WorldWideScience

Sample records for thin-film solar cells

  1. Thin-film solar cell:

    OpenAIRE

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V. I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with the light-collecting surface. In this context, the relationships 45 < alpha < 135 degrees and 45 < beta < 135 degrees apply. The invention also relates to a panel provided with a plurality of such t...

  2. Thin film solar cells. The photovoltaic way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For introduction of photovoltaic energy systems today the crystalline Si solar cells are most widely used. For wide scale use of solar energy in the society the use of thin film solar cells will be dominant. However, the production costs and the efficiency of conversion must change considerably. The state of the art of thin film solar technology and the research performed in the Netherlands and at ECN on thin film solar technology is given. 7 figs., 2 refs

  3. Advances in thin-film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmadasa, I M

    2012-01-01

    This book concentrates on the latest developments in our understanding of solid-state device physics. The material presented is mainly experimental and based on CdTe thin-film solar cells. It extends these new findings to CIGS thin-film solar cells and presents a new device design based on graded bandgap multilayer solar cells. This design has been experimentally tested using the well-researched GaAs/AlGaAs system and initial devices have shown impressive device parameters. These devices are capable of absorbing all radiation (UV, visible, and infra-red) within the solar spectrum and combines

  4. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  5. Light management in thin-film silicon solar cells:

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella, O.

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy can fulfil mankinds energy needs and secure a more balanced distribution of primary sources of energy. Wafer-based and thin-film silicon solar cells dominate todays photovoltaic market because silicon is a non-toxic and abundant material and high conversion efficiencies are achieved with silicon-based solar cells. To stay competitive with bulk crystalline silicon and other thin-film solar cell technologies, thin-film silicon solar cells have to achieve a conversion efficiency ...

  6. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological status of a-Si, CuInSe2u, CdTe, f-Si and nc-TiO2 solar cells is evaluated according to a new method that was developed together with the NOVEM. Costs per Wp, producibility, environmental and health concerns, efficiency, life expectation, applicability, and resources are evaluated. Weighing of these criteria according to their assumed importance results in a ranking of the expectations towards these technologies. The result of this evaluation is that no real winners or losers can be identified at this stage. a-Si, f-Si, and nc-TiO2 have a somewhat better perspective than CuInSe2 and CdTe. It should be mentioned, however, that the environmental and health aspects were considered to be very important. 11 figs., 16 tabs., 301 refs., 1 appendix

  7. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the field of thin-film silicon solar cells with an active layer thickness of a few micrometers. These technologies can potentially lead to low cost through lower material costs than conventional modules, but do not suffer from some critical drawbacks of other thin-film technologies, such as limited supply of basic materials or toxicity of the components. Amorphous Si technology is the oldest and best established thin-film silicon technology. Amorphous silicon is deposited at low temperature with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  8. Metal nanoparticles for thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia

    Among the different renewable ways to produce energy, photovoltaic cells have a big potential and the research is now focusing on getting higher efficiency and at the same time saving the manufacturing costs improving the performance of thin film solar cells. The spectral distribution in the...... infrared wavelength region longer than 800 nm accounts for ∼40% of the entire solar energy observed on Earth, and only a few solar cells can efficiently convert solar energy with such a long wavelength. The goal of this work is the harvesting of these NIR photons in order to increase the solar cells...... efficiency in such spectral range; after an overview of the different technologies available today, the employment of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) through the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles within the photovoltaic device is chosen as a cheap and simple method. The LSP resonance wavelength and...

  9. Advanced characterization techniques for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Ras, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Kirchartz, Thomas [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rau, Uwe (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Written by scientists from leading institutes in Germany, USA and Spain who use these techniques as the core of their scientific work and who have a precise idea of what is relevant for photovoltaic devices, this book contains concise and comprehensive lecture-like chapters on specific research methods. They focus on emerging, specialized techniques that are new to the field of photovoltaics yet have a proven relevance. This book is structured as follows: Part I - Introduction: 1. Introduction to thin-film photovoltaics. Part II - Device characterization: 2. Fundamental electrical characterization of thin-film solar cells; 3. Electroluminescence analysis of thin-film solar modules; 4. Capacitance spectroscopy of thin-film solar cells. Part III - Materials characterization: 5. Characterizing the light trapping properties of textured surfaces with scanning near-field optical microscopy; 6. Ellipsometry; 7. Photoluminescence analysis of Si and chalcopyrite-type thin films for solar cells; 8. Steady state photocarrier grating method; 9. Time-of-flight analysis; 10. Electron Spin Resonance on Si thin films for solar cells; 11. Scanning probe microscopy on thin films for solar cells; 12. Electron microscopy on thin films for solar cells; 13. X-ray and neutron diffraction of materials for thin film solar cells; 14. Raman Spectroscopy on thin films for solar cells; 15. Soft x-ray and electron spectroscopy: a unique ''tool chest'' to characterize the chemical and electronic properties of surfaces and interfaces; 16. Elemental distribution profiling of thin films for solar cells; 17. Hydrogen effusion experiments. Part IV - Materials and device modelling: 18. Ab-initio modelling of semiconductors; 19. One-dimensional electro-optical simulations of thin film solar cells; 20. Two-dimensional electrical simulations of thin film solar cells.

  10. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells (PTFC) based on the historical development would contain the first observations by Becquerel in 1839, the research by Grondhal and Geiger on Cu20 almost one hundred years later and finally the modern story dating from 1954. In that year a single crystal Si cell and a polycrystalline cell, later recognized as a CdS/Cu2S heterojunction, both of 6% efficiency were reported. In this paper the first topic is a description of a generic solar cell; what are those materials and device features which are common to all photovoltaic systems? The special features of thin-film solar cells based on polycrystalline compound semiconductors are examined. The two materials under most active development are the II-VI compound CdTe and the I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite compound, CuInSe2, and in detail their development and prospects for the future are examined. There are some other materials which also form the basis of potential solar cells and these will be briefly reviewed. Finally, the prospects for tandem or multi-junction cells that incorporate polycrystalline semiconductors are discussed. 40 refs, 21 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Thin-film solar cells. Past, present ... and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article traces the history of thin-film solar cells from the early 1950s, to the use of photovoltaic (PV) power supplies in space missions, and finally to the present where PV is now considered as a real option for terrestrial power production and rural electrification. The development of solar cell efficiencies is described, and the development of thin-film efficiencies is compared with that of crystalline silicon wafer-based cells. The market share of thin-film solar modules, and the impact of amorphous modules on the power market are considered. Details are given of early thin-film solar cells, four decades of cadmium-telluride solar cells (1962-2001), modern materials for thin-film solar cells, cells based on amorphous silicon, thin-layer and thin-film approaches based on crystalline silicon, the use of cadmium telluride, cells based on copper-indium-selenide (CIS) and related compounds, and the dye-sensitised cell. Theoretical and technological aspects of thin-film PV are examined, and the transfer of laboratory-scale production to industrial production is explored

  12. Grown Low-Temperature Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film by VHF PECVD for Thin Films Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Shanglong Peng; Desheng Wang; Fuhua Yang; Zhanguo Wang; Fei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon thin films can be used to fabricate stable thin film solar cell, which were deposited by very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low temperatures (~200C). It has been found that the obtained film presented excellent structural and electrical properties, such as high growth rate and good crystallinity. With the decreasing of silane concentration, the optical gap and the dark conductivity increased, whereas the activation energy de...

  13. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  14. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  15. Single Source Precursors for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan; Buhro, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power, (W/kg). The use of a polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer for thin film solar cells is considered as the next generation photovoltaic devices. At NASA GRC we have focused on the development of new single source precursors (SSP) and their utility to deposit the chalcopyrite semi-conducting layer (CIS) onto flexible substrates for solar cell fabrication. The syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering is described. Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate the SSPs can be used in a spray CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process, for depositing CIS at reduced temperatures, which display good electrical properties, suitable for PV (photovoltaic) devices.

  16. Metal nanoparticles for thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Among the different renewable ways to produce energy, photovoltaic cells have a big potential and the research is now focusing on getting higher efficiency and at the same time saving the manufacturing costs improving the performance of thin film solar cells. The spectral distribution in the infrared wavelength region longer than 800 nm accounts for ?40% of the entire solar energy observed on Earth, and only a few solar cells can efficiently convert solar energy with such a long wavelength. The goal of this work is the harvesting of these NIR photons in order to increase the solar cells efficiency in such spectral range; after an overview of the different technologies available today, the employment of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) through the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles within the photovoltaic device is chosen as a cheap and simple method. The LSP resonance wavelength and intensity depends on the nanoparticles size, shape, and local dielectric environment, thus absorption enhancement in a defined wavelength range can be achieved varying these properties (tuning the LSP resonance). Even though scattering enhancement of photons above the gap of the semiconductor is useful to increase light trapping and can come along regardless, we aim, as first target, to absorb forbidden (for the semiconductor) photons by the NPs which can excite hot electrons inside the metal NP and emit them directly into the conduction band of the solar cell semiconductor, without going through the promotion of electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor. The photoemission would extend the spectral response of the photovoltaic device. Thus, NPs are placed at the metal/semiconductor interface (in order to exploit the localization characteristic of the LSP enhancement) and are used as active nanoantennas absorbing photons with energy smaller than the semiconductor gap but larger than the Schottky barrier height between metal and semiconductor. The optimization of the fabrication process of GaAs and a-Si:H Schottky solar cells is first conducted and subsequently, the incorporation of Au or Ag nanoparticles at the interface between the semiconductor and a transparent conductive oxide layer (TCO), used to complete the Schottky junction and as top electrode, has followed. A model representing the device structure with GaAs, ITO and incorporated Au disks or Ag ellipsoids in between, is developed and used for FTDT simulations, in order to identify the set of parameters (NPs size and array periodicity) which could show LSP resonance in the NIR range. Two techniques are here used to fabricate NPs: electron beam lithography (EBL), to deposit ordered arrays of gold and silver NPs, simple to be compared with modelling; and electroless plating, to grow silver nanocrystals with a cheap technology, producing random distribution of particles. These techniques are studied and optimized aiming to obtain NPs patterns of different size, periodicity and density on the substrates required for the incorporation within the solar cell structure (GaAs, SiO2, Si3N4, AZO/Cr), in order to investigate the LSP resonance and tune it to exploit it below the energy band gap of the semiconductor. EBL is a difficult technique when working by lift-off on critical size (20-50 nm) nanoparticles. The optimization of the process saw a change from ZEP resist to double layer of PMMA and always requires preliminary exposure dose-tests and final particular attention for lift-off step. EBL resulted to be more suitable for silver NPs, since the deposition of gold (on top of an adhesion thin titanium layer) leads to a variation and non-regularity in the shape of the NPs: truncated cones with varying bottom and top radius. The difference in shape causes broadening of the resonance peak (as dimostrated by simulations). Electroless plating is a technique, based on chemical reactions, which makes use, in the process chosen for this work, of AgNO3 powder, diluted in water, and HF at very low concentrations. This kind of deposition is very cheap but precise optimization of r

  17. Thin Film Solar Cells: Research in an Industrial Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edoff, Marika (Div. of Solid State Electronics, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: marika.edoff@angstrom.uu.se

    2012-03-15

    Electricity generation by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight is a technology in strong growth. The thin film technology is taking market share from the dominant silicon wafer technology. In this article, the market for photovoltaics is reviewed, the concept of photovoltaic solar energy conversion is discussed and more details are given about the present technological limitations of thin film solar cell technology. Special emphasis is given for solar cells which employ Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} as the sunlight-absorbing layer

  18. Thin film solar cells: research in an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoff, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Electricity generation by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight is a technology in strong growth. The thin film technology is taking market share from the dominant silicon wafer technology. In this article, the market for photovoltaics is reviewed, the concept of photovoltaic solar energy conversion is discussed and more details are given about the present technological limitations of thin film solar cell technology. Special emphasis is given for solar cells which employ Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) and Cu(2)ZnSn(S,Se)(4) as the sunlight-absorbing layer. PMID:22434436

  19. Mode Splitting for Efficient Plasmoinc Thin-film Solar Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tong; Jiang, Chun

    2010-01-01

    We propose an efficient plasmonic structure consisting of metal strips and thin-film silicon for solar energy absorption. We numerically demonstrate the absorption enhancement in symmetrical structure based on the mode coupling between the localized plasmonic mode in Ag strip pair and the excited waveguide mode in silicon slab. Then we explore the method of symmetry-breaking to excite the dark modes that can further enhance the absorption ability. We compare our structure with bare thin-film Si solar cell, and results show that the integrated quantum efficiency is improved by nearly 90% in such thin geometry. It is a promising way for the solar cell.

  20. Light trapping in thin film organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Tang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A major issue in organic solar cells is the poor mobility and recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers. The active layer has to be kept thin to facilitate charge transport and minimize recombination losses. However, optical losses due to inefficient light absorption in the thin active layers can be considerable in organic solar cells. Therefore, light trapping schemes are critically important for efficient organic solar cells. Traditional light trapping schemes for thick solar cells need to be modified for organic thin film solar cells in which coherent optics and wave effects play a significant role. In this review, we discuss the light trapping schemes for organic thin film solar cells, which includes geometric engineering of the structure of the solar cell at the micro and nanoscale, plasmonic structures, and more.

  1. Development of A Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design for a single junction, thin film Si solar cell is presented. The cell design is compatible with low-temperature processing required for the use of a low-cost glass substrate, and includes effective light trapping and impurity gettering. Elements of essential process steps are discussed

  2. Thin Film Solar Cells and their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Jurecka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the optical parameters of the semiconductor thin film for solar cell applications determination. The method is based on the dynamical modeling of the spectral reflectance function combined with the stochastic optimization of the initial reflectance model estimation. The spectral dependency of the thin film optical parameters computations is based on the optical transitions modeling. The combination of the dynamical modeling and the stochastic optimization of the initial theoretical model estimation enable comfortable analysis of the spectral dependencies of the optical parameters and incorporation of the microstructure effects on the solar cell properties. The results of the optical parameters ofthe i-a-Si thin film determination are presented.

  3. Testing and failure analysis of thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boit, Christian [University of Technology, Berlin (Germany); PVcomB Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics, Berlin (Germany); Boostandoost, Mahyar; Glowacki, Arkadiusz [University of Technology, Berlin (Germany); Friedrich, Felice [PVcomB Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics, Berlin (Germany); University of Technology, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Elements of a systematic concept for test, characterization and analysis of thin film solar cells is discussed that is based on application and comparison of respective techniques in the world of micro- and nanoelectronic technologies, Starting with test and reliability issues, in depth electrical characterization like activation energy analysis from reverse dark currents, is presented. Analysis techniques that belong to the concept require electrically active devices and include all aspects of luminescence and stimulation. A key topic in electronic devices, Focused Ion Beam based Device or Circuit Edit, is also evaluated for application in thin film photovoltaics. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Brendel, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to the physics of silicon solar cells focuses on thin cells, while reviewing and discussing the current status of the important technology. An analysis of the spectral quantum efficiency of thin solar cells is given as well as a full set of analytical models. This is the first comprehensive treatment of light trapping techniques for the enhancement of the optical absorption in thin silicon films.

  5. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

  6. Thin-film silicon solar cell technology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, A. V.; Schade, H.; Van??ek, Milan; Meier, J.; Vallat-Sauvain, E.; Wyrsch, N.; Kroll, U.; Droz, C.; Bailat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 12, - (2004), s. 113-142. ISSN 1062-7995 R&D Projects: GA MP SN/320/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thin-film silicon modules * hydrogenerated amorphous silicon(a-Si:H) * hydrogenerated microcrystalline (?c-Si:H) * transparent conductive oxydes(TCOs) * building-integrated photovoltaics( BIPV ) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2004

  7. Buried contact multijunction thin film silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    1995-08-01

    In early 1994, the Center for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems announced the filing of patent applications on an improved silicon thin film photovoltaic module approach. With material costs estimated to be about 20 times lower than those in present silicon solar cell modules along with other production advantages, this technology appears likely to make low cost, high performance solar modules available for the first time. This paper describes steps involved in making a module and module performance.

  8. CZTSSe thin film solar cells: Surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Chinmay Sunil

    Chalcopyrite semiconducting materials, specifically CZTS, are a promising alternative to traditional silicon solar cell technology. Because of the high absorption coefficient; films of the order of 1 micrometer thickness are sufficient for the fabrication of solar cells. Liquid based synthesis methods are advantageous because they are easily scalable using the roll to roll manufacturing techniques. Various treatments are explored in this study to enhance the performance of the selenized CZTS film based solar cells. Thiourea can be used as a sulfur source and can be used to tune band gap of CZTSSe. Bromine etching can be used to manipulate the thickness of sintered CZTSSe film. The etching treatment creates recombination centers which lead to poor device performance. Various after treatments were used to improve the performance of the devices. It was observed that the performance of the solar cell devices could not be improved by any of the after treatment steps. Other surface treatment processes are explored including KCN etching and gaseous H2S treatments. Hybrid solar cells which included use of CIGS nanoparticles at the interface between CZTSSe and CdS are also explored.

  9. Polymer Substrates For Lightweight, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    Substrates survive high deposition temperatures. High-temperature-resistant polymers candidate materials for use as substrates of lightweight, flexible, radiation-resistant solar photovoltaic cells. According to proposal, thin films of copper indium diselenide or cadmium telluride deposited on substrates to serve as active semiconductor layers of cells, parts of photovoltaic power arrays having exceptionally high power-to-weight ratios. Flexibility of cells exploited to make arrays rolled up for storage.

  10. Crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on ceramic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Atteq Ur; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soo Hong

    2015-03-01

    We provide a review and analysis of research on crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells (CSiTFSCs) on ceramic substrates. The use of foreign substrates (non-silicon materials) for the processing of crystalline silicon solar cells could potentially decrease solar-grade silicon consumption and significantly reduce module costs. In order to enhance the efficiency potential of CSiTFSCs on ceramic substrates, high-temperature silicon film deposition is favored. High-quality electronic-grade silicon films are intended to be deposited at higher temperature as it can help increase both deposition rates and grain sizes. The potential low-cost ceramic substrates have some major restrictions in terms of cell processing technology at high temperatures. In this paper, an overview of the research on thin-film solar-cell technologies on ceramic substrates is presented. Major processing steps for CSiTFSC such as substrate/intermediate layer requirements and silicon thin-film deposition at high temperatures will be discussed. So far, devices have been demonstrated with efficiencies up to 13.4% on graphite, 8.2% on mullite, and 9.4% on silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic substrates. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Microcrystalline organic thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreet, Bregt; Heremans, Paul; Stesmans, Andre; Rand, Barry P

    2013-10-11

    Microcrystalline organic films with tunable thickness are produced directly on an indium-tin-oxide substrate, by crystallizing a thin amorphous rubrene film followed by its use as a template for subsequent homoepitaxial growth. These films, with exciton diffusion lengths exceeding 200 nm, produce solar cells with increasing photocurrents at thicknesses up to 400 nm with a fill factor >65%, demonstrating significant potential for microcrystalline organic electronic devices. PMID:23939936

  12. Thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A. K.; Feng, T.; Eustace, D. J.; Maruska, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    During the present quarter efficiency of heterostructure solar cells has been increased from 13 to 13.7% for single crystal and from 10.3 to 11.2% for polysilicon. For polysilicon the improvements can be attributed to reductions in grid-area coverage and in reflection losses and for single crystal to a combination of reduction in grid-area coverage and increase in fill factor. The heterostructure cells in both cases were IT0/n-Si solar cells. Degradation in Sn0/sub 2//n-Si solar cells can be greatly reduced to negligible proportions by proper encapsulation. The cells used in stability tests have an average initial efficiency of 11% which reduces to a value of about 10.5% after 6 months of exposure to sunlight and ambient conditions. This small degradation occurs within the first month, and the efficiency remains constant subsequently. The reduction in efficiency is due to a decrease in the open-circuit voltage only, while the short-circuit current and fill factor remain constant. The effects of grain-size on the Hall measurements in polysilicon have been analyzed and interpreted, with some modifications, using a model proposed by Bube. This modified model predicts that the measured effective Hall voltage is composed of components originating from the bulk and space-charge region. For materials with large grains, the carrier concentration is independent of the inter-grain boundary barrier, whereas the mobility is dependent on it. However, for small rains, both the carrier density and mobility depend on the barrier. These predictions are consistant with experimental results of mm-size Wacker polysilicon and ..mu..m-size NTD polysilicon.

  13. Light-Induced Degradation of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelmann, F. U.; Weicht, J. A.; Behrens, G.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon-wafer based solar cells are still domination the market for photovoltaic energy conversion. However, most of the silicon is used only for mechanical stability, while only a small percentage of the material is needed for the light absorption. Thin film silicon technology reduces the material demand to just some hundred nanometer thickness. But even in a tandem stack (amorphous and microcrystalline silicon) the efficiencies are lower, and light-induced degradation is an important issue. The established standard tests for characterisation are not precise enough to predict the performance of thin film silicon solar cells under real conditions, since many factors do have an influence on the degradation. We will show some results of laboratory and outdoor measurements that we are going to use as a base for advanced modelling and simulation methods.

  14. Thin-Film Technology in Intermediate Band Solar Cells: Advanced Concepts for Chalcopyrite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrn, David Fuertes

    Combining the two key factors of high performance and low cost into a single solar cell is the major challenge of research on photovoltaics. It is not easy to conceive a practical approach to such a device if not based on thin-film technology. Yet, it appears equally clear that current thin-film solar cells must upgrade their performance by some means in order to meet satisfactory energy conversion efficiencies. The incorporation of novel photovoltaic concepts, particularly the intermediate band solar cell, into thin-film technologies is expected to cross-fertilize both fields. In this chapter, we will outline the potential benefits ofthin-film intermediate band solar cells (TF-IBSC) and describe two different approaches toward its practical implementation. Particular attention will be devoted to devices based on chalcopyrite absorbers, currently leading the efficiency records of thin-film solar cells, and characterized by material properties well suited for this purpose.

  15. Polycrystalline silicon on glass for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Martin A.

    2009-07-01

    Although most solar cell modules to date have been based on crystalline or polycrystalline wafers, these may be too material intensive and hence always too expensive to reach the very low costs required for large-scale impact of photovoltaics on the energy scene. Polycrystalline silicon on glass (CSG) solar cell technology was developed to address this difficulty as well as perceived fundamental difficulties with other thin-film technologies. The aim was to combine the advantages of standard silicon wafer-based technology, namely ruggedness, durability, good electronic properties and environmental soundness with the advantages of thin-films, specifically low material use, large monolithic construction and a desirable glass superstrate configuration. The challenge has been to match the different preferred processing temperatures of silicon and glass and to obtain strong solar absorption in notoriously weakly-absorbing silicon of only 1-2 micron thickness. A rugged, durable silicon thin-film technology has been developed with amongst the lowest manufacturing cost of these contenders and confirmed efficiency for small pilot line modules already in the 10-11% energy conversion efficiency range, on the path to 12-13%.

  16. Method for producing thin-film multilayer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rampino, Stefano; Gilioli, Edmondo; Bissoli, Francesco; Pattini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Description: A method for manufacturing high-quality thin film solar cells entirely by the Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) is presented. The solar cell is a multi-layer architecture composed with an absorber layer with a chalcopyrite structure and the general composition Cu (In, Ga, Al) (Se, S)2 or CIGASS, deposited on a metallic substrate, that is the lower electrical contact or "back contact", by one or more buffer layer(s) and a layer acting as an electrical contact or the higher "top con...

  17. CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikegami, S.; Nakayama, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Uda, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Yoshida, M.; Yamashita, T.

    1978-04-01

    The fabriation methods for low cost and highly efficient CdS/CdTe solar cells were investigated. A cell, prepared by epitaxial growth of CdS on a p-type CdTe single crystal, exhibited a solar conversion efficiency of 11.7% for the active area (0.51 cm/sup 2/) when illuminated by sunlight (68mW/cm/sup 2/). On the basis of this result, two types of thin-film solar cells were fabricated. One was CdS (made by chemical bath deposition)/CdTe (made by evaporation), and the other was CdS/CdTe (both made by sintering after printing). Efficiencies of more than 8% were attained in both thin-film solar cells (with active areas of approx. 1cm/sup 2/). These results suggest that practically useful solar cells can be manufactured from CdS/CdTe junction, though further investigations are necessary to obtain large-area cells.

  18. Thin film solar cells from earth abundant materials growth and characterization of Cu2(ZnSn)(SSe)4 thin films and their solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further developm

  19. Electrical, morphological and structural properties of RF magnetron sputtered Mo thin films for application in thin film photovoltaic solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zoppi, Guillaume; Beattie, Neil; Major, Jonathan; Miles, Robert; Forbes, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited using radio frequency magnetron sputtering, for application as a metal back contact material in substrate configuration thin film solar cells. The variations of the electrical, morphological, and structural properties of the deposited films with sputtering pressure, sputtering power and post-deposition annealing were determined. The electrical conductivity of the Mo films was found to increase with decreasing sputtering pressure and increasing spu...

  20. New 3-dimensional nanostructured thin film silicon solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van??ek, Milan; Neykova, Neda; Babchenko, Oleg; Purkrt, Adam; Poruba, Ale; Reme, Zden?k; Holovsk, Jakub; Hruka, Karel; Meier, J.; Kroll, U.

    Mnchen : WIP-Renewable energies, 2010, s. 2763-2766. ISBN 3-936338-26-4. [European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference /25./ and World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion /5./. Valencia (ES), 06.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) 7E09057 Grant ostatn: EU FP7 N2P(XE) CP-IP 214134-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thin film solar cells, * TCO transparent conductive oxides * a-Si * high stable efficiency, * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Process for fabricating thin film photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a method of fabricating thin film photovoltaic solar cells made by sequentially forming a first contact layer on a substrate, a first semiconductor layer, and a second semiconductor layer, and a second contact layer. At least one of the contact layers is transparent and at least one of the semiconductor layers comprises a tellurium containing II-VI compound the improvement being the steps of heat treating the cell after the second contact layer has been formed, and then rapidly cooling the cell at a temperature reduction rate of at least 100C per second

  2. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  3. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive especially for space applications. Thin film photovoltaics have the potential to alleviate these problems and create a cheap and efficient way to harness the power of the sun.

  4. Plasmonic versus dielectric enhancement in thin-film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhring, Maria Bayard; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that broadband absorption of thin-film solar cells can be enhanced by use of surface-plasmon induced resonances of metallic parts like strips or particles. The metallic parts may create localized modes or scatter incoming light to increase absorption in thin...... its metallic counterpart. We show that the enhanced normalized short-circuit current for a cell with silicon strips can be increased 4 times compared to the best performance for strips of silver, gold, or aluminium. For this particular case, the simple dielectric grating may outperform its plasmonic...

  5. Development of CIGS2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development of CuIn1-xGa xSe2-yS y (CIGSS) thin-film solar cells on ultralightweight flexible metallic foil substrates is being carried out at FSEC PV Materials Lab for space applications. Earlier, the substrate size was limited to 3 cm x 2.5 cm. Large-area sputtering systems and scrubber for hydrogen selenide and sulfide have been designed and constructed for preparation of CIGSS thin-films on large (15 cm x 10 cm) substrates. A selenization/sulfurization furnace donated by Shell (formerly Siemens) Solar has also been refurbished and upgraded. The sputtering target assembly design was modified for proper clamping of targets and effective cooling. A new design of the magnetic assembly for large-area magnetron sputtering sources was implemented so as to achieve uniform deposition on large area. Lightweight stainless steel foil and ultralightweight titanium foil substrates were utilized to increase the specific power of solar cells. Sol-gel derived SiO2 layers were coated on titanium foil by dip coating method. Deposition parameters for the preparation of molybdenum back contact layers were optimized so as to minimize the residual stress as well as reaction with H2S. Presently large (15 cm x 10 cm) CuIn1-xGa xS2 (CIGS2) thin film solar cells are being prepared on Mo-coated titanium and stainless steel foil by sulfurization of CuGa/In metallic precursors in diluted Ar:H2S(4%). Heterojunction partner CdS layers are deposited by chemical bath deposition. The regeneration sequence of ZnO/ZnO:Al targets was optimized for obtaining consistently good-quality, transparent and conducting ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer by RF magnetron-sputter deposition. Excellent facilities at FSEC PV Materials Lab are one of its kinds and could serve as a nucleus of a small pilot plant for CIGSS thin film solar cell fabrication

  6. Thin-film intermediate band chalcopyrite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalcopyrite-based solar cells currently lead the efficiency tables of thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Further improvements are foreseen upon implementation of an intermediate band in the absorber layers. We present a theoretical analysis of the efficiency limit for this type of device as a function of factors such as the gap of the host, the relative position of the intermediate band with respect to the band edge and the level of light concentration used as illumination. We have also considered the impact of non-idealities on the performance of the device, particularly the effect of electronic losses related to non-radiative recombination

  7. 2D modelling of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leendertz Caspar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of grain boundary (GB properties on device parameters of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si thin film solar cells is investigated by two-dimensional device simulation. A realistic poly-Si thin film model cell composed of antireflection layer, (n+-type emitter, thick p-type absorber, and (p+-type back surface field was created. The absorber consists of a low-defect crystalline Si grain with an adjacent highly defective grain boundary layer. The performances of a reference cell without GB, one with n-type and one with p-type GB, respectively, are compared. The doping concentration and defect density at the GB are varied. It is shown that the impact of the grain boundary on the poly-Si cell is twofold: a local potential barrier is created at the GB, and a part of the photogenerated current flows within the GB. Regarding the cell performance, a highly doped n-type GB is less critical in terms of the cells short circuit current than a highly doped p-type GB, but more detrimental in terms of the cells open circuit voltage and fill factor.

  8. Enhanced quantum efficiency of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with the inclusion of a rear-reflector thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the growth mechanism of amorphous silicon thin films by implementing hot-wire chemical vapor deposition and fabricated thin film solar cell devices. The fabricated cells showed efficiencies of 7.5 and 8.6% for the samples without and with the rear-reflector decomposed by sputtering, respectively. The rear-reflector enhances the quantum efficiency in the infrared spectral region from 550 to 750?nm. The more stable quantum efficiency of the sample with the inclusion of a rear-reflector than the sample without the rear-reflector due to the bias effect is related to the enhancement of the short circuit current

  9. Optimization of photonics for corrugated thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Agustsson, Otto; Decroupet, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    The amount of solar energy reaching the active (photovoltaic) layer in a thin-film solar cell can be increased by reducing the Fresnel reflection losses at the interfaces. By using corrugated interfaces (at the wavelength scale), adiabatic propagation of the electromagnetic radiation is achieved over a broad wavelength range throughout the structure, which leads to an increase in the light that is absorbed in the active layer and, ultimately, to the improvement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In this article, we have considered the case of corrugated thin-film solar cell structures and we have studied theoretically the optimization of such structures from the point of view of photonics. The focus was put on periodic pyramidal interface corrugations because they were similar to those existing at the surface of corrugated transparent electrodes on which active layers can be deposited. Because of their technological importance, we chose to work with fluorine-doped tin oxide as front electrode material and with amorphous silicon as active material. Using an original three dimensional transfer matrix method, we solved the electromagnetic wave propagation problem in the general case of laterally periodic stratified media and we compared this solution with effective medium approximated solution. On the basis of typical pyramid sizes, we demonstrated, through numerical simulations, the optimization of the global light energy intake by means of corrugations of increasing complexity. The best structures were found to be based on pyramid arrays having subwavelength periods and aspect ratio values close to one. Typically, a pyramidal structure with base and height both equal to 300 nm led to a global energy intake equal to I =0.98 (integrated over the spectral range 400-710 nm), which represented a 24% improvement in comparison with the global energy intake of a planar structure (I =0.79).

  10. Large-Area Thin-Film Silicon: Synergy between Displays and Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2012-03-01

    Thin-film silicon technology has changed our society, owing to the rapid advance of its two major application fields in communication (thin-film displays) and sustainable energy (thin-film solar cells). Throughout its development, advances in these application fields have always benefitted each other. In the 1980s, display technology benefitted from the know-how on plasma deposition and equipment intended for solar cells. In the 2000s, thin-film solar technology benefitted from the scaled-up versions of plasma deposition equipment, and presently Gen5 or Gen5.5 is the most commonly used size for thin-film solar modules. Scaling has always been the major cost driver for displays. For solar cells, the cost per installed watt is another important factor, and therefore primary attention for sustained growth in photovoltaics should be given to cell efficiency.

  11. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules

    KAUST Repository

    Rowell, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power conversion efficiency. Reflection, absorption, resistive losses and lost active area either from the scribed interconnect region in monolithically integrated modules or from the shadow losses of a metal grid in standard modules typically reduce the efficiency by 10-25%. Here, we perform calculations to show that a competitive TC must have a transparency of at least 90% at a sheet resistance of less than 10 Ω/sq (conductivity/absorptivity ≥ 1 Ω -1) for monolithically integrated modules. For standard modules, losses are much lower and the performance of alternative lower cost TC materials may already be sufficient to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Study of back reflectors for thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the reflection properties of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films i.e. aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) and boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) films plus aluminum (Al) films or white polyvinyl butyral (PVB) foils, which are usually used as the combined back reflectors of thin film silicon solar cells, are investigated. Sputtered ZnO:Al films were etched in diluted hydrochloric acid (1%) to achieve rough surface structures while textured ZnO:B films were directly prepared by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. It is found that the rough TCO/Al reflectors show a low total reflection, which is mainly due to the parasitic absorption by the surface plasmons at the rough TCO/Al interfaces as well as the absorption in the TCO films. Differently, the rough TCO/white PVB foil reflectors display a slightly high light reflection regardless of the influence of the rough interface without the excitation of surface plasmons. Thus, the TCO/white PVB foil back reflectors could be a good candidate with respect to light utilization when they are applied in thin film silicon solar cells. - Highlights: White polyvinyl butyral and transparent conductive oxide materials are used. The reflection properties of TCO/Al and TCO/white PVB foil reflectors are studied. The ZnO:Al and ZnO:B films are used as two types of TCO materials. TCO/white PVB foil reflector shows a high reflection compared to TCO/Al reflector

  13. Amorphous silicon thin films: The ultimate lightweight space solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendura, G. J., Jr.; Kruer, M. A.; Schurig, H. H.; Bianchi, M. A.; Roth, J. A.

    1994-09-01

    Progress is reported with respect to the development of thin film amorphous (alpha-Si) terrestrial solar cells for space applications. Such devices promise to result in very lightweight, low cost, flexible arrays with superior end of life (EOL) performance. Each alpha-Si cell consists of a tandem arrangement of three very thin p-i-n junctions vapor deposited between film electrodes. The thickness of this entire stack is approximately 2.0 microns, resulting in a device of negligible weight, but one that must be mechanically supported for handling and fabrication into arrays. The stack is therefore presently deposited onto a large area (12 by 13 in), rigid, glass superstrate, 40 mil thick, and preliminary space qualification testing of modules so configured is underway. At the same time, a more advanced version is under development in which the thin film stack is transferred from the glass onto a thin (2.0 mil) polymer substrate to create large arrays that are truly flexible and significantly lighter than either the glassed alpha-Si version or present conventional crystalline technologies. In this paper the key processes for such effective transfer are described. In addition, both glassed (rigid) and unglassed (flexible) alpha-Si cells are studied when integrated with various advanced structures to form lightweight systems. EOL predictions are generated for the case of a 1000 W array in a standard, 10 year geosynchronous (GEO) orbit. Specific powers (W/kg), power densities (W/sq m) and total array costs ($/sq ft) are compared.

  14. Impedance spectroscopy of CdTe thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) is a widely used method to analyze dielectric properties of specimen as a function of frequency. Typically this characterization method delivers an equivalent circuit diagram of the device under examination to describe its electrical properties. Traditionally IS is used in coating evaluation, corrosion monitoring and in electrochemistry. During the last years the method became more important also in the field of electrical characterization of solar cells. In our work we use IS for the electrical characterization of thin film CdTe solar cells. The measurement is done at room temperature without illumination in a frequency domain from 20 Hz to 2 MHz. The samples are measured under variable forward bias. The results match insufficiently with the model of two resistor-capacitor circuits in series which is commonly used to describe the p-n junction and the blocking back contact. For better consistency, other models from the literature are used and discussed. From the results a conclusion is drawn about the properties of the solar cell such as the nature of the p-n junction or the performance of the back contact.

  15. Utility of Thin-Film Solar Cells on Flexible Substrates for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. E.; Hepp, A. F.; Morel, D. L.; Ferekides, C. S.; Tuttle, J. R.; Hoffman, D. J.; Dhere, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    The thin-film solar cell program at NASA GRC is developing solar cell technologies for space applications which address two critical metrics: specific power (power per unit mass) and launch stowed volume. To be competitive for many space applications, an array using thin film solar cells must significantly increase specific power while reducing stowed volume when compared to the present baseline technology utilizing crystalline solar cells. The NASA GRC program is developing two approaches. Since the vast majority of the mass of a thin film solar cell is in the substrate, a thin film solar cell on a very lightweight flexible substrate (polymer or metal films) is being developed as the first approach. The second approach is the development of multijunction thin film solar cells. Total cell efficiency can be increased by stacking multiple cells having bandgaps tuned to convert the spectrum passing through the upper cells to the lower cells. Once developed, the two approaches will be merged to yield a multijunction, thin film solar cell on a very lightweight, flexible substrate. The ultimate utility of such solar cells in space require the development of monolithic interconnections, lightweight array structures, and ultra-lightweight support and deployment techniques.

  16. Lateral matching of periodic front and back textures in thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Haoshi; Gao, Yuqiao; Wu, Yi; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank); Zhou, Songjie; Li, Fuxian; Zheng, Xiaoyao; Wu, Huijun; Liu, Tingzhuo

    2015-12-01

    We systematically study the influence of the relative lateral position of the front and back periodic textures on the light absorption in microcrystalline Si thin film solar cells by finite difference time domain method. We show that there is an optimum lateral position match between the periodic front and back textures, which allows maximum light absorption to be obtained in the Si thin film solar cells. A relative lateral shift between the front and back periodic textures breaks the symmetry of the conformal cell structure, which can result in more wave modes in the Si thin film solar cells.

  17. Performance evaluation of thin film silicon solar cell based on dual diffraction grating

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Raghvendra Sarvjeet; Saravanan, Sigamani; Kalainathan, Sivaperuman

    2014-01-01

    Light-trapping structures are more demanding for optimal light absorption in thin film silicon solar cells. Accordingly, new design engineering of solar cells has been emphasized and found to be effective to achieve improved performance. This paper deals with a design of thin film silicon solar cells and explores the influence of bottom grating and combination of top and bottom (dual) grating as a part of back reflector with a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Use of metal layer as a part of...

  18. Charge carrier dynamics in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strothkaemper, Christian

    2013-06-24

    This work investigates the charge carrier dynamics in three different technological approaches within the class of thin film solar cells: radial heterojunctions, the dye solar cell, and microcrystalline CuInSe{sub 2}, focusing on charge transport and separation at the electrode, and the relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers due to recombination and energy dissipation to the phonon system. This work relies mostly on optical-pump terahertz-probe (OPTP) spectroscopy, followed by transient absorption (TA) and two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The charge separation in ZnO-electrode/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-absorber core/shell nanorods, which represent a model system of a radial heterojunction, is analyzed by OPTP. It is concluded, that the dynamics in the absorber are determined by multiple trapping, which leads to a dispersive charge transport to the electrode that lasts over hundreds of picoseconds. The high trap density on the order of 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} is detrimental for the injection yield, which exhibits a decrease with increasing shell thickness. The heterogeneous electron transfer from a series of model dyes into ZnO proceeds on a time-scale of 200 fs. However, the photoconductivity builds up just on a 2-10 ps timescale, and 2PPE reveals that injected electrons are meanwhile localized spatially and energetically at the interface. It is concluded that the injection proceeds through adsorbate induced interface states. This is an important result because the back reaction from long lived interface states can be expected to be much faster than from bulk states. While the charge transport in stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2} thin films is indicative of free charge carriers, CuInSe{sub 2} with a solar cell grade composition (Cu-poor) exhibits signs of carrier localization. This detrimental effect is attributed to a high density of charged defects and a high degree of compensation, which together create a spatially fluctuating potential that inhibits charge transport. On the other hand, the charge carrier lifetime in Cu-poor CIS is orders of magnitude higher as in stoichiometric CIS. This is explained by assuming that the CuIn antisite is the most effective recombination center.

  19. Photovoltaic solar cell from low-cost thin-film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : One of the main hindrances of using solar energy for electrical power supply is the high initial cost. Thin-film technologies hold considerable promise for substantial cost reduction for photovoltaic solar cells. The paper reviews the present state of the most advanced thin-film technologies. Amorphous silicon solar cells have surmounted the barrier to mass production. Pilot manufacturing lines are under construcion for CdTe thin-film module. Cu(In, Ga)Se2 has reached a record efficiency of 18.8 percent in the laboratory and pilot productions have benn announced by various companies

  20. Photovoltaic solar cell from low-cost thin-film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main hindrances of using solar energy for electrical power supply is the high initial cost. Thin-film technologies hold considerable promise for substantial cost reduction for photovoltaic solar cells. The paper reviews the present state of the most advanced thin-film technologies. Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells have surmounted the barrier to mass production. Pilot manufacturing lines are under construction for CdTe thin-film module. Cu(In, Ga)Se2 has reached a record efficiency of 18.8 percent in the laboratory and pilot productions have been announced by various companies

  1. Photovoltaic solar cell from low-cost thin-film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : One of the main hindrances of using solar energy for electrical power supply is the high initial cost. Thin-film technologies hold considerable promise for substantial cost reduction for photovoltaic solar cells. The paper reviews the present state of the most advanced thin-film technologies. Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells have surmounted the barrier to mass production. Pilot manufacturing lines are under construction for CdTe thin-film module. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 has reached a record efficiency of 18.8% in the laboratory and pilot productions have been announced by various companies

  2. Cost perspectives of GaAs thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To become a viable option for grid-connected electricity supply in the Netherlands GaAs thin film solar cell modules should achieve a break-even module cost of ECU 100-170/m2 or ECU 250-350/m2 if social costs are accounted for. The most important bottleneck is formed by the costs of the substrates for epitaxial layer deposition, which are much too high if GaAs or Ge are used as a substrate material. The cost prospects for monocrystalline or semicrystalline silicon substrates appear to be somewhat better (minimum substrate costs of ECU 65/m2) but major technological difficulties still have to be solved for this option. Deposition on low-cost, non-crystalline substrates by means of the grapho-epitaxial method appears even more difficult. The second bottleneck requires that the utilization rate of source gases for Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) is improved and that their costs are very much reduced. Thirdly, equipment cost of MOCVD reactors will have to become much lower. Finally raw material supplies may become a bottleneck for large-scale application of GaAs cells, especially if GaAs or Ge substrates are used. It is concluded that meeting the cost targets is very difficult but not impossible. It requires major break-through in each of the above areas. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Optical modeling of thin film silicon solar cells with random and periodic light management textures

    OpenAIRE

    Lockau, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Better light trapping concepts are a prerequisite for the success of silicon thin film photovoltaics. This thesis presents optical simulations of silicon thin film solar cells with statistical and periodic absorption enhancing textures. For simulation of statistically textured solar cells a rough surface synthesization method is characterized and found applicable for generation of the morphology of commercial fluorine doped tin oxide surfaces. The extended rough interface scatterer is modeled...

  4. Nanostructured silicon and its application to solar cells, position sensors and thin film transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Rodrigo Ferro Paiva; Raniero, Leandro; Pereira, Luis; Costa, Daniel; Aguas, Hugo; Pereira, Sonia; Silva, Leonardo; Ferreira, Isabel; Fortunato, Elvira; Goncalves, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports the performances of small area solar cells, 128 linear integrated position sensitive detector arrays and thin film transistors based on nanostructured silicon thin films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique, close to the onset of dusty plasma conditions, within the transition region from amorphous to microcrystalline. The small area solar cells produced in a modified single chamber reactor exhibit very good electrical characte...

  5. Surface Engineering of ZnO Thin Film for High Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Zong-Liang; Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2015-09-01

    Sputtering made ZnO thin film was used as an electron-transport layer in a regular planar perovskite solar cell based on high quality CH3NH3PbI3 absorber prepared with a two-step spin-coating. An efficiency up to 15.9% under AM 1.5G irradiation is achieved for the cell based on ZnO film fabricated under Ar working gas. The atmosphere of the sputtering chamber can tune the surface electronic properties (band structure) of the resulting ZnO thin film and therefore the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding perovskite solar cell. Precise surface engineering of ZnO thin film was found to be one of the key steps to fabricate ZnO based regular planar perovskite solar cell with high power conversion efficiency. Sputtering method is proved to be one of the excellent techniques to prepare ZnO thin film with controllable properties.

  6. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The present stature and current research directions of photovoltaic arrays as primary power systems for space are reviewed. There have recently been great advances in the technology of thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. In a thin-film solar cell the thickness of the active element is only a few microns; transfer of this technology to space arrays could result in ultralow-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper-indium selenide (CuInSe2) and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon:hydrogen and alloys. The best experimental efficiency on thin-film solar cells to date is 12 percent AMO for CuIn Se2. This efficiency is likely to be increased in the next few years. The radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single-crystal materials. CuIn Se2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1 MeV electrons. Experimental evidence also suggests that most of all of the radiation damage on thin-films can be removed by a low temperature anneal. The possibility of thin-film multibandgap cascade solar cells is discussed, including the tradeoffs between monolithic and mechanically stacked cells. The best current efficiency for a cascade is 12.5 percent AMO for an amorphous silicon on CuInSe2 multibandgap combination. Higher efficiencies are expected in the future. For several missions, including solar-electric propulsion, a manned Mars mission, and lunar exploration and manufacturing, thin-film photovolatic arrays may be a mission-enabling technology.

  7. Molybdenum Back-Contact Optimization for CIGS Thin Film Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum (Mo thin films are most widely used as an ohmic back-contact in the copper indium diselenide (CIS and its alloy copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS based thin film solar cell. Radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering system used to deposit Mo thin films on soda lime glass substrate. The deposition was carried out using argon (Ar gas at different Ar controlled (working pressures (1 mTorr to 10 mTorr and at different RF powers (60 W to 100 W. The influence of both the working pressure and the RF power on the Mo thin films was studied by investigating its structural, morphological, electrical, and optical measurements. The results reveal that a stress-free, low-sheet-resistance (~1 ?/?cm2, and reflecting (~ 55 % Mo thin film was observed at 1 mTorr working pressure and 100 W RF power.

  8. Preparation of vanadium diselenide thin films and their application in CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium diselenide thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation. The properties of vanadium diselenide thin films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission spectra, electrical and Hall measurements. To further investigate the application of vanadium diselenide thin films, device performance in CdTe solar cells with a vanadium diselenide layer was also studied. The results indicate that vanadium diselenide thin films had a stable hexagonal structure after annealing. The thin films were p-type semiconductor materials with the high work function and high carrier concentration. Vanadium diselenide thin films could form a good ohmic contact to CdTe solar cells. Thus, cell performance was greatly improved when introduced a vanadium diselenide buffer layer. - Highlights: VSe2 was prepared by electron beam evaporation. VSe2 was a p-type material with the high work function and high carrier concentration. VSe2 was used as a Cu-free buffer layer in CdTe solar cells. Performance of CdTe solar cells was improved

  9. Crystalline silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the background, motivation and work carried out towards this PhD programme entitled 'Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Growth by ECR Plasma CVD for Solar Cells'. The fundamental principles of silicon solar cells are introduced with a review of silicon thin film and bulk solar cells. The development and prospects for thin film silicon solar cells are described. Some results of a modelling study on thin film single crystalline solar cells are given which has been carried out using a commercially available solar cell simulation package (PC-1D). This is followed by a description of thin film deposition techniques. These include Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Plasma-Assisted CVD (PACVD). The basic theory and technology of the emerging technique of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) PACVD, which was used in this research, are introduced and the potential advantages summarised. Some of the basic methods of material and cell characterisation are briefly described, together with the work carried out in this research. The growth by ECR PACVD at temperatures 2 illumination. The best efficiency in the ECR grown structures was 13.76% using an epitaxial emitter. Cell performance was analysed in detail and the factors controlling performance identified by fitting self-consistently the fight and dark current-voltage and spectral response data using PC-1D. Finally, the conclusions for this research and suggestions for further work are outlined. (author)

  10. Sputtered molybdenum thin films and the application in CIGS solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.; Zhu, H.; Liang, X.; Zhang, C.; Li, Z.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, L.; Mai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films are prepared by magnetron sputtering with different discharge powers and working pressures for the application in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells as back electrodes. Properties of these Mo thin films are systematically investigated. It is found that the dynamic deposition rate increases with the increasing discharge power while decreases with the increasing working pressure. The highest dynamic deposition rate of 15.1 nm m/min is achieved for the Mo thin film deposited at the discharge power of 1200 W and at the working pressure of 0.15 Pa. The achieved lowest resistivity of 3.7 × 10-5 Ω cm is attributed to the large grains in the compact thin film. The discharge power and working pressure have great influence on the sputtered Mo thin films. High efficiency of 12.5% was achieved for the Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells with Mo electrodes prepared at 1200 W and low working pressures. By further optimizing material and device properties, the conversion efficiency has reached to 15.2%.

  11. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen passivation is a key process step in the fabrication of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film solar cells. In this work a parallel plate rf plasma setup was used for the hydrogen passivation treatment. The main topics that have been investigated are (i) the role of plasma parameters (like hydrogen pressure, electrode gap and plasma power), (ii) the dynamics of the hydrogen treatment and (iii) passivation of poly-Si with different material properties. Passivation was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage VOC of poly-Si reference samples. Optimum passivation conditions were found by measurements of the breakdown voltage Vbrk of the plasma for different pressures p and electrode gaps d. For each pressure, the best passivation was achieved at a gap d that corresponded to the minimum in Vbrk. Plasma simulations were carried out, which indicate that best VOC corresponds to a minimum in ion energy. VOC was not improved by a larger H flux. Investigations of the passivation dynamic showed that a plasma treatment in the lower temperature range (?400 C) is slow and takes several hours for the VOC to saturate. Fast passivation can be successfully achieved at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C with a plateau time of 10 min. It was found that prolonged hydrogenation leads to a loss in VOC, which is less pronounced within the observed optimum temperature range (500 C-600 C). Electron beam evaporation has been investigated as an alternative method to fabricate poly-Si absorbers. The material properties have been tuned by alteration of substrate temperature Tdep=200-700 C and were characterized by Raman, ESR and VOC measurements. Largest grains were obtained after solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si, deposited in the temperature range of 300 C. The defect concentration of Si dangling bonds was lowered by passivation by about one order of magnitude. The lowest dangling bond concentration of 2.5.1016 cm-3 after passivation was found for poly-Si with largest grains and coincides with best solar cell results, obtained after rapid thermal annealing and hydrogen passivation. Hydrogen passivation of poly-Si films was successfully achieved with a parallel plate rf H plasma treatment at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C. Yet it seems that treatment induced defect generation causes a loss in VOC with prolonged passivation time and should be minimized. In order to achieve high open circuit voltages larger than 450 mV, in addition to hydrogen passivation, low recombination at the interfaces becomes more and more important. (orig.)

  12. High power impulse magnetron sputtering of CIGS thin films for high efficiency thin film solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejn?ek, Ji?; Hubi?ka, Zden?k; Kohout, Michal; Krov, Petra; Kment, t?pn; Brunclkov, Michaela; ?ada, Martin; Darveau, S.A.; Exstrom, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 1, ?. 3 (2014), s. 135-137. ISSN 2336-2626 R&D Projects: GA Mk LH12045 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CIGS * HiPIMS * emission spectroscopy * thin films * magnetron sputtering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/olejnicek.pdf

  13. Indium sulfide thin films as window layer in chemically deposited solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films have been synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using In(NO3)3 as indium precursor and thioacetamide as sulfur source. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the crystalline state of the as-prepared and the annealed films is β-In2S3. Optical band gap values between 2.27 and 2.41 eV were obtained for these films. The In2S3 thin films are photosensitive with an electrical conductivity value in the range of 10−3–10−7 (Ω cm)−1, depending on the film preparation conditions. We have demonstrated that the In2S3 thin films obtained in this work are suitable candidates to be used as window layer in thin film solar cells. These films were integrated in SnO2:F/In2S3/Sb2S3/PbS/C–Ag solar cell structures, which showed an open circuit voltage of 630 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.6 mA/cm2. - Highlights: • In2S3 thin films were deposited using the Chemical Bath Deposition technique. • A direct energy band gap between 2.41 to 2.27 eV was evaluated for the In2S3 films. • We made chemically deposited solar cells using the In2S3 thin films

  14. Enhanced Efficiency of Light-Trapping Nanoantenna Arrays for Thin Film Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Simovski, Constantin R; Voroshilov, Pavel M; Guzhva, Michael E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a novel concept of efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film solar cells based on arrays of planar nanoantennas operating far from plasmonic resonances. The operation principle of our structures relies on the excitation of chessboard-like collective modes of the nanoantenna arrays with the field localized between the neighboring metal elements. We demonstrated theoretically substantial enhancement of solar-cell short-circuit current by the designed light-trapping structure in the whole spectrum range of the solar-cell operation compared to conventional structures employing anti-reflecting coating. Our approach provides a general background for a design of different types of efficient broadband light-trapping structures for thin-film solar-cell technologically compatible with large-area thin-film fabrication techniques.

  15. Enhanced optical absorption by Ag nanoparticles in a thin film Si solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film solar cells have the potential to significantly reduce the cost of photovoltaics. Light trapping is crucial to such a thin film silicon solar cell because of a low absorption coefficient due to its indirect band gap. In this paper, we investigate the suitability of surface plasmon resonance Ag nanoparticles for enhancing optical absorption in the thin film solar cell. For evaluating the transmittance capability of Ag nanoparticles and the conventional antireflection film, an enhanced transmittance factor is introduced. We find that under the solar spectrum AM1.5, the transmittance of Ag nanoparticles with radius over 160 nm is equivalent to that of conventional textured antireflection film, and its effect is better than that of the planar antireflection film. The influence of the surrounding medium is also discussed. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  16. Light trapping with plasmonic back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Paetzold, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Trapping light in silicon solar cells is essential as it allows an increase in the absorption of incident sunlight in optically thin silicon absorber layers. This way, the costs of the solar cells can be reduced by lowering the material consumption and decreasing the physical constraints on the material quality. In this work, plasmonic light trapping with Ag back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells is studied. Solar cell prototypes with plasmonic back contacts are presented along with o...

  17. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorka, Benjamin

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen passivation is a key process step in the fabrication of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film solar cells. In this work a parallel plate rf plasma setup was used for the hydrogen passivation treatment. The main topics that have been investigated are (i) the role of plasma parameters (like hydrogen pressure, electrode gap and plasma power), (ii) the dynamics of the hydrogen treatment and (iii) passivation of poly-Si with different material properties. Passivation was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage V{sub OC} of poly-Si reference samples. Optimum passivation conditions were found by measurements of the breakdown voltage V{sub brk} of the plasma for different pressures p and electrode gaps d. For each pressure, the best passivation was achieved at a gap d that corresponded to the minimum in V{sub brk}. Plasma simulations were carried out, which indicate that best V{sub OC} corresponds to a minimum in ion energy. V{sub OC} was not improved by a larger H flux. Investigations of the passivation dynamic showed that a plasma treatment in the lower temperature range ({<=}400 C) is slow and takes several hours for the V{sub OC} to saturate. Fast passivation can be successfully achieved at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C with a plateau time of 10 min. It was found that prolonged hydrogenation leads to a loss in V{sub OC}, which is less pronounced within the observed optimum temperature range (500 C-600 C). Electron beam evaporation has been investigated as an alternative method to fabricate poly-Si absorbers. The material properties have been tuned by alteration of substrate temperature T{sub dep}=200-700 C and were characterized by Raman, ESR and V{sub OC} measurements. Largest grains were obtained after solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si, deposited in the temperature range of 300 C. The defect concentration of Si dangling bonds was lowered by passivation by about one order of magnitude. The lowest dangling bond concentration of 2.5.10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} after passivation was found for poly-Si with largest grains and coincides with best solar cell results, obtained after rapid thermal annealing and hydrogen passivation. Hydrogen passivation of poly-Si films was successfully achieved with a parallel plate rf H plasma treatment at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C. Yet it seems that treatment induced defect generation causes a loss in V{sub OC} with prolonged passivation time and should be minimized. In order to achieve high open circuit voltages larger than 450 mV, in addition to hydrogen passivation, low recombination at the interfaces becomes more and more important. (orig.)

  18. Study on AlxNiy Alloys as Diffusion Barriers in Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-sputtered AlxNiy thin films were used as diffusion barriers between aluminum and hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) for flexible thin film solar cells. The stoichiometric ratio of AlxNiy showed a significant effect on the structures of the films. The obtained Al3Ni2 film was amorphous, while polycrystalline films were obtained when the ratio of aluminum to nickel was 1:1 and 2:3. An auger electron spectroscope and four-point probe system were applied to test the resistance to the interdiffusion between aluminum and silicon, as well as the conductivities of the AlxNiy barriers. The data of auger depth profile showed that the content of silicon was the minimum in the aluminum layer after sputtering for 4 min using AlNi thin film as the barrier layer. Compared to other AlxNiy alloys, the AlNi thin film possessed the lowest sheet resistance.

  19. Spray-on Thin Film PV Solar Cells: Advances, Potentials and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Eslamian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability to fabricate photovoltaic (PV solar cells on a large scale and at a competitive price is a milestone waiting to be achieved. Currently, such a fabrication method is lacking because the effective methods are either difficult to scale up or expensive due to the necessity for fabrication in a vacuum environment. Nevertheless, for a class of thin film solar cells, in which the solar cell materials can be processed in a solution, up scalable and vacuum-free fabrication techniques can be envisioned. In this context, all or some layers of polymer, dye-sensitized, quantum dot, and copper indium gallium selenide thin film solar cells illustrate some examples that may be processed in solution. The solution-processed materials may be transferred to the substrate by atomizing the solution and carrying the spray droplets to the substrate, a process that will form a thin film after evaporation of the solvent. Spray coating is performed at atmospheric pressure using low cost equipment with a roll-to-roll process capability, making it an attractive fabrication technique, provided that fairly uniform layers with high charge carrier separation and transport capability can be made. In this paper, the feasibility, the recent advances and challenges of fabricating spray-on thin film solar cells, the dynamics of spray and droplet impaction on the substrate, the photo-induced electron transfer in spray-on solar cells, the challenges on characterization and simulation, and the commercialization status of spray-on solar cells are discussed.

  20. Material selection for thin-film solar cells using multiple attribute decision making approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a material selection approach for selecting absorbent layer material for thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) using multiple attribute decision making (MADM) approach. In this paper, different possible materials for absorbent layer and their properties like band gap, absorption coefficient, diffusion length, thermodynamic compatibility and recombination velocity is taken into consideration and MADM approach is applied to select the best material for thin-film solar cells. It is observed that Copper Indium Gallium Diselinide (CIGS) is the best material for the absorbent layer in thin-film solar cells out of all possible candidates. It was observed that the proposed result is in accordance with the experimental findings thus justifying the validity of the proposed study.

  1. Textured conducting glass by nanosphere lithography for increased light absorption in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Seog Lee, Yun; Buonassisi, Tonio; Kozinsky, Inna

    2014-02-01

    Nanoscale surface texturing in thin-film solar cells has been shown to enhance device efficiency by increasing light absorption through reduced reflectance and increased light scattering across a broad range of wavelengths and angles. However, light trapping in the industrial thin-film cells is still sub-optimal and creating optimized nanoscale texture over a large area remains challenging. In this article, we present a well-controlled low-cost process to fabricate a periodic nanocone texture optimized for maximum light absorption in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The texture is fabricated using nanosphere lithography with the period controlled by the nanosphere diameter and the texture shape and aspect ratio controlled by the reactive ion etching conditions. Finite-difference time-domain optical simulations are used to optimize the texture in the state-of-the-art microcrystalline cells, and optical absorption measurements show that the same cells fabricated on the optimized nanocone-textured substrates exhibit a relative short-circuit current increase of close to 30% compared to a reference state-of-the-art cell with a randomly textured zinc oxide layer. This nanocone texturing technique is compatible with standard thin-film cell fabrication processes and can also be used for other thin-film cells (CIGS, CdTe, CZTS, etc) to maximize light absorption and minimize layer thickness enabling more efficient carrier collection and lower overall cost.

  2. Textured conducting glass by nanosphere lithography for increased light absorption in thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale surface texturing in thin-film solar cells has been shown to enhance device efficiency by increasing light absorption through reduced reflectance and increased light scattering across a broad range of wavelengths and angles. However, light trapping in the industrial thin-film cells is still sub-optimal and creating optimized nanoscale texture over a large area remains challenging. In this article, we present a well-controlled low-cost process to fabricate a periodic nanocone texture optimized for maximum light absorption in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The texture is fabricated using nanosphere lithography with the period controlled by the nanosphere diameter and the texture shape and aspect ratio controlled by the reactive ion etching conditions. Finite-difference time-domain optical simulations are used to optimize the texture in the state-of-the-art microcrystalline cells, and optical absorption measurements show that the same cells fabricated on the optimized nanocone-textured substrates exhibit a relative short-circuit current increase of close to 30% compared to a reference state-of-the-art cell with a randomly textured zinc oxide layer. This nanocone texturing technique is compatible with standard thin-film cell fabrication processes and can also be used for other thin-film cells (CIGS, CdTe, CZTS, etc) to maximize light absorption and minimize layer thickness enabling more efficient carrier collection and lower overall cost. (paper)

  3. Cost-effective nanostructured thin-film solar cell with enhanced absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng Hui; Nowak, Regina-Elisabeth; Geiendrfer, Stefan; Vehse, Martin; Reininghaus, Nies; Sergeev, Oleg; von Maydell, Karsten; Brolo, Alexandre G.; Agert, Carsten

    2014-11-01

    Nanostructured transparent conductive electrodes are highly interesting for efficient light management in thin-film solar cells, but they are often costly to manufacture and limited to small scales. This work reports on a low-cost and scalable bottom-up approach to fabricate nanostructured thin-film solar cells. A folded solar cell with increased optical absorber volume was deposited on honeycomb patterned zinc oxide nanostructures, fabricated in a combined process of nanosphere lithography and electrochemical deposition. The periodicity of the honeycomb pattern can be easily varied in the fabrication process, which allows structural optimization for different absorber materials. The implementation of this concept in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells with only 100 nm absorber layer was demonstrated. The nanostructured solar cell showed approximately 10% increase in the short circuit current density compared to a cell on an optimized commercial textured reference electrode. The concept presented here is highly promising for low-cost industrial fabrication of nanostructured thin-film solar cells, since no sophisticated layer stacks or expensive techniques are required.

  4. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  5. Hybrid solar cells using CdS thin films deposited via spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the photovoltaic performance of hybrid solar cells comprising of thin films of cadmium sulphide and poly(3-hexyl)thiophene. Cadmium sulphide thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis technique. Current-voltage characterizations were performed for cadmium sulphide/poly(3-hexyl)thiophene heterojunctions in dark and under illumination (100 mWcm?2). The best device yields a short circuit current density of 1.54 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 343 mV, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.15%. - Highlights: Hybrid solar cells were fabricated using CdS and poly(3-hexyl)thiophene. CdS thin films were grown by spray pyrolysis technique. The best cell performance was achieved for the 100 nm thick CdS films. The highest short circuit current was measured as 1.54 mAcm?2 for the best cell

  6. Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells :

    OpenAIRE

    Krc, J.; Zeman, M.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Topic, M.

    2009-01-01

    A concept of a modulated one-dimensional photonic-crystal (PC) structure is introduced as a back reflector for thin-film solar cells. The structure comprises two PC parts, each consisting of layers of different thicknesses. Using layers of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon nitride a reflectance close to 100% is achieved over a broad wavelength region (7001300 nm). Based on this concept, a back reflector was designed for thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells, using n-doped amor...

  7. A Review on Development Prospect of CZTS Based Thin Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangbo Song; Xu Ji; Ming Li; Weidong Lin; Xi Luo; Hua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 is considered as the ideal absorption layer material in next generation thin film solar cells due to the abundant component elements in the crust being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. This paper summerized the development situation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells and the manufacturing technologies, as well as problems in the manufacturing process. The difficulties for the raw materials preparation, the manufacturing process, and the manufacturing equipment were illustrate...

  8. Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetzold, Ulrich W; Moulin, Etienne; Pieters, Bart E; Carius, Reinhard; Rau, Uwe

    2011-11-01

    We report on a plasmonic light-trapping concept based on localized surface plasmon polariton induced light scattering at nanostructured Ag back contacts of thin-film silicon solar cells. The electromagnetic interaction between incident light and localized surface plasmon polariton resonances in nanostructured Ag back contacts was simulated with a three-dimensional numerical solver of Maxwell's equations. Geometrical parameters as well as the embedding material of single and periodic nanostructures on Ag layers were varied. The design of the nanostructures was analyzed regarding their ability to scatter incident light at low optical losses into large angles in the silicon absorber layers of the thin-film silicon solar cells. PMID:22109618

  9. Grain boundaries in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Uwe [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IEF5-Photovoltaik, Juelich (Germany); Taretto, Kurt [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Dto. de Electrotecnia, Buenos Aires, Neuquen (Argentina); Siebentritt, Susanne [Universite du Luxembourg, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2009-07-15

    The paper reviews the current status of the research on grain boundaries in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} alloys used as absorber materials for thin-film solar cells. We discuss the different concepts that are available to explain the relatively low electronic activity of grain boundaries in these materials. Numerical simulations that have been undergone so far to model the polycrystalline solar cells are briefly summarized. In addition, we give an overview on the experiments that have been conducted so far to elucidate the structural, defect-chemical, and electronic properties of grain boundaries in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin-films. (orig.)

  10. Transparent conductive zinc oxide basics and applications in thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Andreas; Rech, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) belongs to the class of transparent conducting oxides which can be used as transparent electrodes in electronic devices or heated windows. In this book the material properties of, the deposition technologies for, and applications of zinc oxide in thin film solar cells are described in a comprehensive manner. Structural, morphological, optical and electronic properties of ZnO are treated in this review. The editors and authors of this book are specialists in deposition, analysis and fabrication of thin-film solar cells and especially of ZnO. This book is intended as an overview and a data collection for students, engineers and scientist.

  11. Comparing n- and p-type polycrystalline silicon absorbers in thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated fine grained polycrystalline silicon thin films grown by direct chemical vapor deposition on oxidized silicon substrates. More specifically, we analyze the influence of the doping type on the properties of this model polycrystalline silicon material. This includes an investigation of defect passivation and benchmarking of minority carrier properties. In our investigation, we use a variety of characterization techniques to probe the properties of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin films, including Fourier Transform Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance, Conductivity Activation, and Suns-Voc measurements. Amphoteric silicon dangling bond defects are identified as the most prominent defect type present in these layers. They are the primary recombination center in the relatively lowly doped polysilicon thin films at the heart of the current investigation. In contrast with the case of solar cells based on Czochralski silicon or multicrystalline silicon wafers, we conclude that no benefit is found to be associated with the use of n-type dopants over p-type dopants in the active absorber of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. - Highlights: • Comparison of n- and p-type absorbers for thin-film poly-Si solar cells • Extensive characterization of the investigated layers' characteristics • Literature review pertaining the use of n-type and p-type dopants in silicon

  12. Light trapping in thin film organic solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Tang; Wolfgang Tress; Olle Ingans

    2014-01-01

    A major issue in organic solar cells is the poor mobility and recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers. The active layer has to be kept thin to facilitate charge transport and minimize recombination losses. However, optical losses due to inefficient light absorption in the thin active layers can be considerable in organic solar cells. Therefore, light trapping schemes are critically important for efficient organic solar cells. Traditional light trapping schemes for thick solar cell...

  13. Effects of Different Parameters In Enhancing The Efficiency of Plasmonic Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Alekhya Reddy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of thin film solar cells are less comparing to thick film solar cells which can be enhanced by utilizing the metal nanoparticles near their localized Plasmon resonance. In this paper, we have reviewed the Plasmon resonance of metallic nanoparticles and its application in solar cell technology. Beside this, we have also reviewed about different parameters which dominate the nanoparticles to increase optical absorption. Thus a cost-effective model has been proposed.

  14. Photovoltaic Technology: The Case for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Arvind; Torres, P.; Tscharner, Reto; N. Wyrsch; Keppner H

    2013-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of photovoltaic solar modules for energy generation are reviewed with their operation principles and physical efficiency limits. Although the main materials currently used or investigated and the associated fabrication technologies are individually described, emphasis is on silicon-based solar cells. Wafer-based crystalline silicon solar modules dominate in terms of production, but amorphous silicon solar cells have the potential to undercut costs owing, for exa...

  15. Hydrogen and Surface Passivation of Thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells on Graphite Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Da

    2015-01-01

    Silicon substrates can be replaced by foreign substrates for crystalline silicon thin-film (CSiTF) solar cells, which is an effective strategy to reduce both the cost of cell production and the consumption of silicon. Graphite is a foreign substrate widely known for its high purity and high temperature resistance (> 1300C). The purposes of this work are to develop cell concepts, to characterize and furthermore to improve the performance of CSiTF solar cells on graphite substrates. Three new ...

  16. Properties of ITO-AZO bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering for applications in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Mao, Yanli [Henan University, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, School of Physics and Electronics, Kaifeng (China); Zeng, Xiangbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, Beijing (China)

    2013-01-15

    In this paper we study the electro-optical behavior and the application of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) bilayer thin films for silicon solar cells. ITO-AZO bilayer thin films were deposited on glass substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The experimental results show that a decrease in the electrical resistivity of the ITO-AZO bilayer thin films has been achieved without significant degradation of optical properties. In the best case the resistivity of the bilayer films reached a minimum of 5.075 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm when the thickness of the AZO buffer layer was 12 nm. The ITO-AZO bilayer films were applied as the front electrodes of amorphous silicon solar cells and the short-circuit current density of the solar cells was considerably increased. (orig.)

  17. Properties of ITO-AZO bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering for applications in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study the electro-optical behavior and the application of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) bilayer thin films for silicon solar cells. ITO-AZO bilayer thin films were deposited on glass substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The experimental results show that a decrease in the electrical resistivity of the ITO-AZO bilayer thin films has been achieved without significant degradation of optical properties. In the best case the resistivity of the bilayer films reached a minimum of 5.075 x 10-4 ? cm when the thickness of the AZO buffer layer was 12 nm. The ITO-AZO bilayer films were applied as the front electrodes of amorphous silicon solar cells and the short-circuit current density of the solar cells was considerably increased. (orig.)

  18. Nanoscale investigation of potential distribution in operating Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhenhao

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells based on CIGS absorber materials show the highest power conversion efficiency among all kinds of thin-film solar cells. The distribution of the electrostatic potential in and between the materials in the solar cell has obviously a major impact on the superior performance of the device. This thesis reported on imaging of the electrostatic potential on untreated cross sections of operating CIGS solar cells using Kelvin probe force microscopy.

  19. Progress in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udai P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For some time, the chalcopyrite semiconductor CuInSe2 and its alloy with Ga and/or S [Cu(InGaSe2 or Cu(InGa(Se,S2], commonly referred as CIGS, have been leading thin-film material candidates for incorporation in high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. CuInSe2-based solar cells have shown long-term stability and the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film solar cells, reaching 20%. A variety of methods have been reported to prepare CIGS thin film. Efficiency of solar cells depends upon the various deposition methods as they control optoelectronic properties of the layers and interfaces. CIGS thin film grown on glass or flexible (metal foil, polyimide substrates require p-type absorber layers of optimum optoelectronic properties and n-type wideband gap partner layers to form the p-n junction. Transparent conducting oxide and specific metal layers are used for front and back contacts. Progress made in the field of CIGS solar cell in recent years has been reviewed.

  20. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledinsk, Martin; Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Ganzerov, Kristna; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Meillaud, F.; Fejfar, Antonn; Ballif, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 105, ?. 11 (2014), "111106-1"-"111106-4". ISSN 0003-6951 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : light trapping * microcrystalline silicon * thin film solar cell * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  1. Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif, Christophe; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-Josef

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Basic properties of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon alloys * Thin-film silicon solar cells * Fabrication of device-grade amorphous and microcrystalline silicon * Light management * Advanced device architecture and record devices * Industrialisation and large-area production technology * Acknowledgements * References

  2. Polyol-mediated Synthesis of Chalcogenide Nanoparticles for Thin-film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hailong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was polyol-mediated syntheses of chalcogenide nanoparticles for printable thin-film solar cells. In this thesis, chalcogenide nanoparticles, such as Cu2Se, In2Se3, CZTS, Se@CuSe and Te@Bi2Te3, have been successfully synthesized via a polyol-mediated method.

  3. Disorder improves nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, U. W., E-mail: u.paetzold@fz-juelich.de; Smeets, M.; Meier, M.; Bittkau, K.; Merdzhanova, T.; Smirnov, V.; Carius, R.; Rau, U. [IEK5Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, 52425 Jlich (Germany); Michaelis, D.; Waechter, C. [Fraunhofer Institut fr Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik, Albert Einstein Str. 7, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    We present a systematic experimental study on the impact of disorder in advanced nanophotonic light-trapping concepts of thin-film solar cells. Thin-film solar cells made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared on imprint-textured glass superstrates. For periodically textured superstrates of periods below 500?nm, the nanophotonic light-trapping effect is already superior to state-of-the-art randomly textured front contacts. The nanophotonic light-trapping effect can be associated to light coupling to leaky waveguide modes causing resonances in the external quantum efficiency of only a few nanometer widths for wavelengths longer than 500?nm. With increasing disorder of the nanotextured front contact, these resonances broaden and their relative altitude decreases. Moreover, overall the external quantum efficiency, i.e., the light-trapping effect, increases incrementally with increasing disorder. Thereby, our study is a systematic experimental proof that disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light-trapping concepts employing grating couplers in thin-film solar cells. The result is relevant for the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasi periodic textures.

  4. Disorder improves nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a systematic experimental study on the impact of disorder in advanced nanophotonic light-trapping concepts of thin-film solar cells. Thin-film solar cells made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared on imprint-textured glass superstrates. For periodically textured superstrates of periods below 500?nm, the nanophotonic light-trapping effect is already superior to state-of-the-art randomly textured front contacts. The nanophotonic light-trapping effect can be associated to light coupling to leaky waveguide modes causing resonances in the external quantum efficiency of only a few nanometer widths for wavelengths longer than 500?nm. With increasing disorder of the nanotextured front contact, these resonances broaden and their relative altitude decreases. Moreover, overall the external quantum efficiency, i.e., the light-trapping effect, increases incrementally with increasing disorder. Thereby, our study is a systematic experimental proof that disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light-trapping concepts employing grating couplers in thin-film solar cells. The result is relevant for the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasi periodic textures

  5. Study of GaAs(Ti) thin films as candidates for IB solar cells manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre, S.; Boronat, A.; Castaner, L.; Fuertes Marrn, David; Mart Vega, Antonio; Luque Lpez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Thin films of GaAs(Ti) have been deposited by sputtering on glass and n_GaAs substrates under different process conditions. Optical characteristics of these samples have been analyzed to study the potential of this material in intermediate Band solar cell manufacturing

  6. Study of GaAs(Ti) thin films as candidates for IB solar cells manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre Bergs, Santiago; Boronat, A.; Castaer Muoz, Luis Mara

    2010-01-01

    Thin films of GaAs(Ti) have been deposited by sputtering on glass and n_GaAs substrates under different process conditions. Optical characteristics of these samples have been analyzed to study the potential of this material in intermediate Band solar cell manufacturing.

  7. Low cost and high performance light trapping structure for thin-film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scaled dielectric and metallic structures are popular light tapping structures in thin-film solar cells. However, a large parasitic absorption in those structures is unavoidable. Most schemes based on such structures also involve the textured active layers that may bring undesirable degradation of the material quality. Here we propose a novel and cheap light trapping structure based on the prism structured SiO2 for thin-film solar cells, and a flat active layer is introduced purposefully. Such a light trapping structure is imposed by the geometrical shape optimization to gain the best optical benefit. By examining our scheme, it is disclosed that the conversion efficiency of the flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted to exceed the currently certified highest value. As the cost of SiO2-based light trapping structure is much cheaper and easier to fabricate than other materials, this proposal would have essential impact and wide applications in thin-film solar cells.

  8. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PVâ??s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

  9. Indium sulfide thin films as window layer in chemically deposited solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Loredo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Peña-Méndez, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Universidad Tecnológica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad Tecnológica No. 1, C.P. 62760 Emiliano Zapata, Morelos (Mexico); Messina-Fernández, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo” S/N, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Alvarez-Gallegos, A. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez-Dimas, A.; Hernández-García, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as indium precursor and thioacetamide as sulfur source. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the crystalline state of the as-prepared and the annealed films is β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Optical band gap values between 2.27 and 2.41 eV were obtained for these films. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are photosensitive with an electrical conductivity value in the range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −7} (Ω cm){sup −1}, depending on the film preparation conditions. We have demonstrated that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films obtained in this work are suitable candidates to be used as window layer in thin film solar cells. These films were integrated in SnO{sub 2}:F/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/PbS/C–Ag solar cell structures, which showed an open circuit voltage of 630 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited using the Chemical Bath Deposition technique. • A direct energy band gap between 2.41 to 2.27 eV was evaluated for the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. • We made chemically deposited solar cells using the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films.

  10. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  11. Angular dependence of light trapping in nanophotonic thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Michael; Smirnov, Vladimir; Bittkau, Karsten; Meier, Matthias; Carius, Reinhard; Rau, Uwe; Paetzold, Ulrich W

    2015-11-30

    The angular dependence of light-trapping in nanophotonic thin-film solar cells is inherent due to the wavelength-scale dimensions of the periodic nanopatterns. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the dependence of light coupling to waveguide modes for light trapping in a-Si:H solar cells deposited on nanopatterned back contacts. First, we accurately determine the spectral positions of individual waveguide modes in thin-film solar cells in external quantum efficiency and absorptance. Second, we demonstrate the strong angular dependence of this spectral position for our solar cells. Third, a moderate level of disorder is introduced to the initially periodic nanopattern of the back contacts. As a result, the angular dependence is reduced. Last, we experimentally compare this dependence on the angle of incidence for randomly textured, 2D periodically nanopatterned and 2D disordered back contacts in external quantum efficiency and short-circuit current density. PMID:26698805

  12. Low resistivity molybdenum thin film towards the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vuong Son; Tran Thi Ha; Luong T Thu Thuy; Nguyen Ngoc Ha; Nguyen Duc Chien; Mai Anh Tuan

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optimization of the molybdenum thin film electrode as the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The molybdenum thin film was grown on the glass substrate by direct current sputtering techniques of which the sputtering power was 150Wat 18 sccm flow rate of Ar. At such sputtering parameters, the Mo film can reach the lowest resistivity of 1.28E−6 cm at 400 nm thick. And the reflection of Mo membrane was 82%. This value is considered as a very good result for preparation of the back contact of DSSC.

  13. Materials and Light Management for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells :

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, H

    2015-01-01

    Direct conversion of sunlight into electricity is one of the most promising approaches to provide sufficient renewable energy for humankind. Solar cells are such devices which can efficiently generate electricity from sunlight through the photovoltaic effect. Thin-film silicon solar cells, a type of photovoltaic (PV) devices which deploy the chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) and their alloys as the absorber layers and doped ...

  14. Light-Management Strategies for Thin-Film Silicon Multijunction Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Niesen, Bjrn; Schttauf, Jan-Willem Alexander; Moulin, Etienne Antoine Julien; Hnni, Simon; Boccard, Mathieu; Feuser, Elmar; Niquille, Xavier; Stuckelberger, Michael; Blondiaux, Nicolas; Pugin, Raphal; Scolan, Emmanuel; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Hessler-Wyser, Acha; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Light management is of crucial importance to reach high efficiencies with thin-film silicon multijunction solar cells. In this contribution, we present light-management strategies that we recently developed. This includes high quality absorber materials, low-refractive index intermediate reflectors, and highly transparent multiscale electrodes. Specifically, we show the fabrication of high-efficiency tandem devices with a certified stabilized efficiency of 12.6%, triple-junction solar cells w...

  15. Single-layer organicinorganic-hybrid thin-film encapsulation for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate an organicinorganic-hybrid thin-film encapsulation technique for organic solar cells. The single-layer encapsulation thin film is deposited from a gas mixture of hexamethyldisiloxane and oxygen by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition at room temperature. The encapsulation film contains organic and inorganic compounds: the inorganic compounds serve as the permeation barriers, and the organic compounds reduce defect propagation. An optical transmission of ?90% in the visible light region and a water vapour transmission rate of 3.6 10?6 g m?2 day are obtained for a 1.5 m thick hybrid film. Efficiency decay is not observed in the inverted organic solar cell coated with this thin film after exposure to air for 3600 h; in contrast, the efficiency of the unencapsulated counterpart degrades rapidly and fails after exposure to air for 120 h. The obtained results show that this organicinorganic-hybrid thin film is promising for the encapsulation of organic solar cells. (paper)

  16. Depth selective laser scribing of thin-film silicon solar cells on foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipliez, L.A.; Loeffler, J.; De Keijzer, M.A.; Soppe, W.J.; Sebastien, T.A. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Schoonderbeek, A.; Haupt, O.; Stute, U. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Roll-to-roll production of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and modules is expected to decrease substantially the manufacturing costs, and thus enable a breakthrough in the price of solar electricity per kWh. The roll-to-roll concept implies that the fabrication of these PV devices on flexible substrates is significantly different from the production of the glass based devices. This is especially valid for the monolithic series interconnection of thin-film silicon solar cells into modules, where the laser scribing step of thin-films on opaque foils requires depth selectivity. As adjusting the laser wavelength to the absorption profiles of the involved layers is not sufficient, we are investigating the ablation mechanisms leading to removal of the different layers of thin-film silicon solar cells. In this paper, first results of laser scribes into working solar cells are reported using 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed lasers. Despite the apparent depth selectivity reported earlier for this type of laser, a reduced diode quality and/or shunting of the solar cells is observed. This is probably due to recast at the wall of the laser scribe either by molten material from the back contact or by re-crystallized silicon. Consequently, a broader wavelength/pulse duration matrix has been experimented to understand better the ablation processes of the individual layers, aiming at a reduction of damage of the PV devices due to the laser process. Finally, laser scribes with reduced damage on working solar cells have been achieved with a near IR picosecond laser, leading to lower losses of the solar cell efficiency than with the 1064 nm nanosecond laser.

  17. Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been recently investigated as a possible way to improve absorption of light in solar cells. The strong interaction of small metal nanostructures with light allows control over the propagation of light at the nanoscale and thus the design of ultrathin solar cells in which light is trapped in the active layer and efficiently absorbed. In this paper we review some of our recent work in the field of plasmonics for improved solar cells. We have investigated two possible ways of integrating metal nanoparticles in a solar cell. First, a layer of Ag nanoparticles that improves the standard antireflection coating used for crystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells has been designed and fabricated. Second, regular and random arrays of metal nanostructures have been designed to couple light in waveguide modes of thin semiconductor layers. Using a large-scale, relative inexpensive nano-imprint technique, we have designed a back-contact light trapping surface for a-Si:H solar cells which show enhanced efficiency over standard randomly textured cells. (review article)

  18. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yangang; Yao, Yangyi; Zhang, Xiaohang; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Dagenais, Mario; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  19. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangang Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  20. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55C 110C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  1. Thin film solar cell inflatable ultraviolet rigidizable deployment hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simburger, Edward J. (Inventor); Matsumoto, James H. (Inventor); Giants, Thomas W. (Inventor); Garcia, III, Alec (Inventor); Perry, Alan R. (Inventor); Rawal, Suraj (Inventor); Marshall, Craig H. (Inventor); Lin, John K. H. (Inventor); Day, Jonathan Robert (Inventor); Kerslake, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible inflatable hinge includes curable resin for rigidly positioning panels of solar cells about the hinge in which wrap around contacts and flex circuits are disposed for routing power from the solar cells to the power bus further used for grounding the hinge. An indium tin oxide and magnesium fluoride coating is used to prevent static discharge while being transparent to ultraviolet light that cures the embedded resin after deployment for rigidizing the inflatable hinge.

  2. Interfacial Properties of CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    N. Muhunthan; Om Pal Singh; Thakur, M.K.; P Karthikeyan; Dinesh Singh; Saravanan, M.; Singh, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    Cu-deficient CZTS (copper zinc tin sulfide) thin films were grown on soda lime as well as molybdenum coated soda lime glass by reactive cosputtering. Polycrystalline CZTS film with kesterite structure was produced by annealing it at 500C in Ar atmosphere. These films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical, and transport properties using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron micro...

  3. Laser process for extended silicon thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessmann, M.T., E-mail: hessmann@zae.uni-erlangen.de [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Am Weichselgarten 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kunz, T.; Burkert, I.; Gawehns, N. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Am Weichselgarten 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schaefer, L.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M. [Bayerisches Laserzentrum, Konrad-Zuse-Str 2-6, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Meidel, B. [Schott Solar AG, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Auer, R. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Am Weichselgarten 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Brabec, C.J. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Am Weichselgarten 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Chair VI - Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    We present a large area thin film base substrate for the epitaxy of crystalline silicon. The concept of epitaxial growth of silicon on large area thin film substrates overcomes the area restrictions of an ingot based monocrystalline silicon process. Further it opens the possibility for a roll to roll process for crystalline silicon production. This concept suggests a technical pathway to overcome the limitations of silicon ingot production in terms of costs, throughput and completely prevents any sawing losses. The core idea behind these thin film substrates is a laser welding process of individual, thin silicon wafers. In this manuscript we investigate the properties of laser welded monocrystalline silicon foils (100) by micro-Raman mapping and spectroscopy. It is shown that the laser beam changes the crystalline structure of float zone grown silicon along the welding seam. This is illustrated by Raman mapping which visualizes compressive stress as well as tensile stress in a range of - 147.5 to 32.5 MPa along the welding area.

  4. Laser process for extended silicon thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a large area thin film base substrate for the epitaxy of crystalline silicon. The concept of epitaxial growth of silicon on large area thin film substrates overcomes the area restrictions of an ingot based monocrystalline silicon process. Further it opens the possibility for a roll to roll process for crystalline silicon production. This concept suggests a technical pathway to overcome the limitations of silicon ingot production in terms of costs, throughput and completely prevents any sawing losses. The core idea behind these thin film substrates is a laser welding process of individual, thin silicon wafers. In this manuscript we investigate the properties of laser welded monocrystalline silicon foils (100) by micro-Raman mapping and spectroscopy. It is shown that the laser beam changes the crystalline structure of float zone grown silicon along the welding seam. This is illustrated by Raman mapping which visualizes compressive stress as well as tensile stress in a range of - 147.5 to 32.5 MPa along the welding area.

  5. Selective Ablation of Thin Films with Picosecond-Pulsed Lasers for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra?iukaitis, G.; Ge?ys, P.; Gedvilas, M.; Regelskis, K.; Voisiat, B.

    2010-10-01

    Functional thin-films are of high importance in modern electronics for flat panel displays, photovoltaics, flexible and organic electronics. Versatile technologies are required for patterning thin-film materials on rigid and flexible substrates. The large-area applications of thin films such as photovoltaics need high speed and simple to use techniques. Ultra-short laser processing with its flexibility is one of the ways to achieve high quality material etching but optimization of the processes is required to meet specific needs of the applications. Lasers with picosecond pulse duration were applied in selective ablation of conducting, semi-conducting and isolating films in the complex multilayered thin-film solar cells based on amorphous Si and CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 (CIGS) deposited on glass and polymer substrates. Modeling of energy transition between the layers and temperature evolution was performed to understand the processes. Selection of the right laser wavelength was important to keep the energy coupling in a well defined volume at the interlayer interface. Ultra-short pulses ensured high energy input rate into absorbing material permitting peeling of the layers with no influence on the remaining material. Use of high repetition rate lasers with picosecond pulse duration offers new possibilities for high quality and efficiency patterning of advanced materials for thin-film electronics.

  6. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L. (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  7. Recent advances in the transparent conducting ZnO for thin-film Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Taeho; Shin, Gwang Su; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-11-01

    The key challenge for solar-cell development lies in the improvement of power-conversion efficiency and the reduction of fabrication cost. For thin-film Si solar cells, researches have been especially focused on the light trapping for the breakthrough in the saturated efficiencies. The ZnO-based transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) have therefore received strong attention because of their excellent light-scattering capability by the texture-etched surface and cost effectiveness through in-house fabrication. Here, we have highlighted our recent studies on the transparent conducting ZnO for thin-film Si solar cells. From the electrical properties and their degradation mechanisms, bilayer deposition and organic-acid texturing approaches for enhancing the light trapping, and finally the relation between textured ZnO and electrical cell performances are sequentially introduced in this review article. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Photon management in thin-film solar cells; Photon-Management in Duennschicht-Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahr, Stephan

    2011-11-22

    In this thesis procedures were presented, which modify the propagation of the incident light in such a way that by this the efficiency of thin-film solar cells is increased. The strength of the presented numerical studies lies thereby in the rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations. Fundamental statements concerning the lay-out of an ideal texture could be made, which for present thin-film solar cells over the whole relevant spectral range both suppresses reflection losses and leads to an elongation of the effective path. Object of the thesis was also the design of a spectral- and angular-selective filter, which confines the acceptance angle of a solar cell with the aim of an improved absorption in the long-wave spectral region. Furthermore also tandem cells on the base of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon were studied.

  9. Advanced electrical simulation of thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced electrical simulation of copper indium gallium diselenide solar cells is illustrated by setting up a demonstration case in SCAPS (Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator), the solar cell simulation programme of the University of Gent. The model includes band gap grading, multivalent defects and metastable transitions between defects. This simplified demonstration model clearly and quantitatively illustrates some topics that were extensively discussed in recent literature: metastable defects exist in either an acceptor or in a donor configuration; the occupation of these configurations is set during initial conditions at higher temperature, and then frozen in during cell operation at lower temperature. These occupations can strongly influence the effective doping profile in the absorber, and hence possible energy barriers in the structure. The dependence of such barriers on the initial conditions and on the operating voltage can cause a considerable dependence of the currentvoltage characteristics on the initial conditions, especially of the fill factor. At the same time, the demonstration model illustrates some of the recent extensions of SCAPS. - Highlights: ? SCAPS, the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator of UGent is freely available. ? SCAPS is keeping up with the sophistication of state-of-the-art solar cells. ? It can now handle: multivalent and metastable defects; grading of all properties. ? It is shown how metastable defects can lead to metastable cell characteristics. ? A relation conduction band barrier-fill factor is numerically established

  10. Advanced electrical simulation of thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgelman, Marc, E-mail: Marc.Burgelman@elis.ugent.be; Decock, Koen; Khelifi, Samira; Abass, Aimi

    2013-05-01

    Advanced electrical simulation of copper indium gallium diselenide solar cells is illustrated by setting up a demonstration case in SCAPS (Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator), the solar cell simulation programme of the University of Gent. The model includes band gap grading, multivalent defects and metastable transitions between defects. This simplified demonstration model clearly and quantitatively illustrates some topics that were extensively discussed in recent literature: metastable defects exist in either an acceptor or in a donor configuration; the occupation of these configurations is set during initial conditions at higher temperature, and then frozen in during cell operation at lower temperature. These occupations can strongly influence the effective doping profile in the absorber, and hence possible energy barriers in the structure. The dependence of such barriers on the initial conditions and on the operating voltage can cause a considerable dependence of the currentvoltage characteristics on the initial conditions, especially of the fill factor. At the same time, the demonstration model illustrates some of the recent extensions of SCAPS. - Highlights: ? SCAPS, the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator of UGent is freely available. ? SCAPS is keeping up with the sophistication of state-of-the-art solar cells. ? It can now handle: multivalent and metastable defects; grading of all properties. ? It is shown how metastable defects can lead to metastable cell characteristics. ? A relation conduction band barrier-fill factor is numerically established.

  11. Computational and experimental study of a multi-layer absorptivity enhanced thin film silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the computational design, fabrication and validation of a multi-layer silicon based thin film solar cell. The cell structure consists of a thin absorber layer of amorphous silicon deposited on a back-reflector aluminum layer and coated on top with ITO transparent conductive oxide. The structure is mounted on a glass substrate. We first use constrained optimization techniques along with numerical solvers of the electromagnetic equations (i.e. FDTD) to tune the geometry of the design. The resulting structure suggests that photon absorptivity in the thin film silicon can be enhanced by as much as 100% over the uncoated layer. The proposed design is then fabricated using thin film deposition techniques, along with a control sample of bare silicon absorber for comparison. AFM imaging and spectrophotometry experiments are applied to image and record the surface roughness and measure the reflectivity spectrum of the sample. Using the measured reflectivity spectrum, we then use inverse optimization to estimate the realized thin film dimensions, deposition error and unwanted oxidation volume. At the end, we use a statistical Monte Carlo analysis as a second method of verification to demonstrate that the measured spectra are in accordance with the expected curves from simulation, and to estimate the effects of fabrication error. - Highlights: Design, fabrication and validation of multi-layer silicon solar cell are studied. The cell consists of aluminum, amorphous silicon and ITO layers. The proposed designs are fabricated by deposition techniques. Inverse optimization is used to estimate the realized dimensions and errors

  12. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  13. Light-trapping design of graphene transparent electrodes for efficient thin-film silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the performance of solar cells with graphene transparent electrodes is compared with cells using conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, and it is demonstrated the optical absorption of solar cells with bare graphene structure is worse than that of bare ITO structure because of the higher refractive index of graphene. To enhance the light trapping of graphene-based thin-film solar cells, a simple two-layer SiO(2)/SiC structure is proposed as antireflection coatings deposited on top of graphene transparent electrodes, and the thickness of each layer is optimized by differential evolution in order to enhance the optical absorption of a-Si:H thin-film solar cells to the greatest degree. The optimization results demonstrate the optimal SiO(2)/SiC/graphene structure can obtain 37.30% enhancement with respect to bare ITO structure, which has obviously exceeded the light-trapping enhancement of 34.15% for the optimal SiO(2)/SiC/ITO structure. Therefore, with the aid of the light-trapping structure, the graphene films are a very promising indium-free transparent electrode substitute for the conventional ITO electrode for use in cost-efficient thin-film silicon solar cells. PMID:22945173

  14. Water vapour passivation of poly-Si thin film solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Fejfar, Antonn; P?, Vlastimil; Mller, Martin; Ledinsk, Martin; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Ko?ka, Jan

    Mnchen : WIP Wirtschaft und Infrastruktur GmbH & Co Planungs KG, 2012 - (Nowak, S.), s. 2393-2395 ISBN 3-936338-28-0. [European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (PVSEC) /17./. Frankfurt (DE), 24.09.2012-28.09.2012] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : polycrystalline * silicon * thin film solar cell * water vapour passivation * in situ investigation * Suns-Voc Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  15. Transfer printing methods for flexible thin film solar cells: basic concepts and working principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2014-09-23

    Fabricating thin film solar cells (TFSCs) on flexible substrates will not only broaden the applications of solar cells, but also potentially reduce the installation cost. However, a critical challenge for fabricating flexible TFSCs on flexible substrates is the incompatibility issues between the thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of these substrates and the fabrication conditions. Transfer printing methods, which use conventional substrates for the fabrication and then deliver the TFSCs onto flexible substrates, play a key role to overcome these challenges. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and working principles of four major transfer printing methods associated with (1) transfer by sacrificial layers, (2) transfer by porous Si layer, (3) transfer by controlled crack, and (4) transfer by water-assisted thin film delamination. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities for implementing these methods for practical solar cell manufacture. PMID:25184987

  16. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  17. Advanced characterization techniques for thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Uwe; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Written by scientists from leading institutes in Germany, USA and Spain who use these techniques as the core of their scientific work and who have a precise idea of what is relevant for photovoltaic devices, this text contains concise and comprehensive lecture-like chapters on specific research methods.They focus on emerging, specialized techniques that are new to the field of photovoltaics yet have a proven relevance. However, since new methods need to be judged according to their implications for photovoltaic devices, a clear introductory chapter describes the basic physics of thin-film

  18. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Institute of Energy Conversion

    1997-11-01

    During the third phase of the subcontract, IEC researchers have continued to provide the thin film PV community with greater depth of understanding and insight into a wide variety of issues including: the deposition and characterization of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, a-Si, CdTe, CdS, and TCO thin films; the relationships between film and device properties; and the processing and analysis of thin film PV devices. This has been achieved through the systematic investigation of all aspects of film and device production and through the analysis and quantification of the reaction chemistries involved in thin film deposition. This methodology has led to controlled fabrications of 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells over a wide range of Ga compositions, improved process control of the fabrication of 10% efficient a-Si solar cells, and reliable and generally applicable procedures for both contacting and doping films. Additional accomplishments are listed below.

  19. Development of thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells by a solid phase crystallization (SPC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Takao; Baba, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Makoto; Isomura, Masao; Tsuda, Shinya; Nakano, Shoichi; Kuwano, Yukinori [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Hirakata, Osaka (Japan). Functional Materials Research Center

    1993-12-31

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films prepared by the solid phase crystallization (SPC) method were studied for photovoltaic materials. To improve the properties of the poly-Si thin film, a-Si films suited to the solid phase crystallization were investigated. It was found that TA/TO (peak height ratio of TA peak and TO peak) in Raman spectra of a-Si films had the good correlation with the average grain size, and a factor for the enlargement of grain size was an increase of distortion energy stored in a-Si films. The first adoption of a textured substrate was also performed, which had effects on the enlargement of grain size in poly-Si thin films by the SPC method. By applying the a-Si films with large TA/TO value on textured substrate, the n-type poly-Si thin-film with the grain size of 6 {micro}m was fabricated and this film showed the Hall mobility of 623 cm{sup 2}/Vs (electron density: 3.0 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}). A new heterojunction technology, which was called Artificially Constructed Junction (ACJ), was developed by depositions of thin a-Si films on single-crystalline silicon (c-Si). In a solar cell using this technology, a high conversion efficiency of 18.7% was achieved. This is the highest value ever reported for solar cells in which the junctions were fabricated at a low temperature of less than 200 C. In a thin-film poly-Si solar cell (thickness: 10 {micro}m) applying this technology, a conversion efficiency of 6.3% was also obtained and a collection efficiency of 51% was achieved at a wavelength of 900 nm. This high value attributes to the hole diffusion length of 11 {micro}m, which is longer than the poly-Si thickness.

  20. Thermal Characteristics of Multilayer Insulation Materials for Flexible Thin-Film Solar Cell Array of Stratospheric Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Kangwen Sun; Qinzhen Yang; Yang Yang; Shun Wang; Jianming Xu; Qiang Liu; Yong Xie; Peng Lou

    2014-01-01

    Flexible thin-film solar cell is an efficient energy system on the surface of stratospheric airship for utilizing the solar energy. In order to ensure the normal operation of airship platform, the thermal control problem between the flexible thin-film solar cell and the airship envelope should be properly resolved. In this paper, a multilayer insulation material (MLI) is developed first, and low temperature environment test is carried out to verify the insulation effect of MLI. Then, a therma...

  1. Development of a thin film solar cell interconnect for the PowerSphere concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive development of microsatellite technologies has resulted in increased demand for lightweight electrical power subsystems including solar arrays. The use of thin film photovoltaics has been recognized as a key solution to meet the power needs. The lightweight cells can generate sufficient power and still meet critical mass requirements. Commercially available solar cells produced on lightweight substrates are being studied as an option to fulfill the power needs. The commercially available solar cells are relatively inexpensive and have a high payoff potential. Commercially available thin film solar cells are primarily being produced for terrestrial applications. The need to convert the solar cell from a terrestrial to a space compatible application is the primary challenge. Solar cell contacts, grids and interconnects need to be designed to be atomic oxygen resistant and withstand rapid thermal cycling environments. A mechanically robust solar cell interconnect is also required in order to withstand handling during fabrication and survive during launch. The need to produce the solar cell interconnects has been identified as a primary goal of the PowerSphere program and is the topic of this paper. Details of the trade study leading to the final design involving the solar cell wrap around contact, flex blanket, welding process, and frame will be presented at the conference

  2. Development of a Thin Film Solar Cell Interconnect for the Powersphere Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James H.; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander, III; Liu, Simon; Rawal, Suraj P.; Perry, Alan R.; Marshall, Craig H.; Lin, John K.; Scarborough, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Progressive development of microsatellite technologies has resulted in increased demand for lightweight electrical power subsystems including solar arrays. The use of thin film photovoltaics has been recognized as a key solution to meet the power needs. The lightweight cells can generate sufficient power and still meet critical mass requirements. Commercially available solar cells produced on lightweight substrates are being studied as an option to fulfill the power needs. The commercially available solar cells are relatively inexpensive and have a high payoff potential. Commercially available thin film solar cells are primarily being produced for terrestrial applications. The need to convert the solar cell from a terrestrial to a space compatible application is the primary challenge. Solar cell contacts, grids and interconnects need to be designed to be atomic oxygen resistant and withstand rapid thermal cycling environments. A mechanically robust solar cell interconnect is also required in order to withstand handling during fabrication and survive during launch. The need to produce the solar cell interconnects has been identified as a primary goal of the Powersphere program and is the topic of this paper. Details of the trade study leading to the final design involving the solar cell wrap around contact, flex blanket, welding process, and frame will be presented at the conference.

  3. Numerical modeling of SiH4 discharge for Si thin film deposition for thin film transistor and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon thin films are used in solar cells as a multi-junction photovoltaic device. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is used and high deposition rate of a few nm/s is required while keeping film quality. SiH4 is used as a precursor diluted with H2. Electron impact processes give complex interdependent plasma chemical reactions. Many researchers suggest keeping high H/SiHx ratio is important. Numerical modeling of this process for capacitively coupled plasma and inductively coupled plasma is done to investigate which process parameters are playing key roles in determining it. A full set of 67 volume reactions and reduced set are used. Under most of conditions, CCP shows 100 times higher H/SiH3 ratio over ICP case due to its spatially localized two electron temperature distribution. Multi hollow cathode type CCP is also modeled as a 2 x 2 hole array. For Ar, the discharge is well localized at the neck of the hole at a few Torr of gas pressure. H2 and SiH4 + H2 needed higher gas pressure and power density to get a multi hole localized density profile. H/SiH3 was calculated to be about 1/10.

  4. Characterization of Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    was one of the main topics during this PhD, where the construction and development of light concentrators, both by sun light as well as artificial light, was given extensive attention. This resulted in three different light concentrators, a lens based solar concentrator, a mirror based solar...... response in terms of stability of the cells was found to be highly complex and effects not dominant at 1 sun were observed. Thus, specific knowledge of the response of the different layers to concentrated light is needed to use concentrated light as a valid acceleration parameter (Chapter 5)....... which the life time of the cell is highly increased. An alternative approach is to increase the photo stability of the cell components, and especially the light absorbing conjugated polymer has been subject to extensive attention. The photo stability of conjugated polymers varies by orders of magnitude...

  5. Sol-gel coatings for light trapping in crystalline thin film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Brendel, R (Rolf); Gier, Andreas; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut K.; J. H. Werner

    1997-01-01

    An increase of light absorption by light trapping is a key issue for the design of thin film solar cells from crystalline silicon. According to our numerical work, the deposition of crystalline silicon layers of thickness, W= 4 m, on textured glass substrates doubles the cell current for facet angles, ? = 75, and texture periods, p < 16 m, without the need for anti reflection coatings. We demonstrate the fabrication of such micron-sized light traps by embossing of sol-gel...

  6. Ion beam treatment of functional layers in thin-film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wendi

    2012-01-01

    In silicon thin-film solar cells, transparent conductive layers have to fulfill the following requirements: high conductivity as effective contact, high transparency to transmit the light into the cell, and a textured surface which provides light scattering. Magnetron sputtered and wet-chemically textured aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films are widely used as the transparent conductor. The technological goal of this dissertation is to develop an alternative to the wet etching process for...

  7. Silicon -Light: a European project aiming at high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells on foil

    OpenAIRE

    Soppe W.; Krc J.; Leitner K.; Haug F.-J.; Duchamp M.; Sanchez Plaza G.; Wang Q.-K.

    2014-01-01

    In the European project Silicon-Light we developed concepts and technologies to increase conversion efficiencies of thin film silicon solar cells on foil. Main focus was put on improved light management, using NIL for creating light scattering textures, improved TCOs using sputtering, and improved silicon absorber material made by PECVD. On foil we achieved initial cell efficiencies of 11% and on rigid substrates stable efficiencies of ...

  8. Thin Film CIGS Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Modules, and the Problems of Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Parisi; Luciano Curcio; Vincenzo Rocca; Salvatore Stivala; Cino, Alfonso C.; Busacca, Alessandro C.; Giovanni Cipriani; Diego La Cascia; Vincenzo Di Dio; Rosario Miceli; Giuseppe Ricco Galluzzo

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the results regarding a nonvacuum technique to fabricate CIGS thin films for solar cells by means of single-step electrodeposition, we focus on the methodological problems of modeling at cell structure and photovoltaic module levels. As a matter of fact, electrodeposition is known as a practical alternative to costly vacuum-based technologies for semiconductor processing in the photovoltaic device sector, but it can lead to quite different structural and electrical properties. F...

  9. Porous copper zinc tin sulfide thin film as photocathode for double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Guan; Chen, Yuncheng; Jiang, Hechun; Feng, Zhenyu; Lin, Zhaojun; Zhan, Jinhua

    2012-03-21

    Porous copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) thin film was prepared via a solvothermal approach. Compared with conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), double junction photoelectrochemical cells using dye-sensitized n-type TiO(2) (DS-TiO(2)) as the photoanode and porous p-type CZTS film as the photocathode shows an increased short circuit current, external quantum efficiency and power conversion efficiency. PMID:22322239

  10. Thin-Film Solar Cells on Metal Foil Substrates for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Hoffman, David J.; Dhere, N.; Tuttle, J. R.; Jin, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays have played a key role in power generation in space. The current technology will continue to evolve but is limited in the important mass specific power metric (MSP or power/weight ratio) because it is based on bulk crystal technology. The objective of this research is to continue development of an innovative photovoltaic technology for satellite power sources that could provide up to an order of magnitude saving in both weight and cost, and is inherently radiation-tolerant through use of thin film technology and thin foil substrates such as 5-mil thick stainless steel foil or 1-mil thick Ti. Current single crystal technology for space power can cost more than $300 per watt at the array level and weigh more than 1 kg/sq m equivalent to specific power of approx. 65 W/kg. Thin film material such as CuIn(1-x),Ga(x)S2, (CIGS2), CuIn(1-x), G(x)Se(2-y),S(y), (CIGSS) or amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) may be able to reduce both the cost and mass per unit area by an order of magnitude. Manufacturing costs for solar arrays are an important consideration for total spacecraft budget. For a medium sized 5kW satellite, for example, the array manufacturing cost alone may exceed $2 million. Moving to thin film technology could reduce this expense to less than $500 K. Previous work at FSEC demonstrated the potential of achieving higher efficiencies from CIGSS thin film solar cells on 5-mil thick stainless steel foil as well as initial stages of facility augmentation for depositing thin film solar cells on larger (6"x 4") substrates. This paper presents further progress in processing on metal foil substrates. Also, previous work at DayStar demonstrated the feasibility of flexible-thin-film copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells with a power-to-weight ratio in excess of 1000 W/kg. We will comment on progress on the critical issue of scale-up of the solar cell absorber deposition process. Several important technical issues need to be resolved to realize the benefits of lightweight technologies for solar arrays, such as: monolithic interconnects, lightweight array structures, and new ultra-light support and deployment mechanisms. Once the technology has gained spaceflight certification it should find rapid acceptance in specific satellite markets.

  11. Soft X-rays shedding light on thin-film solar cell surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bär, M., E-mail: marcus.baer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Pookpanratana, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Weinhardt, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Wilks, R.G.; Schubert, B.A.; Marsen, B.; Unold, T. [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Blum, M.; Krause, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Zhang, Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Ranasinghe, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Ramanathan, K.; Repins, I.; Contreras, M.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Nishiwaki, S. [Institute for Energy Conversion (IEC), University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► S/Se gradient-driven chemical interaction at the CdS/CIG(S)Se interface. ► Depth-dependent band gap in chalcopyrites. ► Band alignment at the CdS/Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} solar cell heterojunction. ► Post-deposition treatment induces intermixing in the CdTe/CdS solar cell structure. -- Abstract: Thin-film solar cells based on compound semiconductors consist of a multilayer structure with various interfaces and contain a multitude of elements and impurities, etc. A rapid progress of these photovoltaic technologies can only be achieved by an insight-driven optimization/development. Hence it is crucial to characterize and understand the relationship between the chemical and electronic properties of these components. This paper reviews some examples of our recent work characterizing compound semiconductor thin films using laboratory- and synchrotron-based electron and soft X-ray spectroscopic characterization methods. It is demonstrated how these different analytical techniques are extraordinarily powerful to reveal the material characteristics from many different perspectives, ultimately resulting in a comprehensive picture of the related electronic and chemical properties. As examples, the paper will discuss the electronic surface structure of chalcopyrite thin-film solar cell absorbers, the chemical structure of the CdS/chalcopyrite interface, present the band alignment at the CdS/kesterite interface, and report on how post-deposition treatments cause chemical interaction/interdiffusion processes in CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cell structures.

  12. Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on AIT-Textured Glass Superstrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin G. Aberle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new glass texturing method (AIT—aluminium-induced texturisation has recently been developed by our group. In the present work, the potential of this method is explored by fabricating PLASMA poly-Si thin-film solar cells on glass superstrates that were textured with the AIT method. Using an interdigitated metallisation scheme with a full-area Al rear contact, PLASMA cells with an efficiency of up to 7% are realised. This promising result shows that the AIT glass texturing method is fully compatible with the fabrication of poly-Si thin-film solar cells on glass using solid phase crystallisation (SPC of PECVD-deposited amorphous silicon precursor diodes. As such, there are now two distinctly different glass texturing methods—the AIT method and CSG Solar's glass bead method—that are known to be capable of producing efficient SPC poly-Si thin-film solar cells on glass.

  13. IR-imaging and non-destructive loss analysis on thin film solar modules and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jens; Fecher, Frank W.; Hoga, Felix; Vetter, Andreas; Buerhop, Claudia; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2014-10-01

    CIGS thin film solar modules, despite their high efficiency, may contain three different kinds of macroscopic defects referred to as bulk defects, interface defects and interconnect defects. These occur due to the film's sensitivity to inhomogeneities during the manufacturing process and decreasing the electrical power output from a cell or module. In this study, we present infrared (IR) imaging and contactless loss analyses of defects contained in commercially manufactured thin film solar modules. We investigated different relations between the emitted IR-signal (using illuminated lock-in thermography ILIT) and the respective open circuit cell voltage (Voc) as well as the maximum power point (Pmpp). A simulation study, using the 2D finite element method (FEM), provides a deeper understanding as to the impact on electrical performance when defects are present on the cell or module.

  14. Ultra-Thin-Film GaAs Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K. L.; Shin, B. K.; Yeh, Y. C. M.; Stirn, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Process based on organo-metallic chemical vapor deposition (OM/CVD) of trimethyl gallium with arsine forms economical ultrathin GaAs epitaxial films. Process has higher potential for low manufacturing cost and large-scale production compared with more-conventional halide CVD and liquid-phase epitaxy processes. By reducing thickness of GaAs and substituting low-cost substrate for single-crystal GaAs wafer, process would make GaAs solar cells commercially more attractive.

  15. Current Approach in Surface Plasmons for Thin Film and Wire Array Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmons, which exist along the interface of a metal and a dielectric, have been proposed as an efficient alternative method for light trapping in solar cells during the past ten years. With unique properties such as superior light scattering, optical trapping, guide mode coupling, near field concentration, and hot-electron generation, metallic nanoparticles or nanostructures can be tailored to a certain geometric design to enhance solar cell conversion efficiency and to reduce the material costs. In this article, we review current approaches on different kinds of solar cells, such as crystalline silicon (c-Si and amorphous silicon (a-Si thin film solar cells, organic solar cells, nanowire array solar cells, and single nanowire solar cells.

  16. Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah

    2011-01-01

    This book provides valuable contents about the fabrication and characterization of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 based thin film solar cells and modules. The growth of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 absorbers, buffers, window layers, antireflection coatings, and finally metallic grids, which are the sole components of solar cells, is clearly illustrated. The absorber, which contains multiple elements, segregates secondary phases if the growth conditions are not well optimized i.e., the main drawback in the fabrication of solar cells. More importantly the solutions for the growth of thin f

  17. Thin-film solar cells on perlite glass-ceramic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Stepan G.; Babayan, Virab H.; Musayelyan, Ashot S.; Harutyunyan, Levon A.; Zalesski, Valery B.; Kravchenko, Vladimir M.; Leonova, Tatyana R.; Polikanin, Alexander M.; Khodin, Alexander A.

    2013-06-01

    For the first time, thin-film CIGS solar cells have been fabricated by co-evaporation on specially developed non-conducting perlite (an aluminum potassium sodium silicate natural mineral of volcanic origin) glass-ceramic substrates to develop a fully integrated photovoltaic and building element. Such glass-ceramic material can meet the physical requirements to solar cells substrates as well as the cost goals. The preliminary data presented show that CIGS solar cells deposited on ceramic substrates can exhibit efficiency higher than 10%.

  18. 2D device modelling and finite element simulations for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malm, Ulf; Edoff, Marika [Aangstroem Solar Center, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    Thin-film heterojunction solar cell devices are modelled in two dimensions, from fundamental material parameters, using the finite element method. The electrostatic potential is solved for, together with the quasi-Fermi levels, while optical absorption is calculated from n and k values of the materials used. In this implementation, all material parameters can be input as functions of spatial coordinates, which makes it very flexible when applied to materials with inhomogeneities. As an example of the model in use, it is applied to a thin-film solar cell based on a structure with a CIGS absorber layer, a CdS buffer layer and a ZnO/ZAO transparent front contact. The effects of spatial inhomogeneities in the band gap energy and in the mid-gap trap level density on device performance are simulated. (author)

  19. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.plentz@ipht-jena.de; Andr, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Hger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-02-23

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5??m thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4?mA/cm{sup 2} and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiO{sub x}/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604?mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  20. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5??m thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiOx and Al2O3 terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al2O3/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4?mA/cm2 and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiOx/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al2O3 lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604?mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber

  1. Superior light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells through nano imprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppe, W.J.; Dorenkamper, M.S.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Pex, P.P.A.C.

    2013-10-15

    ECN and partners have developed a fabrication process based on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of textures for light trapping in thin film solar cells such as thin-film silicon, OPV, CIGS and CdTe. The process can be applied in roll-to-roll mode when using a foil substrate or in roll-to-plate mode when using a glass substrate. The lacquer also serves as an electrically insulating layer for cells if steel foil is used as substrate, to enable monolithic series interconnection. In this paper we will show the superior light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells made on steel foil with nanotextured back contacts. We have made single junction a-Si and {mu}c-Si and a-Si/{mu}c-Si tandem cells, where we applied several types of nano-imprints with random and periodic structures. We will show that the nano-imprinted back contact enables more than 30% increase of current in comparison with non-textured back contacts and that optimized periodic textures outperform state-of-the-art random textures. For a-Si cells we obtained Jsc of 18 mA/cm{sup 2} and for {mu}c-Si cells more than 24 mA/cm{sup 2}. Tandem cells with a total Si absorber layer thickness of only 1350 nm have an initial efficiency of 11%.

  2. Impact of contamination on hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films & solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wördenweber, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with atmospheric contamination and cross-contamination of boron (single-chamber process) of the intrinsic absorber layer (i-layer) of p-i-n thin film solar cells based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The atmospheric contaminations were introduced by means of intentional leaks. Hereby, the focus is on the influence of contamination species (oxygen & nitrogen), quantity of contamination (leak flow), source of contamination (leaks at chamber wall or in the process gas pipe),...

  3. Bimodal nanostructured TiO2 thin films for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalov, Markta; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukal, Arnot; Graetzel, M.

    Mlaga : BrownWalker Press, 2012. s. 99-99. ISBN 978-1-61233-558-2. [EMR 2012 : The Energy and Materials Research Conference. 20.06.2012-22.06.2012, Torremolinos] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP108/12/0814 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TiO2 * thin films * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  4. Scope of VHF plasma deposition for thin-film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Keppner, H.; Kroll, U.; Torres, P.; Meier, J.; Fischer, D.; Goetz, M; Tscharner, R.; Shah, A.

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide attempts in obtaining thin-film crystalline silicon are reviewed. Based on literature published so far, it appears that high-temperature manufacturing steps seem to be unavoidable for obtaining high conversion efficiencies of crystalline silicon based solar cells. High process temperatures are in contradiction for the use of low-cost substrates like e.g. glass or aluminium. Such substrates, however, are essential for obtaining low module manufacturing costs. The very high frequ...

  5. Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, F.-J.; Sderstrm, K; Naqavi, A.; Ballif, C.

    2011-01-01

    We study absorption enhancement by light scattering at periodically textured interfaces in thin film silicon solar cells. We show that the periodicity establishes resonant coupling to propagating waveguide modes. Ideally, such modes propagate in the high index silicon film where they are eventually absorbed, but waveguide modes exist also in the transparent front contact layer if the product of its refractive index and thickness exceeds half the wavelength. Taking into account that the absorp...

  6. Admittance spectroscopy of Cu2ZnSnS4 based thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, P.A.; Sartori, A. F.; Salom, P. M. P.; Malaquias, J.; Cunha, A. F. da; Graa, M.P.F.; Gonzlez, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we propose an AC response equivalent circuit model to describe the admittance measurements of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cell grown by sulphurization of stacked metallic precursors. This circuit describes the contact resistances, the back contact, and the heterojunction with two trap levels. The study of the back contact resistance allowed the estimation of a back contact barrier of 246 meV. The analysis of the trap series with varying temperature revealed defect...

  7. Plasmon supported defect absorption in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells and devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lkermann, Florian

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the absorption of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cell devices is investigated. Small metal nanostructures with lateral dimensions well below 100 nm accompany strong absorption and large electric field amplitudes in their vicinity. This is caused by the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances that are excited upon interaction of light with the nanostructures. By combining silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with am...

  8. In Situ Measuring System Designed for Improvement of Poly-Si Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Fejfar, Antonn; Ledinsk, Martin; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Ko?ka, Jan; Benda, V.

    Honolulu, 2011. [The Fourth International Forum on Multidisciplinary Education and Research for Energy Science. 17.12.2011-21.12. 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ?R KAN400100701; GA Mk LC510 Grant ostatn: FP7(XE) 240826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : polycrystalline silicon * thin film solar cells * water vapor passivation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Onno; Kirner Simon; Klick Michael; Stannowski Bernd; Schlatmann Rutger

    2014-01-01

    A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of ...

  10. Microscopic characterizations of nanostructured silicon thin films for solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fejfar, Antonn; Klapetek, P.; Zlmal, J.; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Ledinsk, Martin; Ko?ka, Jan

    Warrendale : MRS, 2011 - (Yan, B.; Higashi, S.; Tsai, C.; Wang, Q.; Gleskova, H.), s. 313-321 ISBN 9781605112985. - (MRS Symposium Proceeding. 1321). [Materials Research Society Spring Meeting. San Francisko (US), 25.04.2011-29.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) LC06040; GA Mk(CZ) MEB061012; GA AV ?R KAN400100701; GA Mk LC510 Grant ostatn: 7. Framework programme EU(XE) no. 240826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : silicon * scanning probe methods * solar cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  11. High efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerdling, S.; Wang, K. L.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of producing high-efficiency GaAs solar cells with high power-to-weight ratios by organic metallic chemical vapor deposition (OM-CVD) growth of thin epi-layers on suitable substrates. An AM1 conversion efficiency of 18% (14% AM0), or 17% (13% AM0) with a 5% grid coverage is achieved for a single-crystal GaAs n(+)/p cell grown by OM-CVD on a Ge wafer. Thin GaAs epi-layers OM-CVD grown can be fabricated with good crystallographic quality using a Si-substrate on which a thin Ge epi-interlayer is first deposited by CVD from GeH4 and processed for improved surface morphology

  12. Impurity-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Physical Deposition Methods Appropriate for Transparent Electrode Applications in Thin-film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Miyata, Toshihiro; Nomoto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the development of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films that would be appropriate for applications as transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells. Transparent conducting Al-, B- and Ga-doped ZnO (AZO, BZO and GZO) thin films were prepared in a thickness range from 500 to 2000 nm on glass substrates at 200C using various physical deposition methods: BZO films with vacuum arc plasma evaporation, AZO and GZO films with different types of magnetron sputtering depositions (MSDs) and all films with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The suitability and stability of the electrical properties and, in addition, the suitability of the light scattering characteristics and surface texture formation were investigated in the prepared thin films. In particular, the suitability and stability evaluation was focused on the use of AZO, BZO and GZO thin films prepared by doping each impurity at an appropriate content to attain the lowest resistivity. The higher Hall mobility obtained in impurity-doped ZnO thin films with a resistivity on the order of 10-4 ?cm was related more to the content, i.e., the obtained carrier concentration, rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films. The stability of resistivity of the BZO thin films in long-term moisture-resistance tests (in air at 85% relative humidity and 85C) was found to be lower than that of the AZO and GZO thin films. The surface texture formation was carried out by wet-chemical etching (in a 0.1% HCl solution at 25C) conducted either before or after being heat-treated either with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or without RTA. The suitability of the light scattering characteristics and the surface texture formation obtainable by wet-chemical etching (for use in transparent electrode applications) was considerably dependent on the deposition method used as well as whether the wet-chemical etching was conducted with or without RTA. A significant improvement of both transmittance and haze value at wavelengths up to about 1200 nm in the near-infrared region was attained in surface-textured AZO films that were prepared by r.f. power superimposed d.c. MSD as well as etched after being heat treated with RTA at 500C for 5 min in air. The obtained suitability and stability in impurity-doped ZnO thin films were related more to the content rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films as well as to the deposition method used.

  13. Impurity-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Physical Deposition Methods Appropriate for Transparent Electrode Applications in Thin-film Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films that would be appropriate for applications as transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells. Transparent conducting Al-, B- and Ga-doped ZnO (AZO, BZO and GZO) thin films were prepared in a thickness range from 500 to 2000 nm on glass substrates at 200C using various physical deposition methods: BZO films with vacuum arc plasma evaporation, AZO and GZO films with different types of magnetron sputtering depositions (MSDs) and all films with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The suitability and stability of the electrical properties and, in addition, the suitability of the light scattering characteristics and surface texture formation were investigated in the prepared thin films. In particular, the suitability and stability evaluation was focused on the use of AZO, BZO and GZO thin films prepared by doping each impurity at an appropriate content to attain the lowest resistivity. The higher Hall mobility obtained in impurity-doped ZnO thin films with a resistivity on the order of 10?4 ?cm was related more to the content, i.e., the obtained carrier concentration, rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films. The stability of resistivity of the BZO thin films in long-term moisture-resistance tests (in air at 85% relative humidity and 85C) was found to be lower than that of the AZO and GZO thin films. The surface texture formation was carried out by wet-chemical etching (in a 0.1% HCl solution at 25C) conducted either before or after being heat-treated either with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or without RTA. The suitability of the light scattering characteristics and the surface texture formation obtainable by wet-chemical etching (for use in transparent electrode applications) was considerably dependent on the deposition method used as well as whether the wet-chemical etching was conducted with or without RTA. A significant improvement of both transmittance and haze value at wavelengths up to about 1200 nm in the near-infrared region was attained in surface-textured AZO films that were prepared by r.f. power superimposed d.c. MSD as well as etched after being heat treated with RTA at 500C for 5 min in air. The obtained suitability and stability in impurity-doped ZnO thin films were related more to the content rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films as well as to the deposition method used.

  14. Thin-film silicon solar cell development on imprint-textured glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Ulrich Wilhelm; Zhang, Wendi [Institut fr Energie- und Klimaforschung 5 Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, D-52425 Jlich (Germany); Prmpers, Michael [Peter Grnberg Institut 8 Bioelectronics, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, D-52425 Jlich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Joachim; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina; Michard, Stephan; Carius, Reinhard; Gordijn, Aad [Institut fr Energie- und Klimaforschung 5 Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, D-52425 Jlich (Germany); Meier, Matthias, E-mail: ma.meier@fz-juelich.de [Institut fr Energie- und Klimaforschung 5 Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, D-52425 Jlich (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells fabricated on textured glass. ? Replication of light trapping textures with a UV-nanoimprint process. ? Excellent replication precision with soft polymer mold. ? Thin TCO front contacts (60 nm) for enhanced incoupling of incident light. ? Impact of high series resistance of front contacts avoided by reduced cell width. -- Abstract: In this work, we report on the fabrication of microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells on textured glass substrates. The development of transparent and conductive front contacts for these solar cells is presented. State-of-the-art random textures for light-trapping were replicated into a glass-like resist on glass substrates with an imprint process. We applied an industrial relevant soft polymer mold that gives excellent replication accuracy. The necessity of applying thin front contacts for enhanced incoupling of the incident light is shown. An increased series resistance of these thin front contacts caused a decrease of the fill factor of the solar cells. One way to surpass this decrease in fill factor by reducing the solar cell width is demonstrated. In addition, the light-trapping and the light-incoupling for solar cells deposited on three different types of random textures were compared.

  15. Thin-film silicon solar cell development on imprint-textured glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells fabricated on textured glass. ? Replication of light trapping textures with a UV-nanoimprint process. ? Excellent replication precision with soft polymer mold. ? Thin TCO front contacts (60 nm) for enhanced incoupling of incident light. ? Impact of high series resistance of front contacts avoided by reduced cell width. -- Abstract: In this work, we report on the fabrication of microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells on textured glass substrates. The development of transparent and conductive front contacts for these solar cells is presented. State-of-the-art random textures for light-trapping were replicated into a glass-like resist on glass substrates with an imprint process. We applied an industrial relevant soft polymer mold that gives excellent replication accuracy. The necessity of applying thin front contacts for enhanced incoupling of the incident light is shown. An increased series resistance of these thin front contacts caused a decrease of the fill factor of the solar cells. One way to surpass this decrease in fill factor by reducing the solar cell width is demonstrated. In addition, the light-trapping and the light-incoupling for solar cells deposited on three different types of random textures were compared

  16. Full potential of radial junction Si thin film solar cells with advanced junction materials and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shengyi; Misra, Soumyadeep; Lu, Jiawen; Yu, Zhongwei; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Ling; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2015-07-01

    Combining advanced materials and junction design in nanowire-based thin film solar cells requires a different thinking of the optimization strategy, which is critical to fulfill the potential of nano-structured photovoltaics. Based on a comprehensive knowledge of the junction materials involved in the multilayer stack, we demonstrate here, in both experimental and theoretical manners, the potential of hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells in a radial junction (RJ) configuration. Resting upon a solid experimental basis, we also assess a more advanced tandem RJ structure with radially stacking a-Si:H/nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si:H) PIN junctions, and show that a balanced photo-current generation with a short circuit current density of Jsc = 14.2 mA/cm2 can be achieved in a tandem RJ cell, while reducing the expensive nc-Si:H absorber thickness from 1-3 ? m (in planar tandem cells) to only 120 nm. These results provide a clearly charted route towards a high performance Si thin film photovoltaics.

  17. 3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uepping, Johannes; Miclea, Paul T.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B. [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Heinrich-Damerow-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk [Institute of Condensed Matter Theory and Solid States Optics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Peters, Marius [Freiburg Centre for Material Research, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Steidl, Lorenz; Zentel, Rudolf [Dept. of Chemistry, Pharmacy and Earth Science, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14 (Germany); Lee, Seung-Mo; Knez, Mato [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambertz, Andreas; Carius, Reinhard [Institute of Energy Research, IEF-5 Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Bielawny, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The concept of 3D photonic intermediate reflectors for micromorph silicon tandem solar cells has been investigated. In thin-film silicon tandem solar cells consisting of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon with two junctions of a-Si/{mu}c-Si, efficiency enhancements can be achieved by increasing the current density in the a-Si top cell. It is one goal to provide an optimized current matching at high current densities. For an ideal photon-management between top and bottom cell, a spectrally selective intermediate reflective layer (IRL) is necessary, which is less dependent of the angle of incidence than state-of-the-art thickness dependent massive interlayers. The design, preparation and characterization of a 3D photonic thin-film filter device for this purpose has been pursued straight forward in simulation and experimental realization. The inverted opal is capable of providing a suitable optical band stop with high reflectance and the necessary long wavelength transmittance as well and provides further options for improved light trapping. We have determined numerically the relative efficiency enhancement of an a-Si/{mu}c-Si tandem solar cell using a conductive 3D-photonic crystal. We have further fabricated such structures by ZnO-replication of polymeric opals using chemical vapour deposition and atomic layer deposition techniques and present the results of their characterization. Thin film photonic IRL have been prepared at the rear side of a-Si solar cells. Completed with a back contact, this is the first step to integrate this novel technology into an a-Si/{mu}c-Si tandem solar cell process. The spectral response of the cell is presented and compared with reference cells. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Performance evaluation of thin film silicon solar cell based on dual diffraction grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Raghvendra Sarvjeet; Saravanan, Sigamani; Kalainathan, Sivaperuman

    2014-12-01

    Light-trapping structures are more demanding for optimal light absorption in thin film silicon solar cells. Accordingly, new design engineering of solar cells has been emphasized and found to be effective to achieve improved performance. This paper deals with a design of thin film silicon solar cells and explores the influence of bottom grating and combination of top and bottom (dual) grating as a part of back reflector with a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Use of metal layer as a part of back reflector has found to be promising for minimum requirement of DBR pairs. The effect of grating and anti-reflection coating thicknesses are also investigated for absorption enhancement. With optimization, high performance has been achieved from dual grating-based solar cell with a relative enhancement in short-circuit current approximately 68% while it was approximately 55% in case of bottom grating-based solar cell. Our designing efforts show enhanced absorption of light in UV and infrared part of solar spectrum. PMID:26088994

  19. Experimental study of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films for solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Flammersberger, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of about 1,5 eV and anabsorption coefficient of 10^4 cm^-1, and is for this reason a potential thin film solarcell material. Demonstrated efficiencies of up to 6,8% as well as use of cheap andabundant elements make CZTS a promising alternative to current solar cells.The aim of this study was to fabricate and characterize CZTS films and to evaluatetheir performance in complete solar cells. For the fabrication of CZTS we applied atwo-st...

  20. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Onno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of substrate and chamber wall temperature and chamber history on the PECVD process. The impact of chamber wall conditioning on the solar cell performance is demonstrated.

  1. Needle Profile Grating Structure for Absorption Enhancement in GaAs Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yile; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Minqiang; Sun, Xiaohong; Yu, Yanguang; Xi, Jiangtao

    2015-11-01

    We conduct a systematic study of thin film solar cells consisting of a GaAs needle profile (NP) grating structure as a light-trapping layer. The influence of geometric parameters on the optical absorption of the NP grating is investigated using rigorous coupled wave analysis and the finite element method. This type of structure can lead to broadband optical absorption enhancement throughout the wavelength range that we studied. Our simulation results reveal that the absorption efficiency of NP grating can be improved significantly compared with its rectangular grating counterpart. The proposed structure is expected to illuminate the design and fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells.

  2. Role of 2-D periodic symmetrical nanostructures in improving efficiency of thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Liyong; Li, Xiangyin

    2016-01-01

    We systematically investigated several different nanostructures in crystalline silicon (c-Si) thin film solar cells and then proposed a brand-new structure with two dimensional (2-D) periodic dielectric cylinders on the top and annular metal columns on bottom surface to enhance the optical harvesting. The periodic symmetrical nanostructures affect the solar cell efficiency due to the grating diffraction effect of dielectric columns and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) effect induced by metal nanostructures at the dielectric-metal interface. About 52.1% more optical absorption and 33.3% more power conversion efficiency are obtained, and the maximum short current reaches to 33.24 mA/cm2.

  3. Thin film solar cell and its manufacturing method; Hakumaku taiyo denchi oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, K.; Murata, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Technical Inst.

    1996-03-08

    Masked film formation and the laser etching method are used for patterning of each film composing a thin film solar cell. The masked film formation method requires a positioning process in order to make contact the underlying film with the masking plate and has a weakness that the film is liable to suffer damage. The laser etching method requires a positioning of irradiating laser beam in accordance with the pattern of the underlying film. This invention presents a configuration to collect the charge generated in the transparent electrode side through penetrating pores provided on the metal substrate on the backside metal film so as to reduce the power loss with the transparent electrode. By the installation of a large number of the penetrating pores on the metal substrate, the positioning of the semiconductor thin film, the transparent electrode and the backside metal film is unnecessary and a thin film solar cell of a large area can be manufactured merely by film formation. 9 figs.

  4. Sustainability of photovoltaics. The case for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure photovoltaics become a major sustainable player in a competitive power-generation market, they must provide abundant, affordable electricity, with environmental impacts drastically lower than those from conventional power generation. The recent reduction in the cost of 2nd generation thin-film PV is remarkable, meeting the production milestone of $1 per watt in the fourth quarter of 2008. This achievement holds great promise for the future. However, the questions remaining are whether the expense of PV modules can be lowered further, and if there are resource- and environmental-impact constraints to growth. I examine the potential of thin-films in a prospective life-cycle analysis, focusing on direct costs, resource availability, and environmental impacts. These three aspects are closely related; developing thinner solar cells and recycling spent modules will become increasingly important in resolving cost, resource, and environmental constraints to large scales of sustainable growth. (author)

  5. Identification of critical stacking faults in thin-film CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Su-Hyun; Walsh, Aron, E-mail: a.walsh@bath.ac.uk [Global E3 Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Butler, Keith T. [Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Soon, Aloysius [Global E3 Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Abbas, Ali; Walls, John M., E-mail: j.m.wall@loughborough.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-11

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type semiconductor used in thin-film solar cells. To achieve high light-to-electricity conversion, annealing in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} is essential, but the underlying mechanism is still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that a reduction in the high density of stacking faults in the CdTe grains is a key process that occurs during the chemical treatment. A range of stacking faults, including intrinsic, extrinsic, and twin boundary, are computationally investigated to identify the extended defects that limit performance. The low-energy faults are found to be electrically benign, while a number of higher energy faults, consistent with atomic-resolution micrographs, are predicted to be hole traps with fluctuations in the local electrostatic potential. It is expected that stacking faults will also be important for other thin-film photovoltaic technologies.

  6. Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film for Solar Cells Utilizing Aluminum Induced Crystallization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Atsushi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Fuyuki, Takashi

    2004-03-01

    In order to realize a polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film solar cell with low cost and high efficiency, high-quality poly-Si is indispensable. We fabricated a high-quality poly-Si film by using aluminum induced crystallization (AIC) as a method of crystallizing amorphous silicon. AIC is a method of crystallizing amorphous silicon by heat treatment below the eutectic temperature (577C). Using AIC poly-Si film as the seeding layer and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD), continuous columnar poly-Si with large grain size was achieved. Deposition of the poly-Si thin film onto AIC poly-Si films was carried out using APCVD. Crystallinity and electronic property of the deposited films was evaluated. Comparably high Hall mobility of more than 80 cm2/Vs was successfully obtained.

  7. Identification of critical stacking faults in thin-film CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type semiconductor used in thin-film solar cells. To achieve high light-to-electricity conversion, annealing in the presence of CdCl2 is essential, but the underlying mechanism is still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that a reduction in the high density of stacking faults in the CdTe grains is a key process that occurs during the chemical treatment. A range of stacking faults, including intrinsic, extrinsic, and twin boundary, are computationally investigated to identify the extended defects that limit performance. The low-energy faults are found to be electrically benign, while a number of higher energy faults, consistent with atomic-resolution micrographs, are predicted to be hole traps with fluctuations in the local electrostatic potential. It is expected that stacking faults will also be important for other thin-film photovoltaic technologies

  8. Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on the Polycrystalline Compound Semiconductors CIS and CdTe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Bonnet

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin-film photovoltaic modules based on Cu-In-Ga-Se-S (CIS and CdTe are already being produced with high-quality and solar conversion efficiencies of around 10%, with values up to 14% expected in the near future. The integrated interconnection of single cells into large-area modules of 0.6×1.2m2 enables low-cost mass production, so that thin-film modules will soon be able to compete with conventional silicon-wafer-based modules. This contribution provides an overview of the basic technologies for CdTe and CIS modules, the research and development (R&D issues, production technology and capacities, the module performance in long-term outdoor testing, and their use in installations.

  9. Identification of critical stacking faults in thin-film CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Su-Hyun; Butler, Keith T.; Soon, Aloysius; Abbas, Ali; Walls, John M.; Walsh, Aron

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type semiconductor used in thin-film solar cells. To achieve high light-to-electricity conversion, annealing in the presence of CdCl2 is essential, but the underlying mechanism is still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that a reduction in the high density of stacking faults in the CdTe grains is a key process that occurs during the chemical treatment. A range of stacking faults, including intrinsic, extrinsic, and twin boundary, are computationally investigated to identify the extended defects that limit performance. The low-energy faults are found to be electrically benign, while a number of higher energy faults, consistent with atomic-resolution micrographs, are predicted to be hole traps with fluctuations in the local electrostatic potential. It is expected that stacking faults will also be important for other thin-film photovoltaic technologies.

  10. CIGS2 Thin-Film Solar Cells on Flexible Foils for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Ghongadi, Shantinath R.; Pandit, Mandar B.; Jahagirdar, Anant H.; Scheiman, David

    2002-01-01

    CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)S2 (CIGS2) thin-film solar cells are of interest for space power applications because of the near optimum bandgap for AM0 solar radiation in space. CIGS2 thin film solar cells on flexible stainless steel (SS) may be able to increase the specific power by an order of magnitude from the current level of 65 Wkg(sup -1). CIGS solar cells are superior to the conventional silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells in the space radiation environment. This paper presents research efforts for the development of CIGS2 thin-film solar cells on 127 micrometers and 20 micrometers thick, bright-annealed flexible SS foil for space power. A large-area, dual-chamber, inline thin film deposition system has been fabricated. The system is expected to provide thickness uniformity of plus or minus 2% over the central 5" width and plus or minus 3% over the central 6" width. During the next phase, facilities for processing larger cells will be acquired for selenization and sulfurization of metallic precursors and for heterojunction CdS layer deposition both on large area. Small area CIGS2 thin film solar cells are being prepared routinely. Cu-rich Cu-Ga/In layers were sputter-deposited on unheated Mo-coated SS foils from CuGa (22%) and In targets. Well-adherent, large-grain Cu-rich CIGS2 films were obtained by sulfurization in a Ar: H2S 1:0.04 mixture and argon flow rate of 650 sccm, at the maximum temperature of 475 C for 60 minutes with intermediate 30 minutes annealing step at 120 C. Samples were annealed at 500 C for 10 minutes without H2S gas flow. The intermediate 30 minutes annealing step at 120 C was changed to 135 C. p-type CIGS2 thin films were obtained by etching the Cu-rich layer segregated at the surface using dilute KCN solution. Solar cells were completed by deposition of CdS heterojunction partner layer by chemical bath deposition, transparent-conducting ZnO/ZnO: Al window bilayer by RF sputtering, and vacuum deposition of Ni/Al contact fingers through metal mask. PV parameters of a CIGS2 solar cell on 127 micrometers thick SS flexible foil measured under AM 0 conditions at NASA GRC were: V(sub oc) = 802.9 mV, J(sub sc) = 25.07 mA per square centimeters, FF = 60.06%, and efficiency 0 = 8.84%. For this cell, AM 1.5 PV parameters measured at NREL were: V(sub oc) = 788 mV, J(sub sc) = 19.78 mA per square centimeter, FF = 59.44%, efficiency 0 = 9.26%. Quantum efficiency curve showed a sharp QE cutoff equivalent to CIGS2 bandgap of approximately 1.50 eV, fairly close to the optimum value for efficient AM0 PV conversion in the space.

  11. Five roads towards increased optical absorption and high stable efficiency for thin film silicon solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van??ek, Milan; Poruba, Ale; Reme, Zden?k; Holovsk, Jakub; Purkrt, Adam; Babchenko, Oleg; Hruka, Karel; Meier, J.; Kroll, U.

    Munich : WIP-Renewable Energies, 2009 - (Sinke, W.; Ossenbrink, H.; Helm, P.), 2286-2289 ISBN 3-936338-25-6. [European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference /24./. Hamburg (DE), 21.09.2009-25.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) 7E09057 Grant ostatn: 7th FP EU N2P(XE) CP-IP 214134-2; 6FP EU ATHLET(XE) 019670 (SES6) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thin film silicon solar cells * amorphous silicon * nanostructure * high stable efficiency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  12. Absorption Enhancement of Thin-film Solar Cell with Rectangular Ag Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongheng Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar power has gained a great deal of attention as a clean energy source with the potential to replace fossil fuel. Researchers have focused in increasing the efficiency of thin film solar cells. In this study, rectangular Ag nanoparticles were placed on the silicon layer of a silicon solar cell. The absorption enhancement of the silicon was systematically investigated via the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD. The improvement in silicon absorption of the solar cell because of the addition of Ag nanoparticles was studied by calculating the enhancement factor by using the Lumerical FDTD solutions simulation package. The results demonstrated that the light absorption was significantly improved because of the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles. The structure with rectangular Ag nanoparticles obtained the most efficient absorption enhancement compared with the sphere and cylinder Ag nanoparticles. The effects of nanoparticle parameters on the absorption enhancement were also thoroughly analyzed. The optimal absorption enhancement was achieved by adjusting the parameters of nanoparticles. The structure may be used to develop highly efficient thin film solar cells.

  13. Nanotextured thin film silicon solar cells:optical model.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    pringer, Ji?; Poruba, Ale; Fejfar, Antonn; Van??ek, Milan; Feitknecht, L.; Wyrsch, N.; Meier, J.; Shah, A.

    London : James & James, 2000 - (Scheer, H.; McNelis, B.; Palz, W.; Ossenbrink, H.; Helm, P.), s. 434-437 ISBN 1-902916-18-2. [European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference /16./. Glasgow (GB), 01.05.2000-05.05.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : si-films * modeling * texturization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  14. Epitaxially grown crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells reaching 16.5% efficiency with basic cell process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report about the current performance of crystalline silicon thin-film (cSiTF) solar cells that are a very attractive alternative to conventional wafer-based silicon solar cells if sufficiently high cell efficiencies are achieved at acceptable cost of production. Applying a standard cell process (diffused POCl3 emitter, front contacts by photolithography, no surface texture) to thin-films deposited with a lab-type reactor, specifically designed for high-throughput photovoltaic applications, on highly-doped Cz substrates we routinely obtain efficiencies above 16%. On 1 ? cm FZ material substrates we reach efficiencies up to 18.0%, which is among the highest thin-film efficiencies ever reported. Additionally, a comparison to microelectronic-grade epitaxially grown cSiTF material underlines the excellent electrical quality of the epitaxial layers deposited.

  15. Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by a precursor solution paste for thin film solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Woo; Ismail, Agus; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Woong; Yoon, Sungho; Min, Byoung Koun

    2013-05-22

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a very promising semiconductor material when used for the absorber layer of thin film solar cells because it consists of only abundant and inexpensive elements. In addition, a low-cost solution process is applicable to the preparation of CZTS absorber films, which reduces the cost when this film is used for the production of thin film solar cells. To fabricate solution-processed CZTS thin film using an easily scalable and relatively safe method, we suggest a precursor solution paste coating method with a two-step heating process (oxidation and sulfurization). The synthesized CZTS film was observed to be composed of grains of a size of ~300 nm, showing an overall densely packed morphology with some pores and voids. A solar cell device with this film as an absorber layer showed the highest efficiency of 3.02% with an open circuit voltage of 556 mV, a short current density of 13.5 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor of 40.3%. We also noted the existence of Cd moieties and an inhomogeneous Zn distribution in the CZTS film, which may have been triggered by the presence of pores and voids in the CZTS film. PMID:23611655

  16. Nano imprint lithography of textures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppe, W.J.; Dorenkamper, M.S.; Notta, J.B.; Pex, P.P.A.C. [ECN-Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schipper, W.; Wilde, R. [Nanoptics GmbH, Innungsstrasse 5, 21244 Buchholz (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) is a versatile and commercially viable technology for fabrication of structures for light trapping in solar cells. We demonstrate the applicability of NIL in thin film silicon solar cells in substrate configuration, where NIL is used to fabricate a textured rear contact of the solar cells. We applied random structures, based on the natural texture of SnO:F grown by APCVD, and designed 2D periodic structures and show that for single junction {mu}c-Si cells these textured rear contacts lead to an increase of Jsc of more than 40 % in comparison to cells with flat rear contacts. Cells on optimized periodic textures showed higher fill factors which can be attributed to reduced microcrack formation, leading to less shunting in comparison to cells on random textures.

  17. Effects of potassium doping on solution processed kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhengfu; Yan, Chang; Su, Zhenghua; Zeng, Fangqin; Yang, Jia; Li, Yi; Jiang, Liangxing; Lai, Yanqing; Liu, Fangyang

    2014-12-01

    Alkaline metals doping is one of the approaches for achieving high efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell. Recently, potassium doping helps to break the record efficiency of CIGS solar cell doped with sodium. In this paper, we have investigated how incorporation of potassium can influence the properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film and the performance of resulting solar cell. Our results showed that K doping can enhance the (112) preferred orientation, increase the grain size and reduce the second phase ZnS of the CZTS thin films. After K doping, despite of some drop of Voc for CZTS thin film solar cells, the Rs is decreased and the Jsc is improved markedly, and the solar cell efficiency is boosted.

  18. CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells: Present Status and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The CdTe thin film solar cells have reached enough technological maturity to be one of the most successful photovoltaic technologies in the market. From the early stage of research, in the eighties, up to now, CdTe solar cells have provided a constant increase in efficiency together with a more effective fabrication process that reduces the amount of material and increases the industrial scalability, due to the large variety of the fabrication processes and to the robustness of the material.In the last 10 years, different key issues from the recrystallization/activation treatment (enhancing CdTe grain size and passivating the grain boundaries) to the back contact stability (incapsulating copper into a stable compound) have been deeply studied and engineered. With these advances the CdTe photovoltaic technology has now the lowest cost per Watt available, due to the low amount of material involved, the low energies used in the fabrication process and the fast all-in-line production with monolithical integration of the solar cells. In this paper, recent technologies for CdTe thin film solar cell fabrication are shown, low temperature and high temperature deposition processes in the laboratory and on the industrial scale, together with the monolithical integration, together with some environmental considerations are described.

  19. Light trapping characteristics of glass substrate with hemisphere pit arrays in thin film Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Le; Wang, Qing-Kang; Wangyang, Pei-Hua; Huang, Kun; Shen, Xiang-Qian

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the light trapping characteristics of glass substrate with hemisphere pit (HP) arrays in thin film Si solar cells are theoretically studied via a numerical approach. It is found that the HP glass substrate has good antireflection properties. Its surface reflectance can be reduced by 50% compared with planar glass. The HP arrays can make the unabsorbed light return to the absorbing layer of solar cells, and the ratio of second absorption approximately equals 30%. Thus, the glass substrate with the hemisphere pit arrays (HP glass) can effectively reduce the total reflectivity of a solar cell from 20% to 13%. The HP glass can also prolong the optical path length. The numerical results show that the total optical path length of the thin film Si solar cell covered with the HP glass increases from 2? to 4?. These results are basically consistent with the experimental results. Project supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA050518).

  20. Efficiency improvement in Si thin film solar cells by employing composite nanocone-shaped grating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Qiu, Bocang; Shao, Biao; Wu, Xuemei; Zhang, Ruiying

    2015-06-01

    The improvement in both the light absorption and energy conversion efficiency for thin film silicon solar cells by employing Al2O3/Si or SiN/Si composite nanocone-shaped gratings (CNCG) is theoretically studied. Our results show that the enhancement of the absorption and efficiency for Si thin film solar cells decorated by CNCG is mainly dominated by the nanocone-shaped gratings, but slightly fluctuated with the dielectric cladding layer and its thickness. The performance improvement is more significant using SiN/Si CNCG than using Al2O3/Si CNCG. The highest conversion efficiency of 6.60 and 9.53% are achieved in 1-m-thick solar cells with SiN (120 nm)/Si CNCG and 2-m-thick Si solar cells with SiN (90 nm)/Si CNCG respectively, which are compared to the conversion efficiencies of 3.23 and 3.96% for their planar counterparts. When the surface passivation effect is considered, the conversion efficiency should be enhanced more.

  1. Growth, etching, and stability of sputtered ZnO:Al for thin-film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jorj Ian

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) can fulfill many requirements in thin film solar cells, acting as (1) a transparent contact through which the incident light is transmitted, (2) part of the back reflector, and (3) a source of light scattering. Magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al thin films are highly transparent, conductive, and are typically texturized by post deposition etching in a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to achieve light scattering. The ZnO:Al thin film electronic and optical pro...

  2. Sol-gel coatings for light trapping in crystalline thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendel, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Gier, A.; Mennig, M.; Schmidt, H. [Institut fuer Neue Materialien GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany); Werner, J.H. [Institut fuer Physikalische Elektronik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    An increase of light absorption by light trapping is a key issue for the design of thin film solar cells from crystalline silicon. According to our numerical work, the deposition of crystalline silicon layers of thickness, W=4 {mu}m, on textured glass substrates doubles the cell current for facet angles, {alpha}=75, and texture periods, p<16 {mu}m, without the need for anti reflection coatings. We demonstrate the fabrication of such micron-sized light traps by embossing of sol-gel glasses

  3. Beyond optical enhancement due to embedded metal nanoparticles in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy Mopurisetty, Sundara; Bajaj, Mohit; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2016-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles (MNPs) inside the active layer of thin-film solar cells are considered promising for light trapping, but they have also engendered concerns over their adverse impact on transport properties. Contrary to expectations, coupled optical and electrical simulations indicate that a purely electrical effect due to MNPs might result in an enhancement of the cell performance in addition to the gain from optical (plasmonic) effects. This electrical enhancement strongly depends on the MNP/semiconductor barrier height. On the other hand, the anticipated degradation due to trap states and surface recombination at the MNP/semiconductor interface may in fact be negligible.

  4. Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, C; Fahr, S; Bittkau, K; Beckers, T; Carius, R; Haug, F-J; Sderstrm, T; Ballif, C; Lederer, F

    2010-09-13

    Using rigorous diffraction theory we investigate the scattering properties of various random textures currently used for photon management in thin-film solar cells. We relate the haze and the angularly resolved scattering function of these cells to the enhancement of light absorption. A simple criterion is derived that provides an explanation why certain textures operate more beneficially than others. Using this criterion we propose a generic surface profile that outperforms the available substrates. This work facilitates the understanding of the effect of randomly textured surfaces and provides guidelines towards their optimization. PMID:21165064

  5. Effects of RF power and pressure on performance of HF-PECVD silicon thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD) is a widely applicable method of deposition over a large area at a high rate for fabricating silicon thin-film solar cells. This investigation presents the properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films and the preparation of highly-efficient p-i-n solar cells using an RF (27.1 MHz) excitation frequency. The influence of the power (10-40 W) and pressure (20-50 Pa) used during the deposition of absorber layers in p-i-n solar cells on the properties and mechanism of growth of the a-Si:H thin films and the solar cells is studied. The a-Si:H thin films prepared under various deposition conditions have widely varying deposition rates, optical-electronic properties and microstructures. When the deposition parameters were optimized, amorphous silicon-based thin-film silicon solar cells with efficiency of 7.6% were fabricated by HF-PECVD. These results are very encouraging for the future fabrication of highly-efficient thin-film solar cells by HF-PECVD.

  6. A study of ZnO:B films for thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? ZnO:B films with different thicknesses were prepared with LPCVD technique. ? The thicker ZnO:B back electrodes lead to higher FF but slightly lower Jsc. ? Back polyvinyl butyral (PVB) foils improves the utilization of incident light in solar cells. ? The thicker ZnO:B front electrode films result in high Jsc but lower FF. - Abstract: Boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) films with different thicknesses were prepared with low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique and implemented in thin film silicon solar cells as front and back electrodes. It is found that thick back ZnO:B film electrode in thin film silicon solar cells leads to a high fill factors (FF), which is attributed to an improvement of the electrical properties of the thick ZnO:B films, and in the meanwhile a slightly low short circuit currents (Jsc) due to a high light absorption in the thick back ZnO:B films. Differently, the thicker front ZnO:B film electrodes result in a high Jsc but a low FF of solar cells compared to the thinner ones. The low FF of the solar cells may be caused by the local shunt originated from the pinholes or by the cracks (zones of non-dense material) formed in particular in microcrystalline silicon materials deposited on rough front ZnO:B films. As to the high Jsc, it is expected to be due to a good light trapping effect inside solar cells grown on rough front ZnO:B films. Moreover, the application of high reflective polyvinyl butyral (PVB) foils effectively enhances the utilization of incident light in solar cells. By optimizing deposition process of the ZnO:B films, high efficiencies of 8.8% and 10% for single junction thin film amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si:H, intrinsic layer thickness < 200 nm) and amorphous/microcrystalline silicon tandem solar cells (a-Si:H/?c-Si:H, intrinsic amorphous silicon layer thickness < 220 nm), respectively, are achieved.

  7. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  8. Defect annealing processes for polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffens, S., E-mail: simon.steffens@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Becker, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Zollondz, J.-H., E-mail: hzollondz@masdarpv.com [CSG Solar AG, Thalheim (Germany); Chowdhury, A.; Slaoui, A. [LInstitut dlectronique du Solide et des Systmes, Strasbourg (France); Lindekugel, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fr Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Schubert, U.; Evans, R. [Suntech R and D Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney (Australia); Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Defect annealing processes were applied to polycrystalline silicon thin films. ? Conventional rapid thermal annealing was compared to novel annealing processes using a laser system and a zone-melting recrystallization setup. ? The open circuit voltages could be enhanced from below 170 mV up to 482 mV. ? Increase in Sun's-V{sub OC} values with decrease in FWHM of the TO Raman phonon of crystalline silicon. ? Solar cells were fabricated for IV-measurements: Best solar cell efficiency of 6.7%. -- Abstract: A variety of defect healing methods was analyzed for optimization of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film solar cells on glass. The films were fabricated by solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon deposited either by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or by electron-beam evaporation (EBE). Three different rapid thermal processing (RTP) set-ups were compared: A conventional rapid thermal annealing oven, a dual wavelength laser annealing system and a movable two sided halogen lamp oven. The two latter processes utilize focused energy input for reducing the thermal load introduced into the glass substrates and thus lead to less deformation and impurity diffusion. Analysis of the structural and electrical properties of the poly-Si thin films was performed by Suns-V{sub OC} measurements and Raman spectroscopy. 1 cm{sup 2} cells were prepared for a selection of samples and characterized by IV-measurements. The poly-Si material quality could be extremely enhanced, resulting in increase of the open circuit voltages from about 100 mV (EBE) and 170 mV (PECVD) in the untreated case up to 480 mV after processing.

  9. Broadband absorption enhancement in plasmonic thin-film solar cells with grating surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Huo, Yiping; Zhao, Kaijun; Zhao, Ting; Li, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    The plasmonic thin-film solar cells with grating surface is structured and simulated by Comsol Multiphysics software using finite element method. The absorption efficiency of solar cells has been systemically studied by considering structure characteristic parameters. The absorption of grating surface cell is much broader and stronger than that of smooth surface on a-Si at the wavelength from 400 to 700 nm. The value of total absorption efficiency (TAE) increases from 47% to 69.3%. The embedded Ag nanoparticle array contributes to the improvement of the absorption of a-Si at longer wavelength range. The localized surface plasmon resonance is induced by Ag nanoparticles, and so that the TAE is increased to 75.1% when the radius of nanoparticle is 60 nm at the bottom of a-Si with periodic width 200 nm. The grating surface always plays a role to suppress light scattering from the active region, so more light can be absorbed again by a-Si in the infrared-region. Therefore, the results have significance in providing a theoretical foundation for the applications of thin-film solar cell.

  10. Incorporation of Cu in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)-based thin-film solar cells by using a cluster-type deposition system. The system is composed of a DC sputter for the Mo back electrode, a co-evaporator for the CIGS absorption layer, and a RF sputter for the ZnO and the transparent-conductive-oxide (TCO) window layers. The deposition of the CdS buffer layer was performed separately. Two solar cells with an effective area of 0.47 cm2 were fabricated using different processes. One cell, which was prepared with a 1-step process, had a larger atomic concentration of In-Ga than of Cu in the absorption layer and showed a conversion efficiency of 11.1%. The other prepared with a 3-step process had nearly the same In-Ga and Cu concentrations and showed a conversion efficiency of 15.5%. We discuss the incorporation of Cu in the two types of thin-film solar cells.

  11. Enhanced light absorption in thin film silicon solar cells with Fourier-series based periodic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaowei; Wang, Dashuai; Liu, Bang; Li, Shaorong; Sheng, Xing

    2016-01-25

    We proposed a Fourier-series based periodic nanostructure(FSPN) for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells. By globally optimizing the Fourier coefficients across entire silicon absorption spectrum, we obtained a FSPN structure with short circuit current density greater than 24 mA/cm2 for a 1?m real silicon absorption layer. The spectral analysis shows at normal incidence the FSPN exhibits a collection effect of periodic gratings and performs over 84.6% better than random texture. The angular analysis shows that the FSPN outperforms grating and random textures within 70 . PMID:26832592

  12. Microcrystalline silicon absorber layers prepared at high deposition rates for thin-film tandem solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Michard S.; Balmes V.; Meier M.; Lambertz A.; Merdzhanova T.; Finger F.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated high deposition rate processes for the fabrication of thin-film silicon tandem solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon absorber layers were prepared under high pressure depletion conditions at an excitation frequency of 81.36 MHz. The deposition rate was varied in the range of 0.2 nm/s to 3.2 nm/s by varying the deposition pressure and deposition power for given electrode spacings. The silane-to-hydrogen process gas mixture was adjusted in each case to prepare optimum phase...

  13. Unlinking absorption and haze in thin film silicon solar cells front electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Boccard, Mathieu; Cuony, Peter; Battaglia, Corsin; Despeisse, Matthieu; Ballif, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    We study the respective influence of haze and free carrier absorption (FCA) of transparent front electrodes on the photogenerated current of micromorph thin film silicon solar cells. To decouple the haze and FCA we develop bi-layer front electrodes: a flat indium tin oxide layer assures conduction and allows us to tune FCA while the haze is adjusted by varying the thickness of a highly transparent rough ZnO layer. We show how a minimum amount of FCA leads only to a few percents absorption for...

  14. Progress in Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Cu2ZnSnS4

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Wang

    2011-01-01

    The research in thin film solar cells has been dominated by light absorber materials based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) in the last several decades. The concerns of environment impact of cadmium and the limited availability of indium in those materials have driven the research towards developing new substitute light absorbers made from earth abundant, environment benign materials. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductor material has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for this aim and h...

  15. Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-Injection for Thin Film Solar Cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jrgen

    2015-01-01

    The kesterite material, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTS), shows great promise as the absorber layer for future thin film solar cells. Solution processing allows for comparatively fast and inexpensive fabrication, and holds the record efficiency in the kesterite family. However, for nanoparticle (NP) solution processing to be a feasible fabrication route, the amount of carbon in the film has to be limited. In our work, we try to limit the organic material in the film by synthesizing larger NPs. Larger...

  16. Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-Injection for Thin Film Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jrgen

    The kesterite material, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTS), shows great promise as the absorber layer for future thin film solar cells. Solution processing allows for comparatively fast and inexpensive fabrication, and holds the record efficiency in the kesterite family. However, for nanoparticle (NP...... slower injection rates of the sulfur/selenium precursors. In our group, we have synthesized NPs larger than 200 nm by controlling the monomer concentration during growth. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allows us to image the NPs and determine their individual composition. Size-selective methods...

  17. Surpassing the classical light-trapping limit in thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Jeremy; Callahan, Dennis; Atwater, Harry

    2011-03-01

    We describe a methodology for designing thin film solar cells that have light-trapping intensity and absorption enhancements that exceed the classical, ergodic light-trapping limit. From thermodynamic arguments, Yablonovitch and Cody determined the maximum absorption enhancement in the ray optics limit for a bulk material to be 4n2 , where n is the index of refraction of the absorbing layer. Stuart and Hall expanded this approach to study a simple waveguide structure; however, for the waveguide structures they considered, the maximum absorption enhancement was <4n^ 2 . Usingacombinationofanalyticalandnumericalmethods , wedescribewhythesestructuresdonotsurpasstheergodiclimitandshowhowtodesignstructuresthatcan . Wepresenthereaphysicalinterpretationintermsofthewaveguidedispersionrelationsandopticaldensityofstates . Wefurtherdescribethenecessarycriteriaforsurpassingtheclassicallimitandprovideexamplesofwaveguidestructureswithabsorptionenhancementsinexcessof 4n2 .

  18. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonash, S.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  19. Positive ion irradiation of CdS/Cu2S thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of positive ion bombardment on unencapsulated CdS/Cu2S thin film solar cells has been studied using monoenergetic positive ions (of 1H, 4He, 16O, 32S, 35Cl, 40Ar, 63Cu, 84Kr, 112Cd or 132Xe) with energies in the range 10 to 50 keV. The current-voltage characteristics of the cells have been analysed in terms of a five parameter model. The cell degradations produced by radiation damage have been shown to be dependent on the range of the incident particle. A reduction of the short circuit current was shown to result from damage to the cuprous sulphide layer of the cell whereas damage to the junction region was found to give rise to a reduction in the open circuit voltage. Annealing effects on radiation-degraded unencapsulated solar cells have been studied and the fractional recoveries of the cell parameters have been compared. (author)

  20. Periodic anti-ring back reflectors for hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yuan; Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Ho, Chung-I; Ho, Chi-Chih; Lee, Wei-Li; Chang, Hung-Chun; Lee, Si-Chen; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Cheng, I-Chun

    2014-06-30

    Large and periodic anti-ring arrays are fabricated by using a monolayer of polymer/nanosphere hybrid technique and applied as back reflectors in substrate-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells. The structure of each anti-ring comprises a nanodome centered inside a nanohole. The excitation of Bloch wave surface plasmon polaritons is observed in the Ag-coated anti-ring arrays. The nanodomes of the anti-ring arrays turn out to enhance large-angle light scattering and increase the effective optical path in the solar cell. The resulting efficiency of an ultrathin a-Si:H (thickness: 150 nm) solar cell is enhanced by 39% compared to that with a flat back reflector and by 13% compared to that with a nanohole back reflector. PMID:24978075

  1. Improved homogeneity of microcrystalline absorber layer in thin-film silicon tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Vlad [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt Str., D-52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: v.smirnov@fz-juelich.de; Das, Chandan; Melle, Thomas; Lambertz, Andreas; Huelsbeck, Markus; Carius, Reinhard; Finger, Friedhelm [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt Str., D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    A study of the effects of microcrystalline silicon i-layer modification near p/i interface in tandem configuration silicon thin film solar cells is presented. The structural properties of the absorber layers were investigated by Raman spectroscopy at different stages of growth. The results indicate the possibility of improving both the nucleation process and the film homogeneity in the direction of growth, without specific re-optimization of the p-layer, transferred from a single-junction microcrystalline silicon cell. Structural modifications of the i-layer have been correlated with performance of tandem solar cells, leading to improvements in the bottom cell current J{sub sc} (up to 11.4 mA/cm{sup 2}) and initial tandem-cell conversion efficiency (up to 11.3%)

  2. Improved homogeneity of microcrystalline absorber layer in thin-film silicon tandem solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of microcrystalline silicon i-layer modification near p/i interface in tandem configuration silicon thin film solar cells is presented. The structural properties of the absorber layers were investigated by Raman spectroscopy at different stages of growth. The results indicate the possibility of improving both the nucleation process and the film homogeneity in the direction of growth, without specific re-optimization of the p-layer, transferred from a single-junction microcrystalline silicon cell. Structural modifications of the i-layer have been correlated with performance of tandem solar cells, leading to improvements in the bottom cell current Jsc (up to 11.4 mA/cm2) and initial tandem-cell conversion efficiency (up to 11.3%).

  3. Novel concepts for low-cost and high-efficient thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmez, D.; Menndez, A.; Snchez, P.; Martnez, A.; Andrs, L. J.; Menndez, M. F.; Campos, N.; Garca, A.; Snchez, B.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents the activities carried out at ITMA Materials Technology related to the building integration of thin film (TF) photovoltaics (PV). Three different approaches have been developed in order to achieve high efficient solar cells at low manufacturing costs: (i) a new route for manufacturing monolithical silicon based thin film solar cells on building materials, (ii) the use of metallic nanoparticles for light trapping (plasmonic effects and light scattering) and (iii) the luminescent sol-gel coating on glass for solar concentration. In the first case, amorphous silicon modules (single junction) have been successfully manufactured at lab scale on steel and commercial ceramic substrates with efficiencies of 5.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Promising initial attempts have been also made in ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), a polymer with high potential in textile architecture. In a similar way, the development of nanotechnology based coatings (metallic nanoparticles and luminescent materials) represent the most innovative part of the work and some preliminary results are showed.

  4. Novel p-Type Conductive Semiconductor Nanocrystalline Film as the Back Electrode for High-Performance Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Lin, Qinxian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Mei, Zongwei; Liang, Jun; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-02-10

    Thin film solar cells, due to the low cost, high efficiency, long-term stability, and consumer applications, have been widely applied for harvesting green energy. All of these thin film solar cells generally adopt various metal thin films as the back electrode, like Mo, Au, Ni, Ag, Al, graphite, and so forth. When they contact with p-type layer, it always produces a Schottky contact with a high contact potential barrier, which greatly affects the cell performance. In this work, we report for the first time to find an appropriate p-type conductive semiconductor film, digenite Cu9S5 nanocrystalline film, as the back electrode for CdTe solar cells as the model device. Its low sheet resistance (16.6 ?/sq) could compare to that of the commercial TCO films (6-30 ?/sq), like FTO, ITO, and AZO. Different from the traditonal metal back electrode, it produces a successive gradient-doping region by the controllable Cu diffusion, which greatly reduces the contact potential barrier. Remarkably, it achieved a comparable power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11.3%) with the traditional metal back electrode (Cu/Au thin films, 11.4%) in CdTe cells and a higher PCE (13.8%) with the help of the Au assistant film. We believe it could also act as the back electrode for other thin film solar cells (?-Si, CuInS2, CIGSe, CZTS, etc.), for their performance improvement. PMID:26736028

  5. Band alignment measurements at heterojunction interfaces in layered thin film solar cells & thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Public awareness of the increasing energy crisis and the related serious environmental concerns has led to a significantly growing demand for alternative clean and renewable energy resources. Thin film are widely applied in multiple renewable energy devices owing to the reduced amount of raw materials and increase flexibility of choosing from low-cost candidates, which translates directly into reduced capital cost. This is a key driving force to make renewable technology competitive in the energy market. This thesis is focused on the measurement of energy level alignments at interfaces of thin film structures for renewable energy applications. There are two primary foci: II -VI semiconductor ZnSe/ZnTe thin film solar cells and Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 thin film structures for thermoelectric applications. In both cases, the electronic structure and energy band alignment at interfaces usually controls the carrier transport behavior and determines the quality of the device. High-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (lab-based XPS & synchrotron-based UPS) was used to investigate the chemical and electronic properties of epitaxial Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, in order to validate the anticipated band alignment at interfaces in Bi 2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices as one favoring electron-transmission. A simple, thorough two-step treatment of a chemical etching in dilute hydrochloric acid solution and a subsequent annealing at 150C under ultra-high vacuum environment is established to remove the surface oxides completely. It is an essential step to ensure the measurements on electronic states are acquired on stoichimetric, oxide-free clean surface of Bi 2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. The direct measurement of valence band offsets (VBO) at a real Sb 2Te3/Bi2Te3 interface is designed based on the Kraut model; a special stacking film structure is prepared intentionally: sufficiently thin Sb2Te3 film on top of Bi2Te 3 that photoelectrons from both of them are collected simultaneously. From a combination of core levels and valence band ultraviolet photoemission spectra of the bulk materials as well as the heterojunction (Sb2Te 3/Bi2Te3), the VBO at p-type Sb2Te 3 and n-type Bi2Te3 is determined as 0.04 +/- 0.10 eV. Such a small energy offset is within the same magnitude of the thermal energy of kT, at room temperature. The motivation for the II-VI ZnTe-based thin film solar cell derives from the need to identify and overcome performance-limiting properties related to the processing of film deposition using close space sublimation (CSS). Chemical and electronic properties of the CSS grown ZnTe/ZnSe films were studied in x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoemission spectroscopy. Specifically, Se oxide was observed on the ZnSe surface, the removal of this oxide generated apparent offsets in the valence band and hence the alignment at the heterojunction energy diagram. Processing steps to mitigate oxidation yielded the best cells. Film structure was studied on the dependence of growth time; physical film damage is found during the initial stages when depositing ZnTe on a grown ZnSe film. Preliminary studies of films grown by evaporation and their characterizations are presented at last. In this thesis, a better understanding of the electronic structure at interfaces is built in two different thin film devices, and the resulting band energy diagram of the corresponding devices offered effective feedback in materials and device.The problem of energy equilibrium in the human body has received a great deal.

  6. Dyadic Greens functions of thin films: Applications within plasmonic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jesper; Sndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pedersen, Kjeld; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Bech Nielsen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization and design of silicon solar cells by exploiting light scattering frommetal nanoparticles to increase the efficiency is addressed in the small particle limit from a fundamental point of view via the dyadic Greens function formulation. Based on the dyadic Greens function (Green...... theoretical approach is used to analyze realistic configurations for plasmon-assisted silicon solar cells. We show that by embedding metal nanoscatterers in a thin film with a high refractive index (rutile TiO2 with n ? 2.5) on top of the silicon, the fraction of scattered light that couples into the solar......-field approximations. The far-field approximations enable efficient, exact, and separate evaluation of light scattering into waves that propagate in the substrate or the superstrate. Based on the near-field approximation we present a semianalytical expression for the total near-field absorption in the substrate. The...

  7. Recrystallized thin-film silicon solar cell on graphite substrate with laser single side contact and hydrogen passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Da

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser single side contact formation (LSSC and the hydrogen passivation process are studied and developed for crystalline silicon thin film (CSiTF solar cells on graphite substrates. The results demonstrate that these two methods can improve cell performance by increasing the open circuit voltage and fill factor. In comparison with our previous work, we have achieved an increase of 3.4% absolute cell efficiency for a 40 ?m thick 4 cm2 aperture area silicon thin film solar cell on graphite substrate. Current density-voltage (J-V measurement, quantum efficiency (QE and light beam induced current (LBiC are used as characterization methods.

  8. Crystalline silicon for thin film solar cells. Final report; Kristallines Silizium fuer Duennschichtsolarzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H.

    2001-07-01

    Thin film solar cells based on silicon are of great interest for cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electric power. In order to reach this goal, intensive research is still necessary, pointing, e.g., to a further enhancement of the conversion efficiency, an improvement of stability and a reduction of the production time. Aim of the project work was the achievement of knowledge on microcrystalline silicon and its application in thin film solar cells by means of a broad research and development program. Material research focused on growth processes of the microcrystalline material, the incorporation and stability of hydrogen, the electronic transport and defects. In particular the transition from amorphous to microcrystalline material which is obtained for the present deposition methods by minor variations of the deposition parameters as well as the enhancement of the deposition rate were intensively studies. Another focus of research aimed toward the development and improvement of zinc oxide films which are of central importance for this type of solar cells for the application as transparent contacts. A comprehensive understanding was achieved. The films were incorporated in thin film solar cells and with conversion efficiencies >8% for single cells (at relatively high deposition rate) and 10% (stable) for tandem cells with amorphous silicon, top values were achieved by international standards. The project achievements serve as a base for a further development of this type of solar cell and for the transfer of this technology to industry. (orig.) [German] Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis von Silizium sind von grossem Interesse fuer eine kostenguenstige Umwandlung von Sonnenenergie in elektrischen Strom. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, ist jedoch noch intensive Forschung, u.a. zur weiteren Steigerung des Wirkungsgrades, zur Verbesserung der Stabilitaet und zur Verkuerzung des Produktionsprozesses erforderlich. Ziel der Projektarbeiten war, durch ein breit angelegtes Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprogramm Kenntnisse ueber mikrokristallines Silizium und dessen Einsatzmoeglichkeit in Duennschichtsolarzellen zu gewinnen. Im Rahmen der Materialforschungzustanden Wachstumsprozesse von mirkrokristallinem Material, der Einbau und die Stabilitaet von Wasserstoff, der elektronische Transport und Defekte im Vordergrund. Insbesondere der Uebergang amorph-mikrokristallin, der bei den vorliegenden Depositionsmethoden durch geringfuegige Veraenderungen der Depositionsparameter erreicht werden kann, sowie eine Erhoehung der Depositionsrate wurden intensiv untersucht. Weiterhin wurden an der Entwicklung und Optimierung von Zinkoxidschichten gearbeitet, die fuer diesen Typ von Solarzellen als transparente Kontaktschichten von zentraler Bedeutung sind. Ein umfassendes Verstaendnis wurde erzielt. Die Schichten wurden in Duennschichtsolarzellen eingebaut und mit Wirkungsgraden >8% fuer Einzelzellen (bei relativ hohen Depositionsraten) und 10% (stabil) fuer Tandemsolarzellen mit amorphem Silizium wurden Spitzenwerte (im internationalen Vergleich) erreicht. Die Projektergebnisse dienen als Basis fuer die Weiterentwicklung dieses Solarzellentyps und fuer einen Transfer der Technologie in die Industrie. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Gaussian doping profile on the performance of a thin film polycrystalline solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouali A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional (2D analytical model based on the Greens function method is applied to an n+-p thin film polycrystalline solar cell that allows us to calculate the conversion efficiency. This model considers the effective Gaussian doping profile in the p region in order to improve cell efficiency. The dependence of mobility and lifetime on grain doping is also investigated. This model is implemented through a simulation program in order to optimize conversion efficiency while varying thickness and doping profile in the base region of the cell. Compared with n+-p standard structure, our proposed structure shows a 43% improvement in conversion efficiency for a polycrystalline solar cell.

  10. Concepts for thin-film GaAs concentrator cells. [for solar photovoltaic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Gale, R. P.; Mcclelland, R.; King, B.; Dingle, J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of advanced GaAs concentrator solar cells, and in particular, the use of CLEFT (cleavage of lateral epitaxial films for transfer) processes for formation of thin-film structures is reported. The use of CLEFT has made possible processing of the back, and cells with back surface grids are discussed. Data on patterned junction development are presented; such junctions are expected to be useful in back surface applications requiring point contacts, grating structures, and interdigitated back contacts. CLEFT concentrator solar cells with grids on the front and back surfaces are reported here; these cells are 4 microns thick and are bonded to glass covers for support. Air mass zero efficiency of 18.8 percent has been obtained for a CLEFT concentrator operating at 18.5 suns.

  11. Enhancing the absorption capabilities of thin-film solar cells using sandwiched light trapping structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, S; Kirah, K; Ghannam, R; Khalil, A S G; Anis, W

    2015-06-10

    A novel structure for thin-film solar cells is simulated with the purpose of maximizing the absorption of light in the active layer and of reducing the parasitic absorption in other layers. In the proposed structure, the active layer is formed from an amorphous silicon thin film sandwiched between silicon nanowires from above and photonic crystal structures from below. The upper electrical contact consists of an indium tin oxide layer, which serves also as an antireflection coating. A metal backreflector works additionally as the other contact. The simulation was done using a new reliable, efficient and generic optoelectronic approach. The suggested multiscale simulation model integrates the finite-difference time-domain algorithm used in solving Maxwell's equation in three dimensions with a commercial simulation platform based on the finite element method for carrier transport modeling. The absorption profile, the external quantum efficient, and the power conversion efficiency of the suggested solar cell are calculated. A noticeable enhancement is found in all the characteristics of the novel structure with an estimated 32% increase in the total conversion efficiency over a cell without any light trapping mechanisms. PMID:26192857

  12. Ultimate form freedom in thin film solar cells by postmanufacture laser-based processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilot, Jan; Emelin, Baptiste; Galagan, Yulia; Mandamparambil, Rajesh; Andriessen, Ronn

    2015-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaics can be beneficial for specific applications like building integrated photovoltaics. To fully exploit the differentiator of form freedom, the interconnections in thin film modules can be tuned depending on the required module output. Traditionally, an alternation of coating and scribing steps is applied, determining the form from the start. Here, we present a set of techniques to define the module design from a master substrate with homogeneously coated electroactive layers. By applying subtractive and additive laser-based processes, the size and form of the module are only fixed after the manufacturing of the whole solar cell stack. By laser-induced forward transfer, an isolating dielectric material and a conductive top electrode are deposited in laser ablated scribes to enable the interconnection between two adjacent cells. After optimization of the laser settings for ablation and forward transfer, the optimal annealing time and temperature for the curing of the silver top electrode were determined. The proof of principle was demonstrated by constructing a 4-cell organic solar module of 1.0% efficiency on an area of over 3 cm2 showing the anticipated short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage.

  13. ZnO transparent conductive oxide for thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sderstrm, T.; Domin, D.; Feltrin, A.; Despeisse, M.; Meillaud, F.; Bugnon, G.; Boccard, M.; Cuony, P.; Haug, F.-J.; Fa, S.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2010-03-01

    There is general agreement that the future production of electric energy has to be renewable and sustainable in the long term. Photovoltaic (PV) is booming with more than 7GW produced in 2008 and will therefore play an important role in the future electricity supply mix. Currently, crystalline silicon (c-Si) dominates the market with a share of about 90%. Reducing the cost per watt peak and energy pay back time of PV was the major concern of the last decade and remains the main challenge today. For that, thin film silicon solar cells has a strong potential because it allies the strength of c-Si (i.e. durability, abundancy, non toxicity) together with reduced material usage, lower temperature processes and monolithic interconnection. One of the technological key points is the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for front contact, barrier layer or intermediate reflector. In this paper, we report on the versatility of ZnO grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (ZnO LP-CVD) and its application in thin film silicon solar cells. In particular, we focus on the transparency, the morphology of the textured surface and its effects on the light in-coupling for micromorph tandem cells in both the substrate (n-i-p) and superstrate (p-i-n) configurations. The stabilized efficiencies achieved in Neuchtel are 11.2% and 9.8% for p-i-n (without ARC) and n-i-p (plastic substrate), respectively.

  14. Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Plastic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, solar energy can fulfil a large part of the growing demand. The biggest threshold for large-scale solar energy harvesting is the solar panel price. For drastic cost reductions, roll-to-roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells using plastic substrates can be a solution. In this thesis, we investigate the possibilities of depositing thin film solar cells directly onto cheap plastic substrates. Micro-textured glass and sheets, which have a wide range of applications, such as in green house, lighting etc, are applied in these solar cells for light trapping. Thin silicon films can be produced by decomposing silane gas, using a plasma process. In these types of processes, the temperature of the growing surface has a large influence on the quality of the grown films. Because plastic substrates limit the maximum tolerable substrate temperature, new methods have to be developed to produce device-grade silicon layers. At low temperature, polysilanes can form in the plasma, eventually forming dust particles, which can deteriorate device performance. By studying the spatially resolved optical emission from the plasma between the electrodes, we can identify whether we have a dusty plasma. Furthermore, we found an explanation for the temperature dependence of dust formation; Monitoring the formation of polysilanes as a function of temperature using a mass-spectrometer, we observed that the polymerization rate is indeed influenced by the substrate temperature. For solar cell substrate material, our choice was polycarbonate (PC), because of its low cost, its excellent transparency and its relatively high glass transition temperature of 130-140C. At 130C we searched for deposition recipes for device quality silicon, using a very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical deposition process. By diluting the feedstock silane with hydrogen gas, the silicon quality can be improved for amorphous silicon (a-Si), until we reach the nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) regime. In the nc-Si regime, the crystalline fraction can be further controlled by changing the power input into the plasma. With these layers, a-Si thin film solar cells were fabricated, on glass and PC substrates. The adverse effect of the low temperature growth on the photoactive material is further mitigated by using thinner silicon layers, which can deliver a good current only with an adequate light trapping technique. We have simulated and experimentally tested three light trapping techniques, using embossed structures in PC substrates and random structures on glass: regular pyramid structures larger than the wavelength of light (micropyramids), regular pyramid structures comparable to the wavelength of light (nanopyramids) and random nano-textures (Asahi U-type). The use of nanostructured polycarbonate substrates results in initial conversion efficiencies of 7.4%, compared to 7.6% for cells deposited under identical conditions on Asahi U-type glass. The potential of manufacturing thin film solar cells at processing temperatures lower than 130oC is further illustrated by obtained results on texture-etched aluminium doped zinc-oxide (ZnO:Al) on glass: we achieved 6.9% for nc-Si cells using a very thin absorber layer of only 750 nm, and by combining a-Si and nc-Si cells in tandem solar cells we reached an initial conversion efficiency of 9.5%.

  15. Plasmonic enhancement of thin-film solar cells using gold-black coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Panjwani, D. R.; Arnold, J. P.; Figueiredo, P. N.; Rezaie, F. K.; Colwell, J. E.; Baillie, K.; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Peale, Robert E.

    2011-08-11

    Coatings of conducting gold-black nano-structures on commercial thin-film amorphous-silicon solar cells enhance the short-circuit current by 20% over a broad spectrum from 400 to 800 nm wavelength. The efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the maximum electrical output power to the incident solar power, is found to increase 7% for initial un-optimized coatings. Metal blacks are produced cheaply and quickly in a low-vacuum process requiring no lithographic patterning. The inherently broad particle-size distribution is responsible for the broad spectrum enhancement in comparison to what has been reported for mono-disperse lithographically deposited or self-assembled metal nano-particles. Photoemission electron microscopy reveals the spatial-spectral distribution of hot-spots for plasmon resonances, where scattering of normally-incident solar flux into the plane increases the effective optical path in the thin film to enhance light harvesting. Efficiency enhancement is correlated with percent coverage and particle size distribution, which are determined from histogram and wavelet analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. Electrodynamic simulations reveal how the gold-black particles scatter the radiation and locally enhance the field strength.

  16. Morphology dependent dye-sensitized solar cell properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K., E-mail: sanjeevlrs732000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Inamdar, A.I.; Im, Hyunsik [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100 715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B.G. [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized from an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution onto FTO coated conducting glass substrates using two different electrochemical routes, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) or SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). > The reproducibility of the catalytic activity of the SDS and PVA surfactants in the modification of the morphologies was observed. > Vertically aligned nest-like and compact structures were observed from the SDS and PVA mediated films, respectively, while the grain size in the ZnO thin films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. > The dye sensitized ZnO electrodes displayed excellent properties in the conversion process from light to electricity. The efficiencies of the surfactant mediated nanocrystalline ZnO thin films, viz. ZnO:SDS and ZnO:PVA, sensitized with ruthenium-II (N3) dye were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized with an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution on to FTO coated glass substrates. Two different electrochemical baths were used, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The organic surfactants played an important role in modifying the surface morphology, which influenced the size of the crystallites and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) properties. The vertically aligned thin and compact hexagonal crystallites were observed with SDS mediated films, while the grain size in the films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. The conversion efficiencies of the ZnO:SDS:Dye and ZnO:PVA:Dye thin films were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively.

  17. Morphology dependent dye-sensitized solar cell properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized from an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O] solution onto FTO coated conducting glass substrates using two different electrochemical routes, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) or SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). → The reproducibility of the catalytic activity of the SDS and PVA surfactants in the modification of the morphologies was observed. → Vertically aligned nest-like and compact structures were observed from the SDS and PVA mediated films, respectively, while the grain size in the ZnO thin films without an organic surfactant was observed to be ∼150 nm. → The dye sensitized ZnO electrodes displayed excellent properties in the conversion process from light to electricity. The efficiencies of the surfactant mediated nanocrystalline ZnO thin films, viz. ZnO:SDS and ZnO:PVA, sensitized with ruthenium-II (N3) dye were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized with an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O] solution on to FTO coated glass substrates. Two different electrochemical baths were used, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The organic surfactants played an important role in modifying the surface morphology, which influenced the size of the crystallites and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) properties. The vertically aligned thin and compact hexagonal crystallites were observed with SDS mediated films, while the grain size in the films without an organic surfactant was observed to be ∼150 nm. The conversion efficiencies of the ZnO:SDS:Dye and ZnO:PVA:Dye thin films were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively.

  18. Microcrystalline silicon carbide alloys prepared with HWCVD as highly transparent and conductive window layers for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline silicon carbide alloys have a very high potential as transparent conductive window layers in thin-film solar cells provided they can be prepared in thin-film form and at compatible deposition temperatures. The low-temperature deposition of such material in microcrystalline form (?c-Si:C:H) was realized by use of monomethylsilane precursor gas diluted in hydrogen with the Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition process. A wide range of deposition parameters has been investigated and the structural, electronic and optical properties of the ?c-SiC:H thin films have been studied. The material, which is strongly n-type from unintentional doping, has been used as window layer in n-side illuminated microcrystalline silicon solar cells. High short-circuit current densities are obtained due to the high transparency of the material resulting in a maximum solar cell conversion efficiency of 9.2%.

  19. Microcrystalline silicon carbide alloys prepared with HWCVD as highly transparent and conductive window layers for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, F., E-mail: f.finger@fz-juelich.d [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Astakhov, O.; Bronger, T.; Carius, R.; Chen, T.; Dasgupta, A.; Gordijn, A. [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Houben, L. [IFF, Mikrostruktur, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Huang, Y.; Klein, S. [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Luysberg, M. [IFF, Mikrostruktur, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Wang, H.; Xiao, L. [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-04-30

    Crystalline silicon carbide alloys have a very high potential as transparent conductive window layers in thin-film solar cells provided they can be prepared in thin-film form and at compatible deposition temperatures. The low-temperature deposition of such material in microcrystalline form ({mu}c-Si:C:H) was realized by use of monomethylsilane precursor gas diluted in hydrogen with the Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition process. A wide range of deposition parameters has been investigated and the structural, electronic and optical properties of the {mu}c-SiC:H thin films have been studied. The material, which is strongly n-type from unintentional doping, has been used as window layer in n-side illuminated microcrystalline silicon solar cells. High short-circuit current densities are obtained due to the high transparency of the material resulting in a maximum solar cell conversion efficiency of 9.2%.

  20. Luminescent down shifting effect of Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films on solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guojian; Lou, Chaogang; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) thin films as luminescent down shifting (LDS) materials are introduced into the module of crystalline silicon solar cells. The films are deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on the lower surface of the quartz glass. They convert ultraviolet and blue light into yellow light. Experiments show that the introduction of YAG:Ce films improves the conversion efficiency from 18.45% of the cells to 19.27% of the module. The increasing efficiency is attributed to LDS effect of YAG:Ce films and the reduced reflection of short wavelength photons. Two intentionally selected samples with similar reflectivities are used to evaluate roughly the effect of LDS alone on the solar cells, which leads to a relative increase by 2.68% in the conversion efficiency.

  1. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements on CuInS2-thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade CuInS2 was investigated for its use as absorber in thin film solar cells. Now these cells are ready for volume production. The advantages against already used materials are e. g. high absorbing capacity and cost-efficient and sustainable production. Because of the great discrepancy between predicted degree of efficiency and the already reached degree more investigations are necessary. To get a better understanding of the electron transport and recombination in order to arise efficiency we characterize the solar cells by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). This method gives information about crystal defects depending on their electric position. Transient capacity measurements in the range of 25 K and 350 K allow us to determine activation energy and concentration of electron traps

  2. Silicon-Light: a European FP7 Project Aiming at High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soppe, W.; Haug, F.-J.; Couty, P.; Duchamp, Martial; Schipper, W.; Krc, J.; Sanchez, G.; Leitner, K.; Wang, Qin; Ossenbrink, H.; Jager-Waldau, A.; Helm, P.

    Silicon-Light is a European FP7 project, which started January 1st, 2010 and aims at development of low cost, high-efficiency thin film silicon solar cells on foil. Three main routes are explored to achieve these goals: a) advanced light trapping by implementing nanotexturization through UV Nano...... calculations of ideal nanotextures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells; the fabrication of masters and the replication and roll-to-roll fabrication of these nanotextures. Further, results on ITO variants with improved work function are presented. Finally, the status of cell fabrication on foils...

  3. Thin film CdTe solar cells by close spaced sublimation: Recent results from pilot line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siepchen, B., E-mail: bastian.siepchen@ctf-solar.com [CTF Solar GmbH, Industriestrae 2, 65779 Kelkheim (Germany); Drost, C.; Spth, B.; Krishnakumar, V.; Richter, H.; Harr, M. [CTF Solar GmbH, Industriestrae 2, 65779 Kelkheim (Germany); Bossert, S.; Grimm, M. [Roth and Rau AG, An der Baumschule 6-8, 09337 Hohenstein-Ernstthal (Germany); Hfner, K.; Modes, T.; Zywitzki, O.; Morgner, H. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    CdTe is an attractive material to produce high efficient and low cost thin film solar cells. The semiconducting layers of this kind of solar cell can be deposited by the Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) process. The advantages of this technique are high deposition rates and an excellent utilization of the raw material, leading to low production costs and competitive module prices. CTF Solar GmbH is offering equipment and process knowhow for the production of CdTe solar modules. For further improvement of the technology, research is done at a pilot line, which covers all relevant process steps for manufacture of CdTe solar cells. Herein, we present the latest results from the process development and our research activities on single functional layers as well as for complete solar cell devices. Efficiencies above 13% have already been obtained with Cu-free back contacts. An additional focus is set on different transparent conducting oxide materials for the front contact and a Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based back contact. - Highlights: ? Laboratory established on industrial level for CdTe solar cell research ? 13.0% cell efficiency with our standard front contact and Cu-free back contact ? Research on ZnO-based transparent conducting oxide and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} back contacts ? High resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of ion polished cross section.

  4. Thin film CdTe solar cells by close spaced sublimation: Recent results from pilot line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe is an attractive material to produce high efficient and low cost thin film solar cells. The semiconducting layers of this kind of solar cell can be deposited by the Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) process. The advantages of this technique are high deposition rates and an excellent utilization of the raw material, leading to low production costs and competitive module prices. CTF Solar GmbH is offering equipment and process knowhow for the production of CdTe solar modules. For further improvement of the technology, research is done at a pilot line, which covers all relevant process steps for manufacture of CdTe solar cells. Herein, we present the latest results from the process development and our research activities on single functional layers as well as for complete solar cell devices. Efficiencies above 13% have already been obtained with Cu-free back contacts. An additional focus is set on different transparent conducting oxide materials for the front contact and a Sb2Te3 based back contact. - Highlights: ? Laboratory established on industrial level for CdTe solar cell research ? 13.0% cell efficiency with our standard front contact and Cu-free back contact ? Research on ZnO-based transparent conducting oxide and Sb2Te3 back contacts ? High resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of ion polished cross section

  5. Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

  6. A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Manda; Huang, Fuzhi; Huang, Wenchao; Dkhissi, Yasmina; Zhu, Ye; Etheridge, Joanne; Gray-Weale, Angus; Bach, Udo; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Spiccia, Leone

    2014-09-01

    Thin-film photovoltaics based on alkylammonium lead iodide perovskite light absorbers have recently emerged as a promising low-cost solar energy harvesting technology. To date, the perovskite layer in these efficient solar cells has generally been fabricated by either vapor deposition or a two-step sequential deposition process. We report that flat, uniform thin films of this material can be deposited by a one-step, solvent-induced, fast crystallization method involving spin-coating of a DMF solution of CH3NH3PbI3 followed immediately by exposure to chlorobenzene to induce crystallization. Analysis of the devices and films revealed that the perovskite films consist of large crystalline grains with sizes up to microns. Planar heterojunction solar cells constructed with these solution-processed thin films yielded an average power conversion efficiency of 13.90.7% and a steady state efficiency of 13% under standard AM 1.5 conditions. PMID:25047967

  7. Hydrophobic perfluoropolymer thin-film encapsulation for enhanced stability of inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Sung Kyu [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Wook; Yoo, Byung-Wook [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Kyun [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Hoon [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We report hydrophobic perfluoropolymer thin-film encapsulation for enhancing the air ambient stability of inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Using a perfluoropolymer, poly(perfluorodecylmethacrylate) (PFDMA), as an encapsulation material, an orthogonal process that enables a solution-processing of encapsulation polymers to be coated directly on the inverted PSCs without damaging the underlying organic components is possible. Particularly, with PFDMA encapsulation, the air ambient stability was significantly enhanced, showing only an efficiency reduction of 23.3% after 456 hours of air exposure. The enhanced device stability can be attributed to the hydrophobic property of the PFDMA surface, which suppresses the transmission of air ambient gas molecules into the solar cells. Thus, the PFDMA coating can be beneficial in achieving high-stability organic electronics by using an easy-to-use route.

  8. A non-resonant dielectric metamaterial for the enhancement of thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, we have suggested a dielectric metamaterial composed of an array of submicron dielectric spheres located on top of an amorphous thin-film solar cell. We have theoretically shown that this metamaterial can decrease the reflection and simultaneously suppress the transmission through the photovoltaic layer because it transforms the incident plane wave into a set of focused light beams. This theoretical concept has been strongly developed and experimentally confirmed in the present paper. Here we consider the metamaterial for oblique angle illumination, redesign the solar cell and present a detailed experimental study of the whole structure. In contrast to our previous theoretical study we show that our omnidirectional light-trapping structure may operate better than the optimized flat coating obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. (paper)

  9. Hydrophobic perfluoropolymer thin-film encapsulation for enhanced stability of inverted polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report hydrophobic perfluoropolymer thin-film encapsulation for enhancing the air ambient stability of inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Using a perfluoropolymer, poly(perfluorodecylmethacrylate) (PFDMA), as an encapsulation material, an orthogonal process that enables a solution-processing of encapsulation polymers to be coated directly on the inverted PSCs without damaging the underlying organic components is possible. Particularly, with PFDMA encapsulation, the air ambient stability was significantly enhanced, showing only an efficiency reduction of 23.3% after 456 hours of air exposure. The enhanced device stability can be attributed to the hydrophobic property of the PFDMA surface, which suppresses the transmission of air ambient gas molecules into the solar cells. Thus, the PFDMA coating can be beneficial in achieving high-stability organic electronics by using an easy-to-use route.

  10. Temperature dependent electrical characterization of thin film Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, E.; Krustok, J.; Giraldo, S.; Neuschitzer, M.; Lpez-Marino, S.; Saucedo, E.

    2016-03-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) and currentvoltage characteristics measurements were applied to study properties of a Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film solar cell. IS measurements were done in the frequency range 20 Hz to 10 MHz. The measurement temperature was varied from 10?K to 325?K with a step ?T??=??5?K. Temperature dependence of V oc revealed an activation energy of 962 meV, which is in the vicinity of the band gap energy of CZTSe and hence the dominating recombination mechanism in this solar cell is bulk recombination. Different temperature ranges, where electrical properties change, were found. Interface states at grain boundaries with different properties were revealed to play an important role in impedance measurements. These states can be described by introducing a constant phase element in the equivalent circuit.

  11. A non-resonant dielectric metamaterial for enhancement of thin-film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Omelyanovich, Mikhail; Simovski, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have suggested dielectric metamaterial composed as an array of submicron dielectric spheres located on top of an amorphous thin-film solar cell. We have theoretically shown that this metamaterial can decrease the reflection and simultaneously can suppress the transmission through the photovoltaic layer because it transforms the incident plane wave into a set of focused light beams. This theoretical concept has been strongly developed and experimentally confirmed in the present paper. Here we consider the metamaterial for oblique angle illumination, redesign the solar cell and present a detailed experimental study of the whole structure. In contrast to our precedent theoretical study we show that our omnidirectional light-trapping structure may operate better than the optimized flat coating obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  12. Laser crystallization induced multicrystalline silicon thin film solar cells on glass : European High-EF Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European project HIGH-EF is aimed at developing a unique process for silicon thin films based solar cells on glass substrate. To provide high solar cells efficiency (? 12 percent), a combination of laser crystallization of a seed layer and an additional solid phase epitaxy of a thicker layer is realized. In a first step, the crystallization of the seed layer is obtained by scanning a focused in-line laser beam obtained by a specific optical lens system. In a second step, epitaxial growth of a large grains active silicon layer is achieved by solid phase epitaxy. Process optimization is supported by numerical simulations of both melting and crystallization process of the seed layer as well as epitaxial solid phase crystallization

  13. Laser crystallization induced multicrystalline silicon thin film solar cells on glass : european HIGH-EF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The european project HIGH-EF is aimed at developing a unique process for silicon thin films based solar cells on glass substrate. To provide high solar cells efficiency (more than 12 percent) a combination of laser crystallization of a seed layer and an additional solid phase epitaxy of thicker layer is realized. In a first step, the crystallization of the seed layer is obtained by scanning a focused in-line laser beam obtained by a specific optical lens system. In a second step, epitaxial growth of a large grains active silicon layer is achieved by solid phase epitaxy. Process optimization is supported by numerical simulations of both melting and crystallization process of the seed layer as well as epitaxial solid phase crystallization

  14. Thin film solar cells on glass by transfer of monocrystalline Si films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Werner

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film solar cells based on monocrystalline Si films are transferred to a glass superstrate. Chemical vapor deposition serves to epitaxially deposit Si on quasi-monocrystalline Si films obtained from thermal crystallization of a double layer porous Si film on a Si wafer. A separation layer that forms during this crystallization process allows one to separate the epitaxial layer on top of the quasi-monocrystalline film from the starting Si wafer. We presently achieve an independently confirmed solar cell conversion efficiency of 9:26%. Ray tracing studies in combination with electrical device simulation indicate an efficiency potential of around 17% using simple device processing and moderate assumptions on minority carrier lifetime and surface recombination.

  15. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Crystallisation kinetic is used to analyse seed layer surface cleanliness. Simplified RCA cleaning for the seed layer can shorten the epitaxy annealing duration. RTA for the seed layer can improve the quality for both seed layer and epi-layer. Epitaxial poly-Si solar cell performance is improved by RTA treated seed layer. - Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, Voc and Jsc than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment

  16. Time Domain Characterization of Light Trapping States in Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer W.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spectral interferometry of the backscattered radiation reveals coherence lifetimes of about 150 fs for nanolocalized electromagnetic modes in textured layered nanostructures as they are commonly used in thin film photovoltaics to achieve high cell efficiencies.

  17. Thin film solar cells with Si nanocrystallites embedded in amorphous intrinsic layers by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungil; Parida, Bhaskar; Kim, Keunjoo

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the thin film growths of hydrogenated silicon by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition with different flow rates of SiH4 and H2 mixture ambient and fabricated thin film solar cells by implementing the intrinsic layers to SiC/Si heterojunction p-i-n structures. The film samples showed the different infrared absorption spectra of 2,000 and 2,100 cm(-1), which are corresponding to the chemical bonds of SiH and SiH2, respectively. The a-Si:H sample with the relatively high silane concentration provides the absorption peak of SiH bond, but the microc-Si:H sample with the relatively low silane concentration provides the absorption peak of SiH2 bond as well as SiH bond. Furthermore, the microc-Si:H sample showed the Raman spectral shift of 520 cm(-1) for crystalline phase Si bonds as well as the 480 cm(-1) for the amorphous phase Si bonds. These bonding structures are very consistent with the further analysis of the long-wavelength photoconduction tail and the formation of nanocrystalline Si structures. The microc-Si:H thin film solar cell has the photovoltaic behavior of open circuit voltage similar to crystalline silicon thin film solar cell, indicating that microc-Si:H thin film with the mixed phase of amorphous and nanocrystalline structures show the carrier transportation through the channel of nanocrystallites. PMID:23858866

  18. Sputtered CdTe thin film solar cells with Cu2Te/Au back contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, Cu2Te/Au back contact for CdTe thin film solar cells were prepared by vacuum evaporation. Influence of annealing temperature on the structure and electrical properties of Cu2Te films were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Hall effect measurement. Also, CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells were fabricated by magnetron sputtering process, which is favorable for large area deposition and mass production, and the photovoltaic characteristics were studied. As the annealing temperature was increased, the crystal structure transformed from Cu2Te for as-deposited film to Cu2−xTe hexagonal phase, and the grains in the film became bigger. The electrical resistivity was slightly higher by the annealing. The cell efficiency was significantly improved by the heat treatment, and showed a maximum value of 9.14% at 180 °C. From these results, Cu2Te/Au contact acts as the proper pseudo-ohmic contact onto CdTe film. However, further increase of annealing temperature caused the deterioration of cell performance. - Highlights: • Annealing effects of the vacuum evaporated Cu2Te films were investigated. • The transformation from Cu2Te to Cu2−xTe hexagonal phase occurred by annealing. • The performance of the solar cell was highly increased by annealing at 180 °C. • Cu2Te/Au contact acts as the proper pseudo-ohmic contact onto CdTe film

  19. Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film solar cells (TFSC) with Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) as absorber layer have been produced on rigid glass substrates for the terrestrial market. There exist, however, different investigations for manufacturing of TFSC on flexible substrates in order to achieve very thin and highly flexible (rollable) solar cells. Besides their capability to open new terrestrial market segments, they are considered as competitive candidates for future flexible thin film space power generators compared to traditional crystalline solar cells. This paper explains the advantages of flexible TFSC for usage in space, including:-low mass and storage volume, -high power/mass ratio [>100 W/kg at array level], -high radiation resistance against proton and electron radiation and, -lower production costs. These cells can be produced on flexible conductive and insulating substrate materials and have efficiency potentials of up to 15%. We report on the current development steps to adopt the TFSC technology to space requirements as well as the first European industrial approach to the roll-to-roll production of flexible CIGS-TFSC on polyimide as substrate material. Stability issues in space environment concern not only the TFSC itself, but all system components such as interconnects, cell assembly and flexible blankets. The adhesion of the back-contact to the substrate, the emissivity control in the infrared wavelength range, the electrical contacting and interconnection as well as flexible encapsulation are currently under investigation and are discussed in the paper. The production costs for TFSC for space application can be further reduced by sharing resources for the production of flexible TFSC for the terrestrial market; namely by using both, the existing terrestrial investment in production facilities as well as the synergies in R and D

  20. Five roads towards increased optical absorption and high stable efficiency for thin film silicon solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van??ek, Milan; Poruba, Ale; Reme, Zden?k; Holovsk, Jakub; Purkrt, Adam; Babchenko, Oleg; Hruka, Karel; Meier, J.; Kroll, U.

    Munich : WIP-Renewable Energies, 2009 - (Sinke, W.; Ossenbrink, H.; Helm, P.), s. 2286-2289 ISBN 3-936338-25-6. [European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference /24./. Hamburg (DE), 21.09.2009-25.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) 7E09057 Grant ostatn: EU FP7(XE) CP-IP 214134-2; EU FP6 ATHLET(XE) SES6-019670 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : high stable efficiency * amorphous silicon * thin film solar cell * 3-dimensional nanostructuring * transparent conductive oxides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/24thEUPVSEC2009-3BO.9.1

  1. Cu(In,GaSe2 thin films processed by co-evaporation and their application into solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sastré-Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS solar cells are attractive because low cost techniques can be used to obtain high efficiency thin film photovoltaic devices. Several research groups around the world have developed CIGS/CdS solar cells with efficiencies larger than 15% [1] using evaporation, making it an attractive and reliable technique for thin film deposition. Our PVD system is provided with MBE-type Knudsen cells to deposit CIGS thin films on glass/Molibdenum (Mo substrates. The deposition conditions for each metal source have been established by doing a deposition profile of temperature data vs. growth rate by co-evaporation to obtain CIGS thin film for solar cells. Characterization of the co-evaporated CIGS thin films was performed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS techniques. Good quality polycrystalline films were obtained as shown by X-RD patterns. SEM micrographs show films having a very uniform appearance with large grain sizes (»1 ¹m. Photoluminescence (PL studies on CIGS samples with different Ga and Cu concentrations (Ga/Ga+In = 0.25 and 0.34 and (Cu/In+Ga = 0.83, 0.88 and 0.94 have been performed. The EDS results have shown that is possible to control very precisely the CIGS thin film composition using these Knudsen cells. Film thicknesses of »3-4 ¹m, were measured with an Ambios profilemeter XP 100 stylus type. A conversion efficiency of 10.9 % has been achieved for solar cells made from the co-evaporated absorbers.

  2. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films processed by co-evaporation and their application into solar cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Sastr-Hernndez; M.E., Calixto; M., Tufio-Velzquez; G., Contreras-Puente; A., Morales-Acevedo; G., Casados-Cruz; M.A., Hernndez-Prez; M.L., Albor-Aguilera; R., Mendoza-Prez.

    2011-10-11

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells are attractive because low cost techniques can be used to obtain high efficiency thin film photovoltaic devices. Several research groups around the world have developed CIGS/CdS solar cells with efficiencies larger than 15% [1] using evaporation, makin [...] g it an attractive and reliable technique for thin film deposition. Our PVD system is provided with MBE-type Knudsen cells to deposit CIGS thin films on glass/Molibdenum (Mo) substrates. The deposition conditions for each metal source have been established by doing a deposition profile of temperature data vs. growth rate by co-evaporation to obtain CIGS thin film for solar cells. Characterization of the co-evaporated CIGS thin films was performed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Good quality polycrystalline films were obtained as shown by X-RD patterns. SEM micrographs show films having a very uniform appearance with large grain sizes (~1 m). Photoluminescence (PL) studies on CIGS samples with different Ga and Cu concentrations (Ga/Ga+In) = 0.25 and 0.34 and (Cu/In+Ga) = 0.83, 0.88 and 0.94) have been performed. The EDS results have shown that is possible to control very precisely the CIGS thin film composition using these Knudsen cells. Film thicknesses of ~3-4 m, were measured with an Ambios profilemeter XP 100 stylus type. A conversion efficiency of 10.9 % has been achieved for solar cells made from the co-evaporated absorbers.

  3. Thin film solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  4. Effect of Ag doping on opto-electrical properties of CdS thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Adnan, E-mail: adnan.nazir@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Toma, Andrea [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Shah, Nazar Abbas [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Panaro, Simone [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Butt, Sajid [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sagar, Rizwan ur Rehman [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Raja, Waseem [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Rasool, Kamran [Micro and Nano Devices Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Pakistan, Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Maqsood, Asghari [Department of Physics, Air University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: Polycrystalline CdS thin films are fabricated by means of Close Spaced Sublimation technique. Ag is doped by simple ion-exchange technique in order to reduce resistivity of CdS thin films. Remarkable reduction in resistivity without introducing many transparency losses. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) polycrystalline thin films of different thicknesses (ranging from 370 nm to 750 nm) were fabricated on corning glass substrates using Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) technique. Optical and electrical investigation revealed that CdS thin films show an appreciable transparency (5070% transmission) in visible range and a highly resistive behavior (10{sup 6} ? cm). Samples were doped by silver (Ag) at different concentrations, using ion exchange technique, in order to reduce the resistivity of CdS thin films and to improve their efficiency as a window layer for solar cell application. The doping of Ag in pure CdS thin films resulted into an increase of surface roughness and a decrease both in electrical resistivity and in transparency. By optimizing annealing parameters, we were able to properly control the optical properties of the present system. In fact, the Ag doping of pure CdS films has led to a decrease of the sample resistivity by three orders of magnitude (10{sup 3} ? cm) against a 20% cut in optical transmission.

  5. Controllable Electrochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Constructed as Efficient Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Weng Chong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A controllable electrochemical synthesis to convert reduced graphene oxide (rGO from graphite flakes was introduced and investigated in detail. Electrochemical reduction was used to prepare rGO because of its cost effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and ability to produce rGO thin films in industrial scale. This study aimed to determine the optimum applied potential for the electrochemical reduction. An applied voltage of 15 V successfully formed a uniformly coated rGO thin film, which significantly promoted effective electron transfer within dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Thus, DSSC performance improved. However, rGO thin films formed in voltages below or exceeding 15 V resulted in poor DSSC performance. This behavior was due to poor electron transfer within the rGO thin films caused by poor uniformity. These results revealed that DSSC constructed using 15 V rGO thin film exhibited high efficiency (η = 1.5211% attributed to its higher surface uniformity than other samples. The addition of natural lemon juice (pH ~ 2.3 to the electrolyte accelerated the deposition and strengthened the adhesion of rGO thin film onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glasses.

  6. Studies of compositional dependent CZTS thin film solar cells by pulsed laser deposition technique: An attempt to improve the efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Synthesis of CZTS thin films by PLD. ? Effect of stoichiometry, its deviation on the physical properties. ? Improvement in conversion efficiency using CZTS absorber layer. - Abstract: The performance of CZTS thin films deposited by using pulsed laser deposition technique is investigated as a function of target composition. The chemical composition ratio a = Cu/(Zn + Sn) of the target material has been varied from 0.8 to 1.2 in step of 0.1 by keeping Zn/Sn constant. The effect of the chemical composition in the precursor thin films on the structural, morphological, chemical and optical properties of the CZTS thin films has been investigated. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies showed that the annealed CZTS thin films are of a single kesterite crystal structure without any other secondary phases. The direct band gap energy of the CZTS thin films is found to decrease from 1.721.53 eV with increase of a. The estimated band-gap energy from the quantum efficiency measurements is about 1.54 eV. The solar cell fabricated with Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO:Al/Al structure grown using [a = Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 1.1] showed the best conversion efficiency of 4.13% with Voc = 700 mV, Jsc = 10.01 mA/cm2 and FF = 0.59.

  7. Effect of Ag doping on opto-electrical properties of CdS thin films for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline CdS thin films are fabricated by means of Close Spaced Sublimation technique. • Ag is doped by simple ion-exchange technique in order to reduce resistivity of CdS thin films. • Remarkable reduction in resistivity without introducing many transparency losses. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) polycrystalline thin films of different thicknesses (ranging from 370 nm to 750 nm) were fabricated on corning glass substrates using Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) technique. Optical and electrical investigation revealed that CdS thin films show an appreciable transparency (50–70% transmission) in visible range and a highly resistive behavior (106 Ω cm). Samples were doped by silver (Ag) at different concentrations, using ion exchange technique, in order to reduce the resistivity of CdS thin films and to improve their efficiency as a window layer for solar cell application. The doping of Ag in pure CdS thin films resulted into an increase of surface roughness and a decrease both in electrical resistivity and in transparency. By optimizing annealing parameters, we were able to properly control the optical properties of the present system. In fact, the Ag doping of pure CdS films has led to a decrease of the sample resistivity by three orders of magnitude (103 Ω cm) against a 20% cut in optical transmission

  8. Layer Transfer of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film and Solar Cell Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemoto, Takashi; Anegawa, Takaya; Osada, Shintaro; Takakura, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films were transferred to alternative substrates by a lift-off process, and solar cells were fabricated using the transferred films. CIGS films were grown on Mo/soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates by a three-stage evaporation process. The CIGS films were transferred to two alternative substrates: a rigid SLG and a flexible polyimide film. In the lift-off process, an intentional sacrificial layer between CIGS and Mo back contact layers was not prepared. CIGS solar cells with In2O3:Sn/ZnO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/conductive-epoxy/alternative-substrates structure were fabricated. Both solar cells showed almost half of the conversion efficiencies of a CIGS solar cell fabricated by a standard process. This is because of poor short circuit current and fill factor due to voltage-dependent current collection and high series resistance. Modifications of the composition profile of the CIGS layer and back contact property will improve the device performance. These results demonstrated the possibility of using the lift-off process for CIGS solar cells to widen the variety of substrate material choice.

  9. Radiation damage of GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1-MeV electron irradiation damages in GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates are examined for the first time. Damage constant for minority-carrier diffusion length in GaAs heteroepitaxial films on Si substrates is found to be the same as that in GaAs homoepitaxial films on GaAs substrates. This agreement suggests that GaAs/Si has the same defect introduction rate with radiation as GaAs/GaAs. The degradation of GaAs solar cells on Si with electron irradiation is less than that of GaAs solar cells on GaAs, because in the present, GaAs films on Si substrates have lower minority-carrier diffusion length compared to GaAs films on GaAs and these films are insensitive to radiation. The p+-p+-n AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cell with junction depth of about 0.3 ?m is concluded to be useful for a high-efficiency and radiation-resistant solar cell fabricated on a Si substrate

  10. Quantum efficiency as a device-physics interpretation tool for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Timothy J.

    2007-12-01

    Thin-film solar cells made from CdTe and CIGS p-type absorbers are promising candidates for generating pollution-free electricity. The challenge faced by the thin-film photovoltaics (PV) community is to improve the electrical properties of devices, without straying from low-cost, industry-friendly techniques. This dissertation will focus on the use of quantum-efficiency (QE) measurements to deduce the device physics of thin-film devices, in the hope of improving electrical properties and efficiencies of PV materials. Photons which are absorbed, but not converted into electrical energy can modify the energy bands in the solar cell. Under illumination, photoconductivity in the CdS window layer can result in bands different from those in the dark. QE data presented here was taken under a variety of light-bias conditions. These results suggest that 0.10 sun of white-light bias incident on the CdS layer is usually sufficient to achieve accurate QE results. QE results are described by models based on carrier collection by drift and diffusion, and photon absorption. These models are sensitive to parameters such as carrier mobility and lifetime. Comparing calculated QE curves with experiments, it was determined that electron lifetimes in CdTe are less than 0.1 ns. Lifetime determinations also suggest that copper serves as a recombination center in CdTe. The spatial uniformity of QE results has been investigated with the LBIC apparatus, and several experiments are described which investigate cell uniformity. Electrical variations that occur in solar cells often occur in a nonuniform fashion, and can be detected with the LBIC apparatus. Studies discussed here include investigation of patterned deposition of Cu in back-contacts, the use of high-resistivity TCO layers to mitigate nonuniformity, optical effects, and local shunts. CdTe devices with transparent back contacts were also studied with LBIC, including those that received a strong bromine/dichrol/hydrazine (BDH) etch and those that received a weak bromine etch at the back contact. Back-side results showed improved uniformity in BDH-etched devices, attributed to better back contacts in these devices. In thin-absorber devices, the uniformity trend would likely extend to front-side measurements.

  11. Determination of optical and mechanical properties of Nb2O5 thin films for solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Niobium pentoxide films were prepared by microwave assisted magnetron sputtering. Optical and mechanical properties of Nb2O5 thin films were investigated. The surface of thin films was homogenous, crack free and exhibited low RMS roughness. Prepared Nb2O5 coatings were well transparent from ca., 350 nm. Hardness of deposited coatings was ca., 7 GPa. - Abstract: In this paper investigation results of niobium pentoxide thin films deposited by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process were described. Surface of prepared coatings was examined with the aid of atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in the contact-mode and in ultra high vacuum conditions. The surface of thin films was homogenous, crack free and exhibit low root mean square (RMS) roughness of about 0.34 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies were performed to determine the chemical states of the niobium at the surface of thin films. Contact angle and surface free energy were additionally investigated to examine the surface properties of the deposited coatings. Optical properties of the Nb2O5 thin films showed, that prepared coatings were well transparent from 350 nm to longer wavelength range. Based on transmission and reflection measurements the values of refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The antireflective coating based on Nb2O5 thin films for solar cells application was proposed. The hardness and Young's modulus measurements were performed by the nanoindentation technique. These investigations revealed that the hardness of the deposited coatings was ca., 7 GPa. Also scratch tests were applied, which have shown that the Nb2O5 thin films were scratch resistant

  12. Thin-Film Solar Cells on Polymer Substrates for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepps, A. F.; McNatt, Jeremiah; Morel, D. L.; Ferckides, C. S.; Jin, M. H.; Orbey, N.; Cushman, M.; Birkmire, R. W.; Shafarman, W. N.; Newton, R.

    2004-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays have played a key role in power generation in space. The current technology will continue to evolve but is limited in the important mass specific power metric (MSP or power/weight ratio) because it is based on bulk crystal technology. Solar cells based on thin-film materials offer the promise of much higher MSP and much lower cost. However, for many space applications, a 20% or greater AM0 efficiency (eta) may be required. The leading thin-film materials, amorphous Si, CuInSe, and CdTe have seen significant advances in efficiency over the last decade but will not achieve the required efficiency in the near future. Several new technologies are herein described to maximize both device eta and MSP. We will discuss these technologies in the context of space exploration and commercialization. One novel approach involves the use of very lightweight polyimide substrates. We describe efforts to enable this advance including materials processing and device fabrication and characterization. Another approach involves stacking two cells on top of each other. These tandem devices more effectively utilize solar radiation by passing through non-absorbed longer wavelength light to a narrow-bandgap bottom cell material. Modeling of current devices in tandem format indicates that AM0 efficiencies near 20% can be achieved with potential for 25% in the near future. Several important technical issues need to be resolved to realize the benefits of lightweight technologies for solar arrays, such as: monolithic interconnects, lightweight array structures, and new ultra-light support and deployment mechanisms. Recent advances will be stressed.

  13. Light-trapping and antireflective coatings for amorphous Si-based thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Pavel M.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Belov, Pavel A.; Shalin, Alexander S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study the efficiency of several types of all-dielectric, non-resonant, antireflection, and light-trapping coatings for the enhancement of photovoltaic absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells. We compare the enhancement of the photovoltaic absorption offered by a square array of nano-pillar shaped voids in the dielectric covering of the cell with that granted by a flat blooming layer, and a densely packed array of dielectric nanospheres. We optimize these coatings and show that the newly proposed nanostructure allows a significant increase of the photovoltaic absorption. The dependence of antireflection and light-trapping properties on the angle of incidence is numerically investigated, and it is shown that the array of voids keeps optimal also after averaging over the incidence angles.

  14. Quantification of Power Losses of the Interdigitated Metallization of Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Varlamov; Peter J. Gress

    2012-01-01

    The metallization grid pattern is one of the most important design elements for high-efficiency solar cells. This paper presents a model based on the unit cell approach to accurately quantify the power losses of a specialized interdigitated metallization scheme for polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass superstrates. The sum of the power losses can be minimized to produce an optimized grid-pattern design for a cell with specific parameters. The model is simulated with the stan...

  15. A study of the applicability of ZnO thin-films as anti-reflection coating on Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-films solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent ZnO thin-films are prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis techniques on the glass substrates. Reflectance spectra and thin films heights are measured using spectrophotometer and stylus surface profiler, respectively. Measured optical data is used for investigating the effect of the ZnO prepared by above two processes on the performance of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films solar cell (TFSC). One dimensional simulation approach is considered using the simulation program, SCAPS. External quantum efficiency and J-V characteristics of CZTS TFSC is simulated on the basis of optical reflectance data of ZnO films with and without ZnO thin-films as antireflection coating (ARC). Study shows that ARC coated CZTS TFSC provides a better fill factor (FF) as compared to other ARC material such as MgF2. Sprayed ZnO thin-films as ARC show comparable performance with the sputtered samples.

  16. Research on polycrystalline thin-film CuGaInSe[sub 2] solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbery, B.J.; Chen, W.S.; Devaney, W.E.; Stewart, J.W. (Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Defense and Space Systems Group)

    1992-11-01

    This report describes research to fabricate high-efficiency CdZnS/CuInGaSe[sub 2] (CIGS) thin-film solar cells, and to develop improved transparent conductor window layers such as ZnO. A specific technical milestone was the demonstration of an air mass (AM) 1.5 global, 13% efficient, 1-cm[sup 2]-total-area CIGS thin-film solar cell. Our activities focused on three areas. First, a CIGS deposition: system was modified to double its substrate capacity, thus increasing throughput, which is critical to speeding the process development by providing multiple substrates from the same CIGS run. Second, new tooling was developed to enable an investigation of a modified aqueous CdZnS process. The goal was to improve the yield of this critical step in the device fabrication process. Third, our ZnO sputtering system was upgraded to improve its reliability, and the sputtering parameters were further optimized to improve its properties as a transparent conducting oxide. The characterization of the new CIGS deposition system substrate fixturing was completed, and we produced good thermal uniformity and adequately high temperatures for device-quality CIGS deposition. Both the CIGS and ZnO deposition processes were refined to yield a ZnO//Cd[sub 0.82]Zn[sub 0.18]S/CuIn[sub 0.80]Ga[sub 0.20]Se[sub 2] cell that was verified at NREL under standard testing conditions at 13.1% efficiency with V[sub oc] = 0.581 V, J[sub sc] = 34.8 mA/cm[sup 2], FF = 0.728, and a cell area of 0.979 cm[sup 2].

  17. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  18. Ternary Precursors for Depositing I-III-VI2 Thin Films for Solar Cells via Spray CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, K. K.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Jin, M. H.-C.; Harris, J. D.; Duraj, S. A.; Smith, M.; Scheiman, D.; Bohannan, E. W.; Switzer, J. A.; Buhro, W. E.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power (W/kg). Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate that ternary single source precursors (SSP's) can be used in either a hot or cold-wall spray chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor, for depositing CuInS2, CuGaS2, and CuGaInS2 at reduced temperatures (400 to 450 C), which display good electrical and optical properties suitable for photovoltaic (PV) devices. X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the formation of the single phase CIS, CGS, CIGS thin-films on various substrates at reduced temperatures.

  19. Single source precursors for fabrication of I-III-VI2 thin-film solar cells via spray CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power (W/kg). Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate that ternary single source precursors can be used in either a hot, or cold-wall spray chemical vapour deposition reactor, for depositing CuInS2, CuGaS2 and CuGaInS2 at reduced temperatures (400-450 sign C), which display good electrical and optical properties suitable for photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of the single phase CIS, CGS, CIGS thin-films on various substrates at reduced temperatures

  20. Heterojunction solar cells with integrated Si and ZnO nanowires and a chalcopyrite thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) have been successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal technique on both glass and silicon substrates initially coated with a sputtered ZnO thin film layer. Varying ZnO seed layer thicknesses were deposited to determine the effect of seed layer thickness on the quality of ZnO NW growth. The effect of growth time on the formation of ZnO NWs was also studied. Experimental results show that these two parameters have an important effect on formation, homogeneity and vertical orientation of ZnO NWs. Silicon nanowires were synthesized by a Ag-assisted electroless etching technique on an n-type Si (100) wafer. SEM observations have revealed the formation of vertically-aligned Si NWs with etching depth of ?700 nm distributed over the surface of the Si. An electron-beam evaporated chalcopyrite thin film consisting of p-type AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 with ?800 nm thickness was deposited on the n-type ZnO and Si NWs for the construction of nanowire based heterojunction solar cells. For the Si NW based solar cell, from a partially illuminated area of the solar cell, the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor and power conversion efficiency were 0.34 V, 25.38 mA cm?2, 63% and 5.50%, respectively. On the other hand, these respective parameters were 0.26 V, 3.18 mA cm?2, 35% and 0.37% for the ZnO NW solar cell. - Highlights: ZnO nanowires using hydrothermal technique have been synthesized successfully. Silicon nanowires were synthesized by Ag-assisted electroless etching technique. A p-type AGIS was deposited on the n-type ZnO and n-Si NWs for nanowire based solar cells. Power conversion efficiency of 5.50% was obtained for Si nanowires based solar cell

  1. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  2. Inductively coupled hydrogen plasma processing of AZO thin films for heterojunction solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: A high-density plasma reactor of inductively coupled plasma source is used in this work. The conductivity and transmittance can be enhanced simultaneously in the hydrogen process. The formation of additional donors and passivation due to the hydrogen plasma processing. The photovoltaic improvement due to the improved AZO layer and hetero-interface quality in the solar cells. - Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposited by means of RF magnetron sputtering were processed in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma of H2, aiming at heterojunction (HJ) solar cell applications. A variety of characterization results show that the hydrogen plasma processing exerts a significant influence on the microstructures, electrical and optical properties of the AZO films. The incorporation of hydrogen under the optimum treatment simultaneously promoted the transmittance and conductivity due to the hydrogen associated passivation effect on the native defects and the formation of shallow donors in the films, respectively. A p-type c-Si based HJ solar cell with a front AZO contact was also treated in as-generated non-equilibrium hydrogen plasma and the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell was prominently improved. The underlying mechanism was discussed in terms of the beneficial impacts of high-density hydrogen plasma on the properties of AZO itself and the hetero-interfaces involved in the HJ structure (interface defect and energy band configuration)

  3. Silicontetrachloride based microcrystalline silicon for application in thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The replacement of the process gas silane by silicontetrachloride for the deposition of microcrystalline silicon thin films is explored. The films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from mixtures of silicontetrachloride and hydrogen. Deposition conditions similar as employed for efficient silane-based microcrystalline silicon solar cells of high deposition rate were applied. Structural and electronic properties of the films are studied by infrared optical absorption and Raman spectroscopies and conductivity measurements. Increasing the flow ratio of silicontetrachloride to hydrogen, the transition from the crystalline to the amorphous state is found to occur in a similar range of flow ratio as in silane-based material. The lowest porosity is observed for a crystalline fraction near 80%. Porosity, void-related microstructure and chlorine content are found to decrease with increasing substrate temperature. For boron doped material deposited at a substrate temperature of 250 deg. C, conductivity values exceeding 50 (? cm)-1 were achieved. This latter material was incorporated as p-layer into microcrystalline pin silicon solar cells. Solar cell efficiencies similar as for solar cells with a silane-based p-layer were obtained

  4. Application of plasmonic silver island films in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles can be used as light scattering elements for enhancing solar cell energy conversion efficiencies. The objective of our work is to gain more insight into the optical properties of silver nanoparticle films and their effect on the performance of solar cells. We use a common self-assembly technique to fabricate a range of silver island films on transparent substrates and measure their reflectance and transmittance for visible and near infrared light. We demonstrate that it is possible to represent silver island films by an effective medium with the same optical properties. The observed strong dependence on illumination side of the reflectance and absorptance, attributed to driving field effects, is reproduced very well. Thin-film silicon solar cells with embedded silver island films were fabricated and it was found that their performance is reduced due to parasitic absorption of light in the silver island film. Simulations of these solar cells, where the silver island film is represented as an effective medium layer, show a similar trend. This highlights the importance of minimizing parasitic absorption

  5. Fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on plastic substrate by very high frequency PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, J.K.; Brinza, M.; Liu, Y.; Schropp, R.E.I. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Debye Institute of Nanomaterials Science, Section Nanophotonics-Physics of Devices, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Borreman, A. [Helianthos b.v., a Nuon Company (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    The paper describes the way to transfer process technology of state-of-the-art high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells fabrication on cheap plastic (such as PET or PEN) substrates, by two completely different approaches: (i) by transfer process (Helianthos concept) of thin film silicon cells deposited at high substrate temperature, T{sub s} ({proportional_to}200 C) and (ii) direct deposition on temperature sensitive substrates at low T{sub s} ({proportional_to}100 C). Adaptation of the process parameters and cell processing to the requirement of the flexible/plastic substrate is the most crucial step. In-situ diagnosis of the plasma has been done to understand the effect of inter-electrode distance, substrate temperature and hydrogen dilution on the gas phase conditions. Whereas, for the transfer process, the inter-electrode distance is a critical deposition condition that needs to be adapted for the flexible substrates, the direct deposition on plastic substrates has an added issue of loss in material quality and the deposition rate due to depositions at low T{sub s}. Our studies indicate that ion energy is crucial for obtaining compact films at low temperature and high hydrogen dilution helps to compensate the loss of ion energy at low substrate temperatures. Efficiencies of {proportional_to}5.9% and 6.2% have been obtained for n-i-p type a-Si cells on PET and PEN substrates, respectively, using direct deposition. Using an adapted inter-electrode distance, an a-Si/nc-Si tandem cell on plastic (polyester) substrate with an efficiency of 8.1% has been made by Helianthos cell transfer process. (author)

  6. Dip coated nanocrystalline CdZnS thin films for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, J. K.; Chaturvedi, Mahim; Patil, Yuvraj; Sharma, Sandhya; Jain, U. K.

    2015-07-01

    Nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) thin films have been grown via simple and low cost dip coating technique. The prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer techniques to reveal their structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD shows that both samples grown have zinc blende structure. The grain size is calculated as 6.2 and 8 nm using Scherrer's formula. The band gap value of CdS and CdZnS film is estimated to be 2.58 and 2.69 eV respectively by UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) investigations are carried out using cell configuration as n-CdZnS/(1M NaOH + 1M Na2S + 1M S)/C. The photovoltaic output characteristic is used to calculate fill-factor (FF) and solar conversion efficiency (η).

  7. Spin Coated Plasmonic Nanoparticle Interfaces for Photocurrent Enhancement in Thin Film Si Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Israelowitz, Miriam; Cong, Tao; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) arrays of noble metals strongly absorb light in the visible to infrared wavelengths through resonant interactions between the incident electromagnetic field and the metal's free electron plasma. Such plasmonic interfaces enhance light absorption and photocurrent in solar cells. We report a cost effective and scalable room temperature/pressure spin-coating route to fabricate broadband plasmonic interfaces consisting of silver NPs. The NP interface yields photocurrent enhancement (PE) in thin film silicon devices by up to 200% which is significantly greater than previously reported values. For coatings produced from Ag nanoink containing particles with average diameter of 40 nm, an optimal NP surface coverage of 7% was observed. Scanning electron microscopy of interface morphologies revealed that for low surface coverage, particles are well-separated, resulting in broadband PE. At higher surface coverage, formation of particle strings and clusters caused red-shifting of the PE peak and a narro...

  8. Defects of a-Si Thin-Film Solar Cells Detected by Transmission Photothermal Radiometric Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Laijun; Gao, Chunming; Zhao, Binxing; Sun, Qiming; Liu, Lixian; Huan, Huiting

    2015-06-01

    The photothermal radiometry (PTR) technique is an effective non-destructive testing technique for detecting defects in materials. In this paper, a piece of commercial amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film solar cells with some artificial mechanical defects has been investigated by the transmission PTR imaging system. Firstly, a simplified analytical expression of a normalized transmission PTR signal was employed to characterize defects. Secondly, the corresponding experimental system has been set-up for obtaining several thermal images of the sample. Thirdly, different kinds of defects have been analyzed and identified by the thermal images. The results show that not only the artificial mechanical defects on the sample can be detected, but also some defects occurring in the manufacturing process can be detected by the transmission PTR imaging system.

  9. Double AAO nanogratings for broad spectrum absorption enhancement in thin film Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, F. F.; Zhang, H. M.; Wang, C. X.; Zhang, J. J.; Guo, C.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we presented a double light trapping structure containing anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanogratings on both the surface and rear of thin film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method was used to study the light absorption enhancement of this design. Simulation results show that, the double light trapping structure can highly increase the light absorption in the wavelengths from 280 to 1100 nm. The relative enhancement of short-circuit current density (Jsc) in this situation is 137%. Besides, the double light trapping structure can highly reduce the influence of incident angle on light absorption. The relative position of AAO pore on the surface and rear has very little influence on light trapping.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of the Light Trapping Potential of Optical Nanostructures for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglia, Corsin; Escarre?, Jordi; Sderstrm, Karin; Boccard, M.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method based on nanoimprinting and non-absorbing insulating silicon nitride electrodes for evaluating the light trapping potential of photonic nanostructures for thin-film silicon solar cells. We validate our method by relating the optical reflectance of the full solar cell stack to the external quantum efficiency of functional cells. Our method provides a useful experimental tool to compare different nanostructures circumventing complications arising from parasitic absorption a...

  11. Directly patterned TiO2 nanostructures for efficient light harvesting in thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Sanjay K.; Rizzoli, Rita; Desta, Derese; Jeppesen, Bjarke R.; Bellettato, Michele; Samatov, Ivan; Tsao, Yao-Chung; Johannsen, Sabrina R.; Neuvonen, Pekka T.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pereira, Rui N.; Pedersen, Kjeld; Balling, Peter; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2015-09-01

    A novel, scalable, and low-cost strategy for fabricating sub-wavelength scale hierarchical nanostructures by direct patterning of TiO2 nanoparticles on glass substrates is reported. Two nanostructural designs of light-trapping back-surface reflectors (BSR) have been fabricated for increasing the photon-harvesting properties of thin-film solar cells: a quasi-periodic nano-crater design and a random nano-bump design. The efficient light-scattering properties of the nano-crater design over a broad wavelength range are demonstrated by the measured haze factor being larger than 40% at wavelengths (~700?nm) near the band edge of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The a-Si:H-based n-i-p solar cell fabricated with an only ~200?nm thick absorber layer on the nano-crater BSR shows a short-circuit current density (J sc) of ~16.1 mA cm-2 representing a 28% enhancement compared to the cell deposited on a non-textured flat substrate. Measurements of the external quantum efficiency of the cell fabricated on the quasi-periodic nano-crater surface at long wavelengths, ???>??700?nm, demonstrate an increase of a factor of 5 relative to that of a flat reference solar cell. The theoretical modeling results of optical absorption corroborate well with the experimental findings and are used to identify the volumes of strong optical absorption in the a-Si:H active layer of the textured BSR devices.

  12. Development of Earth-Abundant Tin(II) Sulfide Thin-Film Solar Cells by Vapor Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert

    2013-01-01

    To sustain future civilization, the development of alternative clean-energy technologies to replace fossil fuels has become one of the most crucial and challenging problems of the last few decades. The thin film solar cell is one of the major photovoltaic technologies that is promising for renewable energy. The current commercial thin film PV technologies are based on \\(Cu(In,Ga)Se_2\\) and CdTe. Despite their success in reducing the module cost below $1/Wp, these absorber materials face limit...

  13. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  14. ?-FeSi2 as the bottom absorber of triple-junction thin-film solar cells: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ?-FeSi2 as the bottom absorber of triple-junction thin-film solar cells is investigated by a numerical method for widening the long-wave spectral response. The presented results show that the ?-FeSi2 subcell can contribute 0.273 V of open-circuit voltage to the a-Si/?c-Si/?-FeSi2 triple-junction thin-film solar cell. The optimized absorber thicknesses for a-Si, ?c-Si, and ?-FeSi2 subcells are 260 nm, 900 nm, and 40 nm, respectively. In addition, the temperature coefficient of the conversion efficiency of the a-Si/?c-Si/?-FeSi2 cell is ?0.308%/K, whose absolute value is only greater than that of the a-Si subcell. This result indicates that the a-Si/?c-Si/?-FeSi2 triple-junction solar cell has a good temperature coefficient. As a result, using ?-FeSi2 as the bottom absorber can improve the thin-film solar cell performance, and the a-Si/?c-Si/?-FeSi2 triple-junction solar cell is a promising structure configuration for improving the solar cell efficiency

  15. Photoluminescence properties of a-Si:H based thin films and corresponding solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) is a well-known semiconductor with metastable properties. Direct surface exposure, as it occurs e.g. in rf plasma equipments, introduces damage due to the charged particle bombardment. The paper deals with photoluminiscence properties of virgin, oxide layer covered and chemically treated (in KCN solutions) surfaces of a-Si:H and corresponding solar cell structures. The cyanide treatment improves the electrical characteristics of MOS structures as well as solar cells. X-ray diffraction at grazing incidence and reflectance spectroscopy complete the study. The photoluminescence measurements were performed at liquid helium temperatures at 6 K using an Ar laser and lock-in signal recording device containing the PbS and Ge photodetectors. Photoluminescence bands were observed as broad luminescent peaks between 1.05-1.7 eV. Two new peaks were detected at 1.38 and 1.42 eV. The evolution of the band at ?1.2 eV related to microcrystalline silicon is investigated. The fitting and simulation of photoluminiscence spectra are presented. The surface luminescent properties of a-Si:H based structures (double layers, single thin film solar cells) before and after the passivation are compared with those of very thin oxide layers and chemically treated surfaces

  16. Characteristics of in-substituted CZTS thin film and bifacial solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jie; Chu, Junhao; Jiang, Jinchun; Yan, Yanfa; Yang, Pingxiong

    2014-12-10

    Implementing bifacial photovoltaic devices based on transparent conducting oxides (TCO) as the front and back contacts is highly appealing to improve the efficiency of kesterite solar cells. The p-type In substituted Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTIS) thin-film solar cell absorber has been fabricated on ITO glass by sulfurizing coelectroplated Cu-Zn-Sn-S precursors in H2S (5 vol %) atmosphere at 520 C for 30 min. Experimental proof, including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR transmission/reflection spectra, PL spectra, and electron microscopies, is presented for the interfacial reaction between the ITO back contact and CZTS absorber. This aggressive reaction due to thermal processing contributes to substitutional diffusion of In into CZTS, formation of secondary phases and electrically conductive degradation of ITO back contact. The structural, lattice vibrational, optical absorption, and defective properties of the CZTIS alloy absorber layer have been analyzed and discussed. The new dopant In is desirably capable of improving the open circuit voltage deficit of kesterite device. However, the nonohmic back contact in the bifacial device negatively limits the open circuit voltage and fill factor, evidencing by illumination-/temperature-dependent J-V and frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V-f) measurements. A 3.4% efficient solar cell is demonstrated under simultaneously bifacial illumination from both sides of TCO front and back contacts. PMID:25340540

  17. CIGS Thin Films for Cd-Free Solar Cells by One-Step Sputtering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jun; Huang, Xing; Lin, Gengqi; Tang, Jiang; Ju, Chen; Miao, Xiangshui

    2014-07-01

    Cu(In1- x Ga x )Se2 (CIGS) thin films were deposited by a one-step radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering process using a quaternary CIGS target. The influence of substrate temperature on the composition, structure, and optical properties of the CIGS films was investigated. All the CIGS films exhibited the chalcopyrite structure with a preferential orientation along the (112) direction. The CIGS film deposited at 623 K showed significant improvement in film crystallinity and surface morphology compared to films deposited at 523 and 573 K. To simplify the manufacturing procedure of solar cells and avoid the use of the toxic element Cd, the properties of ZnS films prepared by RF sputtering were also investigated. The results revealed that the sputtered ZnS film exhibits good lattice matching with the sputtered CIGS film with significantly lower optical absorption loss. Finally, all-sputtered Cd-free CIGS-based heterojunction solar cells with the structure SLG/Mo/CIGS/ZnS/AZO/Al grids were fabricated without post-selenization. Furthermore, the results demonstrated the feasibility of using a full sputtering process for the fabrication of Cd-free CIGS-based solar cell.

  18. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledinsk, M., E-mail: ledinsky@fzu.cz [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnick 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladire 71b, CH-2000 Neuchtel (Switzerland); Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Meillaud, F.; Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladire 71b, CH-2000 Neuchtel (Switzerland); Ganzerov, K.; Vetushka, A.; Fejfar, A. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnick 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool to determine the light-trapping capability of textured ZnO front electrodes implemented in microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon films deposited on superstrates of various roughnesses are characterized by Raman micro-spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 442?nm, 514?nm, 633?nm, and 785?nm, respectively. The way to measure quantitatively and with a high level of reproducibility the Raman intensity is described in details. By varying the superstrate texture and with it the light trapping in the ?c-Si:H absorber layer, we find significant differences in the absolute Raman intensity measured in the near infrared wavelength region (where light trapping is relevant). A good agreement between the absolute Raman intensity and the external quantum efficiency of the ?c-Si:H solar cells is obtained, demonstrating the validity of the introduced method. Applications to thin-film solar cells, in general, and other optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  19. Study of detached back reflector designs for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, Etienne; Paetzold, Ulrich Wilhelm; Kirchhoff, Joachim; Bauer, Andreas; Carius, Reinhard [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    We present a precise and flexible method to investigate the impact of diverse detached reflector designs on the optical response of p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells. In this study, the term detached reflectors refers to back reflectors that are separated from the silicon layers by an intermediate rear dielectric of several micrometers. Based on the utilization of a highly conductive n-doped layer and a local electrical contact scheme, the method allows the use of non-conductive rear dielectrics such as air or transparent liquids. With this approach, diverse combinations of back reflector and rear dielectric can be placed behind the same solar cell, providing a direct evaluation of their impact on the device performance. We demonstrate the positive effect of a rear dielectric of low refractive index on the light trapping and compare the performance of solar cells with an air/Ag and a standard ZnO/Ag back reflector design. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Dyadic Greens functions of thin films: Applications within plasmonic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jesper; Sndergaard, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Optimization and design of silicon solar cells by exploiting light scattering frommetal nanoparticles to increase the efficiency is addressed in the small particle limit from a fundamental point of view via the dyadic Greens function formulation. Based on the dyadic Greens function (Greens tensor) of a three-layer geometry, light scattering from electric point dipoles (representing small metal scatterers) located within a thin layer sandwiched between a substrate and a superstrate is analyzed. Starting from the full dyadic Greens function we derive analytical near- and far-field approximations. The far-field approximations enable efficient, exact, and separate evaluation of light scattering into waves that propagate in the substrate or the superstrate. Based on the near-field approximation we present a semianalytical expression for the total near-field absorption in the substrate. The theoretical approach is used to analyze realistic configurations for plasmon-assisted silicon solar cells. We showthat by embedding metal nanoscatterers in a thin film with a high refractive index (rutile TiO2 with n ? 2.5) on top of the silicon, the fraction of scattered light that couples into the solar cell can become larger than 96%, and an optical path length enhancement of more than 100 can be achieved.

  1. Back surface studies of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchi, Hamed

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells have attracted a lot of interest because they have shown the highest achieved efficiency (21%) among thin film photovoltaic materials, long-term stability, and straightforward optical bandgap engineering by changing relative amounts of present elements in the alloy. Still, there are several opportunities to further improve the performance of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices. The interfaces between layers significantly affect the device performance, and knowledge of their chemical and electronic structures is essential in identifying performance limiting factors. The main goal of this research is to understand the characteristics of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2-back contact interface in order to design ohmic back contacts for Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells with a range of band gaps and device configurations. The focus is on developing either an opaque or transparent ohmic back contact via surface modification or introduction of buffer layers in the back surface. In this project, candidate back contact materials have been identified based on modeling of band alignments and surface chemical properties of the absorber layer and back contact. For the first time, MoO3 and WO 3 transparent back contacts were successfully developed for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cells. The structural, optical, and surface properties of MoO 3 and WO3 were optimized by controlling the oxygen partial pressure during reactive sputtering and post-deposition annealing. Valence band edge energies were also obtained by analysis of the XPS spectra and used to characterize the interface band offsets. As a result, it became possible to illuminate of the device from the back, resulting in a recently developed "backwall superstrate" device structure that outperforms conventional substrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices in the absorber thickness range 0.1-0.5 microm. Further enhancements were achieved by introducing moderate amounts of Ag into the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 lattice during the co-evaporation method resulting in a 9.7% cell (with 0.3 microm thickness) which has the highest efficiency reported for ultrathin CIGS solar cells to date. In addition, sulfized back contacts including ITO-S and MoS 2 are compared. Interface properties of different contact layers with (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers with various Ga/(Ga+In) and Ag/(Ag+Cu) ratios are discussed based on the XPS analysis and thermodynamics of reactions.

  2. Surface and interface characterization of thin-film silicon solar cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Dominic

    2013-02-21

    The properties of Si thin films for solar cells, the interaction with different substrates and the influence of dopants are examined with synchrotron based x-ray spectroscopy - primarily X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The films are studied as-deposited (i.e., amorphous, a-Si) and after conversion into polycrystalline (poly-Si) employing solid phase crystallization (SPC). Si L{sub 2,3} XES spectra of thin-film Si samples can be described by a superposition of a-Si and monocrystalline Si-wafer (c-Si) reference spectra. According to a quantification based on that superposition principle, none of the investigated samples are completely crystallized - a measurable a-Si component always remains (5-20 %) regardless of deposition and treatment conditions. Based on additional results from electron back scattering diffraction different models are developed which may explain this finding. According to these models, the remnant a-Si component can be attributed to amorphous/disordered material at the grain boundaries. Using one of these models, the thickness of this grain-surrounding material s could be approximated to be (1.5 {+-} 0.5) nm. Further investigations of the SPC process reveal a faster crystallization for boron-doped samples, and a slower crystallization for phosphorous-doped samples, when compared to the crystallization of undoped a Si:H thin films. The peculiarities of B K XES spectra (and observed changes upon SPC) indicate that boron could act as a nucleation center promoting crystallization. Si L{sub 2,3} XES spectra of a-Si:H and P-doped poly-Si exhibit spectral features above the valence band maximum at 100 eV that could be attributed to a-Si defect states and n{sup +}-dopant states, respectively. The SPC crystallization velocity of Si thin films on ZnO:Al/glass is found to be faster than that on SiNx/glass substrate. Multiple indications for oxidization at the poly-Si/ZnO:Al interface are found based on our Si L{sub 2,3} XES analysis. Spatially resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data support this and even suggest the formation of sub-oxides or zinc silicate as an interface species. The electronic structure of the buried a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)/ZnO:Al and {mu}c-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interfaces are unraveled with ''depth resolved'' hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A surface band bending limited to the very surface of the silicon layers is found. The valence band maxima for the Si cover layers and the ZnO:Al TCO are determined and interface induced band bending for both interfaces are derived. At the a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface a tunnel barrier of (0.22 {+-} 0.31) eV and at {mu}c-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface a tunnel barrier of (-0.08 {+-} 0.31) eV is determined. This explains a previously empirically found solar cell efficiency increase produced by introducing a {mu}c-Si:H(B) buffer layer between an a-Si p-i-n cell and the ZnO:Al/glass substrate.

  3. Modelling of two-and four-terminal thin-film silicon tandem solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed semi-empirical modelling of amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells in tandem optical configuration, under series (two-terminal) and independent (four-terminal) electrical connection. The four-terminal connection relaxes the constraint of current matching between the cells. Computer simulations indicate an increase in maximum initial efficiency from 10.0% (two-terminal) to 10.8% (four-terminal). Following degradation of the amorphous silicon top-cell the figures are 8.5% and 9.8% respectively, with an optimum top-cell absorber layer thickness in four-terminal connection of 150 nm. Changes in solar spectral quality have been simulated by applying weighted spectra, and improvements in efficiency favouring four-terminal connection occur under red- and blue-rich conditions. However, these typically convey only a small fraction of the total annual insolation, and gains of 5% or less in annual electrical output are predicted. Possible increased optical and electrical losses due to additional contact layers in four-terminal connection are not taken into account.

  4. Transparent conducting oxide contacts and textured metal back reflectors for thin film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, R.H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    With the growing population and the increasing environmental problems of the 'common' fossil and nuclear energy production, the need for clean and sustainable energy sources is evident. Solar energy conversion, such as in photovoltaic (PV) systems, can play a major role in the urgently needed energy transition in electricity production. At the present time PV module production is dominated by the crystalline wafer technology. Thin film silicon technology is an alternative solar energy technol...

  5. AgSb(SxSe1?x)2 thin films for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? AgSb(SxSe1?x)2 thin films were formed by heating Na2SeSO3 dipped Sb2S3/Ag layers. ? S/Se ratio was varied by changing the dipping time in Na2SeSO3 solution. ? Characterized the films using XRD, XPS, SEM, Optical and electrical measurements. ? Band gap engineering of 1?1.1 eV for x = 0.51 and 0.52 respectively. ? PV Glass/FTO/CdS/AgSb(SxSe1?x)2/C were prepared showing Voc = 410 mV, Jsc = 5.7 mA/cm2. - Abstract: Silver antimony sulfoselenide (AgSb(SxSe1?x)2) thin films were prepared by heating glass/Sb2S3/Ag layers after selenization using sodium selenosulphate solution. First, Sb2S3 thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3. Then Ag thin films were thermally evaporated onto glass/Sb2S3, followed by selenization by dipping in an acidic solution of Na2SeSO3. The duration of selenium dipping was varied as 30 min and 2 h. The heating condition was at 350 C for 1 h in vacuum. Analysis of X-ray diffraction pattern of the thin films formed after heating showed the formation of AgSb(SxSe1?x)2. Morphology and elemental analysis were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray detection. Depth profile of composition of the thin films was performed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The spectral study showed the presence of Ag, Sb, S, and Se, and the corresponding binding energy analysis confirmed the formation of AgSb(SxSe1?x)2. Photovoltaic structures (PV) were prepared using AgSb(SxSe1?x)2 thin films as absorber and CdS thin films as window layers on FTO coated glass substrates. The PV structures were heated at 6080 C in air for 1 h to improve ohmic contact. Analysis of JV characteristics of the PV structures showed Voc from 230 to 490 mV and Jsc 0.28 to 5.70 mA/cm2, under illumination of AM1.5 radiation using a solar simulator

  6. Hybrid ZnO nanowire/a-Si:H thin-film radial junction solar cells using nanoparticle front contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirane, M.; Iheanacho, B.; Tamang, A.; Lee, C.-H.; Lujan, R.; Knipp, D.; Wong, W. S.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized disordered ZnO nanowires were conformally coated with a-Si:H thin-films to fabricate three dimensional hybrid nanowire/thin-film structures. The a-Si:H layer formed a radial junction p-i-n diode solar cell around the ZnO nanowire. The cylindrical hybrid solar cells enhanced light scattering throughout the UV-visible-NIR spectrum (300 nm-800 nm) resulting in a 22% increase in short-circuit current density compared to the reference planar p-i-n device. A fill factor of 69% and a total power conversion efficiency of 6.5% were achieved with the hybrid nanowire solar cells using a spin-on indium tin oxide nanoparticle suspension as the top contact.

  7. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    InxGa1?xN, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In0.08Ga0.92N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 1018?cm?3. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells

  8. Electrophoretic deposited TiO(2) pigment-based back reflectors for thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Braden; Morris, Nathan; Dubey, Mukul; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-02-01

    Highly reflective coatings with strong light scattering effect have many applications in optical components and optoelectronic devices. This work reports titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) pigment-based reflectors that have 2.5 times higher broadband diffuse reflection than commercially produced aluminum or silver based reflectors and result in efficiency enhancements of a single-junction amorphous Si solar cell. Electrophoretic deposition is used to produce pigment-based back reflectors with high pigment density, controllable film thickness and site-specific deposition. Electrical conductivity of the pigment-based back reflectors is improved by creating electrical vias throughout the pigment-based back reflector by making holes using an electrical discharge / dielectric breakdown approach followed by a second electrophoretic deposition of conductive nanoparticles into the holes. While previous studies have demonstrated the use of pigment-based back reflectors, for example white paint, on glass superstrate configured thin film Si solar cells, this work presents a scheme for producing pigment-based reflectors on complex shape and flexible substrates. Mechanical durability and scalability are demonstrated on a continuous electrophoretic deposition roll-to-roll system which has flexible metal substrate capability of 4 inch wide and 300 feet long. PMID:25836255

  9. Diode laser crystallization processes of Si thin-film solar cells on glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jae Sung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of Si thin-film on glass using continuous-wave diode laser is performed. The effect of various processing parameters including laser power density and scanning speed is investigated in respect to microstructure and crystallographic orientation. Optimal laser power as per scanning speed is required in order to completely melt the entire Si film. When scan speed of 15100 cm/min is used, large linear grains are formed along the laser scan direction. Laser scan speed over 100 cm/min forms relatively smaller grains that are titled away from the scan direction. Two diode model fitting of Suns-Voc results have shown that solar cells crystallized with scan speed over 100 cm/min are limited by grain boundary recombination (n = 2. EBSD micrograph shows that the most dominant misorientation angle is 60. Also, there were regions containing high density of twin boundaries up to ~1.2 10-8/cm2. SiOx capping layer is found to be effective for reducing the required laser power density, as well as changing preferred orientation of the film from ? 110 ? to ? 100 ? in surface normal direction. Cracks are always formed during the crystallization process and found to be reducing solar cell performance significantly.

  10. The complex interface chemistry of thin-film silicon/zinc oxide solar cell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, D; Wimmer, M; Wilks, R G; Flix, R; Kronast, F; Ruske, F; Br, M

    2014-12-21

    The interface between solid-phase crystallized phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si(n(+))) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using spatially resolved photoelectron emission microscopy. We find the accumulation of aluminum in the proximity of the interface. Based on a detailed photoemission line analysis, we also suggest the formation of an interface species. Silicon suboxide and/or dehydrated hemimorphite have been identified as likely candidates. For each scenario a detailed chemical reaction pathway is suggested. The chemical instability of the poly-Si(n(+))/ZnO:Al interface is explained by the fact that SiO2 is more stable than ZnO and/or that H2 is released from the initially deposited a-Si:H during the crystallization process. As a result, Zn (a deep acceptor in silicon) is "liberated" close to the silicon/zinc oxide interface presenting the inherent risk of forming deep defects in the silicon absorber. These could act as recombination centers and thus limit the performance of silicon/zinc oxide based solar cells. Based on this insight some recommendations with respect to solar cell design, material selection, and process parameters are given for further knowledge-based thin-film silicon device optimization. PMID:25363298

  11. Transition metal oxide window layer in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Liang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Power Source, 6 Huakeqi Rd., Hi-tech Industrial Park, Tianjin 300384 (China); Baik, Seung Jae, E-mail: sjbaik@hknu.ac.kr [Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Control Engineering, Hankyong National University, 327 Jungang-ro, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 456-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Koeng Su [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Pin-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells have been fabricated by replacing state of the art silicon based window layer with more transparent transition metal oxide (TMO) materials. Three kinds of TMOs: vanadium oxide, tungsten oxide, and molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}) were comparatively investigated to reveal the design principles of metal oxide window layers. It was found that MoO{sub x} exhibited the best performance due to its higher work function property compared to other materials. In addition, the band alignment between MoO{sub x} and amorphous Si controls the series resistance, which was verified through compositional variation of MoO{sub x} thin films. The design principles of TMO window layer in amorphous Si solar cells are summarized as follows: A wide optical bandgap larger than 3.0 eV, a high work function larger than 5.2 eV, and a band alignment condition rendering efficient hole collection from amorphous Si absorber layer. - Highlights: High work function metal oxides can potentially replace the conventional p-a-SiC. V{sub 2}O{sub x}, WO{sub x}, and MoO{sub x} are comparatively investigated in this study. MoO{sub x} is the most relevant material due to its highest work function. Slightly oxygen deficient MoO{sub x} exhibited performance enhancement at x = 2.9.

  12. Nanostructured thin film silicon solar cells efficiency improvement using gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ayon, Arturo A. [MEMS Research Lab., Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We report the computational modeling of localized surface plasmon effects arising on gold (Au) nanoparticles deposited on silicon nanohole (SiNH) textured surface for thin film silicon solar cells application. Detailed balance analysis is carried out for the limiting efficiency of an optimized SiNH array textured surface in combination with the surface and bottom-of-a-trench Au nanoparticle array described herein. We found that for the proposed geometry of the solar cell, the short circuit current density (J{sub SC}) and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) are 31.57 mA/cm{sup 2} and 25.42%, respectively, that compare favorably to the predicted J{sub SC} and PCE values of 25.45 mA/cm{sup 2} and 20.87% for an optimized SiNH textured surface without Au nanoparticles. We optimized the silicon dioxide/silicon nitride (SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) stack as a passivation layer, retaining the higher optical absorption. The scattering of incident radiation by the Au nanoparticles near their localized plasmon resonance is responsible for higher optical absorption and hence the higher predicted values for J{sub SC} and PCE. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Low temperature (< 100 deg. C) fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells by HWCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous silicon films have been made by HWCVD at a very low substrate temperature of ? 100 deg. C (in a dynamic substrate heating mode) without artificial substrate cooling, through a substantial increase of the filament-substrate distance (? 80 mm) and using one straight tantalum filament. The material is made at a reasonable deposition rate of 0.11 nm/s. Optimized films made this way have device quality, as confirmed by the photosensitivity of > 105. Furthermore, they possess a low structural disorder, manifested by the small ?/2 value (half width at half maximum) of the transverse optic (TO) Si-Si vibration peak (at 480 cm-1) in the Raman spectrum of ? 30.4 cm-1, which translates into a bond angle variation of only ? 6.4 deg. The evidence gathered from the studies on the structure of the HWCVD grown film by three different techniques, Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy, indicate that we have been able to make a photosensitive material with a structural disorder that is smaller than that expected at such a low deposition temperature. Tested in a p-i-n solar cell on Asahi SnO2:F coated glass (without ZnO at the back reflector), this i-layer gave an efficiency of 3.4%. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a HWCVD thin film silicon solar cell made at such a low temperature

  14. Nanostructured p-type CZTS thin films prepared by a facile solution process for 3D p-n junction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Nae; Sung, Shi-Joon; Sim, Jun-Hyoung; Yang, Kee-Jeong; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kim, JunHo; Kim, Gee Yeong; Jo, William; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    Nanoporous p-type semiconductor thin films prepared by a simple solution-based process with appropriate thermal treatment and three-dimensional (3D) p-n junction solar cells fabricated by depositing n-type semiconductor layers onto the nanoporous p-type thin films show considerable photovoltaic performance compared with conventional thin film p-n junction solar cells. Spin-coated p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared using metal chlorides and thiourea show unique nanoporous thin film morphology, which is composed of a cluster of CZTS nanograins of 50-500 nm, and the obvious 3D p-n junction structure is fabricated by the deposition of n-type CdS on the nanoporous CZTS thin films by chemical bath deposition. The photovoltaic properties of 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells are predominantly affected by the scale of CZTS nanograins, which is easily controlled by the sulfurization temperature of CZTS precursor films. The scale of CZTS nanograins determines the minority carrier transportation within the 3D p-n junction between CZTS and CdS, which are closely related with the photocurrent of series resistance of 3D p-n junction solar cells. 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells with nanograins below 100 nm show power conversion efficiency of 5.02%, which is comparable with conventional CZTS thin film solar cells. PMID:26061271

  15. Fabrication of CZTS-based thin film solar cells using all-solution processing and pulsed light crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Carson; Haran, Shivan; Seok, Ilwoo

    2013-04-01

    Solar cells can be produced using thin film based photovoltaic materials; these are highly efficient with respect to their optical properties and manufacturing cost. The prospective thin film solar cells are composed of Copper, Zinc, Tin, and Sulfide, or `CZTS', this contains chemicals, which are both earth-abundant and non-toxic. The all-solution based process is investigated which is on a single-step electro-chemistry deposition that provides all constituents from the same electrolyte. This investigation was successful in our research group with a high degree of success and a photo-thermal energy driven sintering process that forms a CZTS material from the as-deposited chemicals was added. This enables the as-deposited chemicals to be covalently bonded and crystallized without using a costly vacuum process. In post-heat treatment, a homemade intense pulsed lighting (IPL) system was utilized for rapid thermal annealing. The successful deposition of the CZTS thin film was then evaluated and analyzed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), SEM/EDAX, and XRD. It has been concluded that photovoltaic thin film fabrication is truly comparable to the conventional deposition and annealing methods in terms of photovoltaic efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

  16. Defect engineering in solar cell manufacturing and thin film solar cell development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    During the last few years many defect engineering concepts were successfully applied to fabricate high efficiency silicon solar cells on low-cost substrates. Some of the research advances are described.

  17. Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light-scattering substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Sderstrm, Karin; Bugnon, Grgory; Biron, Re?mi; Pahud, Ce?line; Meillaud, Fanny; Haug, Franz-Josef; Ballif, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Several thin-film solar cell technologies require light-trapping schemes that are predominantly based on depositing the solar cells on rough surfaces. While this approach efficiently increases the density of photo-generated carriers, open-circuit voltage and fill factor generally decrease. Substrates that decouple the growth interface from the light-scattering interface were previously proposed as a solution to this dilemma, and proof-of-concepts were demonstrated in thin film-silicon solar c...

  18. Applications of microcrystalline hydrogenated cubic silicon carbide for amorphous silicon thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated the fabrication of n-i-p type amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells using phosphorus doped microcrystalline cubic silicon carbide (?c-3C-SiC:H) films as a window layer. The Hot-wire CVD method and a covering technique of titanium dioxide TiO2 on TCO was utilized for the cell fabrication. The cell configuration is TCO/TiO2/n-type ?c-3C-SiC:H/intrinsic a-Si:H/p-type ?c- SiCx (a-SiCx:H including ?c-Si:H phase)/Al. Approximately 4.5% efficiency with a Voc of 0.953 V was obtained for AM-1.5 light irradiation. We also prepared a cell with the undoped a-Si1-xCx:H film as a buffer layer to improve the n/i interface. A maximum Voc of 0.966 V was obtained

  19. Fabrication of CdS/CdTe-Based Thin Film Solar Cells Using an Electrochemical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Dharmadasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin film solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe are complex devices which have great potential for achieving high conversion efficiencies. Lack of understanding in materials issues and device physics slows down the rapid progress of these devices. This paper combines relevant results from the literature with new results from a research programme based on electro-plated CdS and CdTe. A wide range of analytical techniques was used to investigate the materials and device structures. It has been experimentally found that n-, i- and p-type CdTe can be grown easily by electroplating. These material layers consist of nano- and micro-rod type or columnar type grains, growing normal to the substrate. Stoichiometric materials exhibit the highest crystallinity and resistivity, and layers grown closer to these conditions show n → p or p → n conversion upon heat treatment. The general trend of CdCl2 treatment is to gradually change the CdTe material’s n-type electrical property towards i-type or p-type conduction. This work also identifies a rapid structural transition of CdTe layer at 385 ± 5 °C and a slow structural transition at higher temperatures when annealed or grown at high temperature. The second transition occurs after 430 °C and requires more work to understand this gradual transition. This work also identifies the existence of two different solar cell configurations for CdS/CdTe which creates a complex situation. Finally, the paper presents the way forward with next generation CdTe-based solar cells utilising low-cost materials in their columnar nature in graded bandgap structures. These devices could absorb UV, visible and IR radiation from the solar spectrum and combine impact ionisation and impurity photovoltaic (PV effect as well as making use of IR photons from the surroundings when fully optimised.

  20. Antimony sulphide thin film as an absorber in chemically deposited solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony sulfide thin films (thickness, 500 nm) were deposited on chemically deposited CdS thin films (100 nm) obtained on 3 mm glass substrates coated with a transparent conductive coating of SnO2:F (TEC-15 with 15 Ω sheet resistance). Two different chemical formulations were used for depositing antimony sulfide films. These contained (i) antimony trichloride dissolved in acetone and sodium thiosulfate, and (ii) potassium antimony tartrate, triethanolamine, ammonia, thioacetamide and small concentrations of silicotungstic acid. The films were heated at 250 deg. C in nitrogen. The cell structure was completed by depositing a 200 nm p-type PbS thin film. Graphite paint applied on the PbS thin film and a subsequent layer of silver paint served as the p-side contact. The cell structure: SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2S3 (i or ii)/PbS showed open circuit voltage (Voc) of 640 mV and short circuit current density (Jsc) above 1 mA cm-2 under 1 kW m-2 tungsten-halogen radiation. Four cells, each of 1.7 cm2 area, were series-connected to give Voc of 1.6 V and a short circuit current of 4.1 mA under sunlight (1060 W m-2)

  1. Antimony sulphide thin film as an absorber in chemically deposited solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messina, Sarah; Nair, M T S; Nair, P K [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en EnergIa, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico)

    2008-05-07

    Antimony sulfide thin films (thickness, 500 nm) were deposited on chemically deposited CdS thin films (100 nm) obtained on 3 mm glass substrates coated with a transparent conductive coating of SnO{sub 2}:F (TEC-15 with 15 {omega} sheet resistance). Two different chemical formulations were used for depositing antimony sulfide films. These contained (i) antimony trichloride dissolved in acetone and sodium thiosulfate, and (ii) potassium antimony tartrate, triethanolamine, ammonia, thioacetamide and small concentrations of silicotungstic acid. The films were heated at 250 deg. C in nitrogen. The cell structure was completed by depositing a 200 nm p-type PbS thin film. Graphite paint applied on the PbS thin film and a subsequent layer of silver paint served as the p-side contact. The cell structure: SnO{sub 2}:F/CdS/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} (i or ii)/PbS showed open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 640 mV and short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) above 1 mA cm{sup -2} under 1 kW m{sup -2} tungsten-halogen radiation. Four cells, each of 1.7 cm{sup 2} area, were series-connected to give V{sub oc} of 1.6 V and a short circuit current of 4.1 mA under sunlight (1060 W m{sup -2})

  2. Antimony sulphide thin film as an absorber in chemically deposited solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Sarah; Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, P. K.

    2008-05-01

    Antimony sulfide thin films (thickness, 500 nm) were deposited on chemically deposited CdS thin films (100 nm) obtained on 3 mm glass substrates coated with a transparent conductive coating of SnO2:F (TEC-15 with 15 Ω sheet resistance). Two different chemical formulations were used for depositing antimony sulfide films. These contained (i) antimony trichloride dissolved in acetone and sodium thiosulfate, and (ii) potassium antimony tartrate, triethanolamine, ammonia, thioacetamide and small concentrations of silicotungstic acid. The films were heated at 250 °C in nitrogen. The cell structure was completed by depositing a 200 nm p-type PbS thin film. Graphite paint applied on the PbS thin film and a subsequent layer of silver paint served as the p-side contact. The cell structure: SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2S3 (i or ii)/PbS showed open circuit voltage (Voc) of 640 mV and short circuit current density (Jsc) above 1 mA cm-2 under 1 kW m-2 tungsten-halogen radiation. Four cells, each of 1.7 cm2 area, were series-connected to give Voc of 1.6 V and a short circuit current of 4.1 mA under sunlight (1060 W m-2).

  3. Thin-film solar cells on the basis of semiconducting compounds. Final report; Duennschichtsolarzellen auf Verbindungshalbleiterbasis. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewerenz, H.J.; Tributsch, H.; Alonso-Vante, N.; Bogdanoff, P.; Ellmer, K.; Fiechter, S.; Hunger, R.; Jaegermann, W.; Scheer, R.; Tenne, R.

    1997-12-31

    Three studies are reported from the research area `Highly absorbing, semiconducting compounds and transparent contacts`: 1. Preparation and optimization of thin film solar cells on the basis of CuInS{sub 2}; 2. Photoactive thin films and film textures of the metal dichalcogenide compounds for solar cell applications; 3. Transparent, conducting layers for thin film solar cells (CuInS{sub 2}/CdS/ZnO). The very brief report on research into `Photo-electrochemical cells` presents novel electrocatalytic materials, (Ru{sub 1-x}Mo{sub x})SeO{sub z}, which were developed and modified, as well as novel emitter structures for injection-type solar cells with layered compounds WS{sub 2} and MoSo{sub 2}. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Im Forschungsbereich `Hochabsorbierende Verbindungshalbleiter und transparente Kontakte` wurden drei Untersuchungen durchgefuehrt: 1. Entwicklung und Optimierung von Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis von CuInS{sub 2}; 2. photoaktive Duennschichten und Schichtstrukturen der Schichtgitterchalkogenide fuer Solarzellen; 3. transparent leitende Schichten fuer Duennschichtsolarzellen (CuInS{sub 2}/CdS/ZnO). In den sehr kurz gehaltenen Berichten zum Themenbereich `Photoelektrochemische Zellen` wurden neuartige Materialien fuer die Elektrokatalyse (Ru{sub 1-x}Mo{sub x})SeO{sub z} hergestellt und modifiziert sowie im Themenbereich ``Injektionszellen`` wurden neue Emitterstrukturen fuer Injektionszellen hergestellt (mit Schichtgitterverbindungen WS{sub 2} und MoS{sub 2}). (MM)

  4. Fabrication and characterization of highly efficient thin-film polycrystalline-silicon solar cells based on aluminium-induced crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-film polycrystalline-silicon solar cells might become an alternative to bulk silicon solar cells if sufficiently high efficiencies can be obtained. In this work we made pc-Si layers using aluminium-induced crystallization and thermal CVD on alumina substrates. By using plasma texturing and optimizing the cell structure, we increased the current density of our cells and achieved a cell efficiency of 8.0%. At present, our cell efficiency seems to be mainly limited by the presence in our layers of a high density of electronically active intragrain defects. Intragrain quality improvement will therefore be very important to further increase our pc-Si cell efficiency

  5. Optimized Packing Density of Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-injection for Thin Film Solar Cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jrgen

    2015-01-01

    The absorbing kesterite material, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTS), is very promising for future thin film solar cells. The material is non-toxic, the elements abundant, and it has a high absorption coefficient. These properties make CZTS a potential candidate also for large-scale applications. Here, solution processing allows for comparatively fast and inexpensive fabrication, and also holds the record efficiency in the kesterite family. Unfortunately, the record cell is deposited with a highly toxi...

  6. Silicon-Light: a European project aiming at high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells on foil

    OpenAIRE

    Soppe W.; Krc J.; Leitner K.; Haug F.-J.; Duchamp M.; Sanchez Plaza G.; Wang Q.-K.

    2014-01-01

    In the European project Silicon-Light we developed concepts and technologies to increase conversion efficiencies of thin film silicon solar cells on foil. Main focus was put on improved light management, using NIL for creating light scattering textures, improved TCOs using sputtering, and improved silicon absorber material made by PECVD. On foil we achieved initial cell efficiencies of 11% and on rigid substrates stable efficiencies of ...

  7. A rational elemental-directed alcohol-thermal route to CdSe nanostructures for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported an alcohol-thermal method to in-situ synthesis of Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) nanocrystals/thin films on Cd/indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) substrates through a direct reaction of Se and Cd. In the synthetic system, ligands and surfactants are not introduced, and concentration of reaction precursors is not high, thus not only it is a very economic and environmental-friendly route, but also the CdSe film without any impurities is obtained. The Cd deposited on ITO substrates by magnetron sputtering acted as dual roles: reactant source and hard template for the final product. The microstructure is analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is deposited on CdSe film to fabricate a hybrid thin film solar cell device with ITO/CdSe/P3HT/Al structure to demonstrate solar light to electrical energy conversion. - Highlights: • CdSe nanocrystals/thin films were fabricated by an easy alcohol-thermal approach. • The method requires no ligands, high concentration of precursors or surfactants. • The photovoltaic device was based on the hybrid thin film of CdSe NCs and P3HT composites

  8. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide transparent conductive thin films with buffer layers for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin-liang, E-mail: cxlruzhou@163.com; Wang, Fei; Geng, Xin-hua; Huang, Qian; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-dan

    2013-09-02

    Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit rough pyramid-like textured surface, high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region and excellent electrical properties. The experiment results indicate that tungsten-doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W, IWO) buffer layers can effectively improve the surface roughness and enhance the light scattering ability of HGZO thin films. The root-mean-square roughness of HGZO, IWO (10 nm)/HGZO and IWO (30 nm)/HGZO thin films are 28, 44 and 47 nm, respectively. The haze values at the wavelength of 550 nm increase from 7.0% of HGZO thin film without buffer layer to 18.37% of IWO (10 nm)/HGZO thin film. The optimized IWO (10 nm)/HGZO exhibits a high optical transmittance of 82.18% in the visible and near infrared region (? ? 4001100 nm) and excellent electrical properties with a relatively low sheet resistance of 3.6 ?/? and the resistivity of 6.21 10{sup ?4} ?cm. - Highlights: Textured hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) films were developed. Tungsten-doped indium oxide (IWO) buffer layers were applied for the HGZO films. Light-scattering ability of the HGZO films can be improved through buffer layers. Low sheet resistance and high haze were obtained for the IWO(10 nm)/HGZO film. The IWO/HGZO films are promising transparent conductive layers for solar cells.

  9. Studies of compositional dependent CZTS thin film solar cells by pulsed laser deposition technique: An attempt to improve the efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moholkar, A.V., E-mail: avmoholkar@yahoo.co.in [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Shinde, S.S. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Agawane, G.L.; Jo, S.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500 757 (Korea, Republic of); Rajpure, K.Y. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Bhosale, C.H. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Kim, J.H., E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500 757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of CZTS thin films by PLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of stoichiometry, its deviation on the physical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement in conversion efficiency using CZTS absorber layer. - Abstract: The performance of CZTS thin films deposited by using pulsed laser deposition technique is investigated as a function of target composition. The chemical composition ratio a = Cu/(Zn + Sn) of the target material has been varied from 0.8 to 1.2 in step of 0.1 by keeping Zn/Sn constant. The effect of the chemical composition in the precursor thin films on the structural, morphological, chemical and optical properties of the CZTS thin films has been investigated. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies showed that the annealed CZTS thin films are of a single kesterite crystal structure without any other secondary phases. The direct band gap energy of the CZTS thin films is found to decrease from 1.72-1.53 eV with increase of 'a'. The estimated band-gap energy from the quantum efficiency measurements is about 1.54 eV. The solar cell fabricated with Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO:Al/Al structure grown using [a = Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 1.1] showed the best conversion efficiency of 4.13% with V{sub oc} = 700 mV, J{sub sc} = 10.01 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF = 0.59.

  10. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide transparent conductive thin films with buffer layers for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit rough pyramid-like textured surface, high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region and excellent electrical properties. The experiment results indicate that tungsten-doped indium oxide (In2O3:W, IWO) buffer layers can effectively improve the surface roughness and enhance the light scattering ability of HGZO thin films. The root-mean-square roughness of HGZO, IWO (10 nm)/HGZO and IWO (30 nm)/HGZO thin films are 28, 44 and 47 nm, respectively. The haze values at the wavelength of 550 nm increase from 7.0% of HGZO thin film without buffer layer to 18.37% of IWO (10 nm)/HGZO thin film. The optimized IWO (10 nm)/HGZO exhibits a high optical transmittance of 82.18% in the visible and near infrared region (? ? 4001100 nm) and excellent electrical properties with a relatively low sheet resistance of 3.6 ?/? and the resistivity of 6.21 10?4 ?cm. - Highlights: Textured hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) films were developed. Tungsten-doped indium oxide (IWO) buffer layers were applied for the HGZO films. Light-scattering ability of the HGZO films can be improved through buffer layers. Low sheet resistance and high haze were obtained for the IWO(10 nm)/HGZO film. The IWO/HGZO films are promising transparent conductive layers for solar cells

  11. Intensity dependence of quantum efficiency and photo-gating effects in thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Steve; Main, Charles [Carnegie Laboratory of Physics, University of Dundee (United Kingdom); Smirnov, Vladimir [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Meftah, Amjad [Laboratoire des Materiaux Semiconducteurs et Metalliques, Departement de Physique, Universite Mohammed Khider, Biskra (Algeria)

    2010-04-15

    Steady-state photoconductivity measurements have been carried out on thin-film silicon pin structures of i-layer thickness typically 4 {mu}m, where crystalline composition has been varied by adjustment of the silane concentration in the process gas. In amorphous and low-crystallinity cells, strongly-absorbed light incident from the p-side at photon fluxes in excess of 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} produces strongly sub-linear intensity dependence, S shaped reverse current-voltage curves and amplification of a second weakly-absorbed beam, termed photogating. These effects are linked to the formation of space charge and attendant low-field region close to the p-i interface, as confirmed by computer simulation. More crystalline devices exhibit little or no such behaviour. At lower intensities of strongly-absorbed light there is a markedly steeper increase in reverse current vs. voltage in low-crystalline when compared to amorphous cells, particularly with light incident from the n-side. This suggests the mobility-lifetime product for holes is much larger in the former case, consistent with the higher hole mobilities reported in time of flight studies. Thus the prospect of composition-dependent changes in mobility as well as defect density should be borne in mind when developing materials for application in microcrystalline silicon solar cells. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Enhanced photocurrent in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells via shape controlled three-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have explored manufacturable approaches to sub-wavelength controlled three-dimensional (3D) nano-patterns with the goal of significantly enhancing the photocurrent in amorphous silicon solar cells. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement of about 50% over typical flat a-Si thin-film solar cells, and report an enhancement of 20% in optical absorption over Asahi textured glass by fabricating sub-wavelength nano-patterned a-Si on glass substrates. External quantum efficiency showed superior results for the 3D nano-patterned thin-film solar cells due to enhancement of broadband optical absorption. The results further indicate that this enhanced light trapping is achieved with minimal parasitic absorption losses in the deposited transparent conductive oxide for the nano-patterned substrate thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell configuration. Optical simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, and also show a significant enhancement in optical absorption, quantum efficiency and photocurrent. (paper)

  13. Controlling the processable ZnO and polythiophene interface for dye-sensitized thin film organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye-sensitized thin film hybrid solar cells (DS thin film solar cell) were fabricated by one-pot process using solution processable zinc oxide (ZnO) precursor as electron acceptor, ester-functionalized polythiophene copolymer as donor and a squaraine dye. Incorporation of slight amount of ester functionality (6%) in the regioregular poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) main chain leads to enhancement in the photoconversion efficiency of the ester functionalized polymer (P3HT-E) from 0.8% to about 1% (AM1.5, 100 mw/cm2). Photocurrent associated with both of the P3HT-E (400–650 nm) and the squaraine dye (650–750 nm) were observed in incident photon to current efficiency curve of the DS thin film solar cell. This proves that the ZnO/dye/P3HT-E interface could be fabricated by one-pot coating process from ternary mixture based on a ZnO precursor. - Highlights: • Single step and one pot fabrication of dye-sensitized polymer-ZnO hybrid solar cells. • In situ generation of ZnO using its diethyl zinc precursor. • Enhanced photovoltaic performance by introduction of ester functionalized polymers. • Demonstration of far-red photon harvesting by polymer-dye-ZnO ternary blend

  14. Influence of optical properties of ZnO thin-films deposited by spray pyrolysis and RF magnetron sputtering on the output performance of silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thin-films were deposited by spray pyrolysis and RF magnetron sputtering techniques. The optical reflection of these thin-films is measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The measured optical reflection data is used in PC-1D simulation software to study the output performance of commercial silicon wafer-based solar cell. As far as optical performance is concerned it could be demonstrated that the sprayed ZnO thin-film under laboratory conditions show equivalent performance compared to sputtered ZnO thin-film. The influence of optical properties of 65 nm thick zinc oxide thin-films deposited by vacuum and non-vacuum techniques on quantum efficiency and IV characteristics of commercial silicon-wafer based solar cell is studied and reported here.

  15. Broadband light trapping in thin film solar cells with self-organized plasmonic nano-colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Manuel J; Morawiec, Seweryn; Mateus, Tiago; Lyubchyk, Andriy; Águas, Hugo; Ferreira, Isabel; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Priolo, Francesco; Crupi, Isodiana

    2015-03-27

    The intense light scattered from metal nanoparticles sustaining surface plasmons makes them attractive for light trapping in photovoltaic applications. However, a strong resonant response from nanoparticle ensembles can only be obtained if the particles have monodisperse physical properties. Presently, the chemical synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles is the method that produces the highest monodispersion in geometry and material quality, with the added benefits of being low-temperature, low-cost, easily scalable and of allowing control of the surface coverage of the deposited particles. In this paper, novel plasmonic back-reflector structures were developed using spherical gold colloids with appropriate dimensions for pronounced far-field scattering. The plasmonic back reflectors are incorporated in the rear contact of thin film n-i-p nanocrystalline silicon solar cells to boost their photocurrent generation via optical path length enhancement inside the silicon layer. The quantum efficiency spectra of the devices revealed a remarkable broadband enhancement, resulting from both light scattering from the metal nanoparticles and improved light incoupling caused by the hemispherical corrugations at the cells' front surface formed from the deposition of material over the spherically shaped colloids. PMID:25760231

  16. Broadband light trapping in thin film solar cells with self-organized plasmonic nano-colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Manuel J.; Morawiec, Seweryn; Mateus, Tiago; Lyubchyk, Andriy; guas, Hugo; Ferreira, Isabel; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Priolo, Francesco; Crupi, Isodiana

    2015-03-01

    The intense light scattered from metal nanoparticles sustaining surface plasmons makes them attractive for light trapping in photovoltaic applications. However, a strong resonant response from nanoparticle ensembles can only be obtained if the particles have monodisperse physical properties. Presently, the chemical synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles is the method that produces the highest monodispersion in geometry and material quality, with the added benefits of being low-temperature, low-cost, easily scalable and of allowing control of the surface coverage of the deposited particles. In this paper, novel plasmonic back-reflector structures were developed using spherical gold colloids with appropriate dimensions for pronounced far-field scattering. The plasmonic back reflectors are incorporated in the rear contact of thin film n-i-p nanocrystalline silicon solar cells to boost their photocurrent generation via optical path length enhancement inside the silicon layer. The quantum efficiency spectra of the devices revealed a remarkable broadband enhancement, resulting from both light scattering from the metal nanoparticles and improved light incoupling caused by the hemispherical corrugations at the cells front surface formed from the deposition of material over the spherically shaped colloids.

  17. Simulation approach for studying the performances of original superstrate CIGS thin films solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchama, I., E-mail: bouchama_idris@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Procedes Materiaux et Energie solaire PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Technosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Laboratoire L.I.S., Universite Ferhat Abbas de Setif (Algeria); Djessas, K. [Laboratoire Procedes Materiaux et Energie solaire PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Technosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Djahli, F. [Laboratoire L.I.S., Universite Ferhat Abbas de Setif (Algeria); Bouloufa, A. [Laboratoires C.C.N.S. et E. M., Universite Ferhat Abbas de Setif (Algeria)

    2011-08-31

    In this work, we report on the performances of superstrate Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin film solar cells with an alternative SLG/SnO{sub 2}:F/CIGS/In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/Zn structure using AMPS-1D (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic structures) device simulator. An inverted surface layer, n-type CIGS layer, is inserted between the In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} buffer and CIGS absorber layers and the SnO{sub 2}:F layer is just a transparent conducting oxide (TCO). The simulation has been carried out by lighting through SnO{sub 2}:F. The obtained results show that the existence of so-called 'ordered defect compound' (ODC) layer in such a structure is the critical factor responsible for the optimization of the performances. Photovoltaic parameters were determined using the current density-voltage (J-V) curve. An optimal absorber and ODC layer thickness has been estimated, that improve significantly the devices efficiency exceeding 15% AM1.5 G. The variation of carrier density in In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} layer has an influence on the superstrate CIGS cells performances. Moreover, the quantum efficiency (Q.E.) characteristics display a maximum value of about 80% in the visible range.

  18. A blazed grating for light trapping in a-Si thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blazed grating has been studied to improve light absorption in thin-film solar cells (TFSCs). The grating is a periodic arrangement of wedges made of aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) that also serves as the back spacer. The absorber layer of the photovoltaic (PV) device can be made of inorganic or organic semiconductor material. Here we study hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and nano-crystalline Si (nc-Si). Full wave, finite element simulations were performed to optimize the design for the highest short circuit current (Jsc). The Jsc of the optimized 1D grating design was 16.05 mA cm?2 for TE polarization and 15.18 mA cm?2 for TM polarization, with an effective a-Si:H layer thickness of only 277 nm. As compared to a planar cell with the same volume of a-Si:H, the enhancement of Jsc by the 1D grating design was 27.6% for TE polarization and 20.7% for TM polarization. We extended this design to a 2D grating structure that was less sensitive to polarization as compared to the 1D grating design. With an equivalent a-Si:H layer thickness of 322 nm, the optimized design yielded a Jsc of 17.16 mA cm?2. The blazed grating surface can be fabricated using the glancing angle deposition method. (paper)

  19. Simulation approach for studying the performances of original superstrate CIGS thin films solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report on the performances of superstrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells with an alternative SLG/SnO2:F/CIGS/In2Se3/Zn structure using AMPS-1D (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic structures) device simulator. An inverted surface layer, n-type CIGS layer, is inserted between the In2Se3 buffer and CIGS absorber layers and the SnO2:F layer is just a transparent conducting oxide (TCO). The simulation has been carried out by lighting through SnO2:F. The obtained results show that the existence of so-called 'ordered defect compound' (ODC) layer in such a structure is the critical factor responsible for the optimization of the performances. Photovoltaic parameters were determined using the current density-voltage (J-V) curve. An optimal absorber and ODC layer thickness has been estimated, that improve significantly the devices efficiency exceeding 15% AM1.5 G. The variation of carrier density in In2Se3 layer has an influence on the superstrate CIGS cells performances. Moreover, the quantum efficiency (Q.E.) characteristics display a maximum value of about 80% in the visible range.

  20. The effect of ZnS segregation on Zn-rich CZTS thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Secondary phase segregation in CZTS based solar cells has been studied by TEM. A Zn layer exchange behaviour was found in sulphurisation of Zn/SnCu stacked layers. XAS reveals a large spike-like CBO (>0.86 eV) between CZTS and ZnS. Larger ZnS secondary phase proportion increases solar cells Voc but limits Jsc. - Abstract: Analysis of ZnS segregation behaviour and its influence on the device performance has been made on the Zn-rich Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images reveal that ZnS is the main secondary phase in the Cu2ZnSnS4 layer obtained from a sulphurised Zn/CuSn metallic stack. The excess Zn diffuses from back contact region to top surface of Cu2ZnSnS4 layer accumulating in the form of ZnS. The solar cell with a higher Zn concentration shows a large quantity of isolated ZnS grains at Cu2ZnSnS4 top surface which is close to CdS/Cu2ZnSnS4 heterojunction interface. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates a large spike-like conduction band offset between Cu2ZnSnS4 and ZnS. Consequently, such much ZnS precipitates would increase series resistance and generate lower short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency. However, appropriate amount of ZnS at the space charge region of the solar cell has beneficial effects by reducing the heterojunction interface recombination. Therefore, an improved open-circuit voltage and a higher shunt resistance are achieved. This paper provides a possible method to intentionally segregate ZnS at the space charge region by depositing the Zn layer at the bottom of co-sputtered CuSn layer. Although it is difficult to synthesis a pure phase Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber, we can utilise the ZnS secondary phase to improve the Cu2ZnSnS4 solar performance by controlling the Zn-excess amount

  1. Absorption enhancement in thin film a-Si solar cells with double-sided SiO2 particle layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Le; Wang, Qing-Kang; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Chen, Wen; Huang, Kun; Liu, Dai-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Light absorption enhancement is very important for improving the power conversion efficiency of a thin film a-Si solar cell. In this paper, a thin-film a-Si solar cell model with double-sided SiO2 particle layers is designed, and then the underlying mechanism of absorption enhancement is investigated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation; finally the feasible experimental scheme for preparing the SiO2 particle layer is discussed. It is found that the top and bottom SiO2 particle layers play an important role in anti-reflection and light trapping, respectively. The light absorption of the cell with double-sided SiO2 layers greatly increases in a wavelength range of 300 nm-800 nm, and the ultimate efficiency increases more than 22% compared with that of the flat device. The cell model with double-sided SiO2 particle layers reported here can be used in varieties of thin film solar cells to further improve their performances. Project supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA050518), the University Research Program of Guangxi Education Department, China (Grant No. LX2014288), and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant No. 2013GXNSBA019014).

  2. Ion beam treatment of functional layers in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wendi

    2013-10-01

    In silicon thin-film solar cells, transparent conductive layers have to fulfill the following requirements: high conductivity as effective contact, high transparency to transmit the light into the cell, and a textured surface which provides light scattering. Magnetron sputtered and wet-chemically textured aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films are widely used as the transparent conductor. The technological goal of this dissertation is to develop an alternative to the wet etching process for light trapping in the thin silicon absorber layers through modification of the glass/ZnO:Al or ZnO:Al/Si interfaces by ion beam treatment. The study focuses on the textured growth of ZnO:Al films on ion beam pretreated glass substrates, and the preparation and application of textured glass for light trapping. The technological aspects such as the etch rates of the glass substrate and ZnO:Al films with different ion beam configurations were studied. The experimental etch rates are compared with simulated and theoretically predicted values. With regard to the ion beam treatment of glass substrate, the influence of the ion pretreated glass on the growth of ZnO:Al films was investigated. The ZnO:Al films grown on ion beam pretreated glass substrates exhibit self-textured morphology with surface roughness of 40 nm while remaining highly conductive. Silicon thin-film solar cells prepared on the as-grown rough ZnO:Al films show that this front contact can provide excellent light trapping effect. The highest initial efficiencies for amorphous single junction solar cells on as-grown rough ZnO:Al films was 9.4%. The as-grown rough morphology was attributed to large conical ZnO:Al grains initiated from the ion pretreated glass surface. It was found that the roughness of the as-grown rough ZnO:Al film is proportional to the number of O dangling bonds created by ion beam treatment on the glass substrate. A growth model was proposed to explain the growth mechanism of ZnO:Al films on Zn- and O-polar ZnO single crystals, as well as on untreated and ion beam treated glass substrates. With regard to the ion beam treatment of ZnO:Al films, the influence of the ion treatment on the surface morphology, HCl etching, silicon growth, and additional ZnO:Al growth was investigated. Ion beam etching has a smoothening effect on the textured ZnO:Al films. Using sputtered and wet chemically etched ZnO:Al as ion beam etching mask, textured glass with features similar to the ZnO:Al films were obtained. Textured glass with a wide range of morphologies was prepared by varying the etching mask and the ion beam treatment conditions. Finally, as-grown textured ZnO:Al films prepared on ion beam treated textured glass, which exhibit 'double textured' features, were produced and applied in solar cells. The ion beam treatment enabled the preparation of light scattering surfaces by textured glass and as-grown rough ZnO:Al films without the need of wet etching between TCO preparation and absorber deposition. Further, new 'double textured' surface structures could be created by the combination of both techniques. Solar cells with efficiency of 11.9% proved the applicability as-grown textured ZnO:Al for light trapping. The growth studies provided deeper insights and a new understanding of ZnO structure formation and will govern optimization of ZnO:Al film properties.

  3. Liquid-phase pulsed laser ablation and electrophoretic deposition for chalcopyrite thin-film solar cell application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2012-12-01

    We report ligand-free synthesis of colloidal metallic nanoparticles using liquid-phase pulsed laser ablation, and electrophoretic deposition of the nanoparticles for fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) (CIGS) thin film solar cells. First, colloidal metallic nanoparticles of Cu-In and Cu-Ga alloys are produced by pulsed laser ablation in common organic solvents without using stabilizing ligands. The nanoparticles are examined for phase, composition, and electrical surface charging and charge modulation mechanisms. Metallic precursor thin films with high purity and precise composition are produced by electrophoretic deposition of the colloids without transferring to another solvent and without using binders. Finally, we demonstrate fabrication of CIGS solar cells on Mo sheet substrates with an (active area) energy conversion efficiency up to 7.37%. PMID:23206317

  4. Characterization of Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells : Stability and Response to Concentrated Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer solar cells has undergone an extensive development in recent years after the invention of semiconducting polymers in 1991. Efficiencies have gradually increased to above 10 %, and high throughput processing methods such as roll-to-roll coating allow for production of thousands of solar cells with low embedded time, material, and energy consumption as compared to silicon solar cells. Consequently, different demonstration products of small mobile gadgets based on polymer solar cells have been produced, which are fully competitive with conventional energy technologies, illustrating the maturity of the technology. However, a limiting factor in terms of full commercialization is the stability of polymer solar cells. While is has been estimated that 10 years lifetime is needed, existing technologies only provide stabilities up to 1 year. Degradation of polymer solar cell is a multi facetted process where oxygen and water diffusion from the atmosphere, morphology evolution, and photo-bleaching of the polymer are some of the dominant processes. Encapsulation by foils consisting of multi-layer polymer stacks is a conventional way to reduce the diffusion into the solar cell, by which the life time of the cell is highly increased. An alternative approach is to increase the photo stability of the cell components, and especially the light absorbing conjugated polymer has been subject to extensive attention. The photo stability of conjugated polymers varies by orders of magnitude from type to type depending on the chemical structure of the material and consequently, the lifetime is highly influenced by the polymer stability. Photochemical degradation of polymers, i.e. degradation of thin films of polymer in the ambient under light exposure, is a technique normally applied to evaluate polymer stabilities. Hereby, an extensive list of stabilities of different materials has been established providing an understanding of the stability of the individual building blocks of polymer. While being a highly practical tool, no rigorous reports on the photochemical degradation as a technique exist where the technique is validated and different pit-falls identified. Consequently, a rigorous study on the validation and maturing of this technique was performed during this PhD work (Chapter 2). Furthermore, as research gradually increases the lifetime of polymers to months or years, stability evaluations at standard degradation conditions become impractical. Accelerated degradation has been performed with heat and different gases by which the timeframe of stability evaluations have been reduced by up to a factor of 20. However, light, which appears at the most intuitive acceleration condition to conjugated polymers, has until this PhD work not been applied as an acceleration condition to polymer degradation. Light can be concentrated up to thousand of solar intensities by optical components, which has the potential to significantly accelerate polymer degradation. Concentration of light was one of the main topics during this PhD, where the construction and development of light concentrators, both by sun light as well as artificial light, was given extensive attention. This resulted in three different light concentrators, a lens based solar concentrator, a mirror based solar concentrator, and an artificial light concentrator for indoor use (Chapter 3). With these concentration setups, acceleration factors of up to 1200 were obtained for degradation of typical conjugated polymers thus significantly reducing the timeframe of stability evaluations. The potential of this approach is that stability evaluation can become a routine characterization techniquefor novel conjugated polymers, when these are applied to polymer solar cells and their efficiencies are reported. By making the polymer stability practically accessible, development of polymer stability can become significantly more transparent and focused (Chapter 4). A direct alternative application of concentrated light is the application to polymer solar cells. Stabilities of polyme

  5. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  6. Novel laser structuring of CIGSE thin film solar cells; Neuartige Laserstrukturierung von CIGSE-Duennschicht-Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, B.; Schultz, C.; Schuele, M.; Richter, M.; Quaschning, V.; Fink, F. [University of Applied Sciences (HTW) Berlin (Germany); Pahl, H.U.; Endert, H. [Newport Spectra-Physics GmbH, Stahnsdorf (Germany); Bonse, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Rau, B.; Schlatmann, R. [PVcomB - Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    A major advantage of thin film photovoltaics over wafer-based photovoltaics is the monolithic series connection. Manufacturing of chalcopyrite (CICSe) thin film solar modules involves typically one laser structuring step (P1) and two mechanical structuring steps (P2 and P3) for serial interconnection. In our approach, complete laser structuring is successfully demonstrated simply by application of short nanosecond pulses (<10 ns) with a single, visible wavelength of 532 nm. The P1 and the P3 trenches are scribed by induced direct ablation. For the P2 scribe, the thermal input of the ns laser pulses is used to transform the CIGSe absorber layer locally into a highly conductive compound to provide proper electrical interconnection between the front and back contact. (orig.)

  7. Cu-doped CdS and its application in CdTe thin film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Yang, Jun; Yang, Ruilong; Shen, Kai; Wang, Dezhao; Wang, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Cu is widely used in the back contact formation of CdTe thin film solar cells. However, Cu is easily to diffuse from the back contact into the CdTe absorber layer and even to the cell junction interface CdS/CdTe. This phenomenon is generally believed to be the main factor affecting the CdTe solar cell stability. In this study Cu was intentionally doped in CdS thin film to study its effect on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the CdS material. Upon Cu doping, the VCd- and the surface-state-related photoluminescence emissions were dramatically decreased/quenched. The presence of Cu atom hindered the recrystallization/coalescence of the nano-sized grains in the as-deposited CdS film during the air and the CdCl2 annealing. CdTe thin film solar cell fabricated with Cu-doped CdS window layers demonstrated much decreased fill factor, which was induced by the increased space-charge recombination near the p-n junction and the worsened junction crystalline quality. Temperature dependent current-voltage curve measurement indicated that the doped Cu in the CdS window layer was not stable at both room and higher temperatures.

  8. Depth selective laser scribing of thin films for roll-to-roll production of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, J.; Wipliez, L.A.; De Keijzer, M.A.; Bosman, J.; Soppe, W.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    Significant cost reductions for thin-film silicon solar cells are expected from a transition to roll-to-roll production. However, in contrast to state-of-the-art batch-type fabrication of glass based products, for thin-film photovoltaic modules on foil substrates no standard processes for one essential production step - the monolithic series interconnection - are presently available. Laser scribing is the preferred technology here as it allows fast, non-contact, local and precise removal of the thin films. ECN is currently developing the technology and setting up a pilot line for the production of tandem solar cells based on microcrystalline and amorphous silicon on steel foil substrates. To allow monolithic series interconnection on these electrically conducting substrates, an insulating layer is required. In the presented module concept, first all layers of the solar cell are deposited, and after that series interconnection can be realized in one process step by three depth selective laser scribes which are then filled by insulating and electrically conductive inks. In this contribution, we present the latest status of our process development on nanosecond pulsed lasers with three different wavelengths to achieve depth selective scribing of these flexible thin film silicon solar cells. To gain more insight into the selectivity of the process, the ablation thresholds of the different layers have been determined. Then, continuous lines were scribed by systematically varying the pulse energy and spot overlap. The required depth selective scribes could be obtained with all employed lasers (wavelengths of 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm.

  9. Highly transparent front electrodes with metal fingers for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin Etienne; Mller Thomas Christian Mathias; Warzecha Marek; Hoffmann Andre; Paetzold Ulrich Wilhelm; Aeberhard Urs

    2015-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), traditionally used in thin-film silicon (TF-Si) solar cells as front-electrode materials, are interlinked, such that an increase in TCO transparency is generally achieved at the cost of reduced lateral conductance. Combining a highly transparent TCO front electrode of moderate conductance with metal fingers to support charge collection is a well-established ...

  10. Reactive sputtering and composition measurements of precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson, Tove

    2013-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a thin film solar cell material that only contains abundant elements and for which promising conversion efficiencies of 9.2 % have been shown. In this thesis composition measurements and reactive sputtering of precursors for CZTS films have been studied. These precursors can be annealed to create high quality CZTS films. Accurate control and measurement of composition are important for the synthesis process. The composition of a reference sample was determined using Ruther...

  11. Mechanical synthesis of high purity Cu-In-Se alloy nanopowder as precursor for printed CISe thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghi, Armin E.; Buffiere, Marie; Brammertz, Guy; Batuk, Maria; Lenaers, Nick; Kniknie, Bas; Hadermann, Joke; Meuris, Marc; Poortmans, Jef; Vleugels, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical alloying and ball milling are low cost, up-scalable techniques for the preparation of high purity chalcogenide nanopowders to be used as precursor material for printing thin film solar cells. In this study, high purity copper indium selenium (Cu-In-Se) alloy nanopowders with 20-200 nm particle size were synthesized from macroscopic elemental Cu, In and Se powders via mechanical alloying and planetary ball milling. The particle size distribution, morphology, composition, and purity ...

  12. FTIR spectroscopy of silicon carbide thin films prepared by PECVD technology for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinov, Angela; Huran, Jozef; Sasinkov, Vlasta; Pern, Milan; ly, Vladimr.; Packa, Juraj

    2015-09-01

    The plasma CVD reactor with parallel plate electrodes was used for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of two type's silicon carbide thin films on Si substrates. The concentration of elements in the films was determined by RBS and ERD analytical method simultaneously. The chemical compositions of the samples were analyzed by FTIR method. RBS and ERD results showed that the films contain silicon, carbon, hydrogen and small amount of oxygen. FTIR results confirmed the presence of Si-C, Si-H, C-H, and Si-O bonds. From the FTIR spectra the main following vibration frequencies were determined: the band from 2800 to 3000 cm-1 is attributed to stretching vibration of the CHn group in both the sp2 (2880 cm-1) and sp3 (2920 cm-1) configurations. The band at 2100 cm-1 is due to SiHm stretching vibrations. The band at 780 cm-1 can be assigned to Si-C stretching vibration. Main features of FTIR spectra were Gaussian fitted and detailed analyses of chemical bonding in SiC films were performed. Differences between two types of SiC films were discussed with the aim to using these films in the heterojunction solar cell technology.

  13. Influence of thickness on physical properties of vacuum evaporated polycrystalline CdTe thin films for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Subhash; Dhaka, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the influence of thickness on physical properties of polycrystalline CdTe thin films. The thin films of thickness 450 nm, 650 nm and 850 nm were deposited employing thermal vacuum evaporation technique on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The physical properties of these as-grown thin films were investigated employing the X-ray diffraction (XRD), source meter, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The structural analysis reveals that the films have zinc-blende cubic structure and polycrystalline in nature with preferred orientation (111). The structural parameters like lattice constant, interplanar spacing, grain size, strain, dislocation density and number of crystallites per unit area are calculated. The average grain size and optical band gap are found in the range 15.16-21.22 nm and 1.44-1.63 eV respectively and observed to decrease with thickness. The current-voltage characteristics show that the electrical conductivity is observed to decrease with thickness. The surface morphology shows that films are free from crystal defects like pin holes and voids as well as homogeneous and uniform. The EDS patterns show the presence of cadmium and tellurium elements in the as grown films. The experimental results reveal that the film thickness plays significant role on the physical properties of as-grown CdTe thin films and higher thickness may be used as absorber layer to solar cells applications.

  14. Double-layer indium doped zinc oxide for silicon thin-film solar cell prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on corning eagle 2000 glass substrate. 1 and 2 at.% indium doped single-layer ZnO:In thin films with different amounts of acetic acid added in the initial solution were fabricated. The 1 at.% indium doped single-layers have triangle grains. The 2 at.% indium doped single-layer with 0.18 acetic acid adding has the resistivity of 6.8210?3 ?cm and particle grains. The double-layers structure is designed to fabricate the ZnO:In thin film with low resistivity (2.5810?3 ?cm) and good surface morphology. It is found that the surface morphology of the double-layer ZnO:In film strongly depends on the substrate-layer, and the second-layer plays a large part in the resistivity of the double-layer ZnO:In thin film. Both total and direct transmittances of the double-layer ZnO:In film are above 80% in the visible light region. Single junction a-Si:H solar cell based on the double-layer ZnO:In as front electrode is also investigated. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Aqueous Solution-Phase Selenized CuIn(S,Se)2 Thin Film Solar Cells Annealed under Inert Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunjung; Yang, Wooseok; Kim, Jimin; Woo, Kyoohee; Moon, Jooho

    2015-10-14

    A nonvacuum solution-based approach can potentially be used to realize low cost, roll-to-roll fabrication of chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se)2 (CISSe) thin film solar cells. However, most solution-based fabrication methods involve highly toxic solvents and inevitably require sulfurization and/or postselenization with hazardous H2S/H2Se gases. Herein, we introduce novel aqueous-based Cu-In-S and Se inks that contain an amine additive for producing a high-quality absorber layer. CISSe films were fabricated by simple deposition of Cu-In-S ink and Se ink followed by annealing under an inert atmosphere. Compositional and phase analyses confirmed that our simple aqueous ink-based method facilitated in-site selenization of the CIS layer. In addition, we investigated the molecular structures of our aqueous inks to determine how crystalline chalcopyrite absorber layers developed without sulfurization and/or postselenization. CISSe thin film solar cells annealed at 550 C exhibited an efficiency of 4.55% under AM 1.5 illumination. The low-cost, nonvacuum method to deposit chalcopyrite absorber layers described here allows for safe and simple processing of thin film solar cells. PMID:26394216

  16. Effect of band-aligned double absorber layers on photovoltaic characteristics of chemical bath deposited PbS/CdS thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deuk Ho Yeon; Bhaskar Chandra Mohanty; Seung Min Lee; Yong Soo Cho

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the highest energy conversion efficiency and good stability of PbS thin film-based depleted heterojunction solar cells, not involving PbS quantum dots. The PbS thin films were grown by the low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) process at relatively low temperatures. Compared to the quantum dot solar cells which require critical and multistep complex procedures for surface passivation, the present approach, leveraging the facile modulation of the optoelectronic properties of t...

  17. Microscopic properties of grain boundaries in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CuInS2 thin-film solar cells studied by transmission electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Sebastian Simon

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu(In,Ga)S2 thin films are employed as absorber layers in highly efficient thin-film solar cells. The impact of grain boundaries on the electronic properties of these thin films and consequently on the conversion efficiency of the corresponding solar cells is not sufficiently understood. In the present work, methods in transmission electron microscopy were employed in order to study the microscopic properties of grain boundaries in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 layers with...

  18. Polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells prepared by PECVD-SPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, R.H.; Risso, G.A.; Cutrera, M.; Battioni, M.; De Bernardez, L.; Schmidt, J.A.; Arce, R.D.; Koropecki, R.R. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, CONICET-UNL, Guemes 3450, CP 3000, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    Among the most promising technological alternatives for the development of photovoltaic modules and cells of a low cost, good energetic conversion and feasibility for mass production, polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells deposited directly on a transparent substrate are currently being considered the best. We have developed in our laboratory a PECVD reactor capable of producing the deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon at rates of above 2 nm/seg, allowing a significant production per line on the plant. Discharge gas is silane, to which diborane or phosphine is added so as to form the cell. Basically, work is done on a structure of cell type TCO/n+/p-/p+/M, which has 2 {mu}m of total thickness. Schott AF-37 glass is used as a substrate, for their ability to withstand temperatures of up to 800 C. The amorphous cell is subsequently annealed at gradual temperatures of 100 C to achieve dehydrogenation up to 650-700 C for 12 h until their complete crystallization is achieved. Our results show a complete crystallization of silicon with a grain size of less than a micron, with a dehydrogenation process at 500 C, leaving a remainder of less than 1% in hydrogen as monohydrate. The parameters of the cell estimated from the IV curve yield low values, FF<0.55, Icc <200 {mu}A and Voc<420 mV. The high series resistance is due to the grain size and defect density, which will be attempted to be improved by post-hydrogenation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) methods at high temperatures. (author)

  19. Optical and electronic contributions in double-heterojunction organic thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, H.; Zettl, H. [Physikalische Chemie II, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Bayreuther Zentrum fuer Kolloid und Grenzflaechenforschung (BZKG), D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Krausch, G. [Bayreuther Zentrum fuer Kolloid und Grenzflaechenforschung (BZKG), D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Kisselev, R.; Thelakkat, M.; Schmidt, H.W. [Makromolekulare Chemie I and Bayreuther Zentrum fuer Kolloid und Grenzflaechenforschung (BZKG), Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2003-12-17

    Combinatorial studies of organic thin-film photovoltaic cells can identify the separate optical and electronic contributions to the photocurrent. A second charge-transfer zone is proposed to explain the observed augmentation of the short-circuit current induced by an additional TiO{sub 2} layer. The ratio of the exciton diffusion lengths in copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and a perylene dye (DMPTI) is estimated to be {approx}8:5. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. High molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium complexes for thin film dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Daibin; Ito, Seigo; Wenger, Bernard; Klein, Cedric; Moser, Jacques-E; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grtzel, Michael

    2006-03-29

    Two novel heteroleptic sensitizers, Ru((4,4-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine)(4,4'-bis(p-hexyloxystyryl)-2,2-bipyridine)(NCS)2 and Ru((4,4-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine)(4,4'-bis(p-methoxystyryl)-2,2'-bipyridine) (NCS)2, coded as K-19 and K-73, respectively, have been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, UV-vis absorption, and emission spectroscopy and excited-state lifetime and spectroelectrochemical measurements. The introduction of the alkoxystyryl group extends the conjugation of the bipyridine donor ligand increasing markedly their molar extinction coefficient and solar light harvesting capacity. The dynamics of photoinduced charge separation following electronic excitation of the K-19 dye was scrutinized by time-resolved laser spectroscopy. The electron transfer from K-19 to the conduction band of TiO2 is completed within 20 fs while charge recombination has a half-life time of 800 s. The high extinction coefficients of these sensitizers enable realization of a new generation of a thin film dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) yielding high conversion efficiency at full sunlight even with viscous electrolytes based on ionic liquids or nonvolatile solvents. An unprecedented yield of over 9% was obtained under standard reporting conditions (simulated global air mass 1.5 sunlight at 1000 W/m2 intensity) when the K-73 sensitizer was combined with a nonvolatile "robust" electrolyte. The K-19 dye gave a conversion yield of 7.1% when used in conjunction with the binary ionic liquid electrolyte. These devices exhibit excellent stability under light soaking at 60 degrees C. The effect of the mesoscopic TiO2 film thickness on photovoltaic performance has been analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). PMID:16551124

  1. Co-electroplated Kesterite Bifacial Thin-Film Solar Cells: A Study of Sulfurization Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jie; Chu, Junhao; Yan, Yanfa; Jiang, Jinchun; Yang, Pingxiong

    2015-05-20

    Earth-abundant material, kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), demonstrates the tremendous potential to serve as the absorber layer for the bifacial thin-film solar cell. The exploration of appropriate sulfurization conditions including annealing temperature is significant to gain insight into the growth mechanism based on the substrates using transparent conductive oxides (TCO) and improve device performance. The kesterite solar absorbers were fabricated on ITO substrates by sulfurizing co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn-S precursors in argon diluted H2S atmosphere at different temperatures (475-550 C) for 30 min. Experimental proof, including cross-section scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum, and Raman and far-infrared spectroscopy, is presented for the crystallization of CZTS on an ITO substrate and the interfacial reaction between the ITO back contact and CZTS absorber. The complete conversion of precursor into CZTS requires at least 500 C sulfurization temperature. The aggressive interfacial reaction leading to the out-diffusion of In into CZTS to a considerable extent, formation of tin sulfides, and electrically conductive degradation of ITO back contact occurs at the sulfurization temperatures higher than 500 C. The bifacial devices obtained by 520 C sulfurization exhibit the best conversion efficiencies and open circuit voltages. However, the presence of non-ohmic back contact (secondary diode), the short minority lifetime, and the high interfacial recombination rates negatively limit the open circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency, evidenced by illumination/temperature-dependent J-V, frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V-f), time-resolved PL (TRPL), and bias-dependent external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements. PMID:25871647

  2. Characterization of nanocrystalline SnO2 thin film fabricated by electrodeposition method for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline SnO2 thin film was prepared by cathodic electrodeposition-anodic oxidation and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, UV-visible absorption and nitrogen adsorption-desorption by BET method. The obtained film has a surface area of 137.9 m2/g with grain sized of 24 nm. Thus the prepared SnO2 thin film can be applied as an electrode in dye-sensitized solar cell. The SnO2 electrode was successfully sensitized by Erythrosin dye and photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the cell present short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 760 μA/cm2, fill factor (FF = 0.4), photovoltage (Voc = 0.21 V) and overall conversion efficiency (η) of 0.06% under direct sun light illumination. The relatively low fill factor and photovoltage are attributed to the reduction of triodiode by conduction band electrons and intrinsic properties of SnO2.

  3. Sputtered Al-doped ZnO transparent conducting thin films suitable for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ayadi, Z., E-mail: Zouhaier.BenAyadi@fsg.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Mahdhi, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Djessas, K. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES-CNRS), TECNOSUD, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan (France); Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 68860, Perpignan Cedex9 (France); Gauffier, J.L. [Département de Génie Physique, INSA de Toulouse, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); and others

    2014-02-28

    Highly transparent conducting Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been grown onto p-type porous silicon substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering at room temperature using aluminum doped nanocrystalline powder. The obtained AZO films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented in the (002) crystallographic direction. The films are highly transparent in the visible wavelength region with a transmittance higher than 85% and an electrical resistivity of 1.56 × 10{sup −4} Ω·cm was obtained at room temperature. On the other hand, we have studied the position of the p–n junction involved in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:SnO{sub 2}/(n)AZO/Si(p) structure, by electron-beam induced current technique. Current density–voltage characterizations in dark and under illumination were also investigated. The cell exhibits an efficiency of 5%. - Highlights: • Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were grown by RF-magnetron sputtering. • AZO nanopowder compacted target was prepared by a sol–gel method. • AZO thin films are polycrystalline and have preferred orientation along c-axis. • We report a photovoltaic effect in Si(p)/porous silicon/AZO heterostructure. • The cell exhibits an efficiency of 5%.

  4. Sputtered Al-doped ZnO transparent conducting thin films suitable for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly transparent conducting Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been grown onto p-type porous silicon substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering at room temperature using aluminum doped nanocrystalline powder. The obtained AZO films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented in the (002) crystallographic direction. The films are highly transparent in the visible wavelength region with a transmittance higher than 85% and an electrical resistivity of 1.56 10?4 ?cm was obtained at room temperature. On the other hand, we have studied the position of the pn junction involved in the In2O3:SnO2/(n)AZO/Si(p) structure, by electron-beam induced current technique. Current densityvoltage characterizations in dark and under illumination were also investigated. The cell exhibits an efficiency of 5%. - Highlights: Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were grown by RF-magnetron sputtering. AZO nanopowder compacted target was prepared by a solgel method. AZO thin films are polycrystalline and have preferred orientation along c-axis. We report a photovoltaic effect in Si(p)/porous silicon/AZO heterostructure. The cell exhibits an efficiency of 5%

  5. Experimental study of Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 thin films for solar cell applications

    OpenAIRE

    Engman, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 (CZT(Se,S)) has recently been shown to be a promising material to use in thin film solar cells. It has a band gap of between 1eV (CZTSe) and 1.5eV (CZTS). CZT(Se,S) solar cells have reached 10% efficiency. The aim of this project was to find an effective way to selenise metallic Cu, Zn, Sn films in order to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) films, without destroying the metallic molybdenum (Mo) back contact. Another aim was to make films containing both Se and S and to study the pos...

  6. Simulation and characterization of performance of thin-film silicon solar cells with subwavelength nanoporous emitter profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Chang, Chia-Min; Tsai, Po-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Surface properties of a thin-film p-on-n silicon solar cell with a subwavelength nanoporous structure fabricated on an emitter layer by using metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) were investigated through an experiment and simulation. After 10-s MACE processing, the conversion efficiency increased by 43.09% (from 5.64% to 8.07%) was obtained, compared with a reference solar cell without MACE. The simulation result indicated that the surface recombination velocity was an exponential function of the etching time from 0 to 30 s, and showed close agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Characterization of Optic Properties ZnO:Al Thin Film on Glass Substrate for Solar Cell Window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been characterized a ZnO:Al thin film growth using sputtering technique for solar cell window. The aims of this research is to get a ZnO:Al thin film that can be used as a TCO (Transparent Conducting Oxide) on amorphous silicon solar cell. To get an optimum properties, deposition process has been done for various parameters, such as composition/concentration of Al, substrate temperature, gas pressure and deposition time. Based on experiments result, it is found that the optimum result was achieved at temperature 450 oC, gas pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr and time 1.5 hours. From optical properties (transmittance) measurements using UV-vis, it was found that the optimum results was achieved at temperature 450 oC. At this conditions, wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (50 - 82) %, at pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr the transmittance was (50 - 80) % and at deposition time 1.5 hours was (49 - 81) %. For ZnO thin film, was at wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (78 - 80) %. From micro structure analysis using SEM, it was found that the thickness layer of ZnO was 1.5 ?m and 1.3 ?m for ZnO: Al. While from surface morphology it was found that for ZnO thin layer the grains was distributed homogeneously, while for ZnO: Al the grains was distributed unhomogeneously. (author)

  8. Efficiency potential of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells by silane-gas-free process using aluminum-induced-crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, TadashiTadashi; Fukushima, Hideoki [TOYOTA Central Research and Development Labs., Aichi (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technological Inst., Nagoya (Japan)

    2004-06-01

    Analyzing the performance of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells fabricated by silane-gas-free process including the aluminum-induced-crystallization technique by using the device simulation program 'PC1D', we have estimated the efficiency of them. In addition, we have discussed the issues to make the silane-gas-free process practical. In the cell fabrication by silane-gas-free process, segregation of impurity atoms at the grain boundaries of the Si film is one of the serious problems. By suppressing the impurity inclusion and optimizing the cell parameters, the simulated efficiency is to be about 13% in single-junction cells. (Author)

  9. Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-Injection for Thin Film Solar Cells.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming

    The kesterite material, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTS), shows great promise as the absorber layer for future thin film solar cells. Solution processing allows for comparatively fast and inexpensive fabrication, and holds the record efficiency in the kesterite family. However, for nanoparticle (NP) solution processing to be a feasible fabrication route, the amount of carbon in the film has to be limited. In our work, we try to limit the organic material in the film by synthesizing larger NPs. Larger particles can be obtained by longer reaction durations, slower reaction rates of the precursors, or slower injection rates of the sulfur/selenium precursors. In our group, we have synthesized NPs larger than 200 nm by controlling the monomer concentration during growth. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allows us to image the NPs and determine their individual composition. Size-selective methods can be carried out in order to isolate the desired particle sizes, and films will be deposited through wet-chemical means.Mixing large NPs with small NPs can also improve the film-quality as a result of densification at the optimal packing density. The films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as other surface characterization techniques. Our first photovoltaic device consisting of soda lime glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO has been built from doctor blading of approx. 20 nm Cu2ZnSnS4 NPs in octanethiol, and annealed in Se-atmosphere. It had an efficiency of 1.4%.

  10. The properties of surface textured ZnO:Al films for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jinsu; Lee, Jeonghul; Kim, Seokki; Yoon, Kyunghoon; Park, I. Jun; Dhungel, S. K.; Karunagaran, B.; Mangalaraj, D.; Yi, Junsin

    2005-02-01

    Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering from a ZnO target mixed with Al2O3 of 2.5 % on to glass substrates maintained at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 673 K. Argon gas pressure during the deposition was in the range 0.3-10 mTorr. Structural, optical and electrical properties of the prepared films have been characterized. As the argon gas pressure was increased, the deposition rate was found to decrease and the surface roughness was increased. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility were decreased and thus the electrical resistivity increased. Depending on their structural properties, these films develop different surface structures upon post deposition etching in diluted HCl (0.5%). The light scattering properties of suitable film can be controlled over a wide range simply by varying the etching time, substrate temperature and argon pressure. The X-Ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the films are highly oriented with their crystallographic c-axis perpendicular to the substrate and almost independent of argon pressure and also an improvement in crystallinity for the films deposited at higher temperature was observed. Measurements of transmission spectra reveal that ZnO:Al films have an average transmission of over 85 % in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm. Also the films showed an excellent electrical resistivity of 1.9 x 10-4 -cm, a value comparable to that for indium tin oxide film presently used as a transparent electrode. Finally, the texture-etched films were successfully applied on substrates for silicon thin film solar cells.

  11. The properties of surface textured ZnO:Al films for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jinsu; Dhungel, S.K.; Karunagaran, B.; Mangalaraj, D.; Yi, Junsin [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon city, Kyunggi-Do, 440 746 (Korea); Lee, Jeonghul; Kim, Seokki; Yoon, Kyunghoon; Jun Park, I. [New and Renewable Energy Dept., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea)

    2005-02-01

    Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering from a ZnO target mixed with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 2.5 % on to glass substrates maintained at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 673 K. Argon gas pressure during the deposition was in the range 0.3-10 mTorr. Structural, optical and electrical properties of the prepared films have been characterized. As the argon gas pressure was increased, the deposition rate was found to decrease and the surface roughness was increased. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility were decreased and thus the electrical resistivity increased. Depending on their structural properties, these films develop different surface structures upon post deposition etching in diluted HCl (0.5%). The light scattering properties of suitable film can be controlled over a wide range simply by varying the etching time, substrate temperature and argon pressure. The X-Ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the films are highly oriented with their crystallographic c-axis perpendicular to the substrate and almost independent of argon pressure and also an improvement in crystallinity for the films deposited at higher temperature was observed. Measurements of transmission spectra reveal that ZnO:Al films have an average transmission of over 85 % in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm. Also the films showed an excellent electrical resistivity of 1.9 x 10{sup -4} {omega}-cm, a value comparable to that for indium tin oxide film presently used as a transparent electrode. Finally, the texture-etched films were successfully applied on substrates for silicon thin film solar cells. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, M.; Lipovsek, B.; Krc, J.; Campa, A.; Topic, M. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering Trzaska cesta 25, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Sanchez Plaza, G. [Technical University of Valencia, Valencia Nanophotonics Technology Center (NTC) Valencia 46022 (Spain); Haug, F.J. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Institute of Microengineering IMT, Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Neuchatel 2000 (Switzerland); Duchamp, M. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons Institute for Microstructure Research, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich D-52425 (Germany); Soppe, W. [ECN-Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, Eindhoven 5656 AE (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    In thin-film silicon solar cells textured interfaces are introduced, leading to improved antireflection and light trapping capabilities of the devices. Thin-layers are deposited on surface-textured substrates or superstrates and the texture is translated to internal interfaces. For accurate optical modelling of the thin-film silicon solar cells it is important to define and include the morphology of textured interfaces as realistic as possible. In this paper we present a model of thin-layer growth on textured surfaces which combines two growth principles: conformal and isotropic one. With the model we can predict the morphology of subsequent internal interfaces in thin-film silicon solar cells based on the known morphology of the substrate or superstrate. Calibration of the model for different materials grown under certain conditions is done on various cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of realistic devices. Advantages over existing growth modelling approaches are demonstrated - one of them is the ability of the model to predict and omit the textures with high possibility of defective regions formation inside the Si absorber layers. The developed model of layer growth is used in rigorous 3-D optical simulations employing the COMSOL simulator. A sinusoidal texture of the substrate is optimised for the case of a micromorph silicon solar cell. More than a 50 % increase in short-circuit current density of the bottom cell with respect to the flat case is predicted, considering the defect-free absorber layers. The developed approach enables accurate prediction and powerful design of current-matched top and bottom cell.

  13. Doped and multi-compound ZnO-based transparent conducting oxides for silicon thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras Segu, Paz

    2013-01-01

    [eng] The objective of the present work is to provide a better understanding of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides based on ZnO in order to use them as electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells at the Grup d'Energia Solar of the Universitat de Barcelona. This thesis presents the properties of magnetron sputtered aluminium and gallium doped ZnO as well as the properties of multi-compound materials deposited by the co-sputtering of zinc oxide and indium tin oxide. The applicati...

  14. Impacts of proton irradiation on optical and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical and electrical properties of proton irradiated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells and the thin films that compose the CIGS solar cell structure were investigated. The transmittance and resistivity of transparent conducting oxide window layers remained constant for a fluence of up to 3 1015 cm-2. For CIGS thin films, the number of non-radiative recombination center increases under proton irradiation. In CIGS solar cells, decreasing JSC reflected the degradation of the depletion layer of the CdS/CIGS interface. These results constitute the first step in clarifying the degradation mechanism of CIGS solar cells. (author)

  15. Impact of contamination on hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerdenweber, Jan

    2011-09-26

    This thesis deals with atmospheric contamination and cross-contamination of boron (single-chamber process) of the intrinsic absorber layer (i-layer) of p-i-n thin film solar cells based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The atmospheric contaminations were introduced by means of intentional leaks. Hereby, the focus is on the influence of contamination species (oxygen and nitrogen), quantity of contamination (leak flow), source of contamination (leaks at chamber wall or in the process gas pipe), and plasma power on the properties of solar cells. Thereby, the minimum requirements for the purity of vacuum and process gas as well as leak conditions of the recipient and gas pipe system have been determined. Additionally, deposition regimes were developed, where the incorporation of impurities is significantly suppressed. For standard processes critical levels of nitrogen and oxygen contamination are determined to be {proportional_to} 4 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and {proportional_to} 2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, respectively, for a leak situated at the chamber wall. Above these concentrations the solar cell efficiency deteriorates. In literature, incorporation of oxygen and nitrogen in doping configuration is assumed to be the reason for the cell deterioration. This assumption is supported by additional material studies of contaminated absorber layers done in this work. The difference in critical concentration is due to the higher doping efficiency of nitrogen compared to that for oxygen. Nevertheless, applying an air leak the critical concentrations of O and N are reached almost simultaneously since the incorporation probability of oxygen is about one order of magnitude higher compared to that for nitrogen. Applying a leak in the process gas pipe the critical oxygen contamination level increases to {proportional_to} 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} whereas the critical nitrogen level remains unchanged compared to a chamber wall leak. Applying a deposition regime with a very high flow of process gases for oxygen the higher critical contamination level is found as well for a chamber wall leak. Possible reasons for the dependence of the critical oxygen contamination on the deposition regime and the oxygen source may be the following. Before entering the plasma zone the oxygen can react with hydrogen atoms, silane (very high reaction probability), or silane radicals. Mainly, three reaction products may result, namely SiO{sub 2}-clusters, siloxane (SiH{sub 3}-O-SiH{sub 3}), and OH / H{sub 2}O molecules. The SiO{sub 2} is assumed to drop to the bottom of the reactor or to be pumped out. If oxygen is incorporated from siloxane, it is assumed to be electrically inactive. In contrast, oxygen incorporated from hydrogen-oxygen molecules leads to oxygen incorporation in an electrically active configuration. For a source gas pipe leak, the density of silane in the gas pipe is high compared to that for the chamber wall leak. For the chamber wall leak the hydrogen density is assumed to be much higher compared to that for the process gas pipe leak. Thus, the critical oxygen concentration is suggested to increases due to the resulting higher siloxane to OH / H{sub 2}O ratio for the gas pipe leak compared to that in the vicinity of the chamber wall leak. The different critical levels for different deposition regimes can be explained by their oxygen incorporation velocity. The lifetime of the OH / H{sub 2}O molecules is assumed to be shorter, compared to that for the siloxane. As a consequence this might lead to the fact, that oxygen form these molecules is incorporated in one regime (fast incorporation), and in another regime it is not incorporated (slow incorporation). For nitrogen the same critical contamination levels are observed which is attributed to the lack of reactivity of silane and nitrogen. The observed critical impurity concentrations do not change after light-soaking experiments of the solar cells. A further aspect of this thesis is to improve the single-chamber process for the fabrication of amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin-film solar cells. The main aspect is the suppression of boron cross-contamination. Before the deposition of the i-layer a boron doped p-layer is deposited and thus, after the p-layer deposition some of the boron remains in the recipient. In this work different solar cell configurations and reactor treatments are examined for their suppression of the boron cross-contamination. The various treatments are compared for their effectivity, their working principle, and their time consumption. Amongst the investigated reactor treatments the application of a H{sub 2}O-flush or a process chamber evacuation to 9 x 10{sup -7} mbar turned out to be most favourable in order to suppress the boron cross-contamination. (orig.)

  16. Electronic grain boundary properties in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} semiconductors for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, Robert

    2012-06-25

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin film absorbers reach the highest energy conversion efficiency among all thin film solar cells. The record efficiency is at least partly attributed to benign electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in the CIGSe layers. However, despite a high amount of research on this phenomenon the underlying physics is not sufficiently understood. This thesis presents an elaborate study on the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe thin films. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was employed to investigate the electronic properties of GBs in dependence of the Ga-content. Five CIGSe thin lms with various Ga-contents were grown by means of similar three stage co-evaporation processes. Both as grown as well as chemically treated (KCN etched) thin films were analyzed. The chemical treatment was employed to remove surface oxides. No difference in electronic GB properties was found with or without the chemical treatment. Therefore, we conclude that a moderate surface oxidation does not alter the electronic properties of GBs. In general, one can observe significant variations of electronic potential barriers at GBs. Under consideration of the averaging effect of the work function signal of nanoscale potential distributions in KPFM measurements which was quantified in the course of this thesis both positive and negative potential barriers in a range between ∼-350 mV and ∼+450 mV were detected. Additionally, variations in the defect densities at GBs between ∼3.1 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and ∼2.1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} were found. However, no correlation between the electronic properties of GBs and the Ga-content of CIGSe thin films was discovered. Consequently, one cannot explain the drop in device efficiency observed for CIGSe thin film solar cells with a high Ga-content by a change of the electronic properties of GBs. Combined KPFM and electron backscatter diffraction measurements were employed for the first time on CIGSe thin films to gather complementary information about both the structural and electronic properties of individual GBs. With the help of this information it was possible to investigate the interrelationship between the symmetry and the electronic potential barrier of GBs. We could reveal that highly symmetric Σ3 GBs have a lower probability to possess a charged potential barrier than lower symmetric non-Σ3 GBs. The assumption of a general symmetry-dependence of the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe, i.e. a correlation between the particular symmetry of a GB and its potential barrier that is also valid for GBs with symmetries lower than Σ3, could help to explain the large variations of potential barriers observed at GBs in polycrystalline CIGSe thin films.

  17. Electronic grain boundary properties in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 semiconductors for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film absorbers reach the highest energy conversion efficiency among all thin film solar cells. The record efficiency is at least partly attributed to benign electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in the CIGSe layers. However, despite a high amount of research on this phenomenon the underlying physics is not sufficiently understood. This thesis presents an elaborate study on the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe thin films. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was employed to investigate the electronic properties of GBs in dependence of the Ga-content. Five CIGSe thin lms with various Ga-contents were grown by means of similar three stage co-evaporation processes. Both as grown as well as chemically treated (KCN etched) thin films were analyzed. The chemical treatment was employed to remove surface oxides. No difference in electronic GB properties was found with or without the chemical treatment. Therefore, we conclude that a moderate surface oxidation does not alter the electronic properties of GBs. In general, one can observe significant variations of electronic potential barriers at GBs. Under consideration of the averaging effect of the work function signal of nanoscale potential distributions in KPFM measurements which was quantified in the course of this thesis both positive and negative potential barriers in a range between ∼-350 mV and ∼+450 mV were detected. Additionally, variations in the defect densities at GBs between ∼3.1 x 1011 cm-2 and ∼2.1 x 1012 cm-2 were found. However, no correlation between the electronic properties of GBs and the Ga-content of CIGSe thin films was discovered. Consequently, one cannot explain the drop in device efficiency observed for CIGSe thin film solar cells with a high Ga-content by a change of the electronic properties of GBs. Combined KPFM and electron backscatter diffraction measurements were employed for the first time on CIGSe thin films to gather complementary information about both the structural and electronic properties of individual GBs. With the help of this information it was possible to investigate the interrelationship between the symmetry and the electronic potential barrier of GBs. We could reveal that highly symmetric Σ3 GBs have a lower probability to possess a charged potential barrier than lower symmetric non-Σ3 GBs. The assumption of a general symmetry-dependence of the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe, i.e. a correlation between the particular symmetry of a GB and its potential barrier that is also valid for GBs with symmetries lower than Σ3, could help to explain the large variations of potential barriers observed at GBs in polycrystalline CIGSe thin films.

  18. Enhanced photovoltaic performances of graphene/Si solar cells by insertion of a MoS2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Yuka; Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Funahashi, Kazuma; Mouri, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Takenobu, Taishi; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-08-01

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides exhibit great potential as active materials in optoelectronic devices because of their characteristic band structure. Here, we demonstrated that the photovoltaic performances of graphene/Si Schottky junction solar cells were significantly improved by inserting a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown, large MoS2 thin-film layer. This layer functions as an effective electron-blocking/hole-transporting layer. We also demonstrated that the photovoltaic properties are enhanced with the increasing number of graphene layers and the decreasing thickness of the MoS2 layer. A high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 11.1% was achieved with the optimized trilayer-graphene/MoS2/n-Si solar cell.Transition-metal dichalcogenides exhibit great potential as active materials in optoelectronic devices because of their characteristic band structure. Here, we demonstrated that the photovoltaic performances of graphene/Si Schottky junction solar cells were significantly improved by inserting a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown, large MoS2 thin-film layer. This layer functions as an effective electron-blocking/hole-transporting layer. We also demonstrated that the photovoltaic properties are enhanced with the increasing number of graphene layers and the decreasing thickness of the MoS2 layer. A high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 11.1% was achieved with the optimized trilayer-graphene/MoS2/n-Si solar cell. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03046c

  19. Scattering matrix analysis for evaluating the photocurrent in hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon-based thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myunghun; Lee, Seong Hyun; Lim, Jung Wook; Yun, Sun Jin

    2014-11-01

    A scattering matrix (S-matrix) analysis method was developed for evaluating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-based thin film solar cells. In this approach, light wave vectors A and B represent the incoming and outgoing behaviors of the incident solar light, respectively, in terms of coherent wave and incoherent intensity components. The S-matrix determines the relation between A and B according to optical effects such as reflection and transmission, as described by the Fresnel equations, scattering at the boundary surfaces, or scattering within the propagation medium, as described by the Beer-Lambert law and the change in the phase of the propagating light wave. This matrix can be used to evaluate the behavior of angle-incident coherent and incoherent light simultaneously, and takes into account not only the light scattering process at material boundaries (haze effects) but also nonlinear optical processes within the material. The optical parameters in the S-matrix were determined by modeling both a 2%-gallium-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting oxide and germanium-compounded a-Si:H (a-SiGe:H). Using the S-matrix equations, the photocurrent for an a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem cell and the optical loss in semitransparent a-Si:H solar cells for use in building-integrated photovoltaic applications were analyzed. The developed S-matrix method can also be used as a general analysis tool for various thin film solar cells. PMID:25958519

  20. Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se Powders as Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Pei, Yingli; Zhou, Zhengji; Zhou, Wenhui; Kou, Dongxing; Wu, Sixin

    2015-08-01

    Solution-processed approach for the deposition of Cu2ZnSn (S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) absorbing layer offers a route for fabricating thin film solar cell that is appealing because of simplified and low-cost manufacturing, large-area coverage, and better compatibility with flexible substrates. In this work, we present a simple solution-based approach for simultaneously dissolving the low-cost elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se powder, forming a homogeneous CZTSSe precursor solution in a short time. Dense and compact kesterite CZTSSe thin film with high crystallinity and uniform composition was obtained by selenizing the low-temperature annealed spin-coated precursor film. Standard CZTSSe thin film solar cell based on the selenized CZTSSe thin film was fabricated and an efficiency of 6.4 % was achieved.

  1. Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se) 4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se Powders as Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Pei, Yingli; Zhou, Zhengji; Zhou, Wenhui; Kou, Dongxing; Wu, Sixin

    2015-12-01

    Solution-processed approach for the deposition of Cu2ZnSn (S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) absorbing layer offers a route for fabricating thin film solar cell that is appealing because of simplified and low-cost manufacturing, large-area coverage, and better compatibility with flexible substrates. In this work, we present a simple solution-based approach for simultaneously dissolving the low-cost elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se powder, forming a homogeneous CZTSSe precursor solution in a short time. Dense and compact kesterite CZTSSe thin film with high crystallinity and uniform composition was obtained by selenizing the low-temperature annealed spin-coated precursor film. Standard CZTSSe thin film solar cell based on the selenized CZTSSe thin film was fabricated and an efficiency of 6.4% was achieved. PMID:26293494

  2. Impacts of electron irradiation on the optical and electrical properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : A thin film solar cell composed of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) is essentially light-weight and shows high conversion efficiency and excellent radiation tolerance. These characteristics lead to CIGS solar cells very attractive for space applications. However, only a few irradiation studies have been carried out on CIGS thin films and entire solar cell structure, resulting in limited knowledge on the mechanisms responsible for the irradiation-induced damage. In addition, the cell performance is known to change due to the damp heat and/or light soaking effects. Accordingly, understanding the degradation mechanisms of CIGS, ZnO, a buffer, Mo, and even glass components is necessary for not only space use but also commercial use. In this presentation, electron irradiation effects will be discussed for CIGS solar cells and each layer that composed the CIGS solar cell structure such as CIGS, CdS, undoped ZnO, and Ga- or Al-doped ZnO films. Electron irradiation experiments were carried out using the DYNAMITRON electron accelerator. The electron energy was fixed at 2 MeV and the fluence was varied between 1 * 1013 and 1 * 1018 cm-2. All the irradiated CIGS films exhibited common PL peaks originating from donor to acceptor transitions. PL peak intensity due to Cu-related point defects, which did not affect solar cell performance significantly, increased in CIGS thin films with increasing electron irradiation. Conversely, transmittance spectra of all the irradiated ZnO and ZnO:Al films did not change by the electron irradiation up to 6 * 1017 cm-2. The normalized performance parameters of the irradiated CIGS solar cell such as Voc, Jsc, and ? are shown in article as a function of irradiation fluence. ? tended to decrease in comparison with Voc and Jsc for large irradiation fluence. Shunt resistance and series resistance of the CIGS solar cells degraded even though the resistivity of each layer did not change after electron irradiation. The result indicates that CdS/CIGS interface or another heterojunction tended to degrade easily in comparison with each bulk of solar cell composed of semiconductors

  3. Sulfur-doped nickel oxide thin film as an alternative to Pt for dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guai, Guan Hong [Center for Advanced Bionanosystems and School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); GlobalFoundries Singapore Pte. Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D, Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore); Leiw, Ming Yian [GlobalFoundries Singapore Pte. Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D, Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ng, Chee Mang [GlobalFoundries Singapore Pte. Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D, Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore); Li, Chang Ming [Center for Advanced Bionanosystems and School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2012-03-15

    A low-cost, sulfur-doped NiO (S-NiO) thin film is electrodeposited on fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} substrate and studied in an iodide-based redox system. High electrochemical activity is present because of a large catalytic surface area and a low charge transfer resistance. A dye- sensitized solar cell with a low-loaded S-NiO counter electrode achieves a power conversion efficiency of 5.04%, close to that of a cell with a conventional platinized electrode. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Nanostructured p-type CZTS thin films prepared by a facile solution process for 3D p-n junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Nae; Sung, Shi-Joon; Sim, Jun-Hyoung; Yang, Kee-Jeong; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kim, Junho; Kim, Gee Yeong; Jo, William; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2015-06-01

    Nanoporous p-type semiconductor thin films prepared by a simple solution-based process with appropriate thermal treatment and three-dimensional (3D) p-n junction solar cells fabricated by depositing n-type semiconductor layers onto the nanoporous p-type thin films show considerable photovoltaic performance compared with conventional thin film p-n junction solar cells. Spin-coated p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared using metal chlorides and thiourea show unique nanoporous thin film morphology, which is composed of a cluster of CZTS nanograins of 50-500 nm, and the obvious 3D p-n junction structure is fabricated by the deposition of n-type CdS on the nanoporous CZTS thin films by chemical bath deposition. The photovoltaic properties of 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells are predominantly affected by the scale of CZTS nanograins, which is easily controlled by the sulfurization temperature of CZTS precursor films. The scale of CZTS nanograins determines the minority carrier transportation within the 3D p-n junction between CZTS and CdS, which are closely related with the photocurrent of series resistance of 3D p-n junction solar cells. 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells with nanograins below 100 nm show power conversion efficiency of 5.02%, which is comparable with conventional CZTS thin film solar cells.Nanoporous p-type semiconductor thin films prepared by a simple solution-based process with appropriate thermal treatment and three-dimensional (3D) p-n junction solar cells fabricated by depositing n-type semiconductor layers onto the nanoporous p-type thin films show considerable photovoltaic performance compared with conventional thin film p-n junction solar cells. Spin-coated p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared using metal chlorides and thiourea show unique nanoporous thin film morphology, which is composed of a cluster of CZTS nanograins of 50-500 nm, and the obvious 3D p-n junction structure is fabricated by the deposition of n-type CdS on the nanoporous CZTS thin films by chemical bath deposition. The photovoltaic properties of 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells are predominantly affected by the scale of CZTS nanograins, which is easily controlled by the sulfurization temperature of CZTS precursor films. The scale of CZTS nanograins determines the minority carrier transportation within the 3D p-n junction between CZTS and CdS, which are closely related with the photocurrent of series resistance of 3D p-n junction solar cells. 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells with nanograins below 100 nm show power conversion efficiency of 5.02%, which is comparable with conventional CZTS thin film solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DETAILS. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02081f

  5. A study of the applicability of ZnO thin-films as anti-reflection coating on Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin-films solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Abhijit; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Tripathi, Brijesh; Kumar, Manoj [School of Solar Energy, Panditdeendayal Petroleum University, Raisan, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2012-06-25

    Transparent ZnO thin-films are prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis techniques on the glass substrates. Reflectance spectra and thin films heights are measured using spectrophotometer and stylus surface profiler, respectively. Measured optical data is used for investigating the effect of the ZnO prepared by above two processes on the performance of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films solar cell (TFSC). One dimensional simulation approach is considered using the simulation program, SCAPS. External quantum efficiency and J-V characteristics of CZTS TFSC is simulated on the basis of optical reflectance data of ZnO films with and without ZnO thin-films as antireflection coating (ARC). Study shows that ARC coated CZTS TFSC provides a better fill factor (FF) as compared to other ARC material such as MgF{sub 2}. Sprayed ZnO thin-films as ARC show comparable performance with the sputtered samples.

  6. A light-trapping strategy for nanocrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells using three-dimensionally assembled nanoparticle structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyungyeon; Jang, Eunseok; Jang, Segeun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jang, Min Seok; Choi, Hoseop; Cho, Jun-Sik; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-02-01

    We report three-dimensionally assembled nanoparticle structures inducing multiple plasmon resonances for broadband light harvesting in nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin-film solar cells. A three-dimensional multiscale (3DM) assembly of nanoparticles generated using a multi-pin spark discharge method has been accomplished over a large area under atmospheric conditions via ion-assisted aerosol lithography. The multiscale features of the sophisticated 3DM structures exhibit surface plasmon resonances at multiple frequencies, which increase light scattering and absorption efficiency over a wide spectral range from 350–1100 nm. The multiple plasmon resonances, together with the antireflection functionality arising from the conformally deposited top surface of the 3D solar cell, lead to a 22% and an 11% improvement in power conversion efficiency of the nc-Si:H thin-film solar cells compared to flat cells and cells employing nanoparticle clusters, respectively. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were also carried out to confirm that the improved device performance mainly originates from the multiple plasmon resonances generated from three-dimensionally assembled nanoparticle structures.

  7. A light-trapping strategy for nanocrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells using three-dimensionally assembled nanoparticle structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyungyeon; Jang, Eunseok; Jang, Segeun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jang, Min Seok; Choi, Hoseop; Cho, Jun-Sik; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-02-01

    We report three-dimensionally assembled nanoparticle structures inducing multiple plasmon resonances for broadband light harvesting in nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin-film solar cells. A three-dimensional multiscale (3DM) assembly of nanoparticles generated using a multi-pin spark discharge method has been accomplished over a large area under atmospheric conditions via ion-assisted aerosol lithography. The multiscale features of the sophisticated 3DM structures exhibit surface plasmon resonances at multiple frequencies, which increase light scattering and absorption efficiency over a wide spectral range from 350-1100 nm. The multiple plasmon resonances, together with the antireflection functionality arising from the conformally deposited top surface of the 3D solar cell, lead to a 22% and an 11% improvement in power conversion efficiency of the nc-Si:H thin-film solar cells compared to flat cells and cells employing nanoparticle clusters, respectively. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were also carried out to confirm that the improved device performance mainly originates from the multiple plasmon resonances generated from three-dimensionally assembled nanoparticle structures. PMID:26751935

  8. Deposition and characterization of amorphous silicon with embedded nanocrystals and microcrystalline silicon for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanostructured silicon thin films were deposited by PECVD. • Polymorphous and microcrystalline were obtained varying the pressure and power. • Structural and optoelectronics properties were studied. • The σdark changed by 5 order of magnitude under illumination, Vd was at 2.5 A/s. • The evidence of embedded nanocrystals into the amorphous matrix was investigated. - Abstract: Amorphous silicon thin films with embedded nanocrystals and microcrystalline silicon were deposited by the standard Radio Frequency (RF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) technique, from SiH4, H2, Ar gas mixture at substrate temperature of 200 °C. Two series of films were produced varying deposition parameters as chamber pressure and RF power density. The chemical bonding in the films was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, where it was observed a correlation between the hydrogen content and the morphological and electrical properties in the films. Electrical and optical parameters were extracted in both series of films, as room temperature conductivity (σRT), activation energy (Ea), and optical band gap (Eg). As well, structural analysis in the films was performed by Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), which gives an indication of the films crystallinity. The photoconductivity changed in a range of 2 and 6 orders of magnitude from dark to AM 1.5 illumination conditions, which is of interest for thin film solar cells applications

  9. ZnO thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition, used as buffer layer in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lare, Y. [Laboratoire sue l' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); Godoy, A. [Facultad Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Diego Portales, Ejercito 141, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Cattin, L. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, IMN, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44000 France (France); Jondo, K. [Laboratoire sue l' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); Abachi, T. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Kouba, Alger (Algeria); Diaz, F.R. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Morsli, M. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44000 France (France); Napo, K. [Laboratoire sue l' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); del Valle, M.A. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Bernede, J.C., E-mail: jean-christian.bernede@univ-nantes.fr [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44000 France (France)

    2009-04-15

    ZnO thin films synthetized by chemical bath deposition are used as buffer layer between the anode and the organic electron donor in organic solar cells. Films deposited from zinc nitrate solutions are annealed in room air at 300 deg. C for half an hour. The X-ray diffraction and microanalysis studies show that ZnO polycrystalline thin films are obtained. The solar cells used are based on the couple copper phthalocyanine as electron donor and (N,N-diheptyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide-PTCDI-C7) as electron acceptor. It is shown that the presence of the ZnO buffer layer improves the energy conversion efficiency of the cells. Such improvement could be attributed to a better energy level alignment at the anode/electron donor interface. The anode roughness induced by the ZnO buffer layer can also transform the planar interface organic electron donor/electron acceptor into roughen topography. This increases the interface area, where carrier separation takes place, which improves solar cells performances.

  10. A comparative study on the performance of Kesterite based thin film solar cells using SCAPS simulation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simya, O. K.; Mahaboobbatcha, A.; Balachander, K.

    2015-06-01

    A comparative study of thin film solar cells based on CZTS, CZTSe, and CZTSSe (Copper Zinc Tin Sulphur Selenium) absorbers layers were simulated with Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) as buffer layer and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as window layer using a solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS). The influences of series resistance, band to band recombination, defects and interfaces, thickness of (CZTS|CZTSe|CZTSSe) absorber layer, (CdS) buffer layer and transparent conductive oxide layer (ZnO) on the photovoltaic cell parameters were studied in detail. Improvements in efficiency were achieved by changing the back contact metal work function (BMWF) and choosing the flat band option in SCAPS software. Based on the best possible optimisation, an efficiency (?) of 12.03%, 13.16% and 15.77% were obtained for CZTS, CZTSe, and CZTSSe respectively. The performance of thin film photovoltaic devices (TFPV), for Mo back contact before optimisation and the SCAPS simulated values (flat band) after optimisation were described in detail to have in-depth understanding for better design of experiments (DOE) to obtain high efficiency solar cells.

  11. ZnO thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition, used as buffer layer in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thin films synthetized by chemical bath deposition are used as buffer layer between the anode and the organic electron donor in organic solar cells. Films deposited from zinc nitrate solutions are annealed in room air at 300 deg. C for half an hour. The X-ray diffraction and microanalysis studies show that ZnO polycrystalline thin films are obtained. The solar cells used are based on the couple copper phthalocyanine as electron donor and (N,N-diheptyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide-PTCDI-C7) as electron acceptor. It is shown that the presence of the ZnO buffer layer improves the energy conversion efficiency of the cells. Such improvement could be attributed to a better energy level alignment at the anode/electron donor interface. The anode roughness induced by the ZnO buffer layer can also transform the planar interface organic electron donor/electron acceptor into roughen topography. This increases the interface area, where carrier separation takes place, which improves solar cells performances.

  12. Electrochemical deposition of molybdenum sulfide thin films on conductive plastic substrates as platinum-free flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, pulsed electrochemical deposition (pulsed ECD) was used to deposit molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) thin films on indium tin oxide/polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) substrates as flexible counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphologies and elemental distributions of the prepared MoSx thin films were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The chemical states and crystallinities of the prepared MoSx thin films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The optical transmission (T (%)) properties of the prepared MoSx samples were determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel-polarization measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical properties and catalytic activities of the thin films for redox reactions. The FE-SEM results showed that the MoSx thin films were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PEN flexible substrates via the pulsed ECD method. The CV and Tafel-polarization curve measurements demonstrated that the deposited MoSx thin films exhibited excellent performances for the reduction of triiodide ions. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC produced with the pulsed ECD MoSx thin-film CE was examined by a solar simulator. In combination with a dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with the MoSx flexible CE showed a PCE of 4.39% under an illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm−2). Thus, we report that the MoSx thin films are active catalysts for triiodide reduction. The MoSx thin films are prepared at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and in a simple and rapid manner. This is an important practical contribution to the production of flexible low-cost thin-film CEs based on plastic substrates. The MoSx thin films produced by pulsed ECD are good candidates for catalysts in flexible DSSCs. - Highlights: • We used indium tin oxide/polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) as a substrate. • Molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) thin films were deposited on ITO/PEN. • We used electrochemical deposition to deposit MoSx thin films on ITO/PEN. • The MoSx/ITO/PEN was used as a flexible counter electrode (CE) for DSSCs. • The DSSC with MoSx/ITO/PEN CE showed a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.39%

  13. Enhancement of Conversion Efficiency of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Solar Cells by Improvement of Sulfurization Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Tatsuo; Tajima, Shin; Ito, Tadayoshi

    2013-06-01

    To enhance the conversion efficiency of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells prepared by the sulfurization method, we investigated the formation process of the CZTS thin film. The holding temperature of the sulfurization was 580 C. This study showed that the spreading resistance (SR) of the CZTS layer strongly depends on the holding time of the sulfurization. At the intermediate holding time (30 min), the SR of the CZTS layer came to a minimum, and the efficiency of the CZTS solar cell came to a maximum. A 7.6% efficiency CZTS solar cell without a high-resistance buffer layer and an antireflection coating was fabricated.

  14. Radial n-i-p structure SiNW-based microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on flexible stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiaobing; Zeng, Xiangbo; Yang, Ping; Li, Hao; Li, Jingyan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Qiming

    2012-01-01

    Radial n-i-p structure silicon nanowire (SiNW)-based microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on stainless steel foil was fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The SiNW solar cell displays very low optical reflectance (approximately 15% on average) over a broad range of wavelengths (400 to 1,100 nm). The initial SiNW-based microcrystalline (?c-Si:H) thin-film solar cell has an open-circuit voltage of 0.37 V, short-circuit current density of 13.36 mA/cm2, fill factor o...

  15. Solution-processed highly efficient Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells by dissolution of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanchun; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Wangen; Tian, Qingwen; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2015-01-14

    Solution deposition approaches play an important role in reducing the manufacturing cost of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film solar cells. Here, we present a novel precursor-based solution approach to fabricate highly efficient CZTSe solar cells. In this approach, low-cost elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se powders were simultaneously dissolved in the solution of thioglycolic acid and ethanolamine, forming a homogeneous CZTSe precursor solution to deposit CZTSe nanocrystal thin films. Based on high-quality CZTSe absorber layer, pure selenide CZTSe solar cell with a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.02% has been achieved without antireflection coating. PMID:25494493

  16. Natural Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Three Layers of Photoelectrode Thin Films with a Schottky Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Chang; Mu-Jung Kao; Tien-Li Chen; Hin-Guo Kuo; Kun-Ching Choand; Xiu-Ping Lin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study combines Au nanoparticles with TiO2 nanoparticles to form a Schottky barrier and applies it to the photo electrode thin film of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). Approach: First, commercial TiO2 powder (Degussa P25) was put into the alkaline solution to prepare TiO nano tubes (Tnt) by a hydrothermal process. Tnt were sintered at 550 to obtain TntC550 particles and fabricated into a translucent sol by two hydrothermal treatments and ...

  17. Design of a wideband multilayer grating spectrometer for the study of electronic structure of thin-film CIS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft x-ray emission spectrometer equipped with a wideband Ni/C multilayer-coated laminar-type varied-line-spacing holographic grating is designed to analyze the electronic structure in thin-film copper indium selenide (CIS) solar cells nondestructively by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. The spectrometer equipped with the multilayer grating thus designed allows us to detect the L emission lines of Cu, In, and Se simultaneously from a CIS absorber layer in the 13.5 keV range at a constant angle of incidence. (author)

  18. Rapid Thermal Annealing and Hydrogen Passivation of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Low-Temperature Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Armin G. Aberle; Daniel Inns; Mason L. Terry

    2007-01-01

    The changes in open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of aLuminum induced crystallization, ion-assisted deposition (ALICIA) polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on low-temperature glass substrates due to rapid thermal anneal (RTA) treatment and subsequent remote microwave hydrogen plasma passivation (hydrogenation) are examined. Voc improvements from 130 mV to 430 mV, Jsc improvements from 1.2 mA/c...

  19. ZnO nanorod arrays for highly efficient thin film a-Si and micromorph solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neykova, Neda; Hruka, Karel; Reme, Zden?k; Van??ek, Milan

    Roma : University of Roma Tor Vergata, 2012 - (DE Crescenzi, M.). s. 75-75 [International Conference on NANO-structures self - assembly - NANOSEA 2012 /4./. 25.06.2012-29.06.2012, S. Margherita di Pula - Sardinie] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP108/11/0937 Grant ostatn: FP7(XE) CP-IP 214134-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ZnO nanocolumns * thin film solar cells * EBL Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  20. Fabrication of Thin-Film Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Silane-Gas-Free Process Using Aluminum-Induced Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tadashi; Fukushima, Hideoki; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2003-04-01

    The authors have proposed a silane-gas-free fabrication process for thin-film polycrystalline Si solar cells. The process includes formation of a polycrystalline Si seed layer by aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC), crystallization of a Si film formed by physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques for a base layer, aluminum diffusion from the AIC-grown Si (AIC-Si) layer to the base layer and pn-junction formation by the spin-on-glass technique. The crystal grains grew to a size of 20 ?m in diameter through crystallization of the electron-beam-evaporated Si film on the AIC-Si layer, and the carrier lifetime was about 0.6 ?s. In the solar cell fabricated by this process, the AIC-Si layer acts as a back-surface-field (BSF) layer, and the energy band is also inclined in its base layer so that the minority carriers can be pushed back to the depletion layer. These features indicate the possibility of fabricating low-cost and high-efficiency thin-film polycrystalline Si solar cells. The issues that must be pursued to realize high efficiency are reduction of oxygen atom inclusions during Si film deposition, passivation of the grain boundaries and development of a deposition technique for Si films having intermediate packing densities between those of electron-beam-evaporated films and sputter-deposited films, to prevent crack formation when the Si films are crystallized.

  1. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance.

  2. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440?h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40??40?mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance. PMID:26631493

  3. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Ulrich W., E-mail: u.paetzold@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Meier, Matthias, E-mail: ma.meier@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Moulin, Etienne, E-mail: e.moulin@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Smirnov, Vladimir, E-mail: v.smirnov@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Pieters, Bart E., E-mail: b.pieters@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Rau, Uwe, E-mail: u.rau@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Carius, Reinhard, E-mail: r.carius@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The lightmatter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type ?c-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells.

  4. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The lightmatter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type ?c-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells

  5. Absorptive carbon nanotube electrodes: consequences of optical interference loss in thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jeffrey G; De Volder, Michaël F L; Cheyns, David; Heremans, Paul; Rand, Barry P

    2015-04-28

    A current bottleneck in the thin film photovoltaic field is the fabrication of low cost electrodes. We demonstrate ultrasonically spray coated multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) layers as opaque and absorptive metal-free electrodes deposited at low temperatures and free of post-deposition treatment. The electrodes show sheet resistance as low as 3.4 Ω □(-1), comparable to evaporated metallic contacts deposited in vacuum. Organic photovoltaic devices were optically simulated, showing comparable photocurrent generation between reflective metal and absorptive CNT electrodes for photoactive layer thickness larger than 600 nm when using archetypal poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) : (6,6)-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) cells. Fabricated devices clearly show that the absorptive CNT electrodes display comparable performance to solution processed and spray coated Ag nanoparticle devices. Additionally, other candidate absorber materials for thin film photovoltaics were simulated with absorptive contacts, elucidating device design in the absence of optical interference and reflection. PMID:25811493

  6. Theoretical study of quaternary compounds as thin-film solar cell absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Design of chalcogenide photovoltaic absorbers is carried out systematically through sequential cation mutation, from binary to ternary to quaternary compounds, using first-principles electronic structure calculations. Several universal trends are found for the ternary and two classes of quaternary chalcogenides. For example, the lowest-energy structure always has larger lattice constant a, smaller tetragonal distortion parameter ?=c/2a, and larger band gap than the metastable structures for common-row cation mutations. The band gap is reduced during the mutation. The band gap decreases from binary II-VI to ternary I-III-VI2 are mostly due to the p-d repulsion in the valence band, the decreases from ternary I-III-VI2 to quaternary I2-II-IV-VI4 chalcogenides are due to the downshift in the conduction band caused by the wavefunction localization on the group IV cation site. It was found that I2-II-IV-VI4 compounds are more stable in the kesterite structure, whereas the widely-assumed stannite structure reported in the literature is most likely due to partial disorder in the I-II layer of the kesterite phase. Among the derived quaternary compounds, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is one of the ideal candidate absorber materials for thin-film solar cells with an optimal band gap, high absorption coefficient, abundant elemental components, and is adaptable to various growth techniques. It was performed a series of first-principles electronic structure calculations for CZTS. Also it was found that in the ground state kesterite structure, (i) the chemical potential region that CZTS can form is very small. Therefore, it will be very difficult to obtain high quality stoichiometric CZTS samples; (ii) The dominant p-type acceptor in CZTS is CuZn, however, the associated acceptor level is relatively high, suggesting that p-type doping in CZTS is more difficult than ternary compounds such as CuInSe2; (iii) The formation of the self-compensated defect pair [CuZn+ZnCu] will not lead to a strong carrier separation, and thus will not contribute the same beneficial effect observed in ternary chalcopyrite compounds; (iv) We predict that to avoid the aforementioned issues in (ii) and (iii), it will be optimal to grow the sample under Cu-poor/Zn-rich conditions, so VCu and ZnCu become the dominant defects in the system. However, in this case, non-equilibrium growth techniques may be required to avoid the formation of secondary phases. All predictions will be compared with available experiments

  7. Nanoimprinted backside reflectors for a-Si:H thin-film solar cells: critical role of absorber front textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yao-Chung; Fisker, Christian; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2014-05-01

    The development of optimal backside reflectors (BSRs) is crucial for future low cost and high efficiency silicon (Si) thin-film solar cells. In this work, nanostructured polymer substrates with aluminum coatings intended as BSRs were produced by positive and negative nanoimprint lithography (NIL) techniques, and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was deposited hereon as absorbing layers. The relationship between optical properties and geometry of front textures was studied by combining experimental reflectance spectra and theoretical simulations. It was found that a significant height variation on front textures plays a critical role for light-trapping enhancement in solar cell applications. As a part of sample preparation, a transfer NIL process was developed to overcome the problem of low heat deflection temperature of polymer substrates during solar cell fabrication. PMID:24922373

  8. Severe test of a dangling bond only model of thin film silicon p-i-n solar cell degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses a model that links previous research into the metastable defects found in undoped thin film Si:H or a-Si:H (TFS) films to the light-induced degradation of TFS solar cells. The fill factor changes of two experimental studies are modeled. The first series is a group of 704, 4-cm2 p-i-n solar cells with eleven different i-layer thicknesses ranging from 1000A to 200,000A. The second series is a group of 144, 4-cm2 p-i-n solar cells all made in the same deposition and then exposed under different illumination levels and temperatures. The dangling bond model is shown to be an incomplete explanation of the fill factor changes due to light soaking. Data for the short time region and long time region cannot both be fit with the same parameters

  9. UV micro-imprint patterning for tunable light trapping in p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xiaodan; Han, Bing; Bai, Lisha; Zhao, Huixu; Yang, Fu; Liang, Junhui; Huang, Qian; Chen, Xinliang; Zhao, Ying

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we used UV micro-imprint lithography periodic patterning combined with self-textured BZO films with a wide range of texture distributions for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. It was found that the feature size of the periodic textures has a significant influence on the light trapping capacity of the glass substrate and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon solar cells, deposited on periodic textures of 5 ?m, showed an improved photocurrent density without any loss in the open-circuit voltage and fill factor; hence, resulting in an overall efficiency increase of 6.28%.

  10. Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited culnSe2 thin films for photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical an structural properties of electrodeposited copper indium diselenide, CulnSe2, thin films were studied for its application in photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that thin films were grown in chalcopyrite phase after suitable treatments. Values of Eg for the CulnSe2 thin films showed a dependence on the deposition potential as determined by optical measurements. (Author) 47 refs

  11. Thin-Film Solar Array Earth Orbit Mission Applicability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2002-10-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the applicability and spacecraft-level impact of using very lightweight thin-film solar arrays with relatively large deployed areas for representative Earth orbiting missions. The most and least attractive features of thin-film solar arrays are briefly discussed. A simple calculation is then presented illustrating that from a solar array alone mass perspective, larger arrays with less efficient but lighter thin-film solar cells can weigh less than smaller arrays with more efficient but heavier crystalline cells. However, a proper spacecraft-level systems assessment must take into account the additional mass associated with solar array deployed area: the propellant needed to desaturate the momentum accumulated from area-related disturbance torques and to perform aerodynamic drag makeup reboost. The results for such an assessment are presented for a representative low Earth orbit (LEO) mission, as a function of altitude and mission life, and a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) mission. Discussion of the results includes a list of specific mission types most likely to benefit from using thin-film arrays. NASA Glenn's low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is also briefly discussed to provide a perspective on one approach to achieving this enabling technology. The paper concludes with a list of issues to be addressed prior to use of thin-film solar arrays in space and the observation that with their unique characteristics, very lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become the best array option for a subset of Earth orbiting missions.

  12. Silicon nitride and intrinsic amorphous silicon double antireflection coatings for thin-film solar cells on foreign substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was investigated as a surface passivation method for crystalline silicon thin film solar cells on graphite substrates. The results of the experiments, including quantum efficiency and current density-voltage measurements, show improvements in cell performance. This improvement is due to surface passivation by an a-Si:H(i) layer, which increases the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. In comparison with our previous work, we have achieved an increase of 0.6% absolute cell efficiency for a 40 μm thick 4 cm2 aperture area on the graphite substrate. The optical properties of the SiNx/a-Si:H(i) stack were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. Scanning transmission electron microscopy inside a scanning electron microscope was applied to characterize the cross section of the SiNx/a-Si:H(i) stack using focus ion beam preparation. - Highlights: • We report a 10.8% efficiency for thin-film silicon solar cell on graphite. • Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon was applied for surface passivation. • SiNx/a-Si:H(i) stacks were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. • Cross-section micrograph was obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy. • Quantum efficiency and J-V measurements show improvements in the cell performance

  13. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Solar Array Parametric Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Jacobs, Mark K.; Ponnusamy, Deva

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study that had the objective to develop a model and parametrically determine the circumstances for which lightweight thin-film photovoltaic solar arrays would be more beneficial, in terms of mass and cost, than arrays using high-efficiency crystalline solar cells. Previous studies considering arrays with near-term thin-film technology for Earth orbiting applications are briefly reviewed. The present study uses a parametric approach that evaluated the performance of lightweight thin-film arrays with cell efficiencies ranging from 5 to 20 percent. The model developed for this study is described in some detail. Similar mass and cost trends for each array option were found across eight missions of various power levels in locations ranging from Venus to Jupiter. The results for one specific mission, a main belt asteroid tour, indicate that only moderate thin-film cell efficiency (approx. 12 percent) is necessary to match the mass of arrays using crystalline cells with much greater efficiency (35 percent multi-junction GaAs based and 20 percent thin-silicon). Regarding cost, a 12 percent efficient thin-film array is projected to cost about half is much as a 4-junction GaAs array. While efficiency improvements beyond 12 percent did not significantly further improve the mass and cost benefits for thin-film arrays, higher efficiency will be needed to mitigate the spacecraft-level impacts associated with large deployed array areas. A low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is briefly described. The paper concludes with the observation that with the characteristics assumed for this study, ultra-lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become a leading alternative for a wide variety of space missions.

  14. Ecofriendly and Nonvacuum Electrostatic Spray-Assisted Vapor Deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Anower; Wang, Mingqing; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2015-10-14

    Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin films have been deposited by a novel, nonvacuum, and cost-effective electrostatic spray-assisted vapor deposition (ESAVD) method. The generation of a fine aerosol of precursor solution, and their controlled deposition onto a molybdenum substrate, results in adherent, dense, and uniform Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) films. This is an essential tool to keep the interfacial area of thin film solar cells to a minimum value for efficient charge separation as it helps to achieve the desired surface smoothness uniformity for subsequent cadmium sulfide and window layer deposition. This nonvacuum aerosol based approach for making the CIGSSe film uses environmentally benign precursor solution, and it is cheaper for producing solar cells than that of the vacuum-based thin film solar technology. An optimized CIGSSe thin film solar cell with a device configuration of molybdenum-coated soda-lime glass substrate/CIGSSe/CdS/i-ZnO/AZO shows the photovoltaic (j-V) characteristics of Voc=0.518 V, jsc=28.79 mA cm(-2), fill factor=64.02%, and a promising power conversion efficiency of η=9.55% under simulated AM 1.5 100 mW cm(-2) illuminations, without the use of an antireflection layer. This demonstrates the potential of ESAVD deposition as a promising alternative approach for making thin film CIGSSe solar cells at a lower cost. PMID:26390182

  15. A glass thinning and texturing method for light incoupling in thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Hongtao; Campbell, Patrick R. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, UNSW, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    For polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film solar cells on {proportional_to}3 mm borosilicate glass, glass thinning reduces the glass absorption and light leaking to neighbouring cells; the glass texturing of the sun-facing side suppresses reflection. In this Letter, a labour-free wet etching method is developed to texture and thin the glass at the same time in contrast to conventionally separated labour-intensive glass thinning and texturing processes. For 2 cm{sup 2} size poly-Si thin-film solar cells on glass superstrate, this wet etching successfully thins down the glass from 3 mm to 0.5 mm to check the ultimate benefit of the process and introduces a large micron texture on the sun-facing glass surface. The process enhances J{sub sc} by 6.3% on average, with the optimal J{sub sc} enhancement of 8%, better than the value of 4.6% found in the literature. This process also reduces the loss in external quantum efficiency (EQE loss), which is due to light leaking to neighbouring cells, dramatically. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Analysis of radiation resistance of InGaP/GaAs dual-junction thin-film space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-film III-V multi-junction solar cells can realize the advantages of being high-efficiency and light-weight, as such these cells meets the requirement for higher specific power and lower stowage volume solar panels. Here we report the development results of an InGaP/GaAs thin-film dual-junction (TF2J) solar cell. In this paper, we study the radiation resistance of the TF2J cells with efficiency of 20-23% under AM0.1 sun at 25degC. The cells were subjected to proton irradiation with an energy range of 100keV-10MeV. The results were compared with the radiation resistance of a conventional InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction (3J) cell. In the proton energy range of 200-400keV, radiation resistance of the TF2J cell is superior to that of the 3J cell. Particularly, the 1sc of the TF2J cell is significantly higher than that of the 3J cell after exposure to 380keV protons, which results in higher remaining factor of Pmax for the TF2J cell. In additions, Voc of the cells after the irradiations are almost equivalent, even though the TF2J cell is a dual-junction structure. The higher 1sc of the TF2J cell after irradiation is due to higher radiation resistance of the GaAs subcell according to the comparison of the spectral response. (author)

  17. Electrodeposited ZnS Precursor Layer with Improved Electrooptical Properties for Efficient Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkawi, E. M.; Ibrahim, K.; Ali, M. K. M.; Farrukh, M. A.; Mohamed, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were prepared on indium tin oxide-coated glass by electrodeposition using aqueous zinc sulfate, thiourea, and ammonia solutions at 80C. The effects of sulfurization at temperatures of 350C, 400C, 450C, and 500C on the morphological, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the ZnS thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the ZnS thin films exhibited cubic zincblende structure with preferred (111) orientation. The film crystallization improved with increasing annealing temperature. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the film morphology became more compact and uniform with increasing annealing temperature. The percentage of sulfur in the ZnS thin films increased after sulfurization until a stoichiometric S/Zn ratio was achieved at 500C. The annealed films showed good adhesion to the glass substrates, with moderate transmittance (85%) in the visible region. Based on absorption measurements, the direct bandgap increased from 3.71 eV to 3.79 eV with annealing temperature, which is attributed to the change of the buffer material composition and suitable crystal surface properties for effective p- n junction formation. The ZnS thin films were used as a buffer layer in thin-film solar cells with the structure of soda-lime glass/Mo/Cu2ZnSnS4/ZnS/ZnO/Al grid. The best solar cell efficiency was 1.86%.

  18. Multilayer nanoparticle arrays for broad spectrum absorption enhancement in thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Aravind; Krishna, Siva Rama; Khan, Mohammed Zafar Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the absorption efficiency enhancement of a thin film amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic cell over a broad spectrum of wavelengths using multiple nanoparticle arrays. The light absorption efficiency is enhanced in the lower wavelengths by a nanoparticle array on the surface and in the higher wavelengths by another nanoparticle array embedded in the active region. The efficiency at intermediate wavelengths is enhanced by the constructive interference of plasmon coupled light. We optimize this design by tuning the radius of particles in both arrays, the period of the array and the distance between the two arrays. The optimization results in 61.44% increase in total quantum efficiency for a 500 nm thick a-Si substrate.

  19. Polymer assisted solution processing of Ti-doped indium oxide transparent conducting thin films for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Polymer assisted solution process. • Ti-doped indium oxide (TIO) transparent conducting films. • Replacement of sputtered ITO with polymer-assisted-solution-coated TIO films. • High mobility transparent conducting films. • Application of polymer-assisted-solution-coated TIO films to organic solar cells. - Abstract: We report the preparation and evaluation of Ti-doped indium oxide (TIO) transparent conducting films by a polymer-assisted solution (PAS) process, as well as the evaluation of this type of film as a transparent cathode in an inverted organic solar cell (IOCS). Both Ti- and In-PASs have been synthesized by coordinating Ti- and In-anionic complexes with polyethyleneimine. The final TIO–PAS was formed by mixing Ti-PAS into In-PAS with a Ti concentration between 1 at.% and 7 at.%. The TIO–PAS was spin-coated onto glass substrates to form uniform thin films of Ti-doped indium oxide, which were then annealed at high temperature. The optimum Ti concentration to achieve the best electrical and optical properties of PAS–TIO films was found to be 3 at.%. With the film thickness of 650 nm, PAS–TIO films had a sheet resistance of 65 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance greater than 85%. The feasibility of PAS-coated TIO thin film as a transparent electrode was evaluated by applying it to the fabrication of IOSCs, which showed the energy conversion efficiency of 4.60%

  20. Evaluation ofelectrical and optical characteristics of ZnO/CdS/CIS thin film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Zarei; Rasoul, Malekfar

    2016-02-01

    In this study, device modeling and simulation are conducted to explain the effects of each layer thickness and temperature on the performance of ZnO/CdS/CIS thin film solar cells. Also, the thicknesses of the CIS and CdS absorber layers are considered in this work theoretically and experimentally. The calculations of solar cell performances are based on the solutions of the well-known three coupling equations: the continuity equation for holes and electrons and the Poisson equation. Our simulated results show that the efficiency increases by reducing the CdS thickness. Increasing the CIS thickness can increase the efficiency but it needs more materials. The efficiency is more than 19% for a CIS layer with a thickness of 2 ?m. CIS nanoparticles are prepared via the polyol route and purified through centrifugation and precipitation processes. Then nanoparticles are dispersed to obtain stable inks that could be directly used for thin-film deposition via spin coating. We also obtain x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensities and absorption spectra for CIS experimentally. Finally, absorption spectra for the CdS window layer in several deposition times are investigated experimentally.

  1. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  2. Non-toxic and environmentally friendly route for preparation of copper indium sulfide based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Substrate structure of spray pyrolyzed CuInS2/In2S3 heterojunction solar cells. Low cost and environmentally friendly fabrication of CuInS2 based solar cells. Low RF power deposition of TCO layer. AZOAgAZO sandwich structure. Effect of the thickness of buffer layer on the photovoltaic performance. - Abstract: In this study, copper based thin film solar cells with substrate structure have been built via spray pyrolysis method. Toxic material usage was avoided during the material deposition and the post-treatment steps. Novel device configuration of Mo/CuInS2/In2S3/ZnO/AZOAgAZO was studied as a function of the In2S3 buffer layer thickness. In order to utilize the zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductive layers, deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD), on top of the spray pyrolyzed thin films, the RF power was lowered to 30 W. Although this minimized the unwanted penetration of the highly energetic particles, created during PVD process, sheet resistivity of the AZO films increased enormously. Hence very thin silver layer has been deposited between two AZO films. This resulted the decrease in the sheet resistivity more than 106 times. Electrical measurements under illumination revealed that short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (?) of the Mo/CuInS2/In2S3/ZnO/AZOAgAZO type solar cells increased with increasing the thickness of the In2S3 layer. The maximum Jsc of 9.20 mA/cm2, Voc of 0.43 V, FF of 0.44 have been observed for the 0.94 ?m-thick In2S3 layer. Extraordinarily thick buffer layer provided better diffusion barrier between the absorber and the TCO layers and also resulted better photosensitivity. These could be the key factors to produce substrate configuration of the spray pyrolyzed thin film solar cells

  3. Enhanced photovoltaic performances of graphene/Si solar cells by insertion of a MoS? thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Yuka; Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Funahashi, Kazuma; Mouri, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Takenobu, Taishi; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-09-14

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides exhibit great potential as active materials in optoelectronic devices because of their characteristic band structure. Here, we demonstrated that the photovoltaic performances of graphene/Si Schottky junction solar cells were significantly improved by inserting a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown, large MoS2 thin-film layer. This layer functions as an effective electron-blocking/hole-transporting layer. We also demonstrated that the photovoltaic properties are enhanced with the increasing number of graphene layers and the decreasing thickness of the MoS2 layer. A high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 11.1% was achieved with the optimized trilayer-graphene/MoS2/n-Si solar cell. PMID:26257026

  4. Optimized Packing Density of Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-injection for Thin Film Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jrgen

    The absorbing kesterite material, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTS), is very promising for future thin film solar cells. The material is non-toxic, the elements abundant, and it has a high absorption coefficient. These properties make CZTS a potential candidate also for large-scale applications. Here...... amount of ligands necessary to stabilize the particles in solution. Today, CZTS nanoparticles synthesized through the so-called hot-injection method vary between 2 nm and 60 nm in diameter. In our group, we have synthesized particles larger than 200 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allows us to...... TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as other surface characterization techniques. A photovoltaic device of the structure soda lime glass (SLG)/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO is built, and the power conversion efficiency will be determined. Our first CZTS solar cell made from doctor blading of approx...

  5. Fabrication of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films using oxides nanoparticles ink for solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Yuan, Chenchen; Liu, Jiwan; Huang, Zhigao; Chen, Shuiyuan; Liu, Weifeng; Jiang, Guoshun; Zhu, Changfei

    2015-02-01

    Oxides nanoparticles-based process is one of the successful approaches to CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) formation. To explore systematically the possibility of application of the similar methods to high quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), an oxides nanoparticles-based process for preparation of CZTS films is described. The CZTS films are prepared by sulfurizing oxides precursor. Thermodynamic appreciation of sulfurization of oxides precursor is first studied. The development of the CZTS formation with increasing temperature is also investigated. Through optimizing the sulfurization, phase-pure CZTS films with very large grains are obtained. The loss of tin can be avoided, due to the stability of oxides. Finally, preliminary CZTS thin-film solar cells with efficiencies of 1.47% have been fabricated. This study provides basis for low-cost and large area CZTS solar cells.

  6. Easily accessible polymer additives for tuning the crystal-growth of perovskite thin-films for highly efficient solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qingqing; Wang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Kaicheng; Yu, Hao; Huang, Peng; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Ning; Song, Bo

    2016-03-01

    For perovskite solar cells (Pero-SCs), one of the key issues with respect to the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is the morphology control of the perovskite thin-films. In this study, an easily-accessible additive polyethylenimine (PEI) is utilized to tune the morphology of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. With addition of 1.00 wt% of PEI, the smoothness and crystallinity of the perovskite were greatly improved, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A summit PCE of 14.07% was achieved for the p-i-n type Pero-SC, indicating a 26% increase compared to those of the devices without the additive. Both photoluminescence (PL) and alternating current impedance spectroscopy (ACIS) analyses confirm the efficiency results after the addition of PEI. This study provides a low-cost polymer additive candidate for tuning the morphology of perovskite thin-films, and might be a new clue for the mass production of Pero-SCs.For perovskite solar cells (Pero-SCs), one of the key issues with respect to the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is the morphology control of the perovskite thin-films. In this study, an easily-accessible additive polyethylenimine (PEI) is utilized to tune the morphology of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. With addition of 1.00 wt% of PEI, the smoothness and crystallinity of the perovskite were greatly improved, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A summit PCE of 14.07% was achieved for the p-i-n type Pero-SC, indicating a 26% increase compared to those of the devices without the additive. Both photoluminescence (PL) and alternating current impedance spectroscopy (ACIS) analyses confirm the efficiency results after the addition of PEI. This study provides a low-cost polymer additive candidate for tuning the morphology of perovskite thin-films, and might be a new clue for the mass production of Pero-SCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: J-V curves & characteristics of Pero-SCs, UV-vis spectra and AFM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00206d

  7. Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid Thin-Film Solar Cells: A Survey of Enabling Technologies for Space Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Dickman, John E.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Anctil, Annick; DiLeo, Roberta; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Lee, Chung-Young; Friske, Theresa J.; Sun, Sam-S.; Zhang, Cheng; Choi, S.; Ledbetter, Abram; Seo, Kang; Bonner, Carl E.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Rauh, David

    2007-01-01

    The development of hybrid inorganic/organic thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified, durable substrates provides an attractive solution for fabricating solar arrays with high mass specific power (W/kg). Next generation thin-film technologies may well involve a revolutionary change in materials to organic-based devices. The high-volume, low-cost fabrication potential of organic cells will allow for square miles of solar cell production at one-tenth the cost of conventional inorganic materials. Plastic solar cells take a minimum of storage space and can be inflated or unrolled for deployment. We will explore a cross-section of in-house and sponsored research efforts that aim to provide new hybrid technologies that include both inorganic and polymer materials as active and substrate materials. Research at University of Texas at Arlington focuses on the fabrication and use of poly(isothianaphthene-3,6-diyl) in solar cells. We describe efforts at Norfolk State University to design, synthesize and characterize block copolymers. A collaborative team between EIC Laboratories, Inc. and the University of Florida is investigating multijunction polymer solar cells to more effectively utilize solar radiation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) group has undertaken a thermal analysis of potential metallized substrates as well as production of nanoparticles of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 in good yield at moderate temperatures via decomposition of single-source precursors. Finally, preliminary work at the Rochester Institute of Technology (R.I.T.) to assess the impact on performance of solar cells of temperature and carbon nanotubes is reported. Technologies that must be developed to enable ultra-lightweight solar arrays include: monolithic interconnects, lightweight array structures, and new ultra-light support and deployment mechanisms. For NASA applications, any solar cell or array technology must not only meet weight and AMO efficiency goals, but also must be durable enough to survive launch conditions and space environments.

  8. Effect of load voltage on thin film cuprous sulfide: Cadmium sulfide solar cells thermally cycled in a simulated space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Thomas, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Thin-film Cu2S-CdS solar cells, loaded at various fixed values of load resistance, were thermally cycled for 1429 cycles in a simulated space environment. Cell performance was measured under controlled conditions in air before and after thermal cycling. These data were used to determine the effect of load voltage on cell performance. The performance of the cells was relatively independent of load voltage up to about 0.39 volt. This appears to be a threshold voltage, beyond which there was a significant loss in cell performance. Fortunately, this threshold voltage appears to be sufficiently higher than the maximum power voltage of 0.33 volt so that it can be avoided in most applications.

  9. Loss mechanisms influence on Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS-based thin film solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courel, Maykel; Andrade-Arvizu, J. A.; Vigil-Galn, O.

    2015-09-01

    One of the most important issues in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS)-based thin film solar cells is low open circuit voltage, which is mainly related to loss mechanisms that take place in both CZTS bulk material and CdS/CZTS interface. A device model for CZTS/CdS solar cell which takes into account loss mechanisms influence on solar cell performance is presented. The simulation results showed that our model is able to reproduce experimental observations reported for CZTS/CdS-based solar cells with the highest conversion efficiencies, measured under room temperature and AM1.5 intensity. The comparison of simulation results to experimental observations demonstrated that among the different loss mechanisms, trap-assisted tunneling losses are the major hurdle to boost open circuit voltage. Under this loss mechanism, a solar cell efficiency enhancement up to 10.2% with CdS donor concentration decrease was reached. Finally, the possible path toward a further solar cell efficiency improvement is discussed.

  10. Development of a rapid thermal annealing process for polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we discuss the influence of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the performance of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin-film solar cells on glass where the poly-Si layers are differently prepared. The first part presents a comprehensive study of RTA treatments on poly-Si thin-films made by solid phase crystallization (SPC) (standard material of CSG Solar AG, Thalheim). By varying both plateau temperature (up to 1050 deg. C) and duration (up to 1000 s) of the annealing profile, we determined the parameters for a maximum open-circuit voltage (VOC). In addition, we applied our standard plasma hydrogenation treatment in order to passivate the remaining intra-grain defects and grain boundaries by atomic hydrogen resulting in a further increase of VOC. We found, that the preceding RTA treatment increases the effect of hydrogenation already at comparable low RTA temperatures. The effect on hydrogenation increases significantly with RTA temperature. In a second step we investigated the effect of the RTA and hydrogenation on large-grained poly-Si films based on the epitaxial thickening of poly-Si seed layers.

  11. Development of natively textured surface hydrogenated Ga-doped ZnO-TCO thin films for solar cells via magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. ? The directly deposited HGZO thin films present rough crater-type surface morphology. ? Typical HGZO thin film exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm2/V s and a relative low sheet resistance of ?7.0 ?. ? These HGZO thin films have high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region (?3801100 nm). ? A gradient H2 growth method for fabricating HGZO thin films has been proposed in magnetron sputtering process. - Abstract: The main purposes are to obtain high quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high optical transparency in the visible and near infrared spectral range, high electrical conductivity and good light-scattering capability to enhance the path of the light inside the Si-based thin film solar cells. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped ZnO (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 553 K. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit high optical transmittance (over 80%) in the visible and near infrared region (? = 3801100 nm) and excellent electrical properties. The optimized HGZO thin film with crater-type textured surface obtained at the hydrogen flow rate of ?2.0 sccm exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm2/V s and a relatively low sheet resistance of ?7.0 ?. The influences of hydrogen flow rates on the surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of HGZO thin films were investigated in detail. In addition, we put forward a method of gradient H2 growth technique for fabricating HGZO thin films so as to obtain rough surface structure with good light-scattering capability and high electrical conductivity. Crater-like surface feature size and optical transmittance can be improved through gradient H2 growth technique.

  12. Optimization of processing and modeling issues for thin film solar cell devices: Final report, February 3, 1997--September 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.

    2000-02-28

    This final report describes results achieved under a 20-month NREL subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated to CuInSe{sub 2} and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for the development of viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development and improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  13. Thin-Film Solar Cells with InP Absorber Layers Directly Grown on Nonepitaxial Metal Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Maxwell

    2015-08-25

    The design and performance of solar cells based on InP grown by the nonepitaxial thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) growth technique is investigated. The cell structure consists of a Mo back contact, p-InP absorber layer, n-TiO2 electron selective contact, and indium tin oxide transparent top electrode. An ex situ p-doping process for TF-VLS grown InP is introduced. Properties of the cells such as optoelectronic uniformity and electrical behavior of grain boundaries are examined. The power conversion efficiency of first generation cells reaches 12.1% under simulated 1 sun illumination with open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 692 mV, short-circuit current (JSC) of 26.9 mA cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 65%. The FF of the cell is limited by the series resistances in the device, including the top contact, which can be mitigated in the future through device optimization. The highest measured VOC under 1 sun is 692 mV, which approaches the optically implied VOC of ≈795 mV extracted from the luminescence yield of p-InP. The design and performance of solar cells based on indium phosphide (InP) grown by the nonepitaxial thin-film vapor-liquid-solid growth technique is investigated. The cell structure consists of a Mo back contact, p-InP absorber layer, n-TiO2 electron selective contact, and an indium tin oxide transparent top electrode. The highest measured open circuit voltage (VOC) under 1 sun is 692 mV, which approaches the optically implied VOC of ≈795 mV extracted from the luminescence yield of p-InP.

  14. Photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated by anodizing method and spin coating and electrochemical impedance properties of DSSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Chih-Hao; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chien, Shu-Hua; Chou, Cheng-Yi

    2013-06-01

    The paper studies the photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by anodizing method, explores the structure and properties of the fabricated photoelectrode thin film, measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC, and finds the electrochemical impedance properties of DSSCs assembled by photoelectrode thin films in different thicknesses. Besides, in order to increase the specific surface area of nanotubes, this paper deposits TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) on the surface of titanium oxide nanotube (TNT). As shown in experimental results, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC fabricated by the study rises to 6.5% from the original 5.43% without TnB treatment, with an increase of photoelectric conversion efficiency by 19.7%. In addition, when the photoelectrode thin film is fabricated with mixture of TNTs and TNP in an optimal proportion of 2:8 and the photoelectrode thin film thickness is 15.5 ?m, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 7.4%, with an increase of 36.7% from the original photoelectric conversion efficiency at 5.43%. Besides, as found in the results of electrochemical impedance analysis, the DSSC with photoelectrode thin film thickness at 15.5 ?m has the lowest charge-conduction resistance (Rk) value 9.276 ? of recombined electron and conduction resistance (Rw) value 3.25 ? of electrons in TiO2.

  15. Photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated by anodizing method and spin coating and electrochemical impedance properties of DSSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies the photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by anodizing method, explores the structure and properties of the fabricated photoelectrode thin film, measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC, and finds the electrochemical impedance properties of DSSCs assembled by photoelectrode thin films in different thicknesses. Besides, in order to increase the specific surface area of nanotubes, this paper deposits TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) on the surface of titanium oxide nanotube (TNT). As shown in experimental results, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC fabricated by the study rises to 6.5% from the original 5.43% without TnB treatment, with an increase of photoelectric conversion efficiency by 19.7%. In addition, when the photoelectrode thin film is fabricated with mixture of TNTs and TNP in an optimal proportion of 2:8 and the photoelectrode thin film thickness is 15.5 μm, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 7.4%, with an increase of 36.7% from the original photoelectric conversion efficiency at 5.43%. Besides, as found in the results of electrochemical impedance analysis, the DSSC with photoelectrode thin film thickness at 15.5 μm has the lowest charge-conduction resistance (Rk) value 9.276 Ω of recombined electron and conduction resistance (Rw) value 3.25 Ω of electrons in TiO2.

  16. Photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated by anodizing method and spin coating and electrochemical impedance properties of DSSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho, E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Manufacturing Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Hao [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10419, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Kao, Mu-Jung [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chien, Shu-Hua [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chou, Cheng-Yi [Graduate Institute of Manufacturing Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-15

    The paper studies the photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by anodizing method, explores the structure and properties of the fabricated photoelectrode thin film, measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC, and finds the electrochemical impedance properties of DSSCs assembled by photoelectrode thin films in different thicknesses. Besides, in order to increase the specific surface area of nanotubes, this paper deposits TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (TNP) on the surface of titanium oxide nanotube (TNT). As shown in experimental results, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC fabricated by the study rises to 6.5% from the original 5.43% without TnB treatment, with an increase of photoelectric conversion efficiency by 19.7%. In addition, when the photoelectrode thin film is fabricated with mixture of TNTs and TNP in an optimal proportion of 2:8 and the photoelectrode thin film thickness is 15.5 μm, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 7.4%, with an increase of 36.7% from the original photoelectric conversion efficiency at 5.43%. Besides, as found in the results of electrochemical impedance analysis, the DSSC with photoelectrode thin film thickness at 15.5 μm has the lowest charge-conduction resistance (R{sub k}) value 9.276 Ω of recombined electron and conduction resistance (R{sub w}) value 3.25 Ω of electrons in TiO{sub 2}.

  17. CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 2 Uppsala University Final report 2006-01-01 - 2007-06-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edoff, Marika (Thin Film Solar Cell group, Dep. Technical Sciences, Uppsala Univ., P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)) (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 2 has been going on for 18,5 months and was interrupted in advance on the 14th of June, 2007. The decision to shorten the period was taken by the board of the Swedish Energy Agency the 14th of February. It was decided to reevaluate and re-direct the financial support to the group. A new project, CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 3, superseded this project and will go on for the initially planned project period (until 2009-12-31). During the project much of the focus has been on research on Cd-free buffer layers, with an emphasis on the interface properties between the CIGS and the buffer layer. (CIGS is a commonly used acronym for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}, which is the active absorption layer in this type of solar cells) The combination of high quality CIGS and the new buffer layers has been another field of interest. CIGS solar cell module development and computer modelling of solar cells and modules has been the third major research area. The results show that the group still holds a position as one of the leaders in the world in this field. The 18.5 % efficient Cd-free solar cell, which was obtained and independently confirmed is only one percent away from the world record and in addition it is Cd-free using a Zn(O,S) buffer layer (the world record from NREL contains Cd). By alloying ZnO with MgO instead of ZnS almost equally good results can be achieved. During the last half year an 18.1 % cell has been measured with a (Zn,Mg)O buffer layer. Solar cell module technology includes several research issues, both fundamental as e.g. modelling of cell voltage and losses as a function of distance from interconnect to interconnect, but also more development as e.g. encapsulation routines. The harsh environment test (damp heat test) run at 85 deg C and 85 % relative humidity for 1000 hours was passed for both a small (12.5x12.5 cm2) and a large (27.5x30 cm2) module within the degradation limits stated by the IEC standards, using an edge seal technology

  18. New diarylmethanofullerene derivatives and their properties for organic thin-film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sukeguchi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of diarylmethanofullerene derivatives were synthesized. The cyclopropane ring of the derivatives has two aryl groups substituted with electron-withdrawing and -donating groups, the latter with long alkyl chains to improve solubility in organic solvents, an important property in processing cells. First reduction potentials of most derivatives were less negative than that of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, which is possibly ascribed to their electron-withdrawing nature. Organic thin-film photovoltaic cells fabricated with poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT as the electron-donor and diarylmethanofullerene derivatives as the electron-acceptor material were examined. The {(methoxycarbonylphenyl[bis(octyloxyphenyl]methano}fullerene showed power conversion efficiency as high as PCBM, but had higher solubility in a variety of organic solvents than PCBM. The Voc value was higher than that of PCBM, which is derived from the electron-donating (octyloxyphenyl group, possibly raising the LUMO level. Photovoltaic effects of the devices fabricated with the derivatives having some electron-withdrawing groups were also examined.

  19. Development of thin film space solar cells with multi-junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present and future state of research and development in JAXA are introduced on the downsizing and weight reduction of solar panels. The circumstance of development, special feature and efficiency in the latest solar cells are explained. Further, its radiation resistance is shown by comparison with the three-junction solar cells used at present. (M.H.)

  20. Determination of optical and mechanical properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films for solar cells application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, M. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroc?aw (Poland); Szyma?ska, M., E-mail: magdalena.szymanska@its.waw.pl [Centre for Material Testing and Mechatronics, Motor Transport Institute, Jagiellonska 80, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, Warsaw (Poland); Kaczmarek, D. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroc?aw (Poland); Kalisz, M. [Centre for Material Testing and Mechatronics, Motor Transport Institute, Jagiellonska 80, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, Warsaw (Poland); Wojcieszak, D.; Domaradzki, J. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroc?aw (Poland); Placido, F. [University of the West of Scotland, High Street, Paisley, PA1 2BE, and SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: Niobium pentoxide films were prepared by microwave assisted magnetron sputtering. Optical and mechanical properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were investigated. The surface of thin films was homogenous, crack free and exhibited low RMS roughness. Prepared Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings were well transparent from ca., 350 nm. Hardness of deposited coatings was ca., 7 GPa. - Abstract: In this paper investigation results of niobium pentoxide thin films deposited by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process were described. Surface of prepared coatings was examined with the aid of atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in the contact-mode and in ultra high vacuum conditions. The surface of thin films was homogenous, crack free and exhibit low root mean square (RMS) roughness of about 0.34 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies were performed to determine the chemical states of the niobium at the surface of thin films. Contact angle and surface free energy were additionally investigated to examine the surface properties of the deposited coatings. Optical properties of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films showed, that prepared coatings were well transparent from 350 nm to longer wavelength range. Based on transmission and reflection measurements the values of refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The antireflective coating based on Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films for solar cells application was proposed. The hardness and Young's modulus measurements were performed by the nanoindentation technique. These investigations revealed that the hardness of the deposited coatings was ca., 7 GPa. Also scratch tests were applied, which have shown that the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were scratch resistant.

  1. Enhanced electrical properties at boundaries including twin boundaries of polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Liu, X X; Lin, Y S; Yang, B; Du, Z M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of grain boundaries (GBs), in particular twin boundaries (TBs), on CdTe polycrystalline thin films is studied by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), electron-beam-induced current (EBIC), scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Four types of CdTe grains with various densities of {111} ?3 twin boundaries (TBs) are found in Cl-treated CdTe polycrystalline thin films: (1) grains having multiple {111} ?3 TBs with a low angle to the film surface; (2) grains having multiple {111} ?3 TBs parallel to the film surfaces; (3) small grains on a scale of not more than 500 nm, composed of Cd, Cl, Te, and O; and (4) CdTe grains with not more than two {111} ?3 TBs. Grain boundaries (including TBs) exhibit enhanced current transport phenomena. However, the {111} ?3 TB is much more beneficial to micro-current transport. The enhanced current transport can be explained by the lower electron potential at GBs (including TBs) than the grain interiors (GIs). Our results open new opportunities for enhancing solar cell performances by controlling the grain boundaries, and in particular TBs. PMID:25857742

  2. Effect of fluorine plasma treatment with chemically reduced graphene oxide thin films as hole transport layer in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inorganic materials such as V2O5, MoO3 and WO3 were investigated to replace PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer (HTL) in organic electronic devices such as organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic lighting emission diodes. However, these methods require vacuum techniques that are long time process and complex. Here, we report about plasma treatment with SF6 and CF4 using reactive ion etching on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films that are obtained using an eco-friendly method with vitamin C. The plasma treated rGO thin films have dipoles since they consist of covalent bonds with fluorine on the surface of rGO. This means it is possible to increase the electrostatic potential energy than bare rGO. Increased potential energy on the surface of rGO films is worth applying organic electronic devices as HTL such as OSCs. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency of OSCs increased more than the rGO films without plasma treatment.

  3. Effect of fluorine plasma treatment with chemically reduced graphene oxide thin films as hole transport layer in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Youn-Yeol; Kang, Byung Hyun; Lee, Yang Doo; Lee, Sang Bin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon, E-mail: bkju@korea.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    The inorganic materials such as V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MoO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3} were investigated to replace PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer (HTL) in organic electronic devices such as organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic lighting emission diodes. However, these methods require vacuum techniques that are long time process and complex. Here, we report about plasma treatment with SF{sub 6} and CF{sub 4} using reactive ion etching on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films that are obtained using an eco-friendly method with vitamin C. The plasma treated rGO thin films have dipoles since they consist of covalent bonds with fluorine on the surface of rGO. This means it is possible to increase the electrostatic potential energy than bare rGO. Increased potential energy on the surface of rGO films is worth applying organic electronic devices as HTL such as OSCs. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency of OSCs increased more than the rGO films without plasma treatment.

  4. Spray-on PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Eslamian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PEDOT:PSS electron-blocking layer, and PEDOT:PSS + P3HT:PCBM stacked layers are fabricated by ultrasonic atomization and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical profilometry. The measured thicknesses based on SEM and optical profilometry are quite different, indicating the incapability of measurement techniques for non-uniform thin films. The thickness measurements are compared against theoretical estimations and a qualitative agreement is observed. Results indicate that using a multiple pass fabrication strategy results in a more uniform thin film. It was also found that the film characteristics are a strong function of solution concentration and spraying passes, and a weak function of substrate speed. Film thickness increases with solution concentration but despite the prediction of theory, the increase is not linear, indicating a change in the film porosity and density, which can affect physical and opto-electrical properties. Overall, while spray coating is a viable fabrication process for a wide range of solar cells, film characteristics can be easily altered by a change in process parameters.

  5. Effect of fluorine plasma treatment with chemically reduced graphene oxide thin films as hole transport layer in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Youn-Yeol; Kang, Byung Hyun; Lee, Yang Doo; Lee, Sang Bin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2013-12-01

    The inorganic materials such as V2O5, MoO3 and WO3 were investigated to replace PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer (HTL) in organic electronic devices such as organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic lighting emission diodes. However, these methods require vacuum techniques that are long time process and complex. Here, we report about plasma treatment with SF6 and CF4 using reactive ion etching on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films that are obtained using an eco-friendly method with vitamin C. The plasma treated rGO thin films have dipoles since they consist of covalent bonds with fluorine on the surface of rGO. This means it is possible to increase the electrostatic potential energy than bare rGO. Increased potential energy on the surface of rGO films is worth applying organic electronic devices as HTL such as OSCs. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency of OSCs increased more than the rGO films without plasma treatment.

  6. Manipulating Crystallization of Organolead Mixed-Halide Thin Films in Antisolvent Baths for Wide-Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Game, Onkar S; Wu, Wenwen; Kwun, Joonsuh; Strauss, Martin A; Yan, Yanfa; Huang, Jinsong; Zhu, Kai; Padture, Nitin P

    2016-01-27

    Wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on organolead (I, Br)-mixed halide perovskites (e.g., MAPbI2Br and MAPbIBr2 perovskite with bandgaps of 1.77 and 2.05 eV, respectively) are considered as promising low-cost alternatives for application in tandem or multijunction photovoltaics (PVs). Here, we demonstrate that manipulating the crystallization behavior of (I, Br)-mixed halide perovskites in antisolvent bath is critical for the formation of smooth, dense thin films of these perovskites. Since the growth of perovskite grains from a precursor solution tends to be more rapid with increasing Br content, further enhancement in the nucleation rate becomes necessary for the effective decoupling of the nucleation and the crystal-growth stages in Br-rich perovskites. This is enabled by introducing simple stirring during antisolvent-bathing, which induces enhanced advection transport of the extracted precursor-solvent into the bath environment. Consequently, wide-bandgap planar PSCs fabricated using these high quality mixed-halide perovskite thin films, Br-rich MAPbIBr2, in particular, show enhanced PV performance. PMID:26726763

  7. Growth, etching, and stability of sputtered ZnO:Al for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jorj Ian

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) can fulfill many requirements in thin-film solar cells, acting as (1) a transparent contact through which the incident light is transmitted, (2) part of the back reflector, and (3) a source of light scattering. Magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al thin-films are highly transparent, conductive, and are typically texturized by post-deposition etching in a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to achieve light scattering. The ZnO:Al thin-film electronic and optical properties, as well as the surface texture after etching, depend on the deposition conditions and the post-deposition treatments. Despite having been used in thin-film solar cells for more than a decade, many aspects regarding the growth, effects of heat treatments, environmental stability, and etching of sputtered ZnO:Al are not fully understood. This work endeavors to further the understanding of ZnO:Al for the purpose improving silicon thin-film solar cell efficiency and reducing ZnO:Al production costs. With regard to the growth of ZnO:Al, the influence of various deposition conditions on the resultant electrical and structural properties and their evolution with film thickness were studied. The surface electrical properties extracted from a multilayer model show that while carrier concentration of the surface layer saturates already at film thickness of 100 nm, the surface mobility continues to increases with film thickness, and it is concluded that electronic transport across grain boundaries limits mobility in ZnO:Al thin films. ZnO:Al deposited onto a previously etched ZnO:Al surface grows epitaxially, preserving both the original orientation and grain structure. Further, it is determined that a typical ZnO:Al used in thin-film silicon solar cells grows Zn-terminated on glass substrates. Concerning the affects of heat treatments and stability, it is demonstrated that a layer of amorphous silicon can protect ZnO:Al from degradation during annealing, and the mobility of ZnO:Al films can be increased up to 76 cm{sup 2}/Vs by annealing at high temperatures. Further, it is observed that this annealing process does not affect the morphology of the film and increases the total transmission in the solar cell relevant portion of the spectrum. Accelerated aging in a damp-heat is shown to affect the mobility primarily, and is thus likely related to poor transport across grain boundaries. Using deuterium as an isotopic marker, it is observed that the deuterium uptake was fairly linear with time and penetrated the whole film within 24 hours. Additionally, the deuterium is quickly replaced by hydrogen upon damp-heat treatment in water. It is concluded that the electrical degradation is related to the penetration of water via grain boundaries, and that the bulk of the reactions causing this degradation are fairly weak, such as the formation of zinc hydroxide. Additionally, the annealed high-mobility ZnO:Al films prove to be very stable in the damp-heat environment, exhibiting electron mobilities above 70 cm{sup 2}/Vs after 1000 hours of exposure. The initial points of attack during HCl etching of ZnO:Al, and the long-term etch evolution are shown to be related to certain grain boundaries built into the film during growth. The density of craters from an HCl etch is controllable by altering the temperature and concentration of the etching solution. It is further demonstrated that most acids exhibit etching behavior similar to that of HCl. Hydrofluoric acid (HF), however, exhibits unique etching characteristics with higher crater densities and sharper features. The crater density and shape are also shown to be controllable by etching in various concentrations of HF and in various mixtures of HF and HCl. Additional etching experiments are made to develop a polycrystalline ZnO:Al etching model. It is shown that basic and acidic solutions attack the same points on a polycrystalline ZnO:Al sample. The dependence of crater density on the acid concentration, temperature, and type holds true for single crystal ZnO. Planar and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements confirmed grain boundaries as the most prevalent catalysts for etching. A three-postulate etching model is proposed, the basics of which are: (1) every grain boundary has certain potential to etch, and this potential depends on the compactness of the grain boundary;(2) the etchant solution and conditions define an etching threshold, and grain boundaries with etching potentials above the threshold are actively etched; and (3) the vertical and horizontal etch rates are defined by the solution, and vertically limited etching leads to the characteristic crater opening angles while a horizontal limited etch yields sharper structures. Examples on how the better understanding of ZnO:Al can lead to more efficient solar cells and more reliable ZnO:Al film preparation are also given.

  8. Plasmonic organic thin-film solar cell: light trapping by using conformal vs. non-conformal relief gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshmiri, Hamid; Dostlek, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    Theoretical study of light management in thin film organic photovoltaic cell that utilizes diffraction coupling to guided waves is presented. As a model system, a regular solar cell geometry with P3HT:PCBM active layer, transparent ITO electrode and Al backside electrode is used. The paper discusses enhancement of absorption of incident photons selectively in the active layer by the interplay of surface plasmon polariton and optical waveguide waves, the effect on the profile of their field and damping that affects the spatial distribution of dissipated light energy in the layer structure. The model shows that for optimized grating period and modulation depth the number of absorbed photons in the active layer can be increased by 24 per cent. The comparison of the geometry with conformal and non-conformally corrugated layers reveals that the conformal structure outperforms the non-conformal in the enhancing of photon absorption in the wavelength range of 350-800 nm.

  9. Preparation of aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films for the transparent conducting electrode application for hydrogenated amorphous solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent conducting thin films of undoped and aluminium doped zinc oxide have been deposited by spray pyrolysis technique. The substrate temperature, solution spray rate and aluminium concentration have been identified as the important deposition parameters and their effects on the electrical optical and microstructural properties have been studied. Films having Al/Zn ratio of 1.75 at. %, deposited under optimized condition exhibit good transparent conducting properties (T/sub v/ is approx. equal to 83 % and R/sub s/ is approx. equal to 12-20 omega/square). zinc oxide based hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells (Glass/ZnO: Al/Pin/Al) have been fabricated by PECVD (Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition) technique. The measurement of I-V characteristic and spectral response of these cells has been investigated. (author)

  10. Improving low pressure chemical vapor deposited zinc oxide contacts for thin film silicon solar cells by using rough glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared to zinc oxide grown (ZnO) on flat glass, rough etched glass substrates decrease the sheet resistance (Rsq) of zinc oxide layers grown on it. We explain this Rsq reduction from a higher thickness and an improved electron mobility for ZnO layers deposited on rough etched glass substrates. When using this etched glass substrate, we also obtain a large variety of surface texture by changing the thickness of the ZnO layer grown on it. This new combination of etched glass and ZnO layer shows improved light trapping potential compared to ZnO films grown on flat glass. With this new approach, Micromorph thin film silicon tandem solar cells with high total current densities (sum of the top and bottom cell current density) of up to 26.8 mA cm?2 were fabricated.

  11. Cadmium sulfide nanowires for the window semiconductor layer in thin film CdS-CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film CdS/CdTe heterojunction device is a leading technology for the solar cells of the next generation. We report on two novel device configurations for these cells where the traditional CdS window layer is replaced by nanowires (NW) of CdS, embedded in an aluminum oxide matrix or free-standing. An estimated 26.8% improvement in power conversion efficiency over the traditional device structure is expected, primarily because of the enhanced spectral transmission of sunlight through the NW-CdS layer and a reduction in the junction area/optical area ratio. In initial experiments, nanostructured devices of the two designs were fabricated and a power conversion efficiency value of 6.5% was achieved.

  12. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1996-02-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto-electronic (infrared detectors, lasers, and optical communications) technologies. Low bandgaps and larger fluences employed in TPV cells result in very high current densities which make it difficult to collect the current effectively. Techniques for laser and mechanical scribing, integral interconnection, and multi-junction tandem structures which have been fairly well developed for thin-film PV solar cells could be further refined for enhancing the voltages from TPV modules. Thin-film TPV cells may be deposited on metals or back-surface reflectors. Spectral control elements such as indium-tin oxide or tin oxide may be deposited directly on the TPV convertor. It would be possible to reduce the cost of TPV technologies based on single-crystal materials being developed at present to the range of US 2-5 per watt so as to be competitive in small to medium size commercial applications. However, a further cost reduction to the range of US 35- 1 per watt to reach the more competitive large-scale residential, consumer, and hybrid-electric car markets would be possible only with the polycrystalline-thin film TPV cells.

  13. Physical properties of sublimated zinc telluride thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nazar Abbas, E-mail: nazar_abbas@comsats.edu.pk; Mahmood, Waqar

    2013-10-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were fabricated by using closed space sublimation (CSS) technique on glass substrate under vacuum. Pre-fabricated ZnTe thin films were doped with silver (Ag) by ion exchange method. X-ray diffraction showed the preferred orientation (111) of ZnTe thin film with polycrystalline behavior. Scanning electron microscope images were taken to estimate the grain boundaries; energy dispersive X-ray results confirmed the Ag composition in doped-ZnTe samples. Electrical measurements were performed to determine the resistivity, mobility and carrier concentrations of un-doped thin films and Ag-doped samples. The electrical resistivity was of the order of 10{sup 6} ?-cm before doping. Ag-doped ZnTe samples exhibits low resistivity of the order of 10{sup 3} ?-cm along with a change in the carrier concentrations and mobility as well at room temperature. The angle resolved optical transmission data, taken by spectrophotometer, was used to find the optical properties before and after Ag doping. Energy band gap showed decreasing trend with increasing Ag doping time. - Highlights: Zinc telluride thin films were grown by closed space sublimation technique. Ag was doped, by ion exchange process. Physical properties were investigated before and after doping.

  14. Wide-spectrum Mg and Ga co-doped ZnO TCO thin films for solar cells grown via magnetron sputtering with H2 introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-liang; Liu, Jie-ming; Ni, Jian; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-dan

    2015-02-01

    Wide-spectrum Mg and Ga co-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin films are deposited via magnetron sputtering at various H2 flow rates on glass substrates. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of MGZO thin films are investigated with different H2 flow rates. The experiment results show that the MGZO thin films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure exhibiting a preferred (0 0 2) crystal plane orientation. The carrier concentration remarkably increases from 5.15 1019 cm-3 to 2.12 1020 cm-3 with increasing the H2 flow rate from 0 sccm to 4.0 sccm and then decreases when further increasing the H2 flow rate. The glass/MGZO thin film deposited at the H2 flow rate of 4.0 sccm exhibits the lowest resistivity of 1.96 10-3 ? cm (film thickness d ? 548 nm) and an average transmittance (Ta) of 80.5% in the wavelength range from 340 nm to 1100 nm. Optical measurements indicate that the optical band gap (Eg) of MGZO thin films varies from 3.45 eV to 3.78 eV with adjusting H2 flow rate from 0 sccm to 12.0 sccm. The obtained MGZO thin films with an appropriate thickness are preliminarily applied in p-i-n type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells. The a-Si:H solar cell with MGZO layer presents higher quantum efficiency in the short wavelength region than that with GZO layer, resulting from widened optical band gap.

  15. Highly transparent front electrodes with metal fingers for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs, traditionally used in thin-film silicon (TF-Si solar cells as front-electrode materials, are interlinked, such that an increase in TCO transparency is generally achieved at the cost of reduced lateral conductance. Combining a highly transparent TCO front electrode of moderate conductance with metal fingers to support charge collection is a well-established technique in wafer-based technologies or for TF-Si solar cells in the substrate (n-i-p configuration. Here, we extend this concept to TF-Si solar cells in the superstrate (p-i-n configuration. The metal fingers are used in conjunction with a millimeter-scale textured foil, attached to the glass superstrate, which provides an antireflective and retroreflective effect; the latter effect mitigates the shadowing losses induced by the metal fingers. As a result, a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency, from 8.7% to 9.1%, is achieved for 1-?m-thick microcrystalline silicon solar cells deposited on a highly transparent thermally treated aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer combined with silver fingers, compared to cells deposited on a state-of-the-art zinc oxide layer.

  16. Highly transparent front electrodes with metal fingers for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Etienne; Mller, Thomas Christian Mathias; Warzechac, Marek; Hoffmann, Andre; Paetzold, Ulrich Wilhelm; Aeberhard, Urs

    2015-03-01

    The optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), traditionally used in thin-film silicon (TF-Si) solar cells as front-electrode materials, are interlinked, such that an increase in TCO transparency is generally achieved at the cost of reduced lateral conductance. Combining a highly transparent TCO front electrode of moderate conductance with metal fingers to support charge collection is a well-established technique in wafer-based technologies or for TF-Si solar cells in the substrate (n-i-p) configuration. Here, we extend this concept to TF-Si solar cells in the superstrate (p-i-n) configuration. The metal fingers are used in conjunction with a millimeter-scale textured foil, attached to the glass superstrate, which provides an antireflective and retroreflective effect; the latter effect mitigates the shadowing losses induced by the metal fingers. As a result, a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency, from 8.7% to 9.1%, is achieved for 1-?m-thick microcrystalline silicon solar cells deposited on a highly transparent thermally treated aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer combined with silver fingers, compared to cells deposited on a state-of-the-art zinc oxide layer.

  17. Textured surface boron-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxides on polyethylene terephthalate substrates for Si-based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textured surface boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films were directly grown via low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates at low temperatures and high-efficiency flexible polymer silicon (Si) based thin film solar cells were obtained. High purity diethylzinc and water vapors were used as source materials, and diborane was used as an n-type dopant gas. P-i-n silicon layers were fabricated at ? 398 K by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. These textured surface ZnO:B thin films on PET substrates (PET/ZnO:B) exhibit rough pyramid-like morphology with high transparencies (T ? 80%) and excellent electrical properties (Rs ? 10 ? at d ? 1500 nm). Finally, the PET/ZnO:B thin films were applied in flexible p-i-n type silicon thin film solar cells (device structure: PET/ZnO:B/p-i-n a-Si:H/Al) with a high conversion efficiency of 6.32% (short-circuit current density JSC = 10.62 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage VOC = 0.93 V and fill factor = 64%).

  18. Aluminum induced crystallization of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous silicon for economically viable thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Maruf [University of Arkansas; Abu-Safe, Husam H [University of Arkansas; Naseem, Hameed [University of Arkansas; Brown, Walter D [University of Arkansas; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films have been prepared by aluminum induced crystallization (AiC) technique. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films were prepared by sputtering a silicon target in hydrogen and argon ambient. It was observed that deposition rates increased more than two folds with the introduction of the hydrogen in the deposition chamber. The a-Si:H thin films were coated with a thin layer of sputtered aluminum (AI). X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the crystallization commenced at as low as 225 C. The depth profile of the annealed samples, obtained by scanning Auger microscopy (SAM), did not show any layer exchange below 300 C. The SAM analysis showed clear layer exchange in the higher temperature ( >350 C) region.

  19. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cells prepared by non-vacuum processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Oonuki, Masatoshi; Moritake, Noriko; Uchiki, Hisao [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS)-based solar cell devices were prepared entirely by non-vacuum deposition techniques on soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. The ZnO:Al window, CdS buffer and CZTS absorber layers of the Al/ZnO:Al/CdS/CZTS/Mo/SLG solar cell structure were deposited by sol-gel method, chemical bath deposition method and sol-gel sulfurizing method, respectively. The best solar cell sample showed an open-circuit voltage of 390 mV, a short-circuit current density of 7.8mA/cm{sup 2}, a fill factor of 0.33 and an efficiency of 1.01% under irradiation of AM 1.5 and 100mW/cm{sup 2}. This is the first report on CZTS thin film solar cells in which all the semiconductor layers were prepared under non-vacuum condition. (author)

  20. Performance enhancement of thin film silicon solar cells based on distributed Bragg reflector and diffraction grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various designing parameters were investigated and explored for high performance solar cells. Single layer grating based solar cell of 50 ?m thickness gives maximum efficiency up to 24 % whereas same efficiency is achieved with the use of three bilayers grating based solar cell of 30 ?m thickness. Remarkably, bilayer grating based solar cell design not only gives broadband absorption but also enhancement in efficiency with reduced cell thickness requirement. This absorption enhancement is attributed to the high reflection and diffraction from DBR and grating respectively. The obtained short-circuit current were 29.6, 32.9, 34.6 and 36.05 mA/cm2 of 5, 10, 20 and 30 ?m cell thicknesses respectively. These presented designing efforts would be helpful to design and realize new generation of solar cells

  1. Performance enhancement of thin film silicon solar cells based on distributed Bragg reflector & diffraction grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Dubey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various designing parameters were investigated and explored for high performance solar cells. Single layer grating based solar cell of 50 ?m thickness gives maximum efficiency up to 24 % whereas same efficiency is achieved with the use of three bilayers grating based solar cell of 30 ?m thickness. Remarkably, bilayer grating based solar cell design not only gives broadband absorption but also enhancement in efficiency with reduced cell thickness requirement. This absorption enhancement is attributed to the high reflection and diffraction from DBR and grating respectively. The obtained short-circuit current were 29.6, 32.9, 34.6 and 36.05 mA/cm2 of 5, 10, 20 and 30 ?m cell thicknesses respectively. These presented designing efforts would be helpful to design and realize new generation of solar cells.

  2. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 m electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.5710{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  3. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 m electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.571016 atoms/cm3) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate

  4. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-01

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 m electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.571016 atoms/cm3) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  5. Evaluation of electrical shunt resistance in laser scribed thin-films for CIGS solar cells on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markauskas, E.; Ge?ys, P.; Ra?iukaitis, G.

    2015-03-01

    Formation of serial interconnects in thin-film solar cells is an important step for upscaling production yield over large areas. Laser scribing is a promising tool for monolithic interconnect formation in CIGS solar cell module. However, evaluation of alterations in electrical properties of the cells during the laser scribing is not a trivial task, especially for cells with flexible substrates when production is based on roll-to-roll processes. We applied the technique of nested circular scribes proposed by K. Zimmer et. al. for the in-line quality evaluation of the P3 scribing processes in CIGS solar cells on polyimide. Scribing experiments were performed using picosecond laser working at 532 nm wavelength. Parallel resistance values of the cells during the formation of P3 scribes were extracted by analyzing I-V characteristics of the measured photovoltaic devices. Integration of laser scribing experiments with the on-line electrical characterization facilitated optimization of the laser processes and increased the measurement accuracy of shunt formation during the laser scribing.

  6. On the physics of microcrystalline silicon thin film solar cells. From the material to devices with high conversion efficiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetterl, C.

    2001-08-01

    VHF-PECVD was used to prepare doped and undoped microcrystalline silicon for applications in thin-film solar cells. In addition, device preparation processes on glass substrates, covered with texture-etched zinc-oxide films, were developed. High conversion efficiencies of up to 8.7% and 10% for single junction solar cells and stacked solar cells were achieved, respectively. The deposition conditions of the intrinsic absorber layer were varied over a wide range and material properties such as crystalline volume content, conductivity and optical absorption as well as corresponding solar cell properties were investigated. It was found that the structural composition of the material is closely related to transport and recombination properties, resulting in optimum device performance under unexpected conditions close to the transition to amorphous growth. In particular, the dark conductivity of the material decreases upon approaching this transition starting from the highly crystalline range, e.g. by changing the dilution ratio of silane in hydrogen, while the efficiency of corresponding solar cells improves due to increasing open-circuit voltages. Simultaneously, the drawback of recombination losses observed for highly crystalline conditions, which can be attributed to a high defect density, is much improved. The upper limit of the efficiency improvement is reached at the set-in of amorphous growth. This transition occurs very abruptly in the solar cells due to local epitaxy on the doped contact layers. Beyond this point the beneficial increase of open-circuit voltage is overcompensated by a significant reduction of charge carrier generation and extraction efficiency. It is concluded that growth conditions close to the transition to amorphous growth, which in the solar cell still result in structurally homogeneous and highly crystalline material, are most suitable with respect to the device performance. (orig.)

  7. Surface Modification of Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorber Surfaces for PEEM Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilks, R. G.; Contreras, M. A.; Lehmann, S.; Herrero-Albillos, J.; Bismaths, L. T.; Kronast, F.; Noufi, R.; Bar, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a thorough examination of the {micro}m-scale topography of Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} ('CIGSe') thin-film solar cell absorbers using different microscopy techniques. We specifically focus on the efficacy of preparing smooth sample surfaces - by etching in aqueous bromine solution - for a spatially resolved study of their chemical and electronic structures using photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). The etching procedure is shown to reduce the CIGSe surface roughness from ca. 40 to 25 nm after 40s etching, resulting in an increase in the quality of the obtained PEEM images. Furthermore we find that the average observed grain size at the etched surfaces appears larger than at the unetched surfaces. Using a liftoff procedure, it is additionally shown that the backside of the absorber is flat but finely patterned, likely due to being grown on the finely-structured Mo back contact.

  8. Electrical properties modulation of thin film solar cell using gold nanostructures at textured FTO/p-i-n interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, A.; Cacciato, G.; Ruffino, F.; Reitano, R.; Scapellato, G.; Zimbone, M.; Grimaldi, M. G.; Lombardo, S.; Battaglia, A.; Gerardi, C.; Foti, M.

    2015-11-01

    We report about the modulation of the electrical properties of thin film solar cells due to the incorporation of size-selected Au nanostructures (NSs) at a textured FTO/p-i-n interface. By increasing the Au NSs size, the analyses of current-voltage characteristics show lower Schottky barrier heights and the gradual reduction of the open-circuit voltages (VOC). The optical measurements show higher parasitic absorption by larger Au NSs that reduces the amount of radiation transmitted by the transparent to absorber layer. This process decreases the number of photo-generated carriers and may explain the VOC reduction related to the devices with larger Au NSs at the interface. So, the correlation between materials properties and device performances was established.

  9. Photoluminescence of epitactical and polycrystalline CuInS2 layers for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis deals with one- and polycrystalline CuInS2 absorber layers for thin-film solar cells and especially with their optical and structural characterization. By means of detailed temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence measurements in epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers different radiative transitions could be analyzed and identified. The spectra were dominated by broad luminescence bands of deep perturbing levels. The implantation of hydrogen at low energies led to a passivation of these perturbing levels. On the base of the optical studies on epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers a new improved defect model for CuInS2 could be developed. The model contains two donor and two acceptor levels with following ionization energies: D-1=46 meV, D-2=87 meV, A-1=70 meV, and A-2=119 meV

  10. Conducting glasses recovered from thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastes for dye-sensitized solar cell cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-C; Chang, F-C; Peng, C Y; Wang, H Paul

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive glasses such as thin film transistor (TFT) array and colour filter glasses were recovered from the TFT-liquid crystal display panel wastes by dismantling and sonic cleaning. Noble metals (i.e. platinum (Pt)) and indium tin oxide (ITO) are generally used in the cathode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). To reduce the DSSC cost, Pt was replaced with nano nickel-encapsulated carbon-shell (Ni@C) nanoparticles, which were prepared by carbonization of Ni²⁺-β-cyclodextrin at 673 K for 2 h. The recovered conductive glasses were used in the DSSC electrodes in the substitution of relatively expensive ITO. Interestingly, the efficiency of the DSSC having the Ni@C-coated cathode is as high as 2.54%. Moreover, the cost of the DSSC using the recovered materials can be reduced by at least 24%. PMID:25399759

  11. Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell using Cr doped Cu-Zn-Se type chalcopyrite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D. Paul; Venkateswaran, C. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India); Ganesan, S.; Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin; Maruthamuthu, P. [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kovendhan, M. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Chalcopyrites are a versatile class of semiconductors known for their potential in photovoltaic applications. Considering the well established CuInSe{sub 2} as a prototype system, a new compound of the chalcopyrite type, Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-y}Se{sub 2-{delta}}, by replacing In with Zn, has been prepared (both undoped and 2% Cr doped) by the metallurgical method. Thin films have been deposited by the thermal evaporation technique using the stabilized polycrystalline compounds as charge. Structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties of the films are analyzed and reported. Use of these films as electrodes in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. XPS characterization of sensitized n-TiO2 thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO2 thin films, employed in dye-sensitized solar cells, were prepared by the sol-gel method or directly by Degussa P25 oxide and their surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of adsorption of the cis-[Ru(dcbH2)2(NCS)2] dye, N3, on the surface of films was investigated. From XPS spectra taken before and after argon-ion sputtering procedure, the surface composition of inner and outer layers of sensitized films was obtained and a preferential etching of Ru peak in relation to the Ti and N ones was identified. The photoelectrochemical parameters were also evaluated and rationalized in terms of the morphological characteristics of the films

  13. Manipulation of MWCNT Concentration in MWCNT/TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Huda Abdullah; Mohd Zikri Razali; Sahbudin Shaari; Mohd Raihan Taha

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using multiwalled carbon nanotube/titanium dioxide (MWCNT/TiO2) was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method. In this method, it has been performed under various acid treatments MWCNT concentration level at (a) 0.00 g, (b) 0.01 g, (c) 0.02 g, and (d) 0.03 g. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study surface roughness of the MWCNT/TiO2 thin films. The average roughness results for 0.00 g, 0.01 g, 0.02 g, and 0.03 g were 10.995, 18.308, 24.322, and 25...

  14. Nano-scale texturing of borosilicate glasses using CF4-based plasma discharge for application in thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Soo; Lim, Jung Wook; Yun, Sun Jin; Lee, Heon; Lee, Hee Chul

    2012-04-01

    Random plasma treatment techniques were used as a texturing method to reduce the surface reflection of glass substrates in thin film solar cells. Various gas mixtures were used for the plasma discharge in an effort to examine the texturing mechanism. Using a plasma treatment comprising CF4/O2 and CF4/Ar with a gas flow ratio of 1 to 2, the surface reflectance could be decreased to 6.83% and 6.82%, respectively. The surface treatment was very effective with the use of a low RF power of 50 W and an optimal time of 5 min. It is considered that the optical characteristics of the glass substrate are highly correlated to its surface morphology which can be produced not only through nano-scale chemical reactions with radicals but also through ion flux bombardment. PMID:22849147

  15. Thin films of polyfluorene:fullerene blends - Morphology and its role in solar cell performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bjrstrm Svanstrm, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    The sun provides us daily with large quantities of energy in the form of light. With the worlds increasing demand of electrical energy the prospect of converting this solar light into electricity is highly tempting. In the strive towards mass-production and low cost solar cells, new types of solar cells are being developed, e.g. solar cells completely based on organic molecules and polymers. These materials offer a promising potential of low cost and large scale manufacturing and have the ad...

  16. Spray Deposited Thin Film Metal Oxide Based Heterojunction for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, thin film heterojunction based on n-CdO/p-NiO was fabricated on glass substrate by home built spray pyrolysis technique under optimized condition. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and Nickel chloride were used as precursors. Structural, surface morphology, optical and photovoltaic properties were analyzed and reported.

  17. Spray Deposited Thin Film Metal Oxide Based Heterojunction for Solar Cell Application

    OpenAIRE

    John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan; B.G. Jeyaprakash; Balamurugan, D.; R. Gayathri Devi; M.S. Inpasalini

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, thin film heterojunction based on n-CdO/p-NiO was fabricated on glass substrate by home built spray pyrolysis technique under optimized condition. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and Nickel chloride were used as precursors. Structural, surface morphology, optical and photovoltaic properties were analyzed and reported.

  18. Nano-level characterization of silicon thin films and solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fejfar, Antonn

    Tokyo : Ohmsha, 2013 - (Konagai, M.), s. 468-478 ISBN 978-4-274-21399-1 R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) LM2011026 Grant ostatn: AV?R(CZ) M100101217 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon * thin film s * atomic force microscopy * photoresponse Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Nanoimprint lithography of light trapping patterns in sol-gel coatings for thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijna, M.; Loffler, J.; Van Aken, B.B.; Soppe, W.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Borg, H.; Peeters, P. [OM and T, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    For thin-film silicon solar cells, light trapping schemes are of uppermost importance to harvest all available sunlight. Typically, randomly textured TCO front layers are used to scatter the light diffusively in p-i-n cells on glass. Here, we investigate methods to texture the back contact with both random and periodic textures, for use in n-i-p cells on opaque foil. We applied an electrically insulating SiOx-polymer coating on a stainless steel substrate, and textured this barrier layer by nanoimprint. On this barrier layer the back contact is deposited for further use in the solar cell stack. Replication of masters with various random and periodic patterns was tested, and, using scanning electron microscopy, replicas were found to compare well with the originals. Masters with U-grooves of various sub micrometer widths have been used to investigate the optimal dimensions of regular patterns for light trapping in the silicon layers. Angular reflection distributions were measured to evaluate the light scattering properties of both periodic and random patterns. Diffraction gratings show promising results in scattering the light to specific angles, enhancing the total internal reflection in the solar cell.

  20. Directly electrospinning growth of single crystal Cu2ZnSnS4 nanowires film for high performance thin film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin-Jer; Chuang, Yu-Ju

    2013-11-01

    Quaternary kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnS4 nanowires can be used as absorbing materials for thin film solar cells. The structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CZTS nanowires have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical absorption techniques respectively. The Cu2ZnSnS4 nanowires, fabricated by electrospinning process and sintered at 600 C in Argon atmosphere, the cells exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 6.18% under AM 1.5 solar irradiation in the thin film solar cells. This study suggests that the optimized Cu2ZnSnS4 composite nanowire is a promising absorbing material for high performance solar cells.

  1. The investigation of ZnO:Al2O3/metal composite back reflectors in amorphous silicon germanium thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO)/metal composite thin films, including AZO/Ag/Al, AZO/Ag/nickelchromium alloy (NiCr), and AZO/Ag/NiCr/Al, are utilized as the back reflectors of pin amorphous silicon germanium thin film solar cells. NiCr is used as diffusion barrier layer between Ag and Al to prevent mutual diffusion, which increases the short circuit current density of solar cell. NiCr and NiCr/Al layers are used as protective layers of Ag layer against oxidation and sulfurization, the higher efficiency of solar cell is achieved. The experimental results show that the performance of a-SiGe solar cell with AZO/Ag/NiCr/Al back reflector is best. The initial conversion efficiency is achieved to be 8.05%

  2. Tuning of undoped ZnO thin film via plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition and its application for an inverted polymer solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Mi-jin Jin; Junhyeon Jo; Guru P. Neupane; Jeongyong Kim; Ki-Seok An; Jung-Woo Yoo

    2013-01-01

    We studied the tuning of structural and optical properties of ZnO thin film and its correlation to the efficiency of inverted solar cell using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The sequential injection of DEZn and O2 plasma was employed for the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin film. As the growth temperature of ZnO film was increased from 100?C to 300?C, the crystallinity of ZnO film was improved from amorphous to highly ordered (002) direction ploy-crystal...

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films and Solar Cells Fabricated from Quaternary Cu-Zn-Sn-S Target

    OpenAIRE

    Min Xie; Daming Zhuang; Ming Zhao; Zuolong Zhuang; Liangqi Ouyang; Xiaolong Li; Jun Song

    2013-01-01

    CZTS thin films were fabricated through sputtering from a quaternary Cu-Zn-Sn-S target, followed by a sulfurization process. CZTS thin-film solar cells were also fabricated and a highest efficiency of 4.04% was achieved. It has been found that obvious Zn loss occurs during the sputtering and poorly crystallized CZTS are formed in the sputtered films. The Zn loss leads to the appearance of SnS. A sulfurization process can obviously improve the crystallinity of CZTS and films with grain size of...

  4. Transmission Electron Microscopy of the Textured Silver Back Reflector of a Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell: From Crystallography to Optical Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchamp, Martial; Sderstrm, K.; Jeangros, Q.; Boothroyd, Chris; Kovacs, A.; Kasama, Takeshi; Haug, F.-J; Ballif, C.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Ossenbrink, H.; Jager-Waldau, A.; Helm, P.

    2011-01-01

    The study of light trapping in amorphous, microcrystalline and micromorph thin-film Si solar cells is an important and active field of investigation. It has been demonstrated that the use of a rough Ag back-reflector lead to an increase of short circuit current but also to losses through the creation of surface plasmon polaritons. Here, we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques to study the grain structure of a Ag thin-film that was sputtered on top of 2-?m-thick rough ZnO layer -...

  5. Development of MoOx thin films as back contact buffer for CdTe solar cells in substrate configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molybdenum oxide compounds exhibit unique electrical and optical properties depending on oxygen vacancy concentration and composition and therefore, have recently attracted a lot of attention as a hole transport layer in various devices. In this work CdTe solar cells in substrate configuration were grown with evaporated MoOx back contact buffer layers and efficiencies of up to 10% could be achieved without using Cu in the back contact processing. The buffer layer at the CdTe/back contact interface in the finished cell was found to consist of MoO2 phase instead of the expected MoO3 phase as observed in as-deposited or annealed MoOx layers without CdTe deposition. In order to obtain MoOx buffer layers with desired stoichiometry, MoOx thin films were deposited by radio-frequency sputtering under different growth conditions. The chemical phase, composition, microstructure and optical properties of such layers were studied for their possible use in CdTe solar cells. - Highlights: ? MoOx is used as a back contact buffer in CdTe solar cells in substrate configuration. ? Efficiency of 10.0% was achieved without the addition of Cu. ? The back contact buffer in the finished device consists only of MoO2. ? Phases and microstructure of MoOx can be controlled by sputtering conditions

  6. Improve the Properties of p-i-n ?-Si:H Thin-Film Solar Cells Using the Diluted Hydrochloric Acid-Etched GZO Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Fang-Hsing Wang; Ming-Yue Fu; Chean-Cheng Su; Cheng-Fu Yang; Hua-Tz Tzeng; Han-Wen Liu; Chung-Yuan Kung

    2013-01-01

    Gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films were deposited on glass, and the process parameters are RF power of 50?W and working pressure of 5?mTorr, and the substrate temperature was changed from room temperature to 300C. At first, the thickness was around 300?nm by controlling the deposition time. The effects of substrate temperature on the crystallinity, lattice constant (c), carrier mobility, carrier concentration, resistivity, and optical transmission rate of the GZO thin films were studi...

  7. Development of a Thin-Film Solar Cell Interconnect for the Powersphere Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James H.; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander, III; Liu, Simon; Rawal, Suraj P.; Perry, Alan R.; Marshall, Craig; Lin, John K.; Scarborough, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Dual junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells produced on polyimide substrate have been selected as the best candidate to produce a lightweight solar array for the PowerSphere program. The PowerSphere concept features a space-inflatable, geodetic solar array approximately 0.6 meters in diameter and c