paper argues that intra-activity and 'leaps' are characteristics of learning. Thereby, transfer will be addressed and explained. Re-configurations are pivotal for this thinking about learning, and the concept of re-configurations breaks the tendency to understand learning as either more of the same or a radical change in the sense of 'penny dropped'. For although learning processes that are not recognized as 'aha moments' do not call much attention to themselves, this is how they occur most often.
Full Text Available Success in adult life and effective functioning in education depends among other things on critical thinking. The present study consisted of two parts. First, critical thinking (CT skill of a group of 68 students majoring in education in Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch was evaluated. The participants, divided into two experimental and control groups, received California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST which is a 34 item Multiple-Choice test. The students in the control group were freshmen and the experimental group, junior students. To the researchers’ dismay, junior education students did not perform significantly better than did the freshman students. Using a qualitative method of research, another study was conducted to see whether the university instructors in the education department who had the responsibility of teaching different courses to the same students were aware of the principles of CT. A semi-structured interview was conducted and eight volunteering faculty members in the department of education took part in the interview. Result revealed that, although these instructors highly valued CT and were aware of its tenets, there were some constraints which did provide a situation to let the students practice CT in their classrooms, and much had to be done to help instructors implement CT in their classrooms.
Successful collaboration requires effective communication and collective problem solving. Regardless of the subject area --- environmental remediation, waste management, program planning and budgeting --- those involved must focus their efforts in an orderly and cooperative manner. A thinking tool is a technique used to get individuals to focus on specific components of the task at the same time and to eliminate the 'noise' that accompanies communications among individuals with different objectives and different styles of communicating. For example, one of these thinking tools is a technique which enables a working group to delineate its roles, responsibilities and communication protocols so that it can deliver the right information to the right people at the right time. Another enables a group to objectively and collectively evaluate and improve a policy, plan, or program. A third technique enables a group to clarify its purpose and direction while generating interest and buy-in. A fourth technique makes it possible for a group with polarized opinions to acknowledge their differences as well as what they have in common. A fifth technique enables a group to consider a subject of importance from all perspectives so as to produce a more comprehensive and sustainable solution. These thinking tools make effective communication and collective problem solving possible in radioactive waste management and remediation. They can be used by a wide spectrum of professionals including policy specialists, program administrators, program and project managers, and technical specialists. (author)
We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others. PMID:25411839
Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny
Full Text Available Critical thinking is one of the eight basic skills in the primary school curriculum which has been prepared with a constructivist approach. Teaching critical thinking in Turkish language lessons has an importance in reaching curricular aims. Critical thinking has bonds with skills such as creative thinking, communication, research making, problem solving, using ICT, entrepreneurship, and using Turkish appropriatelyCritical thinking is involved with questioning, interpreting and decision making skills in a skeptical approach. It contains sub-skills such as identifying cause and effect relations, catching similarities and differences, making classifications using certain criteria, determining validity of information, making analysis, evaluation, and inferencesTo develop and conserve language skills, teaching critical thinking skills is a very important task. Developing students’ critical thinking skills is essential in order to develop language skills such as listening, speaking, and writing. Curricular aims involved with critical reading, critical listening, and critical writing depend on critical thinking. Instructional methods which foster critical thinking skills should be employed in educational settings to develop basic language skills. Teacher’s role, approach and competency in critical thinking are also essential to create a critical thinking atmosphere.Connecting language skills with general skills is a part of learning philosophy in a constructivist approach. The goal of language teaching, the main mean of thinking that preparing students who can critically think become also one of the main goals of learning. When the expected achievement in language skills occurs in critical thinking, language development could be affected with individuals’ thinking development symmetrically. Critical reading, listening, speaking and creative writing could support development of such foundational skills; students’ creative thinking, communication skills, problem solving, and researching and decision making. For the purpose of what to do and what decision to make, individuals have to be problem solver, conscious to assessment and judgments, and explaining these judgments. The foundation of critical thinking is based on healthy, disciplined, systematic and queried thinking and for the development of critical thinking skills individuals should have enough thinking previously. The development of thinking and learning thinking help individuals to become themselves and structuring their own ideas. When the development in students’ reading skills turn to critical thinking for the students, they are more able to understand what they read and come to conclusion easily. Critical readers judge what they read and they may make comments and critics about what they read. They try to find implementation of the ideas that the writer explains in the content. Individuals’ understanding skills can occur both with reading and with listening. Critical listening is, in another way, a process of checking the accuracy of the information, understanding of this information, and discussing it. Speaking and writing skills which are part of explanation skills also helps the development of critical thinking. People who do critical explanations also have social skills, ability to be in groups, and ability to collaborate. In a learning setting where critical approach is used, students are more able to express their ideas in oral and in writings and these students are able to make comment about issues and provide solutions for these issues. During the process of critical writing, individuals come up with new ideas and start to have a broader perspective. The model of this study is literature review. Literature about critical thinking skills has been reviewed. Afterwards methods that should be employed in Turkish language lessons to foster critical thinking skills have been studied Yap?land?rmac? ö?renme yakla??m?na göre olu?turulan ilkö?retim program?nda yer verilen sekiz temel beceriden birisi de ele?tirel dü?ün
Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task) and visuo-sp...
Cousijn, Janna; Koolschijn, P. Ce?dric M. P.; Zanolie, Kiki; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Crone, Eveline A.
Systems thinking as a modern approach for problem solving was revived after WWII even though it had been an ancient philosophy. We can track systems thinking back to antiquity. Making a distinction from Western rationalist traditions of philosophy, C. West Churchman often identified with the I Ching as a systems approach sharing a frame of reference similar to pre-Socratic philosophy and Heraclitus. In this paper, we will compare the evolutionary system of consciousness, which was presented in the Tun calendar of Mayan Indians and contemporary systems theory and systems thinking, which is nothing else but highly evolved human consciousness in society. We will present Mayan calendar systems to contemporary systems thinking principles and explain the answer to the Ackoff's judgment on four hundred years of analytical thinking as the dominant mode of society. We will use the methods of historical comparison and a method of a systems approach. We will point out the big picture and Mayan divine plan as main systems principles. The Mayan numerical system and long count units has been proven as one of the most accurate systems for describing the present and future of the civilization in which we have all evolved. We will also explain the Mayan nine-level pyramids system that represents the evolutionary system, i.e. the consciousness, which in our time shows the actual level of human consciousness. Deriving from all described, we will show the main systems principles, discussed by contemporary systems authors and Mayan systems principles, which differ only in one expression—they named "the big picture" as "the divine plan". The final results can be perfectly applied to the society we live in. Seeing the world from the big picture point of view is reaching a level of awareness, in which linear thinking is replaced by systems thinking. The Mayans explained that the civilization would achieve the system of conscious co-creation. We can claim that linear thinking guides us to a limited consciousness, whereas systems thinking opens the possibilities of conscious co-creation for the benefits of sustainable society and future of the planet.
Jere Lazanski, Tadeja
Full Text Available ‘Soglitude’ is an invitation to acknowledge the existence of thresholds in thought. A threshold in thought designates the indetermination, the passage, the evolution of every state the world is in. The creation we add to it, and the objectivity we suppose, on the border of those two ideas lies our perceptive threshold. No state will ever be permanent, and in order to stress the temporary, fluent character of the world and our perception of it, we want to introduce a new suitable method to think change and transformation, when we acknowledge our own threshold nature. The contributions gathered in this special issue come from various disciplines: anthropology, philosophy, critical theory, film studies, political science, literature and history. The variety of these insights shows the resonance of the idea of threshold in every category of thought. We hope to enlarge the notion in further issues on physics and chemistry, as well as mathematics. The articles in this issue introduce the method of threshold thinking by showing the importance of the in-between, of the changing of perspective in their respective domain. The ‘Documents’ section named INTERSTICES, includes a selection of poems, two essays, a philosophical-artistic project called ‘infraphysique’, a performance on thresholds in the soul, and a dialogue with Israel Rosenfield. This issue presents a kaleidoscope of possible threshold thinking and hopes to initiate new ways of looking at things.For every change that occurs in reality there is a subjective counterpart in our perception and this needs to be acknowledged as such. What we name objective is reflected in our own personal perception in its own personal manner, in such a way that the objectivity of an event might altogether be questioned. The absolute point of view, the view from “nowhere”, could well be the projection that causes dogmatism. By introducing the method of thinking thresholds into a system, be it philosophical, artistic or scientific, it tends to free itself from rigid or fixed models and accepts change and development as the fundamental nature of things. Thinking thresholds as a method of thought progress cannot be done in a single process and therefore asks for participation in its proper nature. The soglitude springs namely from the acceptance of a multitude of points of view, as it is shown by the numerous contributions we present in this issue ‘Seuils, Thresholds, Soglitudes’ of Conserveries mémorielles.
Little sociological attention has been given to the role of think tanks in health policy and planning. Existing work in political science and public administration tends to define and categorise think tanks and situate them as a disinterested source of policy expertise. Despite the increasingly visible presence of think tanks in the world of health care, such work has done little to reveal how they operate, by whom and to what ends. Our article seeks to redress this firstly by examining why they have remained relatively hidden in academic analyses and secondly by advocating an interpretive approach that incorporates think tanks within the wider landscape of health policy and planning. In contrast to most existing literature, an interpretive approach acknowledges that much of the messy business of healthcare policy and planning remains hidden from view and that much can be gleaned by examining the range of organisations, actors, coalitions, everyday activities, artefacts and interactions that make up the think tank stage and that work together to shape health policy and planning. Given the paucity of research in this area, we urge the medical sociology community to open the field to further academic scrutiny. PMID:24111597
Shaw, Sara E; Russell, Jill; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Korica, Maja
Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation and its reactivity is therefore important to the quality of evaluation results. This study investigates whether thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at levels 1 and 2) affects the behaviour of users who perform tasks that involve interruptions and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participants’ fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend longer responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. Our results inform practitioners faced with the decision to either restrict verbalizations in usability evaluation to thinking aloud to avoid reactivity or relax the constraints on verbalization to obtain additional information.
Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due
Many teaching methods used in nursing education to enhance critical thinking focus on teaching students how to directly apply knowledge; a technically rational approach. While seemingly effective at enhancing students' critical thinking abilities in structured learning situations, these methods don't prepare students to operationalize critical thinking to manage the complexities that actually exist in practice. The work of contemporary educational theorists Paulo Freire, Donald Schon, Chris Argyris, Jack Mezirow, Stephen Brookfield, and Robert Tennyson all share similar perspectives on thinking in practice and the use of reflection to achieve a coherence of understanding. Their perspectives provide insight on how educators can shift from a means-end approach to operationalizing thinking in practice. The author identifies four attributes of critical thinking in practice evidenced in these views, followed by a discussion of specific educational strategies that reflect these attributes, and operationalize a critical thinking process in nursing practice to achieve a coherence of understanding. PMID:16646900
Forneris, Susan G
The quality of care that nurses provide to patients is strongly influenced by the nurses' ability to think critically and to solve problems. In response to the dynamic changes in healthcare and rapid technological advancements, nursing educators must prepare nursing students to meet the challenges. Baccalaureate nursing students must be taught to utilize critical thinking skills for problem solving during the application of the nursing process. Nursing students who use critical thinking skills will provide high quality and efficient patient care in the acute care and community settings. During the simulated laboratory experience, incorporating creative teaching strategies to promote critical thinking and enhance problem-solving skills can enable nursing graduates to enter the workforce feeling confident and competent. PMID:12016668
Peterson, M J; Bechtel, G A
Synchronization of EEG alpha activity has been referred to as being indicative of cortical idling, but according to more recent evidence it has also been associated with active internal processing and creative thinking. The main objective of this study was to investigate to what extent EEG alpha synchronization is related to internal processing…
Benedek, Mathias; Bergner, Sabine; Konen, Tanja; Fink, Andreas; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.
Introduces Hogben's adaptation of Zeno's paradox, "Achilles and the Tortoise", as a thinking and writing exercise. Emphasizes engaging students' imagination with creative, thought-provoking problems and involving students in evaluating their word problem-solving strategies. Describes the paradox, logical solutions, and students' mathematical…
Martinez, Joseph G. R.
This article reinterprets the philosophy of Taoism and applies it to creativity. Taoistic cognition is described as intuition or personal knowledge. Taoistic creativity is explained as involving incubation, syntectic thinking, and the unification through opposites. Dialectical thinking, Taoistic meditation and intuition, and symbolic thinking are…
Full Text Available Castoriadis views the project of autonomy as central to both political action and philosophical thinking. Although he acknowledges that the political project has retreated,he insists on its thinkability as a viable project. We argue that this insistence gives rise to an unresolved tension. Specifically, Castoriadis’ substantive response to the question ‘what ought we to think?’, which he gives in terms of the pursuit of the philosophical project of autonomy, ultimately fails to recognise the unavoidable effect of the political project’s retreat on the thinker and this failure raises doubts as to whether Castoriadis’ own thinking has the potential to move beyond a merely journalistic style of critique, which he finds objectionable.
This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application. PMID:24814353
Wagner, Elissa A
Computer simulations are valuable tools for the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. They enable students to link together small pieces of information into mental models of complex physical systems that are far beyond their everyday experience. They can also be used to authentically test a student's conceptual understanding of a physical system by asking the student to make predictions regarding its behavior. Students receive formative feedback by testing their predictions in simulations. Think-Pair-Share - the posing of conceptual questions to students and having them vote on the answer before and after discussion with their peers - can benefit considerably from the incorporation of simulations. Simulations can be used for delivering content that precedes Think-Pair-Share, as the prompt the questions is based upon, or as a feedback tool to illustrate the answer to a question. These techniques are utilized in ClassAction - a collection of materials designed to enhance the metacognitive skills of Astro 101 students by promoting interactive engagement and providing rapid feedback. The main focus is dynamic conceptual questions largely based upon graphics that can be projected in the classroom. Many questions are available in a Flash computer database and instructors have the capability to recast these questions into alternate permutations based on their own preferences and student responses. Outlines, graphics, and simulations are included which instructors can use to provide feedback. This poster provides examples of simulation usage in Think-Pair-Share related to sky motions, lunar phases, and stellar properties. A multi-institutional classroom validation study of ClassAction is currently underway as a Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) research project. All materials are publicly available at http://astro.unl.edu. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant Nos. 0404988 and 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.
Lee, Kevin M.; Siedell, C. M.; Prather, E. E.; CATS
This paper aims to reflect about the next steps and challenges to gain sustainably to our Institutional Repositories (IR’s). We first reference the earlier stage of creating and getting start in the IR: what was needed to do, how we make it and how we are right now. As most of the universities have an IR, now we are starting to think about what is going next. The objective is to reflect, in a practical and objective way, what we need to do. And we purpose to present a brief a...
Pinto, Maria Joa?o; Fernandes, Sofia
Full Text Available
This paper was investigated the teachers rating of the six different aspects of mathematical thinking developed by the researcher: Searching for patterns , Induction, Deduction, symbolism, Logical thinking and Mathematical proof in relation to level of importance, level of difficulty, and time spent in teaching each aspect. This paper was also aimed to examine any possible consistencies and inconsistencies between teacher opinions about the level of importance of mathematical thinking aspects to mathematics achievement, level of difficulty and test data collected. Also, it was examined if the students were familiar with solving specific problems (such as rice problem logical ways like searching for patterns rather than more traditional approaches and if they also applying the fourth step in problem solving according to Polya, (1990 (i.e., looking back (a checking the answer.
Key words: Mathematical thinking; Teacher perceptions; Students performance
Ce document a étudié la notation des six aspects différents de la pensée mathématique des enseignants développé par le chercheur: la recherche de modèles, à induction, déduction, le symbolisme, la pensée logique et mathématique la preuve par rapport au niveau d'importance, le niveau de difficulté et le temps passé dans l'enseignement de chaque aspect. Ce document visait également à examiner toute consistances et des incohérences éventuelles entre les opinions des enseignants sur le niveau d'importance des aspects la pensée mathématique à la réussite en mathématiques, niveau de difficulté et les données recueillies lors des essais. En outre, il a été examiné si les élèves ont été familiarisés avec la résolution de problèmes spécifiques (tels que les problèmes du riz façons logiques, tels que la recherche de modèles plutôt que des approches plus traditionnelles, et si ils ont également l'application de la quatrième étape dans la résolution de problèmes en fonction de Polya, (1990 (à savoir, en regardant en arrière (une vérification de la réponse.
Mots clés: Pensée mathématique; Les perceptions des enseignants et le rendement des étudiants
Mamoon. M. Mubark
The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how and why think tank types converge and diverge across countries and levels of governance, to what extent they are embedded in national contexts and how studies of think tanks can proceed despite methodological problems and disagreement on how to define think tanks.
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
Two studies explored the effects of forget instructions on autobiographical memory at immediate test and following delays of either 12-13 months, or 3-4 months. Using the Autobiographical Think/No-Think procedure (cf., Noreen & MacLeod, 2013), 24 never-depressed participants (Study 1) first generated 12 positive and 12 negative autobiographical memories and associated cues. Participants were then asked to recall the memory associated with some of the cues (i.e., 'think' condition), or to avoid saying or thinking about the memory associated with other cues (i.e., 'no-think' condition). Participants were then asked to recall the memories associated with all the cues at immediate test and following a delay of 12-13 months. Participants were found to be successful at forgetting both positive and negative autobiographical memories following 'no-think' instructions at immediate test but this forgetting effect did not persist following a 12-13 month delay. This pattern of remembering and forgetting was replicated in a second study (using 27 never-depressed participants) following a 3-4 month delay. Participants who had been less successful at forgetting 'no-think' memories at immediate test, were more likely to show rebound effects for those memories following a delay compared to memories which received neither 'think' nor 'no-think' instructions. Individual differences in inhibitory control and the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions of 'no-think' instructions are considered. PMID:24309017
Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm D
In this article, the authors argue that there are a range of effects usually studied within cognitive psychology that are legitimately thought of as aspects of critical thinking: the cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature. In a study of 793 student participants, the authors found that the ability to avoid these biases was…
West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E.
In thinking about how a just state should assess and respond to inequalities in the distribution of particular goods, such as health and education, attention should be paid, first, to the causes of inequality with respect to these goods, and second, to the question of whether it is possible, and, if possible, morally appropriate, to enact policy…
Weinstock, Daniel M.
This paper argues that general skills and the varieties of subject-specific discourse are both important for teaching, learning and practising critical thinking. The former is important because it outlines the principles of good reasoning "simpliciter" (what constitutes sound reasoning patterns, invalid inferences, and so on). The latter is…
Davies, W. Martin
This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…
Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert
Full Text Available In 21st century, advanced countries as well as Asian countries are changing curriculums. According to UNESCO, the characteristics of the change are paradigmatic. The term for paradigmatic change is used; this means the change that knowledge of previous paradigm is completely unusable in new paradigm (Khun 1977.In a word, the major concern of education is changed from teaching consumers of knowledge to teaching producer of knowledge. Critical thinking ability and creative thinking ability is required for educated person . For it is rapidly reduced the cycle of knowledge in our society in the present. For example, in case of cellular phone, new phone would be released about six months. Current elementary, middle and high school students should live in the society ten and twenty years from now. So, the education should prepare the time ten and twenty years from this time and go ahead to lead the future society. Thus, teachers should understand the changes of curriculum and develop educational method for the future society.
Jin Whan Park
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attainment of critical thinking skills of students before and after curriculum revision of a baccalaureate nursing program. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was used to measure the critical thinking ability of the students at program entry, midpoint, and at exist. The sample consisted of three cohorts of students: cohort 1 (n = 55) was the baseline class before curriculum revision, whereas cohorts 2 (n = 55) and 3 (n = 73) were the first two classes to experience the revised curriculum. The results revealed that cohort 2 achieved significantly higher critical thinking scores than the baseline cohort. Cohort 2 also improved dramatically on all subscales from test 1 to test 3. However, cohort 3 failed to demonstrate improved critical thinking scores over time. Findings have implications for measuring critical thinking. PMID:12120107
Beckie, T M; Lowry, L W; Barnett, S
This study was designed to compare thinking styles of gifted and nongifted Iranian students and to examine the appropriateness in a nonwestern context of the Thinking Styles Inventory. 200 students in junior high school, including 109 nongifted students (55 girls and 54 boys) and 91 gifted students (46 girls and 45 boys), whose mean age was 12.4 yr. (SD = .69), responded to the short version of the Thinking Styles Inventory. Analysis indicated that gifted students scored significantly higher than nongifted students on Type 1 and Type 3 thinking styles, while the nongifted students had statistically significant higher scores on the Type 2 thinking styles. These results are discussed in terms of the previous research and thinking styles model proposed by Sternberg in 1997. PMID:17886491
Alborzi, Shahla; Ostovar, Soghra
The purpose of this research was to investigate and describe concrete examples of Year 1 students engaged in good thinking and to generate assertions about the ways teachers can foster habits of good thinking through science. The research design was a multiple case study of 32 lessons, of which four are analysed in detail in this paper. The results suggest that young children engaged in good thinking are likely to explain and demonstrate their ideas and actions and to make suggestions for solving problems. Children engaged in good thinking also are likely to highlight discrepancies, adopt new ideas, and work collaboratively. The results indicate that teachers can foster habits of good thinking through science; first, by accepting difficulty as an integral part of the learning process, second, by encouraging children to explain and talk about their ideas and, finally, by creating an environment where thinking is a valued classroom process.
Venville, Grady; Adey, Philip; Larkin, Shirley; Robertson, Anne; Fulham, Hammersmith
The discipline of Child Computer Interaction has been steadily growing and as a community it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC conference and its own Journal whilst also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant contributor to the ACM CHI conference. Having recently been given status as an IFIP TC13 working group, the community now needs to make plans around its academic themes and its coherence as a developing academic community. The CCI SIG at CHI aims to use a mixture of facilitated creative thinking and a world café approach to bring the community together to tackle these two key challenges. The CCI SIG will be the natural meeting place for members of this community at CHI and will disseminate its discussion to the CCI and CHI communities through the production of visual and interactive materials at the CHI conference.
Read, Janet; Iversen, Ole Sejer
A model of research thinking development by teaching archaeoastronomy in specialized three-year extra-curriculum Astronomy programme and creation of favourable socio-educational surroundings is suggested. It is shown as a didactic system of conditions, influences and possibilities of answering specific hierarchic complex of personal needs in the 14 - 18 year age interval. Transformation of these needs in worldly values secures an active position of the students in the educational process and determines their personality development. It is also shown that the Archaeoastronomy School, as an educational environment, executes specific work of students' teaching, upbringing and progress as well as their inclusion in the real process of scientific research. Thus, they have the possibility of generating scientific ideas and obtaining results in the science archaeoastronomy. In consequence of this, their activity acquires social significance. Usages of this model of scientific school in the extra-curriculum Astronomy education reproduces norms and traditions of the real scientific research and directly relay subject content, cultural norms and values of archaeoastronomy in the educative process. Students' participation in archaeoastronomical expeditions, their competent work during the research of concrete archaeoastronomical objects create an investigation style of thinking and steady habits of scientific activity.
Muglova, P. V.; Stoev, A. D.
Full Text Available The ability to think critically is an important trait of all members of society. With today’s multinational, multicultural, complex issues, citizens must be able to sift through large amounts of various data to make intelligent decisions. Thinking critically must be a focus of higher education in order to provide the intellectual training for its students to participate in this world. This qualitative study examined critical reflection through student writing as seen in three different college settings. Structured reflections were analyzed using Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (2001.La capacité d’exercer son esprit critique est une caractéristique importante de tous les membres de la société. De nos jours, les enjeux sont multinationaux, multiculturels et complexes. Les citoyens doivent être capables de filtrer de grandes quantités de données diverses pour prendre des décisions intelligentes. L’enseignement supérieur doit être axé sur la pensée critique afin de procurer aux étudiants la formation intellectuelle qui leur permettra de participer au monde qui les entoure. La présente étude qualitative se penche sur la réflexion critique dans les écrits des étudiants de trois différents collèges. Les chercheurs ont analysé les réflexions structurées à l’aide de la nouvelle taxonomie des objectifs pédagogiques de Marzano (2001.
Carol M. Lerch
As teachers, we know that learning through an inquiry approach is helpful for our students. However, not all students are accustomed to learning through inquiry. Some have never experienced an inquiry investigation in science. How can we assist them in the transition from solely learning content to actually applying content and using higher-order thinking skills? A strategy called "think-aloud" can help students progress toward thinking for themselves in questionable, devising investigations, analyzing data, and supporting conclusions with evidence.
Jill Caton Johnson
Virtual patients (VP) are interactive computer simulations used in health education to increase student exposure to a variety of clinical cases and to develop critical thinking skills. Interdisciplinary student teams developed five VP cases focused on providing education in family planning. The cases pose questions that are complex and ill-defined to promote critical thinking. In Fall 2011-Spring 2012 we will conduct a laboratory study to examine whether complexity of virtual patient case impacts learners' critical thinking. PMID:24199049
Burrows, Andrea M; Norman, Wendy V; Currie, Leanne M
Full Text Available This article presents research devoted to the issues of the collaborative thinking activity in preschool age. The approach to the study of the collaborative thinking activity as a system that operates on different levels is shown. There is a detailed analysis of the communicative sphere of preschool children collaborative thinking activity provided in the form of some of the characteristics of dialogue.
Alla Konstantinovna Belousova
Full Text Available Understanding of post-industrial society in the context of the role of economic thinking in the post-industrial society that becomes an actual in the mainstream of modern social and economic modernization in Russia is actualized. The peculiarities of the formation of economic thinking in the process of cooperation with the economic reality in the process of economic education and training are considered. The step-by-step analysis of development of categorical economic apparatus of an individual, the influence of theoretical and practical knowledge on the formation of economical thinking is made. The active role of people in the formation of their own economical thinking is shown.
Bogunov Leonid Aleksandrovich
It may be possible to teach reasoning strategies to subjects with poor reasoning, including many subjects with learning disabilities (LD), using curriculum designed around a sameness analysis. The higher order thinking skills of analogical and logical reasoning are defined using the sameness analysis methodology. The sameness in the strategy for forming a generalization from experience is called "reasoning by analogy," while the sameness in the strategy for applying generalizations is described by the syllogism (logical reasoning). The research base for effective instruction in analogical and logical reasoning, particularly with subjects with LD, is summarized. The wide applicability of reasoning by analogy and by syllogism as complementary strategies is illustrated through their use in a critical review of the editorial page of a daily newspaper, and in linking content material in several domains. PMID:1940593
As the positive psychology movement gains momentum, both within psychology and in the broader culture, it becomes increasingly important to ensure that the complexity of individual personality and psychological processes do not get lost in a "one-size-fits-all" approach to improving human functioning. In this article, we consider some of the ways that the costs and benefits of different kinds of optimism and pessimism may vary across different individuals, situations, and cultural contexts. We use defensive pessimism research to illustrate that there are times when pessimism and negative thinking are indeed positive psychology, as they lead to better performance and personal growth. We also consider the ways in which dominant American culture--and research in psychology--may underestimate some of the costs of optimism. PMID:12209860
Norem, Julie K; Chang, Edward C
In his collection of the fragments of Praxagoras, F. Steckerl has argued that in his etiological ideas on some mental diseases, Praxagoras was influenced by Hippocratic thinking as attested in the Anonymus Londinensis and in De prisca medicina. But critical comparison of these texts with Praxagoras' fragments 70/71 clearly shows that there is no connection between the respective doctrines. As for epilepsy, however, some elements can be found that are common to Praxagoras and to the Hippocratic treatise De morbo sacro; however, these do not prove that Praxagoras was dependent on this text, but that both Praxagoras and the author of this work were woven into a more general network of relations. PMID:17144079
Full Text Available In this paper we will ponder the problem of the individualism through the individuation, pointing out the implications on the idea of “individual”. It attempts to ?nd a theoretical way that allows a broader understanding of its role in human societies It will be suggested that the emphasis placed by modernity in the individual can be evaluated, not as a solipsist individualism, but as a ?gurational form speci?c of social contexts characterized by a wide objectivation of the social tissue. That means that beside individualism we can think individualizations through the seminal setting of individuation. This hypothesis is already insinuated in the German sociological thought, in particular, in the sociology of the social forms of Georg Simmel and in the process sociology of Norbert Elias.
This research study compared gender and grade level differences in divergent thinking among middle school and high school students in the Midwest, in an attempt to determine whether gender or grade level-based differences exist in divergent thinking. The instrument used was based on the Wallach and Kogan Creativity Test (WKCT). There were 166…
Roue, Leah Christine
Full Text Available The article discusses creative practices that in aesthetical-technical ways intervene into the computer networked communication systems.I am interested in artist practices that use networks in different ways to make us aware about the possibilities to rethink media-cultural environments. I use the example of the Japanese art-architectural group Double Negative Architecture to give an example of creatively thinking in networks.Yvonne Spielmann (Ph.D., Dr. habil. is presently Research Professor and Chair of New Media at The University of the West of Scotland. Her work focuses on inter-relationships between media and culture, technology, art, science and communication, and in particular on Western/European and non-Western/South-East Asian interaction. Milestones of publish research output are four authored monographs and about 90 single authored articles. Her book, “Video, the Reflexive Medium” (published by MIT Press 2008, Japanese edition by Sangen-sha Press 2011 was rewarded the 2009 Lewis Mumford Award for Outstanding Scholarship in the Ecology of Technics. Her most recent book “Hybrid Cultures” was published in German by Suhrkamp Press in 2010, English edition from MIT Press in 2012. Spielmann's work has been published in German and English and has been translated into French, Polish, Croatian, Swedish, Japanese, and Korean. She holds the 2011 Swedish Prize for Swedish–German scientific co-operation.
Physics Education Research (PER) applies a scientific approach to the question, "How do our students think about and learn physics?" PER allows us to explore such intellectually engaging questions as, "What does it mean to understand something in physics?" and, "What skills and competencies do we want our students to learn from our physics classes?" To address questions like these, we need to do more than observe student difficulties and build curricula. We need a theoretical framework -- a structure for talking about, making sense of, and modeling how one thinks about, learns, and understands physics. In this paper, I outline some aspects of the Resources Framework, a structure that some of us are using to create a phenomenology of physics learning that ties closely to modern developments in neuroscience, psychology, and linguistics. As an example of how this framework gives new insights, I discuss epistemological framing -- the role of students' perceptions of the nature of the knowledge they are learning a...
Redish, Edward F
Examines ways in which classroom practices create a press for conceptual mathematical thinking and how teachers can promote student participation in a classroom community where conceptual understandings are valued and developed. Details four important sociomathematical norms characterizing a high press for conceptual thinking. Concludes that a…
Kazemi, Elham; Stipek, Deborah
"Thinking Like a Historian" (TLH) is a tool for framing the past to teach students the elements of historical thinking while, at the same time, grounding students' knowledge of the past through inquiry and evidentiary support. The framework's design allows for a separation of the ways historians study the past from the ways historians organize…
Franco, Eric V.
This study examines epistemic thinking in action in order to shed light on the relation between students' personal epistemologies and their online learning practices. The study is based on observations of the learning behaviors of 6th-grade students (n = 38) during two online inquiry tasks. Data were collected through think-aloud protocols and…
Barzilai, Sarit; Zohar, Anat
This paper reappraises the view of John McPeck that critical thinking can only be taught within rather than across the disciplines. In particular the paper explores one aspect of McPeck's position: his resistance to teaching informal logic as a means of teaching critical thinking. The paper draws upon the author's experience of teaching critical…
Robinson, Susan Rebecca
Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skillsudents' critical thinking skills
Problem solving, reasoning, and analytical thinking are defined and described as teachable repertoires. This paper describes work performed at a school serving special needs children, Morningside Academy, that has resulted in specific procedures developed over the past 15 years. These procedures include modifying "Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving"…
Robbins, Joanne K.
How can feedback dialogues stimulate students' reflective thinking? This study aims to investigate: (1) the effects of feedback dialogues between teachers and students on students' perceptions of teacher feedback and (2) the relation between features of feedback dialogues and students' thinking activities as part of reflective…
Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Oosterbaan, Anne; Schaap, Harmen
Discusses audiographic conferencing in Western Australia and describes research that investigated telematics classrooms, with a focus on changing the teaching/learning environment to develop higher-order thinking skills. Results indicate that higher-order thinking increased with the scaffolding role of the teacher and social interaction and…
McLoughlin, Catherine; Oliver, Ron
Examined the implementation of a Malaysian program to teach higher-order thinking skills. Data from classroom observations; teacher, student, and administrator interviews; document analyses; and surveys indicated that teachers felt better prepared to teach Malay or English than higher-order thinking skills, finding it difficult to construct the…
Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…
Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
Full Text Available In this commentary, I discuss how the design thinking concepts of empathy, related worlds, prototyping, ethnography, and story could enhance Ascension Health’s organizational design and ultimately its delivery of healthcare services. When organization design integrates a design thinking lens, more meaningful and innovative processes are developed both internally among organizational actors and externally with end users.
Natalie W. Nixon
Attributional (explanatory) thinking involves the appraisal of factors that contribute to performance and is instrumental to motivation and goal striving. Little is understood, however, concerning attributional thinking when multiple causes are involved in the transition to new achievement settings. Our study examined such complex attributional…
Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Daniels, Lia M.; Haynes, Tara L.
Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents a method of developing critical thinking skills through fairy tales. The book shows educators how to use popular fairy tales and fairy tale characters to help students develop problem solving abilities, critical thinking skills, and writing proficiency. It gives a multitude of activities,…
Wolf, Joan M.
In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking…
Waterson, Robert A.
This paper argues that sex education must move beyond a focus on compliance so that we may risk the uncertain work of thinking. How might we understand the work of thinking in sex education if we begin from the assumptions that learning is conflicted, that sexuality resists being educated even as it inspires curiosity, and that the subject of sex…
This study examined the influence of scaffolding on the development of critical thinking skills in an online course on Instructional Design. Data were collected through interviews and document artifacts from five participants of the online course. Findings indicated that participants' critical thinking moved through three stages from mirroring, to…
Sharma, Priya; Hannafin, Michael
The aim of the present study was to explore the hypothesized relationship between divergent thinking (DT) and two types of evaluation: interpersonal (judgments about others' ideas) and intrapersonal (judgments about one's own ideas). Divergent thinking and evaluation skills were measured by means of a GenEva (Generation and Evaluation) task. There…
Grohman, Magdalena; Wodniecka, Zofia; Klusak, Marcin
Gaming is purported to hold promise for education, in part, because it is thought to develop 21st century skills such as critical thinking. To date, there has been a dearth of generalisable research investigating the relationship between gaming and critical thinking. Results of a survey of 121 adults found that gamers and non-gamers do not differ…
Gerber, Sue; Scott, Logan
The study investigated the influence of metacognition on critical thinking skills. It is hypothesized in the study that critical thinking occurs when individuals use their underlying metacognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome. The Metacognitive Assessment Inventory (MAI) by Schraw and Dennison…
This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert
This article traces the early and medieval Islamic scholarship to the development of critical and scientific thinking and how they contributed to the development of an Islamic theory of epistemology and scientific thinking education. The article elucidates how the Qur'an and the Sunna of Prophet Muhammad have also contributed to the…
This paper reports on the vital role that reflective thinking plays in solving problems involving the mathematics of change and variation particularly multivariable calculus. We report on how reflective thinking is one kind of self-regulatory (in the sense of metacognitive) thought mechanism. We present an outline of the results of a larger study,…
Hegedus, Stephen J.
This study sought to examine calculus students' mathematical performances and preferences for visual or analytic thinking regarding derivative and antiderivative tasks presented graphically. It extends previous studies by investigating factors mediating calculus students' mathematical performances and their preferred modes of thinking. Data were…
Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Chicken, Eric
In this article, we attempt to provide an overview of the features of the abilities, aptitudes, and frames of minds that are attributed to critical thinking and provide the broad outlines of the development of critical-analytic thinking (CAT) abilities. In addition, we evaluate the potential viability of three main hypotheses regarding the reasons…
Byrnes, James P.; Dunbar, Kevin N.
This paper examines similarities between the goals of Aikido, a martial art, and critical thinking and argues that Aikido promotes the development of thinking in its training and practice. It applies these ideas to the gifted education curriculum. First the paper introduces characteristics of Aikido, Aikido movement and techniques. It equates…
Choo, Lay Hiok; Jewell, Paul D.
This paper describes the chess program for elementary school students in the Daviess County School District, Kentucky. The Critical Thinking committee of the school system's Graduation 2010 initiative explored various ways to promote critical thinking in the classroom and arrived at a program to put chess boards in the classrooms and to encourage…
Englehardt, Cathy Willis; Hauser, Brenda Bennett
The present paper takes it as an indisputable fact that subjective-behavioral thinking leads, for deeper methodological reasons, with inner necessity to inconclusive filibustering about the agents’ economic conduct and therefore has to be replaced by something fundamentally different. The key argument runs as follows: (a) the subjective-behavioral approach can not, as a matter of principle, afford a correct profit theory, (b) without a correct profit theory it is impossibl...
While the medical ethics literature has well explored the harm to patients, families, and the integrity of the profession in failing to disclose medical errors once they occur, less often addressed are the moral and professional obligations to take all available steps to prevent errors and harm in the first instance. As an expanding body of scholarship further elucidates the causes of medical error, including the considerable extent to which medical errors, particularly in diagnostics, may be attributable to cognitive sources, insufficient progress in systematically evaluating and implementing suggested strategies for improving critical thinking skills and medical judgment is of mounting concern. Continued failure to address pervasive thinking errors in medical decisionmaking imperils patient safety and professionalism, as well as beneficence and nonmaleficence, fairness and justice. We maintain that self-reflective and metacognitive refinement of critical thinking should not be construed as optional but rather should be considered an integral part of medical education, a codified tenet of professionalism, and by extension, a moral and professional duty. PMID:25033249
Stark, Meredith; Fins, Joseph J
Intentional empathy and integrative thinking are essential elements of a medical interview. Yet the repetitive, sometimes monotonous, nature of medical practice can compromise their achievement. Emotional and intellectual fatigue may lead to clouded observation with diagnostic errors resulting. In spite of a long extant pedagogy of teaching interviewing techniques and creative mnemonics, hurdles remain and significant miscues continue. The challenge is one of surmounting these obstacles and of finding 'new' ways to perform 'old' tasks. It is to do what we already know to do but somehow do not. In the essay which follows, two Talmudic legends are identified and discussed as paradigms for empathy and integrative thinking. They are offered as 'literary mnemonics' for potential use in physician-patient encounters. The legends are linked to the insights of contemporary scholars including Jerome Groopman, Danielle Ofri, Roger Martin and others who have considered concepts of cognition, emotion, empathy, 'opposable mind' and integrative thinking in medical and non-medical settings. PMID:24464512
Davidson, John H
Whether you’re an academic or a practitioner, a sociologist, a manager, or an engineer, one can benefit from learning to think systemically. Problems (and messes) are everywhere and they’re getting more complicated every day. How we think about these problems determines whether or not we’ll be successful in understanding and addressing them. This book presents a novel way to think about problems (and messes) necessary to attack these always-present concerns. The approach draws from disciplines as diverse as mathematics, biology, and psychology to provide a holistic method for dealing with problems that can be applied to any discipline. This book develops the systemic thinking paradigm, and introduces practical guidelines for the deployment of a systemic thinking approach.
Hester, Patrick T
The assessment of critical thinking traditionally has been accomplished through observation of students by faculty in clinical settings and evaluation of written patient assessments and care plans. Quantitative measurement has become a current focus of nurse educators. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare and contrast critical thinking abilities in beginning and graduating nursing students using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). The CCTST revealed a significant difference in critical thinking from the sophomore year to the senior year. There also were significant differences between sophomores and seniors on the overall score for the CCTDI, with subtest differences in truth-seeking, analyticity, self-confidence, and inquisitiveness. PMID:10102514
McCarthy, P; Schuster, P; Zehr, P; McDougal, D
Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan summarized cultural differences in psychology and argued that people from one particular culture are outliers: people from societies that are Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD). This study shows that liberals think WEIRDer than conservatives. In five studies with more than 5,000 participants, we found that liberals think more analytically (an element of WEIRD thought) than moderates and conservatives. Study 3 replicates this finding in the very different political culture of China, although it held only for people in more modernized urban centers. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives in the same country think as if they were from different cultures. Studies 4 to 5 show that briefly training people to think analytically causes them to form more liberal opinions, whereas training them to think holistically causes shifts to more conservative opinions. PMID:25540328
Talhelm, Thomas; Haidt, Jonathan; Oishi, Shigehiro; Zhang, Xuemin; Miao, Felicity F; Chen, Shimin
Full Text Available The art of critical thinking. John dewey’s how we think. This articleinvestigates Dewey’s view of critical thinking as it appears in his How We Think. There, he distinguishes some key steps in the thinking process. It begins with a perceived difficulty, which we try to locate and propose a possible solution to, after which we examine and test the hypothesis, first in theory and then in practice, i.e. in an experimental corroboration. This conception of the thinking process follows a generalized, typical scientific working method. At the same time, however, Dewey tries to affirm and do justice to the relative, the particular and the individual, an endeavour that can be associated with the hermeneutic tradition. It is also in accordance with that tradition, as well as with Aristotle’s conception of phronesis, that Dewey stresses the importance of good judgement. In our schools, he maintains, we should try to promote good judgement, as well as critical thinking, on the part of students.
Full Text Available The critical thinking process is a mental activity of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information to reach an answer or conclusion. It can also be viewed as a mental process that involves high quality and high level of thinking for problem solving and decision making. This paper presents and explains a new method for applying and promoting critical thinking for online education. The presented method can be applied in both online and regular classroom contexts, with being more practical and more appropriate for online education. The method consists of two components: an individual component and a team-based component. Each component includes a number of steps and the entire process is completed with a group setting. The Individual Component includes three steps: –List –Evaluate, and –Restructure; whereas the Team-based Component consists of three steps: –List, –Discuss and Evaluate, and –Integrate and Restructure. In each component, the learner is given essential opportunity to practice high level thinking and independent reasoning, and another chance to discuss and debate with other learners leading to an effective critical thinking medium. The method is straightforward to apply; and it guides students to practice and apply critical thinking to achieve quality learning and high level of understanding in the given learning task. This model has been applied and tested in both regular classroom setting and online education reaching satisfying and high levels of achieving critical thinking and intellectual growth among the learners.
The ability to think strategically is an admired and a sought-after leadership requirement, yet we know little about how it develops. The purpose of this study is to identify specific experiences that contribute to the development of an individual's ability to think strategically. We identified eight work experiences, including different types of organizational projects, processes, and relationships, that contribute to an individual's strategic thinking ability. We also delineate specific characteristics material to each experience. These characteristics indicate that considerable time and focus are required to develop the ability to think strategically. In addition, the experiences are not all accessed equally: Women are less likely to have nonrelational experiences, while chief executive officers are more likely to have the most challenging ones. In addition, we found differences regarding work-related continuing education activities. Respondents rated nonhealthcare conferences and reading behind all other identified experiences that contribute to strategic thinking ability. Individuals can implement several strategies to improve their strategic thinking ability, including deliberately incorporating the requisite experiences into their development plans, ensuring that the experiences incorporate the required characteristics, and improving the benefit received from attending educational programs in nonhealthcare industries. Organizations can implement several strategies to ensure the experiences are as effective as possible, such as appraising gender differences across the experiences and reviewing the organization's strategic planning processes for the characteristics that best encourage strategic thinking. PMID:20073185
Goldman, Ellen; Cahill, Terrence; Filho, Rubens Pessanha
Full Text Available Society, industry and the economy are all experiencing changes caused by a shift from products to services. While a “problem-solving” approach is commonly used for the development of products, new design approaches are needed as the primary unit of exchange moves from goods to services. This research argues that a fundamental transformation in the design world is taking place, manifested in a thinking paradigm shift from problem solving (designing products towards systems thinking (designing services. This paper draws on design literature to identify concepts of systems thinking and problem solving to help understand core elements in the shift from product to service design. It also reports on a series of semi-structured interviews with designers working in five design consultancies that have moved from product design to services design. The results show a change in the way designers think and approach projects when facing the challenges of designing services, confirming a movement from problem solving to systems thinking. However, systems thinking is not replacing problem solving but complementing it. The results also indicate that the growing complexity of the issues designers deal with influences the adoption of systems thinking in responding to service design challenges, as well as current changes in people’s ideas about sustainability and society.
Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social–ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social–ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.
Full Text Available Drawing upon Castoriadis’ work, modernity is conceived to emerge as a conflict and mutual contamination between the two great projects of the West, the project of freedom, which has been pursued by different social movements as individual and social autonomy, and the project of the unlimited expansion of "rational mastery" over the world, which has been pursued by the institutions of capitalism as a ceaseless economic growth, associated to a ceaseless scientific and technological development. Both these projects have been emerged within a reductionist logic-ontology, which presupposes the determinacy and the identity-unity of being, and which thereby posits an imperative upon the Western thinking-doing: to provide a rational foundation of its projects – of freedom and of "rational mastery". As en epoch, postmodernity is defined by the retreat from the project of autonomy and by the increasing domination and globalization of the project of (pseudo-rational (pseudo-mastery. As an intellectual current, it has deconstructed the reductionism of modernity and thereby relativezed its political and socioeconomic projects, falling however into a political embarrassment and into the principle of "anything goes".
Sketching is a valuable field technique to support a person's observation, recording, interpretation and communication of important features in both natural and human-made landscapes. The Singapore geography syllabus employs an inquiry approach and encourages sketching as a fundamental geographical skill. Sketching allows the learner to connect with the world through a personal and kinesthetic experience. The Earth Observatory of Singapore collaborates with the Singapore Geography Teachers' Association, Urban Sketchers, and National Institute of Education professional development to give teachers both basic sketching skills and the opportunity to develop those skills in a scaffolded environment. In Singapore, geography and geology skills overlap in content area of coastal processes, climate change, and plate tectonics with its associated natural hazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunami. Both disciplines are interested in how people live on the Earth. Likewise, basic skills such as observing, classifying, measuring, and communicating cut across disciplines of social and natural sciences in order to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information about the world. Hence, sketching, commonly considered an art skill, is used to further scientific thinking. This somewhat unique collaboration to develop sketching in teachers is based on the long tradition of sketches in geological field work, the newly popular urban sketching community, and professional development by a professional organization and the Singapore National Institute of Education. Workshops provide technique as well as opportunities for sketching with experts in different areas relevant to the geography curriculum.
Eriksson, S. C.; Wang, P.; Sim, T. B.; Goh, E.; Ng, H. K.
Full Text Available What would you teach if you had only one course to help students grasp the essence of computation and perhaps inspire a few of them to make computing a subject of further study? Assume they have the standard college prep background. This would include basic algebra, but not necessarily more advanced mathematics. They would have written a few term papers, but would not have written computer programs. They could surf and twitter, but could not exclusive-or and nand. What about computers would interest them or help them place their experience in context? This paper provides one possible answer to this question by discussing a course that has completed its second iteration. Grounded in classical logic, elucidated in digital circuits and computer software, it expands into areas such as CPU components and massive databases. The course has succeeded in garnering the enthusiastic attention of students with a broad range of interests, exercising their problem solving skills, and introducing them to computational thinking.
Nursing has become an all-graduate profession; as such, student nurses must develop their skills of critical analysis. The need to develop critical analytical thinking has been identified as the single most important skill in undergraduate education and reaching the academic requirements of level six study. In degree-level healthcare programmes, students are frequently asked to complete a structured critical appraisal of research. This paper examines how critical appraisal activities can be an opportunity for students to develop transferable critical thinking skills. Critical appraisal teaches objectivity, reflection, logic and discipline, which encourage students to think critically in both theory and practice. PMID:24260994
Whiffin, Charlotte Jane; Hasselder, Alison
Counterfactual thinking is thinking about a past that did not happen. This is often the case in 'if only...' situations, where we wish something had or had not happened. To make a choice in a moral decision-making situation is particularly hard and, therefore, may be often associated with the imagination of a different outcome. The main aim of the present study is to investigate counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning. We used a modified version of Greene’s moral dile...
SimoneMigliore; GiuseppeCurcio; FrancescoMancini; StefanoFCappa
Thinking with images plays a central role in scientific creativity and communication but is neglected in science classrooms. This article reviews the fundamental role of imagery in science and technology and our current knowledge of visual-spatial cognition. A novel analogic and thematic organization of images and visualization within science and technology is proposed that can help in the generation and evaluation of classroom activities and materials, and serve as a focus for professional development programs in visual-spatial thinking for science teachers. Visual-spatial thinking includes vision - using the eyes to identify, locate, and think about objects and ourselves in the world, and imagery - the formation, inspection, transformation, and maintenance of images in the mind's eye in the absence of a visual stimulus. A spatial image preserves relationships among a complex set of ideas as a single chunk in working memory, increasing the amount of information that can be maintained in consciousness at a given moment. Vision and imagery are fundamental cognitive processes using specialized pathways in the brain and rely on our memory of prior experience. Visual-spatial thinking develops from birth, together with language and other specialized abilities, through interactions between inherited capabilities and experience. Scientific creativity can be considered as an amalgam of three closely allied mental formats: images; metaphors; and unifying ideas (themes). Combinations of images, analogies, and themes pervade science in the form of master images and visualization techniques. A critique of current practice in education contrasts the subservient role of visual-spatial learning with the dominance of the alphanumeric encoding skills in classroom and textbooks. The lack of coherence in curriculum, pedagogy, and learning theory requires reform that addresses thinking skills, including imagery. Successful integration of information, skills and attitudes into cohesive mental schemata employed by self-aware human beings is a basic goal of education. The current attempt to impose integration using themes is criticized on the grounds that the required underpinning in cognitive skills and content knowledge by teachers and students may be absent. Teaching strategies that employ visual-spatial thinking are reviewed. Master images are recommended as a novel point of departure for a systematic development of programs on visual-spatial thinking in research, teacher education, curriculum, and classroom practice.
Mathewson, James H.
To identify patients at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes, apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as having a blood pressure (BP) above goal despite the use of ?3 antihypertensive therapies of different classes at maximally tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic. In light of growing scientific interest in the treatment of this group, a multistakeholder think tank was convened to discuss the current state of knowledge, improve the care of these patients, and identify appropriate study populations for future observational and randomized trials in the field. Although recent epidemiologic studies in selected populations estimate that the prevalence of aTRH is 10% to 15% of hypertensive patients, further large-scale observational studies will be needed to better elucidate risk factors. To spur the development of therapies for aTRH, the development of an "aTRH" label for pharmacologic and device therapies with a developmental pathway including treatment added to the use of existing therapies is favored. Although demonstration of adequate BP lowering should be sufficient to gain Food and Drug Administration approval for therapies targeting aTRH, assessment of improvement in quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes is also desirable and considered in Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services coverage decisions. Device trials under the aTRH label will need uniform and consistent processes for defining appropriate patient populations as well as postapproval registries assessing both long-term safety and duration of responses. Finally, patients with aTRH are likely to benefit from evaluation by a hypertension team to assure proper patient identification, diagnostic work-up, and therapeutic management before consideration of advanced or novel therapies to lower BP. PMID:24890525
Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Ard, Jamy; Bakris, George L; Bhatt, Deepak L; Brown, Alan S; Cushman, William C; Ferdinand, Keith C; Flack, John M; Fleg, Jerome L; Katzen, Barry T; Kostis, John B; Oparil, Suzanne; Patel, Chet B; Pepine, Carl J; Piña, Ileana L; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Townsend, Raymond R; Peterson, Eric D; Califf, Robert M; Patel, Manesh R
Full Text Available The intention of this work is to do the mapping of the many problems that critical thinking (CT is confronted with in the inside of law schools, taking these in their institutional role as well as tangible manifestations of legal culture. I address the significance of CT, reflecting on its philosophical origins and its possibility in our time, a time that is marked by a crisis of paradigms. We will move from theory to a more pragmatic approach based on skills, only to find different sets of difficulties. Today’s higher education institutional learning tradition is characterised by the conception and implementation of reforms which, in turn, are dominated by notions of business and commercial ethics, that are adding up to the positivist predominance that is still reigning upon legal education. Este trabajo pretende realizar una descripción de los numerosos problemas con que se encuentra el pensamiento crítico (PC dentro de las escuelas de derecho, entendidas desde su papel institucional pero también como manifestaciones tangibles de la cultura legal. Se destaca la importancia del PC, reflexionando sobre sus orígenes filosóficos y su posibilidad en el momento actual, marcado por una crisis de paradigmas. Después de realizar un análisis teórico, se va a pasar a realizar un enfoque más pragmático basado en habilidades, sólo para encontrar diferentes tipos de dificultades. La tradición actual de la educación superior institucional se caracteriza por la concepción e implementación de reformas que, en cambio, están dominadas por nociones de ética empresarial y comercial, que se suman al predominio positivista que sigue reinando en la educación jurídica. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2115429
Raquel Medina Plana
In this article I present some results from a 5-year longitudinal investigation with young students about the genesis of embodied, non-symbolic algebraic thinking and its progressive transition to culturally evolved forms of symbolic thinking. The investigation draws on a cultural-historical theory of teaching and learning—the theory of objectification. Within this theory, thinking is conceived of as a form of reflection and action that is simultaneously material and ideal: It includes inner and outer speech, sensuous forms of imagination and visualisation, gestures, rhythm, and their intertwinement with material culture (symbols, artifacts, etc.). The theory articulates a cultural view of development as an unfolding dialectic process between culturally and historically constituted forms of mathematical knowing and semiotically mediated classroom activity. Looking at the experimental data through these theoretical lenses reveals a developmental path where embodied forms of thinking are sublated or subsumed into more sophisticated ones through the mediation of properly designed classroom activity.
Investigates the relationship between total scores on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the time taken to complete it. Finds that slower test takers obtained significantly higher scores. Discusses implications of these findings for college instruction. (SG)
Frisby, Craig L.; Traffanstedt, Bobby K.
Pedagogies for knowledge management courses are still undeveloped. This Teaching Tip introduces a design thinking approach to teaching knowledge management. An induction model used to guide students' real-life projects for knowledge management is presented. (Contains 1 figure.)
Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai
Reviews cognitive science models of learning and transfer, especially representations, structures standing for something else. Presents examples of how representations support or hinder problem solving and communication. Discuses paradoxes involved in attempting to teach critical thinking. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)
McKendree, Jean; Small, Carol; Stenning, Keith; Conlon, Tom
Full Text Available This paper intends to highlight the issues in thinking skills development and efforts made in addressing these issues in Malaysia. The education system in Malaysia has undergone a huge transformational progress particularly in the field related to the development of thinking skill. Traditionally, thinking skill was not specifically cultivated in the education syllabus. What moved as a global agenda in the realm of education, thinking skill was embraced as an important subject matter that needs a specific attention. It was later embedded in the teachers’ training activities and translated into many forms, curricular and extra-curricular activities alike. Students are trained right from school up to tertiary levels. The move is ongoing and continuosly progressing.
Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to disclose the essence of students’ multi-dimensional thinking, also to reveal the rating of factors which stimulate the raising of effectiveness of self-development of students’ multi-dimensional thinking in terms of subject-oriented teaching. Subject-oriented learning is characterized as a type of learning where self-abilities and self-processes are systematically actualized. Among them the abilities and processes of students’ self-development in different learning situations are systemically important. 52 students took part in the pedagogical experiment. In order to evaluate the students’ competencies of self-development of their multi-dimensional thinking the 10-point grading scale and the special suggested criteria of self-assessment of multi-dimensional application of systematic, creative, critical and reflexive thinking were used. The obtained results were subjected to statistical processing.
Valentin I. Andreev
Physics Education Research (PER) applies a scientific approach to the question, "How do our students think about and learn physics?" PER allows us to explore such intellectually engaging questions as "What does it mean to understand something in physics?" and "What skills and competencies do we want our students to learn from our physics classes?" To address questions like these, we need to do more than observe student difficulties and build curricula. We need a theoretical framework—a structure for talking about, making sense of, and modeling how one thinks about, learns, and understands physics. In this paper, I outline some aspects of the Resources Framework, a structure that some of us are using to create a phenomenology of physics learning that ties closely to modern developments in neuroscience, psychology, and linguistics. As an example of how this framework gives new insights, I discuss epistemological framing—the role of students' perceptions of the nature of the knowledge they are learning and what knowledge is appropriate to bring to bear on a given task. I discuss how this foothold idea fits into our theoretical framework, show some classroom data on how it plays out in the classroom, and give some examples of how my awareness of the resources framework influences my approach to teaching.
Redish, Edward F.
From the perspective of the Think manager--think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents. PMID:24230951
García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando
This study explored the effect of Iranian EFL learners’ critical thinking abilities on their receptive English language proficiency skills. With this purpose in mind, the researchers administered the Persian version of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) and the Interchange Objective Placement Test (Lesley, Hansen, & Zukowski-Faust, 2005) to 96 Intermediate EFL learners, and correlated the scores obtained from the two tests to see whether there is any significant relat...
Mohammad Reza Hashemi; Reza Zabihi
Increasing interest in ‘design thinking’ in the fields of management and organization has resulted in a concern with using design-oriented approaches as means to support organizational change and innovation. To this end, conceptual ideas such as Boland and Collopy’s ‘managing as designing’ have aimed at exploring how ‘design thinking’ can inform managers and the work done in organizational contexts. However, these concepts tend to be discussed theoretically with little grounding in empirical studies of practice that might inform managing according to a ‘design thinking’ approach. In this paper we look at one attempt at facilitating organizational change through ‘design thinking’. The context is the design of a new building for the UTS Business School, Sydney by architect Frank Gehry. User participation was applied to engage stakeholders in ways that would produce valuable input for managers as well as architects. We consider how architectural design and organizational change are constructed and accomplished and to what extent the manager’s approach can be considered ‘design thinking’. Our findings suggest that while ‘design thinking’ may be one approach to managing complex change processes, a deeper engagement between designers, managers and users is needed.
Naar, Liisa; Stang Våland, Marianne
The success of adaptive management in conservation has been questioned and the objective-based management paradigm on which it is based has been heavily criticized. Soft systems thinking and social-learning theory expose errors in the assumption that complex systems can be dispassionately managed by objective observers and highlight the fact that conservation is a social process in which objectives are contested and learning is context dependent. We used these insights to rethink adaptive management in a way that focuses on the social processes involved in management and decision making. Our approach to adaptive management is based on the following assumptions: action toward a common goal is an emergent property of complex social relationships; the introduction of new knowledge, alternative values, and new ways of understanding the world can become a stimulating force for learning, creativity, and change; learning is contextual and is fundamentally about practice; and defining the goal to be addressed is continuous and in principle never ends. We believe five key activities are crucial to defining the goal that is to be addressed in an adaptive-management context and to determining the objectives that are desirable and feasible to the participants: situate the problem in its social and ecological context; raise awareness about alternative views of a problem and encourage enquiry and deconstruction of frames of reference; undertake collaborative actions; and reflect on learning. PMID:22010884
Cundill, G; Cumming, G S; Biggs, D; Fabricius, C
Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. Accordingly, problem solving scores increased in parallel to an increase in the critical thinking scores. Problem Solving Inventory is a measuring tool indicating an increase in the problem solving skills in parallel to a decrease in the scores. Therefore, as the critical thinking skills of individuals go up, their problem solving skills also increase. Furthermore, according to the outcomes of the study, critical thinking and problem solving skills of the students did not show any correlation between genders (p>0.05. As a result, we concluded that the mean scores of critical thinking skills were found at medium levels among nursing students and the mean scores of critical thinking and problem-solving skills between the classes displayed no differences. In addition, no relationship between the age and gender of the subjects and their critical thinking and problem solving skills was identified. Moreover, in parallel to an increase in the scores of critical thinking skills, problem solving skills also increased.
The aim of this essay is to explore the concept of thinking skills in three different contexts, i.e. Formal Logic, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking. The essay traces some contemporary historical connections between these approaches and illustrates differences and overlap between them by referring to the content pages of textbooks which are representative of the different approaches. In evaluating the historical developments sketched in the essay, the conclusion is reached that the open an...
Pieter van Veuren
Full Text Available RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome inequalities has become a cornerstone of excellence in health care.Method: A small quantitative survey of nurses was conducted in one of the departments in a Slovenian hospital. To analyse the results, we used frequency statistics, Spearman's rank correlation test and chi-square test. Results: Providers of health care services are aware of the importance of ethics in its formation. Professional Code is relatively well known; 8.4 % of the respondents were not sure if they clearly define the principles of respect for equality. Discrimination, caused by providers of health care, is of a less extent. Ethical awareness among health care providers does not affect identification with the profession. The education level ofnursing personnel and the perception of discrimination based on religious affiliation influenced one another. Education has no influence on the perception of discrimination based on other circumstances.Organization: Health care organizations should integrate hygieneethical thinking among its strategic goals. Quality is not only quantifying the data. Personal excellence of health care providers, which is difficult to measure, is the basic building block of organizational excellence and patient satisfaction.Originality: There are not many research studies on perceptionsof discrimination in health care. The article raises the sensitive issue that we should talk more about.Limitations: The survey was conducted on a small sample size. Further research should be conducted on perception of discrimination of both sides in health care, both in terms of health care providers as patients. It may be worthwhile to compare the differences in the perception of discrimination in private and in public hospitals.
Critical thinking, viewed as rational and analytic thinking, is crucial for participation in a knowledge economy and society. This article provides a brief presentation of the importance of teaching critical thinking in a knowledge economy; suggests a conceptual model for teaching thinking; examines research on the historical role of teachers in…
The purpose of this study was to construct composite scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) from the PICTS thinking style, factor, and content scales designed to provide general estimates of criminal thinking. The Entitlement thinking style scale, Self-Assertion/Deception factor scale, and Historical content…
Walters, Glenn D.
Although many employers think that people are most creative when under time pressure, research indicates that the opposite is true. Data from 177 employees' diaries showed that creative thinking under extreme time pressure is unlikely when people feel on a treadmill or on autopilot; more likely when they feel they are on an expedition or a…
Amabile, Teresa M.; Hadley, Constance N.; Kramer, Steven J.
Full Text Available This paper examines how the discussion tool is used to promote critical thinking in an online environment at Marshall University. The significance of critical thinking in higher education has been brought to attention at both national and local levels. The paper studies the use of discussions as an approach to promote critical thinking in a number of English as a Second Language (ESL courses offered by Marshall University's Graduate School of Education and Professional Development (GSEPD program. At the end of the semester, a qualitative survey was developed to identify the effectiveness of such discussions, and the opportunities for improvement. The survey was sent to all students in these three classes. These students were all full time teachers in Elementary and Secondary schools in West Virginia. Out of 21 students, 15 of them have responded to the three questions asked in the survey. Almost all the respondents have found discussion helpful in enhancing learning and critical thinking. Most students support the involvement of an online instructor in the online discussion, and faculty members involved in these discussions function as helpers in the development of critical thinking skills.
The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…
Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.
Full Text Available This paper presents cMinds, a learning intervention that deploys game-based visual programming towards building analytical, computational, and critical thinking skills in primary education. The proposed learning method exploits the structured nature of programming, which is inherently logical and transcends cultural barriers, towards inclusive learning that exposes learners to algorithmic thinking. A visual programming environment, entitled ‘cMinds Learning Suite’, has been developed aimed for classroom use. Feedback from the deployment of the learning methods and tools in classrooms in several European countries demonstrates elevated learner motivation for engaging in logical learning activities, fostering of creativity and an entrepreneurial spirit, and promotion of problem-solving capacity
Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task r...
Full Text Available This study explored the latent structure of divergent thinking as a cognitive ability across gifted and non-gifted samples of students utilizing multiple-group analysis of mean and covariance structures (MG-MACS. Whereas Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates lower g saturation of cognitive tests with increasing ability level and consequently, a lower correlation of cognitive abilities in more gifted samples, recent evidence from creativity research has shown that correlations of divergent thinking with intelligence are unaffected by ability level. In order to investigate this conflicting state of affairs with respect to divergent thinking, we utilized increasingly restrictive MG-MACS models that were capable of comparing latent variances, covariances, and means between gifted (IQ > 130 and non-gifted (IQ ? 130 groups of students. In a sample of 1070 German school students, we found that a MG-MACS model assuming partial strict measurement invariance with respect to the postulated factor model of verbal, figural, and numerical divergent thinking could not be rejected. Further, latent variances and covariances of latent divergent thinking factors did not significantly differ between groups, whereas the gifted group exhibited significantly higher latent means. Finally, implications of our results for future research on the latent structure of divergent thinking are discussed.
Full Text Available A qualitative, contextual, exploratory and descriptive design for theory generation was used to develop a model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education (Mouton & Marais, 1990:43; Mouton, 1996: 103- 109; Chinn & Kramer 1991:79-120. A model was developed within the existing frameworks of theory generation. Wilson (1963:23-39 and Gift (1997:75,76 provided a theoretical framework for a concept analysis of reflective thinking in phase one of the study. Further conceptual meaning was attained through a perceptual survey where twelve nurse educators participated in a focus group interview with regard to how reflective thinking can be facilitated in clinical nursing education. Classification of the main concepts and sub-concepts was made through a conceptualisation process within Dickoff, James and Wiedenbach s (1968:415-435 theoretical framework using the six elements of practice theory.
Written by a well-known lecturer and consultant to the pharmaceutical industry, this book focuses on the pharmaceutical non-statistician working within a very strict regulatory environment. Statistical Thinking for Clinical Trials in Drug Regulation presents the concepts and statistical thinking behind medical studies with a direct connection to the regulatory environment so that readers can be clear where the statistical methodology fits in with industry requirements. Pharmaceutical-related examples are used throughout to set the information in context. As a result, this book provides a detailed overview of the statistical aspects of the design, conduct, analysis and presentation of data from clinical trials within drug regulation. Statistical Thinking for Clinical Trials in Drug Regulation:Assists pharmaceutical personnel in communicating effectively with statisticians using statistical languageImproves the ability to read and understand statistical methodology in papers and reports and to critically ap...
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the direct and indirect interdisciplinary communication, didactic units of discipline «Computer software of project design», including vector graphics, raster graphics, three-dimensional graphics, with units of other special disciplines. Considered such disciplines, as «Descriptive geometry and technical drawing», «The fundamentals of composition in industrial design», «Fundamentals of design graphics», «Design and modelling of industrial products», the VPO standard in «Industrial design» speciality. Also, is considered the mutual influence of the didactic units of discipline on the various elements of professional thinking, forming the general professional thinking of students studying design during laboratory work. Formation of professional thinking most effectively will take place under the condition of coherence and complementarity between educational areas, as well as orientation on modern technical and technological changes in industry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-5
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Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the direct and indirect interdisciplinary communication, didactic units of discipline «Computer software of project design», including vector graphics, raster graphics, three-dimensional graphics, with units of other special disciplines. Considered such disciplines, as «Descriptive geometry and technical drawing», «The fundamentals of composition in industrial design», «Fundamentals of design graphics», «Design and modelling of industrial products», the VPO standard in «Industrial design» speciality. Also, is considered the mutual influence of the didactic units of discipline on the various elements of professional thinking, forming the general professional thinking of students studying design during laboratory work. Formation of professional thinking most effectively will take place under the condition of coherence and complementarity between educational areas, as well as orientation on modern technical and technological changes in industry.
Ahmetova Albina Maratovna
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it seeks to use a practical real-world example to demonstrate the power of a systems thinking perspective in design, and more specifically in the design of services. It makes use of the paradigm of e-accessibility, in the application domain of publicly available self-services. Secondly, the benefits of this perspective will be discussed, through some theoretical tenets of systems thinking, such as the use of emerging properties, the law of requisite variety and notions of second order cybernetics, in terms of the richness that they offer to the conceptualisation and praxis of design in general, and service design in particular. Finally, we speculate on the implications of systems thinking to question the nature of the interdisciplinarity and even transdisciplinarity of design.
Full Text Available Combining the teaching of thinking skills and a second language seems a plausible way to promote language acquisition. The teaching of thinking is explained, with an example from the curriculum of de Bono. Arguments supporting the thinking-L2 combination come from theory, practice, its benefits to teaching skills, national needs, and successful implementation. Research literature is reviewed, and a major study in South Africa is summarized. Die kombinasie van die onderrig van denkvaardighede en tweede taal blyk 'n aanneemlike metode om taalverwerwing te bevorder. Die onderrig van denke word aangedui, met 'n voorbeeld uit die kurrikulum van De Bono. Argumente wat die kombinasie van denke en tweede taal ondersteun, word gebaseer op teorie, praktyk, voordele vir onderwysvaardighede, nasionale behoeftes, en suksesvolle toepassing. Navorsingsartikels word in oi!nskou geneem, en 'n belangrike navorsingstudie word opgesom.
Carol A. Puhl
Full Text Available The author presents the history of European thought about death since Socrates and Plato and accepts the recent stance of Levinas and Derrida. According to Hegel the life of spirit is the passing through other and other kinds of deaths. Kierkegaard claims that we can not think about absolute nothing (but we can threaten it. For Nietzsche death is the biggest truism, for Heidegger it is the most certain truth (human being is being to death and for Sartre it is a brutal fact. Levinas and Derrida claim that thinking about death is the beginning of ethics.
Full Text Available In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profle (NBPP and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI. The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The researchers found some evidence to support the relationship between thinking style, emotional intelligence (EI and leadership effectiveness. The researchers concluded that facets of brain dominance and emotional intelligence may be potentially useful predictors of transformational leadership behaviours.
Tessie H. Herbst
The present study is a further examination of the contributions of thinking styles to academic achievement (see L-F. Zhang, 2001a, 2001b, 2002f; L-F. Zhang & R. J. Sternberg, 1998). Secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 250; 131 from a Catholic boys' school and 119 from a Protestant girls' school) participated in the study. Students' scores on the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) were used to predict their academic achievement in 16 subjects after age, ge...
Full Text Available Problem solving theory and practice suggest that thinking is more important to solving problems than knowledge and that it is possible to teach thinking in situations where little or no knowledge of the problem is needed. Such an assumption has led problem solving advocates to champion content-less heuristics as the primary element of problem solving while relegating the knowledge base and the application of concepts or transfer to secondary status. In the following theoretical analysis, it will be argued that the knowledge base and transfer of knowledge—not the content-less heuristic—are the most essential elements of problem solving.
Developing mathematical thinking is one of major aims of mathematics education. In mathematics education research, there are a number of researches which describe what it is and how we can observe in experimental research. However, teachers have difficulties developing it in the classrooms. This book is the result of lesson studies over the past 50 years. It describes three perspectives of mathematical thinking: Mathematical Attitude (Minds set), Mathematical Methods in General and Mathematical Ideas with Content and explains how to develop them in the classroom with illuminating examples.
This study investigated nurse educators' definition of the concept critical thinking. A sample of 201 baccalaureate nurse educators in midwest nursing programs completed a questionnaire identifying their perception of critical-thinking skills and characteristics, and their agreement with non-nurse critical-thinking experts on items often considered to be critical thinking. This study found that nurse educators agreed with non-nurse critical-thinking experts on the skills and dispositions; however, significant differences were found between nurse educators and non-nurse experts regarding concepts related to critical thinking. Nurse educators were more likely to identify researching, problem-solving, decision-making, and planning as critical thinking. Despite their assertion otherwise, it is apparent from this study that nurse educators have a different perception of critical thinking than scholars in other disciplines. This study suggests that practice disciplines such as nursing may perceive critical thinking differently than educators in nonpractice disciplines. PMID:11103972
Gordon, J M
Learning and practicing scientific inquiry is an essential component of a STEM education, but it is often difficult to teach to novices or those outside of a laboratory setting. To promote scientific thinking in a freshmen introductory neuroscience course without a lab component, we developed a series of learning activities and assignments designed to foster scientific thinking through the use of scientific grant proposals. Students wrote three short grant proposals on topics ranging from molecular to cognitive neuroscience during a 10-week class (one quarter). We made this challenging and advanced task feasible for novice learners through extensive instructional scaffolding, opportunity for practice, and frequent peer and instructor feedback. Student and instructor reports indicate that the assignments were highly intellectually engaging and that they promoted critical thinking, a deeper understanding of neuroscience material, and effective written communication skills. Here we outline the mechanics of the assignment, student and instructor impressions of learning outcomes, and the advantages and disadvantages of implementing this approach.
Köver, Hania; Wirt, Stacey E.; Owens, Melinda T.; Dosmann, Andrew J.
Describes a research and development project, Cognitively Guided Instruction, to illustrate how theory and research inform the teaching and learning of mathematics. The project engaged first grade teachers with research-based knowledge about the development of children's mathematical thinking, studying teachers' use of this knowledge in the…
Franke, Megan Loef; Kazemi, Elham
Future decision makers in natural resource fields will be required to make judgments on issues that lack clear solutions and with information complicated by ethical challenges. Therefore, natural resource, environmental, and agricultural professionals must possess the ability to think critically about the consequences of policy, economic systems,…
Quinn, Courtney; Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Flores, Kevin
The web has the potential to offer an environment that can support standardized medical education to students dispersed in time or place and, in the process, respond to reduced availability of patients for practice. This exploratory article describes how we evaluated critical thinking in an online collaborative Problem-based Learning (PBL)…
Schell, Robyn; Kaufman, David
Symbols occupy a pivotal position between processes to be carried out and concepts to be thought about. They allow us both to do mathematical problems and to think about mathematical relationships. In this presentation, the discontinuities that occur in the learning path taken by different students, leading to a divergence between conceptual and…
Tall, David; Gray, Eddie; Bin Ali, Maselan; Crowley, Lillie; DeMarois, Phil; McGowen, Mercedes; Pitta, Demetra; Pinto, Marcia; Thomas, Michael; Yusof, Yudariah
Full Text Available Mathematical thinking is the essence of the mathematics in the phase of middle school, in which penetration mathematical thinking method contributes to the teaching efficiency in practice. This paper has listed some thinking methods, such as, penetration symbolic method that improves students’ adaptive ability on the transformation from arithmetic to algebra; penetration normalization method that contributes to the problem-solving ability; penetration of the combination of characters and graphics method that improves the competence both on the transformation between characters and graphics, and knowledge migration; penetration inductive method that strengthens their innovation both on thought and practical ability; penetration equation and function that is responsible for the cultivation of their modeling ability; and penetration classified discussion method that is conductive to the competence on observation all-round and handling problem flexibly. It is of much significance to propel the application of mathematical thinking in teaching practice for the goal of improved teaching quality and the cultivation of highly competent talent.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the most important points of view presented by high officials and representatives of the academic milieu from European countries on the occasion of the EPIN conference regarding the strategic thinking in the EU, held in Bucharest on September 30th, 2011. There were proposed to the audience several topics related to macro-regional strategies such as: Danube Strategy and Baltic Sea Strategy, the Europe 2020 Strategy and some key points on strategic thinking in EU foreign policy. The conference consisted of three sessions in which speakers stressed out the main topics of the day. The first session outlined the main aspects regarding the Baltic Sea Strategy and the Danube Strategy. The Europe 2020 Strategy was the central point of the second session of the conference, and in the last session, the speakers highlighted some important aspects on the strategic thinking in EU Foreign Policy. The series of speeches was completed by a Conclusions session in which the most important results of the debate were brought to the attention. Also, it left open for further discussion the need for the strategic thinking of the EU to become a reality.
Thinking Journey is introduced as a mode of science instruction based on a specially designed discussion between students and teachers in the context of an imaginary journey. The paper elaborates the rationale of this mode and its specific features: enculturation into science, analytical observation, multiple perspectives of the subject and…
Schur, Yaron; Galili, Igal
An English teacher at Hokkaido International School, Japan, guided his students through the writing process of thinking up ideas for writing topics and developing and revising those ideas into competent works. The class was composed of seven non-native speakers (in grades nine through twelve) who tried to achieve fluency in English within the…
This article illustrates spatial thinking tasks through cube diagrams and drawings. The author talks about the pentacube diagram that is based on the principle that a vertical cube-edge is shown "vertically". The author describes how to extend isometric drawing to include triangular wedges that are made by slicing single cubes, bi-cubes,…
Explains how the process of creating a database provides opportunities for business instructors to use teaching strategies that promote higher-order thinking skills. Describes a project at a school of business in which each student must build an original database and apply functions of tables, queries, forms, and reports. (JOW)
In this study, 32 teachers participated in a year-long professional development project related to technology integration in which they designed and implemented a WebQuest. This paper describes the extent to which higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) and levels of technology implementation (LoTI) occur in the WebQuests that participants designed.…
Polly, Drew; Ausband, Leigh
The study reported in this article aimed at exploring what teachers know and do about fostering higher-order thinking skills in teaching science, and how they see themselves involved in achieving this end. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 11 teachers experienced in teaching high school physics, which is considered a…
Barak, Moshe; Shakhman, Larisa
This paper describes a study of online discussion forums as tools for promoting higher-order thinking. The study was carried out in a women's university in the United Arab Emirates. Data, in the form of online discussion forum transcripts, were collected over a 20-week semester and were analysed according to a model developed by Garrison,…
McLoughlin, D.; Mynard, J.
The authors developed and implemented a project for high school geography students that modeled the processes in a site selection analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). They sought to explore how spatial thinking could be fostered by using the MyWorld GIS software that was designed specifically for educational uses. The task posed…
Milson, Andrew J.; Curtis, Mary D.
Museum educators often think about what they want children to take away with them from museum visits. But at least as important is what children bring to these visits. Research in developmental psychology shows that children and adolescents progress through a sequence of ways of understanding knowledge and knowing--understanding that lies at the…
Felton, Mark K.; Kuhn, Deanna
Complements guidelines addressing the mechanics of online searching by considering how treating searching as exercises in critical thinking can improve the use of online resources. Discusses metacognition, hypothesis testing, and argumentation, with illustrative examples and links to tools that facilitate the searching process. (SLD)
Brem, Sarah K.; Boyes, Andrea J.
Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…
Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai
Although higher education understands the need to develop critical thinkers, it has not lived up to the task consistently. Students are graduating deficient in these skills, unprepared to think critically once in the workforce. Limited development of cognitive processing skills leads to less effective leaders. Various definitions of critical…
Flores, Kevin L.; Matkin, Gina S.; Burbach, Mark E.; Quinn, Courtney E.; Harding, Heath
In this article, the authors describe how integrating interactive mobile tools into elementary pedagogy can generate enthusiasm and critical thinking among students as they learn about the world. The activities described took place over the course of six one-hour periods spanning six days. These activities address three major social studies…
Lin, Lin; Widdall, Chris; Ward, Laurie
Many writers argue that it is necessary to develop critical thinking skills in business students because these skills are needed to deal with the increasing complexities of real-life problems. Although the goal appears to be laudable, it is not always clear how to go about achieving it. In this article, the authors describe active learning…
Page, Diana; Mukherjee, Arup
Traditional writing assignments often fall short in addressing problems in college students' writing as too often these assignments fail to help students develop critical thinking skills and comprehension of course content. This article reports the use of a two-part (staged) writing assignment with postscript as a strategy for improving critical…
Cavdar, Gamze; Doe, Sue
The optimal school learning environment for gifted students is one where scholastic rigor is the standard. This rigor is needed both to stimulate the students intellectually and enhance their academic growth. The integration of critical thinking skills into the daily content and lessons is essential for achieving this rigor. This infusion, along…
McCollister, Karen; Sayler, Micheal F.
Full Text Available AHO – Oslo School of Architecture & Design, Norway, invites to the Relating Systems Thinking and Design to a free and open symposium over two days 9th-11th October 2013, with a preceding full day with diverse workshops and a subsequent special issue in FORMakademisk.
This book is based on research into programme management competence conducted by Cranfield School of Management and SP Associates. It brings cutting-edge thinking on a subject of great relevance to professionals and senior managers, providing useful advice on the practice of programme management, and the performance of that role in organizations.
Investigated relationship of teachers' cognitive levels and cognitive level demand of textbooks in relation to students capability to learn biology. Based on findings, teaching units were designed to help science teachers acquire skills, use innovative formats of instruction for abstract topics, and develop logical thinking skills through biology…
Villavicencio, Rosalina R.; Tayko, Perla Rizalina M.
Describes the Research Think Tank of the Association for Business Communication: its history, 1996 focus and participants, and its process. Notes that key ideas emerging from this process focused on international communication, communication technology, connecting international communication, and implications for researchers. (SR)
Thomas, Gail Fann
This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…
Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas
One of the cornerstones peculiar to the outcomes-based approach adopted by the South African education and training sector is the so-called "critical outcomes". Included in one of these outcomes is the ability to think critically. Although this outcome articulates well with the cognitive domain of holistic development, it also gives rise to some…
Lombard, B. J. J.
Scaffolding has proven an especially interesting and promising area for postsecondary teaching and learning practices. Particular interest has emerged in scaffolding student learning in technology-enhanced environments--especially those designed to promote critical thinking. This study examined participant perceptions and use of scaffolding in an…
Sharma, Priya; Hannafin, Michael
To encourage critical thinking and expression of viewpoints by undergraduate students, an in-class debate on the issue of spanking as a disciplinary practice and its impact on children's development is presented as a class activity. Specific details on how the debate is conducted are provided. Evaluation results suggest that the activity is…
Walker, Susan K.; Benson, Lisa J.
Describes a middle school career-oriented teaching unit with emphasis on teaching for divergent thinking. The unit provides hands-on opportunities for eighth-grade students to explore careers using the knowledge and skills developed in their home economics class. The careers are restaurant management, hospitality service, and interior design. (CT)
Ranke, Charlotte; Champoux, Ellen M.
As radiographers continue to extend their role and take on more procedures associated traditionally with radiologists, it is essential that their critical thinking abilities keep pace with the new practical skills they are learning. This is particularly important in ultrasound where student sonographers must master a number of new skills including the technical dexterity required to perform a scan, the ability to form and discard hypotheses when trying to interpret the image, and the communication of their findings as a written report. Interpreting the image and producing an accurate, appropriate report involves the higher level cognitive processes of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In other words, the student sonographer must be able to think critically to become a successful practitioner. This paper attempts to define and discuss critical thinking, and considers a range of simple strategies that the clinical teacher of ultrasound can employ to help develop critical thinking skills in their students. These methods are appropriate for use not only by clinical teachers of ultrasound but for all teachers and mentors wishing to improve reasoning skills in their pupils
Moments of restriction or impasse--situations that are seemingly intransigent, offering no alternatives or poor alternatives, predicaments leading to less than satisfactory resolutions or unhappy compromises--abound in the practice of educational research. This paper speculates on the possibilities offered by thinking with "Trickster"--a shadowy,…
Using a stakeholder debate based on a real-world case of regional construction--that of Turkey's application to join the European Union--improved students' critical thinking in an introductory world regional geography course. Such courses are a staple offering among US geography departments, and often the only exposure of non-majors to…
Sziarto, Kristin M.; McCarthy, Linda; Padilla, Nicholas L.
Counterfactual thinking is thinking about a past that did not happen. This is often the case in "if only…" situations, where we wish something had or had not happened. To make a choice in a moral decision-making situation is particularly hard and, therefore, may be often associated with the imagination of a different outcome. The main aim of the present study is to investigate counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning. We used a modified version of Greene's moral dilemmas test, studying both the time needed to provide a counterfactual in the first and third person and the type of given response (in context-out of context) in a sample of 90 healthy subjects. We found a longer response time for personal vs. impersonal moral dilemmas. This effect was enhanced in the first person perspective, while in the elderly there was an overall slowing of response time. Out of context/omissive responses were more frequent in the case of personal moral dilemmas presented in the first person version, with females showing a marked increase in this kind of response. These findings suggest that gender and perspective have a critical role in counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning, and may have implications for the understanding of gender-related inclinations as well as differences in moral judgment. PMID:24904468
Migliore, Simone; Curcio, Giuseppe; Mancini, Francesco; Cappa, Stefano F
Like other countries, Israel had its share of projects that see the implementation of inquiry and higher order thinking in schools as their main goal. However, although many of these projects were quite successful, they did not succeed in changing the bulk of teaching and learning in Israeli schools. This article describes a new national…
This column addresses the importance of developing critical thinking to meet the demands of 21st-century literacies and participatory democracy. The author argues for a critical approach to digital literacies that explores the sociological nature of literacy practices. Students examine examples of new literacies and analyze how ideologies are…
Transformative learning may involve gentle perspective widening or something more traumatic. This paper explores the impact of a transformative pedagogy in a course that challenges learners to "think like a planet". Among six sources of intellectual anxiety, learners worry about: why Gaia Theory is neglected by their other courses; the…
Aims to understand the problems that students face in developing the design skills that they will need in their future careers during the Engineering Orientation course in freshman year. The 'visual thinking' technique in the course enhanced understanding and motivation to participate in discussions. (Author/ASK)
This study analyzed data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education to estimate the unique effects of exposure to classroom diversity and involvement in interactional diversity on growth in critical thinking skills during the first year of college. Net of important confounding influences, neither classroom nor interactional diversity…
Loes, Chad; Pascarella, Ernest; Umbach, Paul
Assessment of student learning outcomes can be a powerful tool for improvement of instruction when a scientific approach is taken; unfortunately, many educators do not take full advantage of this approach. This article examines benefits of taking a scientific approach to critical thinking assessment and proposes guidelines for planning,…
Bensley, D. Alan; Murtagh, Michael P.
Previous research has indicated that dichotomous thinkers have stereotypic and rigid views of others. This study focuses on the world-view of dichotomous thinkers from the perspective of entity vs. incremental theory. Study 1 explored the relationship between dichotomous thinking and the IPTM (implicit person theory measure) (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong,…
This book contains mathematics activities based upon the concepts of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio. The activities include higher order thinking skills, calculation practice, integration with different subject areas, mathematics history, extensions and home tasks, teaching notes, and questions for thought and comprehension. A visual map…
Conscious of the interplay between nature and nurture in determining a child's individuality and success in life, the author embarked a group of teachers in an action research project towards nurturing a culture of thinking in young children. Considering the positive effects of routines in early learning experiences, the research consisted in…
Salmon, Angela K.
Full Text Available Counterfactual thinking is thinking about a past that did not happen. This is often the case in 'if only...' situations, where we wish something had or had not happened. To make a choice in a moral decision-making situation is particularly hard and, therefore, may be often associated with the imagination of a different outcome. The main aim of the present study is to investigate counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning. We used a modified version of Greene’s moral dilemmas test, studying both the time needed to provide a counterfactual in the first and third person and the type of given response (in context-out of context in a sample of 90 healthy subjects.We found a longer response time for personal vs. impersonal moral dilemmas. This effect was enhanced in the first person perspective, while in the elderly there was an overall slowing of response time. Out of context/omissive responses were more frequent in the case of personal moral dilemmas presented in the first person version, with females showing a marked increase in this kind of response.These findings suggest that gender and perspective have a critical role in counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning, and may have implications for the understanding of gender-related inclinations as well as differences in moral judgement.
Management schools must be prepared to aid leaders and managers to succeed in uncertain environments. We offer two approaches, each designed for critical thinking skill development, to teach graduate management students about leading in and through potential disruption to organizational life. First, we present a personalized case method that…
Powley, Edward H.; Taylor, Scott N.
Describes the use of chess instruction to develop abstract thinking skills and problem solving among gifted students. Offers suggestions for starting school chess programs, teaching and evaluating chess skills, and measuring the success of both student-players and the program in general. (PB)
Rifner, Philip J.; Feldhusen, John F.
Critical thinking and creative thinking are proposed as determinants to cope with the constant change society, and basically children are experiencing nowadays. Moreover, tools for the development of critical and creative thinking are discussed, and the creative problem solving toolbox is presented, involving tools for generating options, as well as tools for focusing options. The importance of the tools as significant basis for the learning process, as well as for the management of chang...
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.
This study considers in what ways sustained shared thinking between young children aged 5-6 years can be facilitated by working in dyads on a computer-based literacy task. The study considers 107 observational records of 44 children from 6 different schools, in Oxfordshire in the UK, collected over the course of a school year. The study raises…
A compilation of program ideas and related newspaper articles, cartoons, and visual aids, this booklet describes the objectives and procedure for the implementation of a pilot program at Frank W. Cox High School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, that emphasizes ethics education and the value of writing as a means to promote critical thinking. The first…
Hallock, Sylvia M.; Downie, Susan L.
Constructivist pedagogies cannot achieve their critical thinking ambitions. Constructivism, and constructivist epistemological presuppositions, actively thwarts the critical thinking process. Using Wittgenstein's private language argument, this paper argues that corrective mechanisms--the ability to correct a student's propositions and cognitions…
Full Text Available This study investigated mathematics teachers’ interpretation of higher-order thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Thirty-two high school mathematics teachers from the southeast U.S. were asked to (a define lower- and higher-order thinking, (b identify which thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy represented lower- and higher-order thinking, and (c create an Algebra I final exam item representative of each thinking skill. Results indicate that mathematics teachers have difficulty interpreting the thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy and creating test items for higher-order thinking. Alternatives to using Bloom’s Taxonomy to help mathematics teachers assess for higher-order thinking are discussed.
Investigated the use of spatial relationships in the PROLOG programing language to help students express declarative thinking. Declarative thinking is a process of describing the environment that involves the recognition of relationships between entities. (BC)
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
Full Text Available In article, we have shown the main approaches to the typology of styles of thinking, an attempt of definition of the ontological status of paradoxical style of thinking and paradox has been made
Zilberman T. V.
The presented analysis of the design, as actual professional activity. Re¬view of the studies is given in the field of psychologies of the thinking, strategic thinking. Motivated need of designing vocational training in the field of design with standpoint of the development of the design thinking future designer. The cho-senned particularities of the manifestation of the strategic thinking beside designer in accordance with re-quirements of the state standard to master of the design
Valentina Chernyavskaya; Igor Polivanov; Antonina Sydorgina
Full Text Available The presented analysis of the design, as actual professional activity. Re¬view of the studies is given in the field of psychologies of the thinking, strategic thinking. Motivated need of designing vocational training in the field of design with standpoint of the development of the design thinking future designer. The cho-senned particularities of the manifestation of the strategic thinking beside designer in accordance with re-quirements of the state standard to master of the design
Early childhood professionals are likely to benefit from critical thinking skills as they explore problems facing children and evaluate policy issues related to those problems. To facilitate their critical thinking, students in child development classes were assigned two types of learning activities: general exploration of problems that involved critical thinking only implicitly and specific activities that guided students explicitly through steps of critical thinking in the context of explor...
Roggman, Lori A.; Austin, Ann Marie Berghout; Hart, Andrea D.
The nurturing of critical thinking skills is one of the cornerstones of Outcomes Based Education (OBE). This study investigated to what extent teachers provide opportunities for the development of critical thinking skills in Grade 8 in Mathematics classrooms. A literature study was undertaken to highlight the importance and nature of the development of critical thinking skills in the Mathematics classroom, and to establish how critical thinking could be nurtured during the teaching, learning ...
To examine the prevalence of criminal thinking in mentally disordered offenders, incarcerated male (n = 265) and female (n = 149) offenders completed measures of psychiatric functioning and criminal thinking. Results indicated 92% of the participants were diagnosed with a serious mental illness, and mentally disordered offenders produced criminal thinking scores on the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) and Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M) similar to that of...
Morgan, Robert D.; Fisher, William H.; Duan, Naihua; Mandracchia, Jon T.; Murray, Danielle
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One of the cornerstones of the Outcomes-based approach adopted by the South African education and training sector is the so-called Critical Outcomes. Included as one of these outcomes is the ability of learners to identify and solve problems, using creative and critical thinking. Underpinned by the [...] Critical Outcomes, Outcomes-based Education (OBE) was introduced in South African schools in 1997. It can therefore be argued that the critical thinking abilities of the cohort of first-year students who entered higher education institutions in 2006 were challenged somewhere in their school careers. Based on this assumption, a group of first-year education students were required to complete the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) to gauge their critical thinking abilities. The results obtained by this means are discussed and some suggestions made to address the way forward with regard to development of learners' critical thinking abilities.
Kobus, Lombard; Mary, Grosser.
Full Text Available The paper sets out why creativity has become so important to urban and regional economics. It focuses on the role of creativity, creative industries, creative economy, creative class and creative cities for the modern urban economics. It points out the idea that the power of the future economy lays within the development of the creative city. The aim of a creative city is to make us to think of our city as a living work of art, where citizens can involve and engage themselves in the creation of a transformed place. Every city can be more creative that it currently is and the task for the city wanting to be creative is to identify, nurture, harness, promote, attract, and sustain talent and to mobilize ideas, resources and organizations.
Full Text Available Critical thinking and creative thinking are proposed as determinants to cope with the constant change society, and basically children are experiencing nowadays. Moreover, tools for the development of critical and creative thinking are discussed, and the creative problem solving toolbox is presented, involving tools for generating options, as well as tools for focusing options. The importance of the tools as significant basis for the learning process, as well as for the management of changes in the creative problem solving solution, as well as its application from infancy to adulthood is discussed. Finally, recommendations about teaching and application of thinking tools are considered.
Donald J. Treffinger
Full Text Available Conventional teaching of English has followed a gradual and linear procedure of learning –from vocabulary to phrase to sentence to paragraph. We are familiar with classroom situations where the teacher starts with lecturing about the target language: Firstly, going through a list of vocabulary, then translating words; singling out phrases where a word may be used, then, reading a sentence where the words may be used; finally, walking students through paragraphs, slowly and carefully explaining the grammatical and contextual information in them. In the present Techo-Info Age, however, this approach to learning may prove irrelevant given the amount of information we see, read and hear in different parts of the world at varying contexts and at distinct phases of the development of the language. This paper reports a study on Technology-based pedagogy; it describes and defines the elements of Genre-based pedagogical framework, an ICT-supported set of procedures of teaching Business English at Higher Education which includes showcasing, highlighting, transferring, in order for students to notice, compare and integrate - cognitive skills that encompass both low and high order thinking. Adopting Fink’s (2003 instructional procedures and taking into account Schmidt’s (1990 Noticing Hypothesis; the framework identifies three aspects of consciousness within language learning: awareness, intention and knowledge thus, seeking to arrive at significant, deliberate learning. Guided by this principle, the last section of the paper proposes a proto-syllabus (Breen, 1989 which elaborates the components of a Business English course. Intermeshing knowledge and skills into teaching, the proto-syllabus contains the following: (1 authentic materials which include genre-specific resources (e.g., writing training course leaflet, writing press release, etc. and straightforwardly demonstrate the elements of commercial documents and the criteria for evaluating integrated works [projects]; and (2 a glossary of meta-cognitive skills which enables students to know the processes of completing creative tasks for a specific context. These elements predict to aid students to become independent learners and catalysts for continuous, equitable learning in their present learning community and beyond, specifically in their future workplace.
Yuvienco, Janette Custodio
Theoretical background of research in this paper is The Criminal Lifestyle Theory (Walters, 1998). Theory assumes that criminal behaviour is connected with eight related criminal thinking styles: mollification, cutoff, entitlement, power orientation, sentimentality, superoptimism, cognitive indolence and discontinuity.The formulation of these thinking styles was developed through clinical observations and the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was formulated as an ass...
Anita jandri? Niševi?
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of critical thinking instruction on music listening skills of fifth-grade students as measured by written responses to music listening. The researcher compared instruction that included opportunities for critical thinking (Critical Thinking Instruction, CTI) with parallel instruction without…
Johnson, Daniel C.
The California Critical Thinking Skills Test: College Level (CCTST) is a standardized test that targets core college-level critical thinking skills. It has been characterized as the best commercially available critical thinking skills assessment instrument. Building from CCTST validation studies in 1989 and 1990, this paper proposes avenues for…
Facione, Peter A.
Although critical thinking skills are important for all citizens participating in a democratic society, many community college students appear to lack these skills. This study addressed the apparent lack of research relating critical thinking instruction to campus climate. Critical thinking theory and Moos's organizational climate theory served as…
Simon, Thomas C.
A conceptualization of interprofessional work inspired by Hannah Arendt’s line of thinkingIn this article we investigate the relevance of Hannah Arendt’s line of thinking for “interprofessional work”, i.e. when people of different professions collaborate. Arendt is well known for the distinctions she makes between labour, work and action within the active domain and between thinking...
Jóhannes Miðskarð; Joop Berding
The current study aims to investigate the possibilities of developing reflective thinking among learners through distance education programs. The case of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan is examined to achieve this task. The study is based on Mezirow's theory of reflective thinking, which divides thinking in four…
Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar
Geography textbooks contain chapter or review questions that may engage students in spatial thinking. This research used Jo and Bednarz's (2009) "Taxonomy of Spatial Thinking" to evaluate the percentage of spatial thinking questions in four university-level world geography course textbooks. The results from this study were then…
Scholz, Michael A.; Huynh, Niem Tu; Brysch, Carmen P.; Scholz, Ruojing Wang
The concept of critical thinking was featured in taxonomies a few decades ago. Critical thinking is a complex process that requires higher levels of cognitive skills in the processing of information. The teachers' perceptions of critical thinking among students influence their behaviors in the classroom. It has been found that teachers perceive…
Choy, S. Chee; Cheah, Phaik Kin
Presents four-part empirical model for teaching and learning critical thinking. Model consists of dispositional or attitudinal component, instruction in and practice with critical-thinking skills, structure-training activities designed to facilitate transfer across contexts, and metacognitive component used to direct and assess thinking. Contains…
Halpern, Diane F.
In 1999 a critical thinking syllabus was issued by the education authority to all junior secondary school English language teachers in Hong Kong. Different from the earlier curriculum guidelines, the syllabus highlights the importance of thinking in English language teaching and learning, and developing students' critical thinking through the…
Item response theory (IRT) methods were applied to items from the 80-item Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; G. D. Walters, 1995) to determine how well they measure the latent trait of criminal thinking in a group of 2,872 male medium security prison inmates. Preliminary analyses revealed that the 64 PICTS thinking style…
Walters, Glenn D.; Hagman, Brett T.; Cohn, Amy M.
This study investigated the critical thinking dispositions and skills of senior nursing students. Study participants were students enrolled in associate (n = 137), baccalaureate (n = 102), and RN-to-BSN (n = 66) programs accredited by the Korean Ministry of Education. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) and California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) were used. A comparison of the CCTDI scores revealed a statistically significant difference between the students enrolled in different programs (F = 4.159, p = 0.017), as did a comparison of the CCTST scores (F = 24.205, p CCTST scores was significant (r = 0.305, p = 0.000). Developments in medical technology, the growing number of older adults and patients with chronic illnesses, and the demand for high-quality nursing care have led to various, increasingly complex, professional, legal, and educational issues within the nursing workplace. Therefore, nurses need creativity and critical thinking skills to make the decisions required of them in their nursing practice. In line with this, when conducting a survey of the effectiveness of nursing education, the necessity of critical thinking skills cannot be overlooked. In fact, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC) (1999) and American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) (1998) require the concept of critical thinking be included as one of the core elements of curricula and that it be measured as an outcome when evaluating nursing education. In 1998, during the evaluation of colleges of nursing conducted by the South Korean Council for University Education, several universities presented the fostering of critical thinking as one of the terminal learning goals of nursing education based on the idea that critical thinking is important not only in the nursing workplace, but also in nursing education. To evaluate the effectiveness of Korea's current nursing education curriculum, focus was placed on current students in South Korea's three systems of nursing education. Each curriculum's effectiveness can be evaluated by indexing critical thinking dispositions and skills. This article intends to offer insight into the first steps necessary in reorganizing nursing education by comparing these evaluations of each of the three systems. To this end, we conducted a comparative study of the critical thinking dispositions and skills of students in 3-year associate degree (ADN), 4-year baccalaureate (BSN), and 5-year RN-to-BSN programs. The RN-to-BSN program requires students to finish a separate 2-year program after the initial 3-year ADN program. PMID:16780012
Shin, Kyungrim; Jung, Duk Yoo; Shin, Sujin; Kim, Myoung Soo
Our understanding of the nature of student ideas informs our instructional and research agendas. In this paper, I characterize student ideas in terms of five observable properties (determinacy, coherence, context-dependence, variability, and malleability) and describe how those observable properties correspond to the âmisconceptionsâ and âpiecesâ models of student reasoning. I then analyze instructional materials and student thinking in a particular topic area (special relativity) in terms of each of those two models. I show that specific instructional strategies reflect specific theoretical orientations, and explore the extent to which observed student behavior corresponds to predictions made by the theoretical models. The analysis suggests that while both the misconceptions and pieces models are flexible enough to accommodate all of the data, some aspects of student thinking seem best described in terms of pieces, and others seem better characterized as misconceptions. The purpose of the analysis is to illustrate the effect of theoretical orientation on instruction, instructional research, and curriculum development.
Scherr, Rachel E.
Full Text Available This paper debates the new theories of philosophical and aesthetical discourse by applying them to Nietzsche’s thinking on art. The article consists of four general subjects, each of them focusing on an essential part of Nietzsche’s special relationship to art: 1 Art generated by the philosophical text itself, through the form of the fragment; 2 The artistic relationship as an interdisciplinary ground for philosophical knowledge of the world (especially as applied in Nietzsche’s and Schopenhauer’s work; 3 A critical debate on Wolfgang Welsch’s theory about the interdisciplinary aspects of the philosophical and aesthetic discourse; 4 The backgrounds of Nietzsche’s aesthetics project explained in Claus Zittel’s theory on Nietzsche’s “aesthetic turn.” Thus, Nietzsche’s thinking is defined as a relationist project, emphasizing the “self-destruction dy- namic” of his aesthetical perspectivism.
Following a curriculum revision, which emphasized critical thinking, a school of nursing selected the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) as a standardized outcomes measure for its bachelor's of science in nursing (BSN) program. Students in three tracks of the program were administered the CCTST on entry into the nursing curriculum and again on exit. Paired t tests for dependent samples were used to analyze pretest-posttest differences of all students (N = 136) in the program. Results for students in each of the three tracks demonstrated significantly improved (P CCTST scores on all subscales and total scores, with one exception. RN to BSN students' scores on the Analysis subscale approached but did not reach significance (P = .058). Implications for evaluation are discussed. PMID:12120108
Spelic, S S; Parsons, M; Hercinger, M; Andrews, A; Parks, J; Norris, J
Using the formalism provided by the Systems Thinking approach, the dynamics present when operating multidisciplinary teams are examined in the context of the NASA Langley Research and Technology Group, an R&D organization organized along functional lines. The paper focuses on external dynamics and examines how an organization creates and nurtures the teams and how it disseminates and retains the lessons and expertise created by the multidisciplinary activities. Key variables are selected and the causal relationships between the variables are identified. Five "stories" are told, each of which touches on a different aspect of the dynamics. The Systems Thinking Approach provides recommendations as to interventions that will facilitate the introduction of multidisciplinary teams and that therefore will increase the likelihood of performing successful multidisciplinary developments. These interventions can be carried out either by individual researchers, line management or program management.
Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Waszak, Martin R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Silcox, Richard J.; Silva, Walter A.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.
Historically, cognitive researchers have largely ignored the domain of sport in their quest to understand how the mind works. This neglect is due, in part, to the limitations of the information processing paradigm that dominated cognitive psychology in its formative years. With the emergence of the embodiment approach to cognition, however, sport has become a dynamic natural laboratory in which to investigate the relationship between thinking and skilled action. Therefore, the purpose of this...
Moran, Aidan P.
The Fukushima catastrophe is a turning point in the conception, role and management of technology in industrial societies. As did Hiroshima (on another dimension) after 1945, the Fukushima's nuclear accident questions and transforms established conceptions and values concerning the relations between technology, politics, industry, society and the environment. It has become impossible to think after Fukushima as we did before. This catastrophe initiates a major epistemic and conceptual shift w...
In this essay I will sketch some ideas for how to think about models in biology. I will begin by trying to dispel the myth that quantitative modeling is somehow foreign to biology. I will then point out the distinction between forward and reverse modeling and focus thereafter on the former. Instead of going into mathematical technicalities about different varieties of models, I will focus on their logical structure, in terms of assumptions and conclusions. A model is a logical machine for ded...
Inspired by the social psychology literature, we study the implications of categorical thinking on decision making in the context of a large normal form game. Every agent has a categorization (partition) of her opponents and can only observe the average behavior in each category. A strategy profile is a Conjectural Categorical Equilibrium (CCE) with respect to a given categorization profile if every player's strategy is a best response to some consistent conjecture about ...
Full Text Available The paper discusses Rorty’s critique and special relation to intercultural thinking. It looks into the history of both pragmatism and intercultural philosophy, discusses some of their possible points of convergence, and finally follows the implications of this encounter for our intercultural understanding of Rorty’s version of pragmatism, especially in the context of a contemporary North-South intercultural dialogue.
With advances in complex network theory, the thinking and methods regarding complex systems have changed revolutionarily. Network biology and network pharmacology were built by applying network-based approaches in biomedical research. The cardiovascular system may be regarded as a complex network, and cardiovascular diseases may be taken as the damage of structure and function of the cardiovascular network. Although Chinese medicine (CM) is effective in treating cardiovascular diseases, its m...
We consider how to differentiate instruction using a theory of thinking styles as a basis for differentiation. The article opens with a consideration of why styles are important. Then it considers some general characteristics of styles, presents the theory of mental self-government, considers issues of measurement, and presents data supporting the theory. Next, it discusses application of the theory in the classroom. Finally, it draws conclusions.
Zhang, Lf; Sternberg, Rj
This paper reports an action research project which examined the foreign language reading comprehension of public school eighth graders who experienced a directed reading-thinking approach with strategies for comprehension and application. The strategies used were prediction, prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and questions. Data analyzed included participants’ perceptions of the usefulness of the strategies and students’ work on the graphic organizers and reading worksheets. Findings s...
Echeverri Acosta Luz Marina; McNulty Ferri Maria
Students entering the new millennium will encounter challenges not known to their seniors a decade ago. They must come fully equipped with skills that enable them to think for themselves and be self-initiating, self-modifying and self-directing. They will require skills that cannot be gained by learning content alone. Needed skills go beyond processing capabilities in just fixing problems. Rather they must be visionary and anticipate future challenges and search more consciously for more crea...
Chang, Shook Cheong Agnes
We are engaged in a project named Mathematics and patterns in elementary schools: perspectives and classroom experiences of students and teachers. Our aim is to analyze the impact of an intervention centered on the study of patterns in the learning of mathematics concepts and on the development of communication and development of higher order thinking skills. In this paper we present part of an ongoing research with pre-service teachers concerning the development of teachers’ algebraic thin...
Vale, Isabel; Cabrita, Isabel
Criteria for the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools that allow educators to justifywhat they do are described within a wider framework of learning theory and research into bestpractice. Based on a meta-analysis of best practice, results from a three year project designedto evaluate the effectiveness of a secondary school literacy initiative in New Zealand, togetherwith recent research from cognitive and neuro-psychologists, it is argued that the design andselection of literac...
Customer’ demands, higher quality, faster and safer deliveries are some reasons for unexpected changes in the organizations. It has incremented complexity and cost. Lean production is known as a methodology to make improvements in manufacturing areas such as mentioned above and it is focused on the process of a product. But, Lean Thinking is a management strategy to make improvements in the process of a product or service and it is based on five principles. It allows having the process clos...
An aspect of rapid, unpredictable change is digital technology which engages increasing numbers of children and young people. Consumers and producers, participants in virtual spaces seamlessly integrated with their lives, young people engage through gaming, social networking and generating and manipulating content. They thus experiment and explore, engaging in possibility thinking in a marketized environment. This paper considers implications for educators of conceptualising young people...
In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profile (NBPP) and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The res...
Herbst, Tessie H.; Maree, Kobus G.
This page provides links to syllabi of courses taught by scholars from a variety of institutions across the country. They were assembled as illustrations of how spatial thinking, spatial analysis and GIS are taught in undergraduate programs. The subject disciplines include: Anthropology, Archaeology, Criminology, Demography, Economics, Environment, GIS, History, Human Geography, Political Science, Public Health, Sociology, Spatially Integrated Social Sciences, Urban Studies, and Urban Planning.
The majority of research in eating disorders (ED) has investigated the content of disorder-specific thoughts, while few studies have addressed underlying cognitive-affective processes. A better understanding of processes underpinning ED may have important implications for treatment development. Two studies were conducted that investigated levels of rumination, beliefs about rumination, experiential avoidance, and aspects of schematic thinking in individuals with eating pathology. The latter w...
Rawal, A.; Park, Rj; Williams, Jm
Graduate education in natural resource fields requires high level critical thinking in specialized areas of interest to the student. This challenge is typically embraced by graduate students who are excited to be learning in the areas of their choice. Most graduate programs in natural resources require students to take a course in statistics or data analysis and natural resources research relies heavily on these tools. But many students have limited experience with quantitative science and th...
Ganio, Lisa M.
Inspired by the human mind, the new field of contextual analytics is revolutionizing how data and technology can empower everyday business decisions. The information to make your business more profitable is likely available to you, but either dormant or disconnected from your decision making process. Explore how to think smarter about your data and discover how to deliver maximum value in The Billion Dollar Paperclip.
As a potent greenhouse gas and contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion, nitrous oxide (N2O) represents a global pollutant of growing concern. We use the N2O example to consider the potential for Green Economy thinking to promote sustainability through emission reduction. A fundamental barrier to change arises from the distinction between ‘Sector View’ (green actions consistent with improved profit) and ‘Societal View’ (incorporating the value of all externalities). Bringing these...
Sutton, Mark A.; Skiba, Ute M.; Grinsven, Hans J. M.; Oenema, Oene; Watson, Catherine J.; Williams, John; Hellums, Deborah T.; Maas, Rob; Gyldenkaerne, Steen; Pathak, Himanshu; Winiwarter, Wilfried
Full Text Available An incursion, even a succinct one, incomplete, in the universal history, in the world economic history and not in the least in the real world gives more and more credit to the idea according to which the movement is the main form of existence- working and evolution- of the society, economy, and of all the structures they are made of. Its "force motrice", its internal cause is represented, in our opinion, the unity and interaction of opposites. The changes, the transformations taking place in society and in its economy have direct or indirect authors the human beings who, using their minds, "leaven bread" and express at the beginning through thinking, the objectives that are going to complete or lessen reality. The positive changes and transformations that the people operate renew the world. For more than half of a century, the humankind has been in a vast and very complex process of transformation, changes with innovative character. In other words, a process of building a new world. Hence, the need to create a new thinking. "A new thinking for a new world" Making a halt in the field of economy -theory, science and practice - we are trying to bring to attention to those interested a few considerations concerning the truth value of some paradigms in the theoretical circuit, including their degree of rationality or irrationality.
Full Text Available Much like the regular physical exercise, having a regular writing workout is necessary for learners of English language. Dialogue journals provide the perfect means for this. Dialogue journal in an English classroom is an informal written conversation between the students and the teacher; in fact it can motivate a learner to write more in English. The language in a dialogue journal is closer to speech than to academic writing, so it promotes authentic, informal and lively conversation between the writers. As our learners need frequent opportunities to practice speaking English freely without fear of being corrected, in order to achieve oral fluency; similarly they need the chance to write freely without inhibition to promote fluency in writing. Often it is in the act of writing a response that actual learning takes place and this is how critical thinking develops. In fact, dialogue journal is the place where students explore their thinking before classroom discussion. It enables speaking and writing, referencing each other. The main objective of using dialogue journals in the English language classroom is to give students more time and opportunities for writing so that they can experience the pleasure of communication through the written word and at the same time become better writers and thinkers in English. With this background, the aim of this paper is to discuss the role of dialogue journals in developing the skills of writing and critical thinking of English language learners.
Full Text Available Improving students’ ability to recognize work-related problems and apply effective strategies and solutions to fundamental challenges in the field is at the crux of a good college preparation. This paper attempts to investigate if active-learning strategies improve students’ critical thinking ability in this regard. Participants were pre-service teachers in physical education and athletic training education taking a teaching methods service-learning course. Findings showed significant improvement with critical thinking measures across both quasi experimental conditions. As a result, gains were largely attributed to the service-learning field component common to both conditions. Furthermore, academic tracking showed students pursuing a B.A. in physical education benefitted significantly more from the active-learning assessment than students pursuing a B.S. in athletic training. The paper also discusses how the active-learning sequence was a preferred method of instruction and how these strategies were purposeful with problematizing teaching situations and engaging students with course content. This paper may draw interest from educators who are research-minded and eager to apply critical thinking approaches in a learning environment.
Larry P. Nelson
Full Text Available ResumenDefiniendo Asís Cabrero la arquitectura como un arte visual-utilitario, se remonta a los orígenes de la especie para explicar cuáles son elementos de la consciencia que intervienen en la obra del hombre. La táctica de supervivencia humana se basa en una técnica voluntaria, variable, personal e inventiva, en contraste con el instinto de los demás seres de la naturaleza. A este animal rapaz, cuyo pensamiento está determinado por su sentido de la vista, se le añade la inteligencia que proviene de la habilidad de la mano para fabricar herramientas. Este animal de órganos intercambiables es capaz de especializarse con cada una de las herramientas que construye para igualarse a cada uno de los animales especializados. Así, el hombre construye herramientas para hacer frente a una naturaleza variable y cambiante, ya sea un cuchillo, un hacha o un refugio.Siendo la arquitectura causa del sentir óptico, es principalmente el pensamiento útil de la mano el que interviene en la elaboración de la arquitectura. Para Cabrero, la materia se convierte en material a través de la herramienta, para ser aparejado, para poder construir. Son las herramientas las que evolucionan a lo largo de la historia, permaneciendo la materia siempre igual en la naturaleza. Asís Cabrero investiga cinco arquitecturas primitivas relacionadas con cinco materias primeras. Así, estudia la estructura cupular, el dintel, el entramado, la estructura laminar y la estructura desmontable en relación con el uso racional del barro, la piedra, la madera, el ramaje y la piel.La diversa disponibilidad material en la trayectoria profesional de Asís Cabrero, desde el aislamiento de la posguerra a la apertura de los años sesenta, hace que podamos establecer diferentes edades en la obra de Francisco de Asís Cabrero según el material y las herramientas que utiliza.Palabras claveFrancisco Cabrero, arquitectura, instrumentos, material, estructura, herramientasAbstractDefining architecture as visual-functional art, Asis Cabrero goes back to the origins of the human species to explain the elements of conscience involved in the work of humankind. Human survival is voluntary, variable, personal and inventive in sharp contrast with the instinct of nature's other species. Humans are intelligent beings whose thinking is determined by their sense of sight, by the ability of their hands to make tools, on top of their predatory nature. This human animal of exchangeable organs is able to specialize himself in the use of tools he makes to be on equal terms with specialized animals. So does man make tools to come face to face with a variable and changing nature, be it a knife, an ax or a shelter.Since Architecture is a product of what your eye sees, it is the functional use of your hand that comes into play in Architectural drawings. According to Cabrero, matter becomes material through tools, to be rigged, to be built. Tools which have evolved over the course of history as matter always remain unchanged in nature. Asís Cabrero has researched five primitive architectures related to five original matters. He has studied the dome structure, the lintel, the framework, the laminated structure and the removable structure in connection with the rational use of clay, stone, wood, branches and skin.The variety of available materials in the professional career of Asís Cabrero, from post-war isolation to the liberalization of the sixties, allow us to set five ages in the work of Francisco de Asís Cabrero according to the material and the tools he uses.Key wordsFrancisco Cabrero, architecture, instruments, material, structure, tools
Juan Manuel Sánchez de la Chica
Full Text Available The author recounts a week in October, describing her teaching, writing, thinking, mail, and other activities that relate to her professional and personal work on creativity. This personal creative nonfiction piece also contains poetry and references to her books and lectures. The author chose this form in order to emphasize the autobiographical nature of work in the area of creativity.
Learning and practicing scientific inquiry is an essential component of a STEM education, but it is often difficult to teach to novices or those outside of a laboratory setting. To promote scientific thinking in a freshmen introductory neuroscience course without a lab component, we developed a series of learning activities and assignments designed to foster scientific thinking through the use of scientific grant proposals. Students wrote three short grant proposals on topics ranging from molecular to cognitive neuroscience during a 10-week class (one quarter). We made this challenging and advanced task feasible for novice learners through extensive instructional scaffolding, opportunity for practice, and frequent peer and instructor feedback. Student and instructor reports indicate that the assignments were highly intellectually engaging and that they promoted critical thinking, a deeper understanding of neuroscience material, and effective written communication skills. Here we outline the mechanics of the assignment, student and instructor impressions of learning outcomes, and the advantages and disadvantages of implementing this approach. PMID:25565917
Köver, Hania; Wirt, Stacey E; Owens, Melinda T; Dosmann, Andrew J
Technological advancements such as artificial intelligence have encroached upon humanity’s ability to think creatively. We rely on technical gadgets to add simple calculations and to retain listing and directories leading to memory loss. At times, we often cannot recall simple d...
Renee Ann Pistone
Although recommendations differ, groups as diverse as the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future and the Fordham Foundation agree that the traditional system of teacher preparation is inadequate (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Finn, Kanstoroom, & Petrilli, 1999). Reviews of research on how teachers learn to teach reveal the importance of using preservice teachers' beliefs as the basis for building better pedagogic practices and providing opportunities for collaboration and systemic, consistent support (Wideen, Mayer-Smith, & Moon, 1998). The need for system-wide improvement is reflected in calls for aligning teacher education with K-12 reform, bringing coherence to components of teacher education programs, and coordinating teacher preparation and professional development (Goodlad, 1994; Lampert & Ball, 1999). In this design study, the paradigm of systems thinking was used to guide a group of 12 preservice teachers with different disciplinary expertise through the process of developing curriculum based on a contemporary controversy, as their culminating project in an interdisciplinary methods course. Data collected by questionnaires, classroom observations, and post-course interviews revealed different values and beliefs related to their personal goals and subject matter expertise, which were reflected in their pedagogic commitments and attitudes towards interdisciplinary teaching and collaboration. In general, they revealed a basic understanding of the nature of systems, but with some important knowledge gaps and alternative conceptions; a range in dynamic thinking skills similar to those of graduate students at MIT, and a mixture of naive and relatively sophisticated understandings about the nature of scientific models. Interviews with five preservice teachers revealed generally positive responses to systems thinking, based on their perceptions that it supports holistic thinking, making connections, and seeking multiple causes and effects in complex problems. Science-based controversies were positively perceived as increasing student motivation, promoting deeper thinking, connecting disciplinary learning with relevant problems, and supporting authentic collaboration with other subject matter teachers. The greater positive responses to controversies may have been influenced by two prior course experiences with controversies. Novices may benefit from multiple encounters with discipline-crossing paradigms and methods, and multiple opportunities for adapting them to disciplinary and interdisciplinary content areas.
Fruland, Ruth M.
The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine the critical thinking skills of nurse faculty and to examine the relationship between epistemological position and critical thinking. Most participants reported having no education on critical thinking. Data were collected using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the Learning Environment Preferences (LEP). Findings from the CCTST indicated that faculty varied considerably in their ability to think critically; LEP findings suggested that participants had not reached the intellectual level needed for critical thinking. In addition, 12 faculty participated in one-hour telephone interviews in which they described experiences in which students demonstrated critical thinking. Despite a lack of clarity on the definition of critical thinking, faculty described clinical examples where students engaged in analysis, inference, and evaluation. Based on these findings, it is recommended that faculty transfer their ability to engage students in critical thinking in the clinical setting to the classroom setting. Benchmarks can be established based on the ability of faculty to engage in critical thinking. PMID:17036684
Zygmont, Dolores M; Schaefer, Karen Moore
Ability to think critically is a key ingredient to the scientific mindset. Students who take science courses may or may not be predisposed to critical thinking - the ability to evaluate information analytically. Regardless of their initial stages, students can significantly improve their critical thinking through learning and practicing their reasoning skills, critical assessments, conducting and reflecting on observations and experiments, building their questioning and communication skills, and through the use of other techniques. While, there are several of teaching methods that may help to improve critical thinking, there are only a few assessment instruments that can help in evaluating the efficacy of these methods. Critical thinking skills and improvement in those skills are notoriously difficult to measure. Assessments that are based on multiple-choice questions demonstrate students’ final decisions but not their thinking processes. In addition, during the course of studies students may develop subject-based critical thinking while not being able to extend the skills to the general critical thinking. As such, we wanted to design and conduct a study on efficacy of several teaching methods in which we would learn how students’ improve their thinking processes within a science discipline as well as in everyday life situations. We conducted a study among 20 astronomy, physics and geology majors-- both graduate and undergraduate students-- enrolled in our Solar System Science course (mostly seniors and early graduate students) at the University of Missouri. We used the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay test to assess students’ general critical thinking and, in addition, we implemented our own subject-based critical thinking assessment. Here, we present the results of this study and share our experience on designing a subject-based critical thinking assessment instrument.
Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Whittington, A. G.
Abstract. A recurrent concern in mathematics education – both theory and practice – is a family of mathematical tasks which elicit from most people strong immediate ("intuitive") responses, which on further reflection turn out to clash with the normative analytical solution. We call such tasks cognitive challenges, because they challenge cognitive psychologists to postulate mechanisms of the mind which could account for these phenomena. For the educational community, these cognitive challenges raise a corresponding educational challenge: What can mathematics educators do in the face of such cognitive challenges? In our view, pointing out the clash is not enough; we'd like to help students build bridges between the intuitive and analytical ways of seeing the problem, thus hopefully creating a peaceful co-existence between these two modes of thought. In this article, we investigate this question in the context of probability, with special focus on one case study – the Medical Diagnosis Problem – which figures prominently in the cognitive psychology research literature and in the so-called rationality debate. Our case study involves a combination of theory, design and experiment: Using the extensive psychological research as a theoretical base, we design a new “bridging” task, which is on the one hand formally equivalent to the given “difficult” task, but on the other hand is much more accessible to students’ intuitions. Furthermore, this new task would serve as "stepping stone", enabling students to solve the original difficult task without any further explicit instruction. These design requirements are operationalized and put to empirical test. Keywords: cognitive challenge, dual process theory, intuitive thinking, analytical thinking, mathematical tasks, task design, statistical thinking, the medical diagnosis problem
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to study the relationship between each of the knowledge Management processes (knowledge creation, knowledge storage and maintenance, knowledge transfer and applying knowledge with dimensions of strategic thinkingi n the organization's (vision, creativity, systemic thinking. Participants were 110 managers and expert engaged in ministry of Economic affairs and Finance, chosen by random, who were asked to fill a modified standard questionary of KM and ST. Result showed that average KM and ST among managers and expert engaged in ministry of economic affairs and Finance is lower than average. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is a significant relationship between all KM and ST dimensions in ministry of economic affairs and Finance. Findings from the pilot study revealed that that knowledge transfer, applying knowledge and knowledge storage had the greatest impact on Strategic thinking while knowledge creation had the smallest impact. The results of this study provided the suggestions for improving the knowledge management process and enhance strategic thinking and increasing the level of staffs' strategic thinking and provided suggestions for future research.
Mohammad Reza Rabiee Mandejin
Portfolios have been used in the medical curriculum to evaluate difficult-to-assess areas such as students' attitudes, professionalism and teamwork. However, their use early in a problem-based learning (PBL) course to foster deep learning and enhance students' self-directed learning has not been adequately studied. The aims of this paper are to: (1) understand the uses of portfolios and the rationale for using reflection in the early years of a PBL curriculum; (2) discuss how to introduce portfolios and encourage students' critical thinking skills, not just reflection; and (3) provide students with tips that could enhance their skills in constructing good portfolios. PMID:18805751
Azer, Samy A
This highly acclaimed online book is intended to provide a thorough introduction to the Java programming language. Spanning sixteen chapters plus appendices, Thinking in Java should be sufficient for all but the most advanced or obscure topics. The book covers the basics of objects, coding style, error handling, the Java input/output system, creating graphical user interfaces, and much more. The full text can be downloaded as a compressed file with additional source code to be used as examples and experimented with. Other electronic books written by the same author are also available on this site and cover C++, Python, and more.
This paper presents the development of a tool for manufacturing companies to facilitate environmental thinking for the integration of environmental concerns into their business operations according to their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) while obtaining direct benefits for the business. By understanding the end-uses’ perception, drivers, limitations and wants towards green products and gaining a general understanding of the Product environmental impacts, the company can detect environmental improvement options that are feasible to achieve and which consumers are interested in buying, therefore obtaining results that are good for the business and good for the environment.
Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann
Science teachers are encouraged to emphasize higher-order thinking skills, but little is known about the use and relationships of teaching techniques related to these skills. This study reports on a recent survey in Minnesota designed to provide a picture of the instructional styles that are used by seventh and eighth grade science teachers. Further, the data were factor analyzed to identify underlying structure and the resulting factors were correlated to examine the relationships between the factors. Although relationships do exist, it appears that seventh and eighth grade science teachers are individualistic and diverse in their reported teaching technique preferences.
Science lessons can encourage students to view data with a scientists' skeptical eye--especially now that so much unrefereed information is online, in advertising, and in other media sources. In developing the skills of media literacy as part of science studies, students learn to dissect advertisements and other more subtle media messages to discern bias and hidden meanings. Therefore, The Key Media Literacy Questions (Thier and Davis 2002) and Media-analysis activities described in this article can help students develop a healthy skepticism of media and hone their critical-thinking skills.
The paper probes the background of the dire rhetoric of the Danish National Health Board’s 40 week anti-alcohol consumption campaign, in particular the model of communication implied by the campaign's strategy. Contrasting the campaign's strategy in 2011 with the results of evaluations of previous years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism.
Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard
Full Text Available In this paper, based on the analyzing of the selecting and distinguishing characteristics of cognitive thinking, the product design elements are analyzed with the theories of Kansei Engineering, and the corresponding mathematic model for the analysis is developed based on the quantification-I theory to quantitatively discuss the relationship between product form design elements and the psychological kansei image of the users. With foregoing investigation result, practicable program software has been developed as a solver tool to subsequent design. Finally, a practical application of testing machine is presented, and the results show that the method is reasonable and feasible as well.
Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones) improves quality, cost and delivery through the relentless elimination of wastes. For example, the exemplar of Lean, the Toyota Production system, focuses on improvement through the continual elimination of seven categorised wastes (Ohno). Time compression (Stalk and Hout) is a key weapon in attacking this waste. By compressing time, quality issues are revealed driving improvement and cost reduction. When the value stream is mapped (Hines and Rich), inventory is usually the largest target for time compression. As inventory is removed from process buffers, process time variability has a deleterious impact on throughput. Lean production fundamentals (housekeeping, standardisation & waste elimination) focuses on reducing this variability. In this paper we investigate a production scenario with high variability - a multi-class and re-entrant system (Dai). For this system this paper makes two contributions: 1. Simulates the relationship between buffer size and throughput performance. 2. Investigates the potential for improvement through Lean Thinking There is an intricate relationship between loss of throughput and allowed inventory buffer sizes along the production flow. In simple cases, as for instance in single product unidirectional flows, there will normally be a strong reciprocal trade-off, whenever buffers are squeezed towards zero, but in production systems where the workflow can be characterised as multi-class and re-entrant, there is much more complexity, requiring simulation to gain understanding. Process buffer capacity is strongly dependent on the capacity, variability, overall workflow and scheduling priority. This suggests that a systems view is necessary in order to understand the trade-offs between loss of throughput and lack/excess of buffer capacity in such systems. The findings are put into a long-term perspective based on Lean Thinking recommendations. Based on systems thinking (Towill and Naim), four generic sequential steps to Lean Supply and Distribution have been developed within the Lean Paradigm (Simons and Kiff) - Control, Time, Centralisation and Structure. Control focuses on removing variability from the information and physical flows through standardisation of processes. Empirical evidence from automotive after-sales demonstrated that simulation could identify the areas of variability with greatest leverage on cost and quality (Simons, Kiff and Cheiux). Hence, as well as understanding the trade-offs in the current scenario, this paper generically investigates the opportunities for re-balancing the throughput and buffer capacity of the system.
Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Simons, David
Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones) improves quality, cost and delivery through the relentless elimination of the wastes. For example, the exemplar of Lean, the Toyota Production system, focuses on improvement through the continual elimination of seven categorised wastes (Ohno). Time compression (Stalk and Hout) is a key weapon in attacking this waste. By compressing time, quality issues are revealed driving improvement and cost reduction. When the value stream is mapped (Hines and Rich), inventory is usually the largest target for time compression. As inventory is removed from process buffers, process time variability has a deleterious impact on throughput. Lean production fundamentals (housekeeping, standardisation & waste elimination) focuses on reducing this variability. In this paper we investigate a production scenario with high variability - a multi-class and re-entrant system (Dai). For this system this paper makes two contributions: - 1. Simulates the relationship between buffer size and throughput performance. 2. Investigates the potential for improvement through Lean Thinking There is an intricate relationship between loss of throughput and allowed inventory buffer sizes along the production flow. In simple cases, as for instance in single product unidirectional flows, there will normally be a strong reciprocal trade-off, whenever buffers are squeezed towards zero, but in production systems where the workflow can be characterised as multi-class and re-entrant, there is much more complexity, requiring simulation to gain understanding. Process buffer capacity is strongly dependent on the capacity, variability, overall workflow and scheduling priority. This suggests that a systems view is necessary in order to understand the trade-offs between loss of throughput and lack/excess of buffer capacity in such systems. The findings are put into a long-term perspective based on lean thinking recommendations. Based on systems thinking (Towill and Naim), four generic sequential steps to Lean Supply and Distribution have been developed within the Lean Paradigm (Simons and Kiff) - Control, Time, Centralisation and Structure. Control focuses on removing variability from the information and physical flows through standardisation of processes. Empirical evidence from automotive after-sales demonstrated that simulation could identify the areas of variability with greatest leverage on cost and