WorldWideScience

Sample records for thin-film solar cells

  1. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Beaucarne

    2007-01-01

    We review the field of thin-film silicon solar cells with an active layer thickness of a few micrometers. These technologies can potentially lead to low cost through lower material costs than conventional modules, but do not suffer from some critical drawbacks of other thin-film technologies, such as limited supply of basic materials or toxicity of the components. Amorphous Si technology is the oldest and best established thin-film silicon technology. Amorphous silicon is deposited at low t...

  2. Advances in thin-film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmadasa, I M

    2012-01-01

    This book concentrates on the latest developments in our understanding of solid-state device physics. The material presented is mainly experimental and based on CdTe thin-film solar cells. It extends these new findings to CIGS thin-film solar cells and presents a new device design based on graded bandgap multilayer solar cells. This design has been experimentally tested using the well-researched GaAs/AlGaAs system and initial devices have shown impressive device parameters. These devices are capable of absorbing all radiation (UV, visible, and infra-red) within the solar spectrum and combines

  3. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  4. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the field of thin-film silicon solar cells with an active layer thickness of a few micrometers. These technologies can potentially lead to low cost through lower material costs than conventional modules, but do not suffer from some critical drawbacks of other thin-film technologies, such as limited supply of basic materials or toxicity of the components. Amorphous Si technology is the oldest and best established thin-film silicon technology. Amorphous silicon is deposited at low temperature with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  5. Thin-film solar cells: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, K.L.; Dutta, V. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Photovolatic Lab.; Paulson, P.D. [Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, Delaware (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Thin film solar cells (TFSC) are a promising approach for terrestrial and space photovoltaics and offer a wide variety of choices in terms of the device design and fabrication. A variety of substrates (flexible or rigid, metal or insulator) can be used for deposition of different layers (contact, buffer, absorber, reflector, etc.) using different techniques (PVD, CVD, ECD, plasma-based, hybrid, etc.). Such versatility allows tailoring and engineering of the layers in order to improve device performance. For large-area devices required for realistic applications, thin-film device fabrication becomes complex and requires proper control over the entire process sequence. Proper understanding of thin-film deposition processes can help in achieving high-efficiency devices over large areas, as has been demonstrated commercially for different cells. Research and development in new, exotic and simple materials and devices, and innovative, but simple manufacturing processes need to be pursued in a focussed manner. Which cell(s) and which technologies will ultimately succeed commercially continue to be anybody's guess, but it would surely be determined by the simplicity of manufacturability and the cost per reliable watt. Cheap and moderately efficient TFSC are expected to receive a due commercial place under the sun. (author)

  6. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lo?ffler, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses, the front TCO plays an important role for the light enhancement of thin-film silicon pin type solar cells. If the TCO is rough, light scattering at rough interfaces in the solar cell in combination...

  7. Thin-film solar cells. Past, present ... and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article traces the history of thin-film solar cells from the early 1950s, to the use of photovoltaic (PV) power supplies in space missions, and finally to the present where PV is now considered as a real option for terrestrial power production and rural electrification. The development of solar cell efficiencies is described, and the development of thin-film efficiencies is compared with that of crystalline silicon wafer-based cells. The market share of thin-film solar modules, and the impact of amorphous modules on the power market are considered. Details are given of early thin-film solar cells, four decades of cadmium-telluride solar cells (1962-2001), modern materials for thin-film solar cells, cells based on amorphous silicon, thin-layer and thin-film approaches based on crystalline silicon, the use of cadmium telluride, cells based on copper-indium-selenide (CIS) and related compounds, and the dye-sensitised cell. Theoretical and technological aspects of thin-film PV are examined, and the transfer of laboratory-scale production to industrial production is explored

  8. Thin Film Solar Cells: Research in an Industrial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Edoff, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Electricity generation by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight is a technology in strong growth. The thin film technology is taking market share from the dominant silicon wafer technology. In this article, the market for photovoltaics is reviewed, the concept of photovoltaic solar energy conversion is discussed and more details are given about the present technological limitations of thin film solar cell technology. Special emphasis is given for solar cells which employ Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu2ZnS...

  9. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  10. UV imprinting for thin film solar cell application

    OpenAIRE

    Escarre, J.; Battaglia, C.; Soederstroem, K.; Pahud, C.; Biron, R.; Cubero, O.; Haug, F. -j; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    UV imprinting is an interesting, low cost technique to produce large area thin film solar cells incorporating nanometric textures. Here, we review and present new results confirming that replicas of the most common textures used in photovoltaics can be obtained by UV imprinting with an excellent fidelity. The use of these replicas as substrates for amorphous and micromorph thin film silicon solar cells is also shown, together with a comparison with devices obtained on the original textures.

  11. Silver nanowire composite thin films as transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se?/ZnS thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2014-05-20

    Solution processed silver nanowire indium-tin oxide nanoparticle (AgNW-ITONP) composite thin films were successfully applied as the transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se? (CIGS) thin film solar cells with ZnS buffer layers. Properties of the AgNW-ITONP thin film and its effects on performance of CIGS/ZnS thin film solar cells were studied. Compared with the traditional sputtered ITO electrodes, the AgNW-ITONP thin films show comparable optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the AgNW-ITONP thin film causes no physical damage to the adjacent surface layer and does not need high temperature annealing, which makes it very suitable to use as transparent conductive layers for heat or sputtering damage-sensitive optoelectronic devices. By using AgNW-ITONP electrodes, the required thickness of the ZnS buffer layers for CIGS thin film solar cells was greatly decreased. PMID:24922214

  12. Thin film solar cells and their optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Jurecka; Emil Pincik; Robert Brunner

    2006-01-01

    In this work we report on the optical parameters of the semiconductor thin film for solar cell applications determination. The method is based on the dynamical modeling of the spectral reflectance function combined with the stochastic optimization of the initial reflectance model estimation. The spectral dependency of the thin film optical parameters computations is based on the optical transitions modeling. The combination of the dynamical modeling and the stochastic optimization ...

  13. Single Source Precursors for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan; Buhro, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power, (W/kg). The use of a polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer for thin film solar cells is considered as the next generation photovoltaic devices. At NASA GRC we have focused on the development of new single source precursors (SSP) and their utility to deposit the chalcopyrite semi-conducting layer (CIS) onto flexible substrates for solar cell fabrication. The syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering is described. Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate the SSPs can be used in a spray CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process, for depositing CIS at reduced temperatures, which display good electrical properties, suitable for PV (photovoltaic) devices.

  14. Indium tin oxide-silicon thin film solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterojunction solar cells consisting of amorphous indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on silicon films have been fabricated and studied. The results show that the devices give a photovoltaic effect and rectifying characteristics. One of the main characteristics of amorphous ITO thin films is better transparency (>85%) over the complete useful window of the solar spectrum. The polarity observed is found to be consistent with V/sub oc/ = 0.34 volt, I/sub sc/ = 22mA/cm/sup 2/ and fill factor = 0.48. An attempt has been made to understand the conduction mechanism of indium tin oxide - silicon heterojunction

  15. Thin Film Solar Cells and their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brunner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the optical parameters of the semiconductor thin film for solar cell applications determination. The method is based on the dynamical modeling of the spectral reflectance function combined with the stochastic optimization of the initial reflectance model estimation. The spectral dependency of the thin film optical parameters computations is based on the optical transitions modeling. The combination of the dynamical modeling and the stochastic optimization of the initial theoretical model estimation enable comfortable analysis of the spectral dependencies of the optical parameters and incorporation of the microstructure effects on the solar cell properties. The results of the optical parameters ofthe i-a-Si thin film determination are presented.

  16. Low cost thin film poly-silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design and develop a high density plasma based thin-film poly-silicon (TFPS) deposition system based on PQL proprietary advanced plasma technology to produce semiconductor quality TFPS for fabricating a TFPS solar cell. Details are given of the TFPS deposition system, the material development programme, solar cell structure, and cell efficiencies. The reproducibility of the deposition process and prospects for commercial exploitation are discussed.

  17. Testing and failure analysis of thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boit, Christian [University of Technology, Berlin (Germany); PVcomB Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics, Berlin (Germany); Boostandoost, Mahyar; Glowacki, Arkadiusz [University of Technology, Berlin (Germany); Friedrich, Felice [PVcomB Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics, Berlin (Germany); University of Technology, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Elements of a systematic concept for test, characterization and analysis of thin film solar cells is discussed that is based on application and comparison of respective techniques in the world of micro- and nanoelectronic technologies, Starting with test and reliability issues, in depth electrical characterization like activation energy analysis from reverse dark currents, is presented. Analysis techniques that belong to the concept require electrically active devices and include all aspects of luminescence and stimulation. A key topic in electronic devices, Focused Ion Beam based Device or Circuit Edit, is also evaluated for application in thin film photovoltaics. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

  19. Thin-film silicon solar cell technology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, A. V.; Schade, H.; Van??ek, Milan; Meier, J.; Vallat-Sauvain, E.; Wyrsch, N.; Kroll, U.; Droz, C.; Bailat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 12, - (2004), s. 113-142. ISSN 1062-7995 R&D Projects: GA MP SN/320/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thin-film silicon modules * hydrogenerated amorphous silicon(a-Si:H) * hydrogenerated microcrystalline (?c-Si:H) * transparent conductive oxydes(TCOs) * building - integrated photovoltaics ( BIPV ) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2004

  20. Large-Area Thin-Film Silicon: Synergy between Displays and Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schropp, R. E. I.

    2012-01-01

    Thin-film silicon technology has changed our society, owing to the rapid advance of its two major application fields in communication (thin-film displays) and sustainable energy (thin-film solar cells). Throughout its development, advances in these application fields have always benefitted each other. In the 1980s, display technology benefitted from the know-how on plasma deposition and equipment intended for solar cells. In the 2000s, thin-film solar technology benefitted from the s...

  1. TCAD simulations for thin film solar cells with nanoplate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S T; Lin, W K; Liu, Y C

    2012-07-01

    The novel thin film solar cell with a nanoplate structure that can solve the conflict between the light absorption and the carrier transport in amorphous silicon thin film solar cell was investigated by TCAD simulations. This new structure has n-type amorphous silicon nanoplate array on the substrate, and p-type amorphous silicon-carbon as window layer and intrinsic amorphous silicon as absorption layer are sequentially grown along the surface of each n-type amorphous silicon nanoplate. Under AM 1.5 G sunlight illumination, the light is absorbed along the vertical direction of nanoplate while the carrier transport is along the horizontal direction. Therefore, nanoplate with the larger height can absorb most of the sunlight. The advantage of this novel structure is that the thickness of the solar cell can be used as thin as possible for effective transport of photo-generated carriers in comparison with the planer one. PMID:22966571

  2. CZTSSe thin film solar cells: Surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Chinmay Sunil

    Chalcopyrite semiconducting materials, specifically CZTS, are a promising alternative to traditional silicon solar cell technology. Because of the high absorption coefficient; films of the order of 1 micrometer thickness are sufficient for the fabrication of solar cells. Liquid based synthesis methods are advantageous because they are easily scalable using the roll to roll manufacturing techniques. Various treatments are explored in this study to enhance the performance of the selenized CZTS film based solar cells. Thiourea can be used as a sulfur source and can be used to tune band gap of CZTSSe. Bromine etching can be used to manipulate the thickness of sintered CZTSSe film. The etching treatment creates recombination centers which lead to poor device performance. Various after treatments were used to improve the performance of the devices. It was observed that the performance of the solar cell devices could not be improved by any of the after treatment steps. Other surface treatment processes are explored including KCN etching and gaseous H2S treatments. Hybrid solar cells which included use of CIGS nanoparticles at the interface between CZTSSe and CdS are also explored.

  3. Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah; Torres; Tscharner; Wyrsch; Keppner

    1999-07-30

    The advantages and limitations of photovoltaic solar modules for energy generation are reviewed with their operation principles and physical efficiency limits. Although the main materials currently used or investigated and the associated fabrication technologies are individually described, emphasis is on silicon-based solar cells. Wafer-based crystalline silicon solar modules dominate in terms of production, but amorphous silicon solar cells have the potential to undercut costs owing, for example, to the roll-to-roll production possibilities for modules. Recent developments suggest that thin-film crystalline silicon (especially microcrystalline silicon) is becoming a prime candidate for future photovoltaics. PMID:10426984

  4. Thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faughnan, B. W.; Blanc, J.; Phillips, W.; Redfield, D.

    1980-06-01

    Twenty eight diffused junction solar cells were prepared. The largest group consisted of cells fabricated on bicrystal wafers and their single crystal controls. Cells were made on two different substrate types, ribbon silicon and cast silicon. The ribbon cells had an average efficiency of 6.1 percent, while the cast silicon cells had an average efficiency of 8.9 percent. A technique for observing grain boundaries was developed, i.e., the laser scan photoconductivity technique. In this method grain boundaries in bare silicon are observed by applying a small dc voltage across either end of a rectangular silicon bar. When the light spot crosses the grain boundary a large signal is observed. This method is useful for studying atomic hydrogen passivation, since a diffused junction is unnecessary. The liquid crystal method of observing grain boundaries is discussed. No correlation is found between grain boundary electrical activity and crystallographic orientation of the grains.

  5. Nanowired Polymer Thin Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dr K Siddappa Naidu, Dr D. Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    The aspiration of the paper is to build up materials and processing techniques that will allow the production of low-cost multi-junction solar cells entirely by solution-processing or other low-cost techniques amenable to roll-to-roll (R2R) fabrication such as lamination. Device modeling will help identify the best device structural design. Amalgamation of different types of materials (metals, oxides, semiconductors, polymers) is one of the goals of this project.

  6. Nanowired Polymer Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. Siddappa Naidu1 , Dr. D. Bhattacharya2 , Mr. Vijay Albert William3

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of the paper is to build up materials and processing techniques that will allow the production of low-cost multi-junction solar cells entirely by solution-processing or other low-cost techniques amenable to roll-to-roll (R2R fabrication such as lamination. Device modeling will help identify the best device structural design. Amalgamation of different types of materials (metals, oxides, semiconductors, polymers is one of the goals of this project.

  7. TCOs for nip thin film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    So?derstro?m, T.; Haug, F-j; Niquille, X.; Ballif, C.

    2009-01-01

    Substrate configuration allows for the deposition of thin film silicon (Si) solar cells on non-transparent substrates such as plastic sheets or metallic foils. In this work, we develop processes compatible with low Tg plastics. The amorphous Si (a-Si:H) and microcrystalline Si (c-Si:H) films are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, at very high excitation frequencies (VHF-PECVD). We investigate the optical behaviour of single and triple ju...

  8. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lffler, J.

    2005-04-01

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses, the front TCO plays an important role for the light enhancement of thin-film silicon pin type solar cells. If the TCO is rough, light scattering at rough interfaces in the solar cell in combination with a highly reflective back contact leads to an increase in optical path length of the light. Multiple (total) internal reflectance leads to virtual 'trapping' of the light in the solar cell structure, allowing a further decrease in absorber thickness and thus thin-film silicon solar cell devices with higher and more stable efficiency. Here, the optical mechanisms involved in the light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells have been studied, and two types of front TCO materials have been investigated with respect to their suitability as front TCO in thin-film silicon pin type solar cells. Undoped and aluminum doped zinc oxide layers have been fabricated for the first time by the expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition (ETP CVD) technique at substrate temperatures between 150 C and 350 C, and successfully implemented as a front electrode material for amorphous silicon pin superstrate type solar cells. Solar cells with efficiencies comparable to cells on Asahi U-type reference TCO have been reproducibly obtained. A higher haze is needed for the ZnO samples studied here than for Asahi U-type TCO in order to achieve comparable long wavelength response of the solar cells. This is attributed to the different angular distribution of the scattered light, showing higher scattering intensities at large angles for the Asahi U-type TCO. A barrier at the TCO/p interface and minor collection problems may explain the slightly lower fill factors obtained for the cells on ETP ZnO. The solar cells deposited on the first doped ZnO:Al layers suffered from collection problems reducing the fill factor, and from shunting. This is attributed to the steep trenches, sharp features and vertical steps that have been identified at the TCO surface. ZnO:Al layers with granular structure, deposited at higher argon flow through the cascaded arc plasma source, allowed for fill factors of the solar cells up to 0.70, comparable to cells on undoped ZnO. The best solar cell on doped ZnO:Al deposited by ETP CVD achieved an efficiency of 9.3 % which is comparable to the 9.4 % obtained on Asahi U-type SnO2:F. Fluorinated tin oxide has been deposited by Atmospheric Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) on glass from three different tin precursors, tetramethyltin, monobutyltin trichloride, and tin tetrachloride (TTC). TTC is the Sn precursor which resulted in the TCO with the best performance of a-Si:H pin solar cells. In accordance with the conclusions from our experiments with solar cells on undoped and aluminum doped zinc oxide, a high surface roughness and haze do not necessarily lead to a lower diode quality, and vice versa.

  9. Thin film solar cells from earth abundant materials growth and characterization of Cu2(ZnSn)(SSe)4 thin films and their solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further developm

  10. Laser annealing of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Performances of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell grown on glass substrate, using solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon can be limited by low dopant activation and high density of defects. Here, we investigate line shaped laser induced thermal annealing to passivate some of these defects in the sub-melt regime. Effect of laser power and scan speed on the open circuit voltage of the polysilicon solar cells is reported. The processing temperature was measured by thermal imaging camera. Enhancement of the open circuit voltage as high as 210% is achieved using this method. The results are discussed.

  11. Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, J. K.; Liu, Y.; Jong, M. M.; Wild, J.; Schuttauf, J. A.; Brinza, M.; Schropp, R. E. I.

    2010-01-01

    Texture etching of ZnO:1%Al layers using diluted HCl solution provides excellent TCOs with crater type surface features for the front contact of superstrate type of thin film silicon solar cells. The texture etched ZnO:Al definitely gives superior performance than Asahi SnO2:F TCO in case of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) type of solar cells. The stress of the ZnO:Al film changes from tensile to compressive with the increase in substrate temperature of sputter deposition and the rms roughnes...

  12. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  13. Ultra-thin film nanostructured gallium arsenide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yangsen; Chen, Yusi; Huo, Yijie; Zhao, Li; Jia, Jieyang; Deng, Huiyang; Harris, James S.

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art III-V cells have reached the highest energy conversion efficiency among all types of solar cells. However, these cells are not applicable to widespread terrestrial solar energy system yet due to the high cost of epitaxial growth. Ultra-thin film absorbers with advanced light management is one of the most promising solutions to drive down the cost. In this paper, we present an ultra-thin film nano-window gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell design. This ultrathin cell consists of a nano-structured Al0.8Ga0.2As window layer on the front side to reduce the reflection and to trap the light, and a metal reflector on the back side to further increase the light path. The 300 nm thick GaAs cell with Al0.8Ga0.2As nano-window shows a broad band absorption enhancement from visible to near infrared (NIR), achieving a spectrally averaged absorption of 94% under normal incidence. In addition, this cell shows excellent angular absorption properties, achieving over 85% spectral averaged absorption at up to 60 degree off normal incidence. Meanwhile, this structure with planar junction and nano-window has solved the issue of low fill factor and low open-circuit voltage in nano-structured GaAs solar cell. A nano-window cell with a 3 ?m thick GaAs junction demonstrated an open circuit voltage of 0.9V.

  14. Efficient optical absorption in thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Xuan, Yimin; Tan, Junjie

    2011-09-12

    In order to improve the optical absorption of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells, a new structure consisted of ITO layer with the nonresonant nanoparticles embedded in it and a-Si:H layer, is proposed. By optimizing both the thickness of a-Si:H layer and nanoparticles size, the effects of Fabry-Perot resonance and the scattering of incident light are discussed and analyzed. It is demonstrated that the enhanced optical absorption can be achieved due to the coupling of incident light and nanostructure, simultaneously the proposed structure can be considered as gradient refractive index structure to restrain the reflection at the interface of ITO and a-Si:H thin film. PMID:21935260

  15. Modeling of laser patterning of thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Thomas; Matthus, G.; Nolte, S.; Eberhardt, R.; Tnnermann, A.

    2014-03-01

    We report on theoretical models of the interaction of ultra-short laser pulses with multilayer structures used in thin-film solar cells. A finite-difference based optical model of light propagation within the thin-film system is used to determine the 3D-distribution of absorbed laser power in the structure. The model includes the evolution of the density of charge carriers which may be driven either by direct absorption of the laser radiation or multi-photon absorption and impact ionization of highly excited carriers. Depending on the excitation wavelength and pulse energy absorption occurs in different depths of the structure which has a large effect on the efficiency of the laser ablation process.

  16. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  17. New 3-dimensional nanostructured thin film silicon solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van??ek, Milan; Neykova, Neda; Babchenko, Oleg; Purkrt, Adam; Poruba, Ale; Reme, Zden?k; Holovsk, Jakub; Hruka, Karel; Meier, J.; Kroll, U.

    Mnchen : WIP-Renewable energies, 2010, s. 2763-2766. ISBN 3-936338-26-4. [European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference /25./ and World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion /5./. Valencia (ES), 06.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) 7E09057 Grant ostatn: EU FP7 N2P(XE) CP-IP 214134-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thin film solar cells, * TCO transparent conductive oxides * a-Si * high stable efficiency, * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  18. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive especially for space applications. Thin film photovoltaics have the potential to alleviate these problems and create a cheap and efficient way to harness the power of the sun.

  19. Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Joshua David

    As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

  20. Development of CIGS2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development of CuIn1-xGa xSe2-yS y (CIGSS) thin-film solar cells on ultralightweight flexible metallic foil substrates is being carried out at FSEC PV Materials Lab for space applications. Earlier, the substrate size was limited to 3 cm x 2.5 cm. Large-area sputtering systems and scrubber for hydrogen selenide and sulfide have been designed and constructed for preparation of CIGSS thin-films on large (15 cm x 10 cm) substrates. A selenization/sulfurization furnace donated by Shell (formerly Siemens) Solar has also been refurbished and upgraded. The sputtering target assembly design was modified for proper clamping of targets and effective cooling. A new design of the magnetic assembly for large-area magnetron sputtering sources was implemented so as to achieve uniform deposition on large area. Lightweight stainless steel foil and ultralightweight titanium foil substrates were utilized to increase the specific power of solar cells. Sol-gel derived SiO2 layers were coated on titanium foil by dip coating method. Deposition parameters for the preparation of molybdenum back contact layers were optimized so as to minimize the residual stress as well as reaction with H2S. Presently large (15 cm x 10 cm) CuIn1-xGa xS2 (CIGS2) thin film solar cells are being prepared on Mo-coated titanium and stainless steel foil by sulfurization of CuGa/In metallic precursors in diltion of CuGa/In metallic precursors in diluted Ar:H2S(4%). Heterojunction partner CdS layers are deposited by chemical bath deposition. The regeneration sequence of ZnO/ZnO:Al targets was optimized for obtaining consistently good-quality, transparent and conducting ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer by RF magnetron-sputter deposition. Excellent facilities at FSEC PV Materials Lab are one of its kinds and could serve as a nucleus of a small pilot plant for CIGSS thin film solar cell fabrication

  1. Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, W. J.; Lyons, L. E.; Morris, G. C.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of processes used in making thin film ITO/CdS/CdTe/Au heterojunction solar cells have been investigated. In particular, air annealing the ITO/CdS/CdTe layer is shown, from spectral evidence, to produce a heterojunction. XPS evidence shows that this heating forms CdO and TeO 2 on the CdTe surface and that these are removed by a KOH etch. A further bromine/methanol etch leaves a Te-rich surface which forms an injecting contact with the Au top electrode into which the Te mixes.

  2. ???????????????? Optimization of Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????AZO???????Al???????????????????????????????????Minitab?????????????????????????????????????????????????Al???????????????????????????????????????????????AZO??????????Ar?????????????????????????????????????????????????????During the glass substrate amorphous silicon thin film solar cell production process, the laser scribe 2, sputtering AZO back reflected film, sputtering Al film, and laser scribe 3 etc. processes, have great effect on the maximum power (Pmax of the solar cell. In this paper, we use Minitab software to design factorial experiment and optimize the process parameters. By analyzing the experimental data, we get the conclusion that, between an acceptable range, the sputtering power of Al film has the greatest effect on the Pmax of the solar cell, which increases while the sputtering power increases?and the Pmax increases as the current of laser scribe 3, puttering power of Al films and flux of Ar increase. Otherwise, Pmax decreases as the current of laser scribe 2 increases. By using the factorial experiment, we get the optimum parameters of the process for the present production line.

  3. Earth abundant materials for high efficiency heterojunction thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Buonassisi, Tonio; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Chan, Maria K.; Ceder, Gerbrand; Lee, Yun Seog

    2009-01-01

    We investigate earth abundant materials for thin-film solar cells that can meet tens of terawatts level deployment potential. Candidate materials are identified by combinatorial search, large-scale electronic structure calculations, and literature reviews. We identified cuprous oxide (Cu2O) as a prototype candidate for investigation as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. Cu2O thin films are deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering and characterized. In order to tailor electrical ...

  4. Laser structuring of thin-film solar cells on polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Gec?ys, P.; Rac?iukaitis, G.; Gedvilas, M.; Selskis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A permanent growth of the thin-film electronics market stimulates the development of versatile technologies for patterning thin-film materials on flexible substrates. High repetition rate lasers with a short pulse duration offer new possibilities for high efficiency structuring of conducting, semi-conducting and isolating films. Lasers with the picosecond pulse duration were applied in structuring the complex multilayered Cu(InGa)Se (CIGS) solar cel...

  5. Enhanced quantum efficiency of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with the inclusion of a rear-reflector thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the growth mechanism of amorphous silicon thin films by implementing hot-wire chemical vapor deposition and fabricated thin film solar cell devices. The fabricated cells showed efficiencies of 7.5 and 8.6% for the samples without and with the rear-reflector decomposed by sputtering, respectively. The rear-reflector enhances the quantum efficiency in the infrared spectral region from 550 to 750?nm. The more stable quantum efficiency of the sample with the inclusion of a rear-reflector than the sample without the rear-reflector due to the bias effect is related to the enhancement of the short circuit current

  6. Commercial Development Of Ovonic Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1983-09-01

    One square foot Ovonic amorphous photovoltaic devices are already in commercial production and are manufactured through a continuous web process. The next levels of commercialization required to achieve a large-volume power market will be discussed, and the device specifications correlated with the chemical and electronic properties of the materials that we are developing to achieve even higher efficiencies. It has been long considered a utopian dream to harness the energy of the sun to create electricity that would be competitive in cost to that produced from the conventional sources of energy such as oil, gas, and uranium. The impact on our society of stand-alone power generators without moving parts using the continually available, ubiquitous energy of the sun could certainly lead to a new age with consequences comparable to the first introduction of electricity which greatly accelerated the Industrial Revolution. Low cost, nonpolluting energy not dependent upon or limited by transmission costs could again make DC electricity a realistic option. The relatively young field of photovoltaics suffers from certain dogmas that are just now being questioned. For example, it is thought by many that solar cells utilizing crys-talline materials have inherently higher efficiencies than those using amorphous materials, and that somehow crystalline solar cells, whether fabricated from single crystals or polycrystalline material, in round or rectangular geometries, grown from the melt or by a rib-bon process, can be reduced in cost sufficiently that the economics become attractive enough for large-scale terrestrial generation of power. In this paper, we shall show that amorphous materials can have much higher efficiencies than do crystalline and that the answer to our power generation needs lies not in crystalline but in amorphous technology. At Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD), we have designed and built a production machine (described by my colleague, Dr. Izu, in a subsequent paper) which has clearly demonstrated that the basic barrier to low-cost production has been broken through and that one can now speak realistically of delivering power directly from the sun for under a dollar per peak watt merely by making larger versions of this basic continuous web, large-area thin-film machine. We have made one square foot amorphous silicon alloy PIN devices with conversion efficiencies in the range of 7%, and in the laboratory, we have reported smaller area PIN de-vices in the 10% conversion efficiency range. In addition, much higher energy conversion efficiencies can be obtained within the same process by using multi-cell layered or tandem thin-film solar cell structures (see Figure 1). These devices exhibit enhanced efficiency by utilizing a wider range of the solar spectrum. Since the theoretical maximum efficiency for multi-cell structures is over 60%, one can certainly realistically anticipate the pro-duction of thin-film amorphous photovoltaic devices with efficiencies as high as 30%. Our production device is already a two-cell tandem, as we have solved not only the problems of interfacing the individual cell components but also the difficulties associated with a one foot square format deposited on a continuous web. Figure 2 shows a continuous roll of Ovonic solar cells. Realistic calculations for a three-cell tandem thin-film device using amorphous semiconductor alloys with 1.8eV, 1.5eV, and 1.0eV optical band gaps indicate that solar energy conversion efficiencies of 20-30% can be achieved.

  7. Sputter-Deposited AlTiO Thin Films for Semi-Transparent Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yun; Bang, Ki Su; Lim, Jung Wook

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports on sputter-deposited AlTiO (ATO) thin films and their effects on the performance of semi-transparent silicon thin film solar cells. The electrical resistivity and the transparency of the ATO films depend significantly on the flow ratio of oxygen to argon during the reactive sputtering process. With highly transparent ATO films, transmittances of over 80% were obtained by increasing this flow ratio. When the ATO films were used on silicon substrates, they exhibited an anti-reflection property, where the minimum reflectance at visible light wavelength was decreased to 1.2%. The introduction of ATO thin film layers into solar cells resulted in a 24% increase in transmittance at wavelengths of around 700 nm, due to the film's anti-reflection characteristic. In addition, the color of the cells changed from green to bright red as the ATO layers were adopted. These beneficial effects of the sputter-deposited ATO films suggest an effective pathway towards the semi-transparent silicon thin film solar cells for building-integrated photovoltaic system applications.

  8. Thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thin-film solar cell with the configuration soda-lime glass ITO/CdS/CdTe/Au was reported earlier to have more than 10% conversion efficiency. To further improve the low-cost potential of the device, an SnO/sub 2/ layer was developed to replace ITO, and a new contact to CdTe using Ni or stainless steel to replace Au. The contact also improves the stability of the device. A low-cost method for monolithic integration of these cells to make a module is discussed. By this method, a module of 32 cm/sup 2/ area and 8.5% efficiency was fabricated. A simple and effective ''cross-cut'' method for minimizing the effects of shorting defects is also described

  9. Flexible carbon nanotube/mono-crystalline Si thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huanhuan; Wei, Jinquan; Jia, Yi; Cui, Xian; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai

    2014-09-01

    Flexible heterojunction solar cells were fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and mono-crystalline Si thin films at room temperature. The Si thin films with thickness less than 50 ?m are prepared by chemically etching Si wafer in a KOH solution. The initial efficiency of the thin-film solar cell varies from approximately 3% to 5%. After doping with a few drops of 1 M HNO3, the efficiency increases to 6% with a short-circuit current density of 16.8 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 71.5%. The performance of the solar cells depends on the surface state and thickness of Si thin films, as well as the interface of CNT/Si. The flexible CNT/Si thin-film solar cells exhibit good stability in bending-recovery cycles.

  10. Potential of thin-film solar cell module technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.; Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    During the past five years, thin-film cell technology has made remarkable progress as a potential alternative to crystalline silicon cell technology. The efficiency of a single-junction thin-film cell, which is the most promising for use in flat-plate modules, is now in the range of 11 percent with 1-sq cm cells consisting of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 or CdTe materials. Cell efficiencies higher than 18 percent, suitable for 15 percent-efficient flat plate modules, would require a multijunction configuration such as the CdTe/CuInSe2 and tandem amorphous-silicon (a-Si) alloy cells. Assessments are presented of the technology status of thin-film-cell module research and the potential of achieving the higher efficiencies required for large-scale penetration into the photovoltaic (PV) energy market.

  11. Boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon thin films for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of boron-doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films. The films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) at a substrate temperature of 150 deg. C. Crystalline volume fraction and dark conductivity of the films were determined as a function of trimethylboron-to-silane flow ratio. Optical constants of doped and undoped nc-Si:H were obtained from transmission and reflection spectra. By employing p+ nc-Si:H as a window layer combined with a p' a-SiC buffer layer, a-Si:H-based p-p'-i-n solar cells on ZnO:Al-coated glass substrates were fabricated. Device characteristics were obtained from current-voltage and spectral-response measurements.

  12. Cuinse2 Thin Film For Solar Cell By Flash Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Soepardjo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of thin films for material solar cell CuInSe2 are relatively simple. In this research mainly focused on the use of flash evaporation method, and the material created can then be characterized by optical and electrical properties. The optical characterization is done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, and transmission and reflection by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Electrical characterization is done by utilizing the Hall effect equipment. From these characterization, the atomic structure, absorption coefficient, energy gap, material type, composition of each elements and the mobility of CuInSe2 can be measured and determined. During process evaporation were carried out at substrate temperatures the range between 20C-415C.

  13. Impedance spectroscopy of CdTe thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) is a widely used method to analyze dielectric properties of specimen as a function of frequency. Typically this characterization method delivers an equivalent circuit diagram of the device under examination to describe its electrical properties. Traditionally IS is used in coating evaluation, corrosion monitoring and in electrochemistry. During the last years the method became more important also in the field of electrical characterization of solar cells. In our work we use IS for the electrical characterization of thin film CdTe solar cells. The measurement is done at room temperature without illumination in a frequency domain from 20 Hz to 2 MHz. The samples are measured under variable forward bias. The results match insufficiently with the model of two resistor-capacitor circuits in series which is commonly used to describe the p-n junction and the blocking back contact. For better consistency, other models from the literature are used and discussed. From the results a conclusion is drawn about the properties of the solar cell such as the nature of the p-n junction or the performance of the back contact.

  14. Nano-photonic Light Trapping In Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Dennis M., Jr.

    Over the last several decades there have been significant advances in the study and understanding of light behavior in nanoscale geometries. Entire fields such as those based on photonic crystals, plasmonics and metamaterials have been developed, accelerating the growth of knowledge related to nanoscale light manipulation. Coupled with recent interest in cheap, reliable renewable energy, a new field has blossomed, that of nanophotonic solar cells. In this thesis, we examine important properties of thin-film solar cells from a nanophotonics perspective. We identify key differences between nanophotonic devices and traditional, thick solar cells. We propose a new way of understanding and describing limits to light trapping and show that certain nanophotonic solar cell designs can have light trapping limits above the so called ray-optic or ergodic limit. We propose that a necessary requisite to exceed the traditional light trapping limit is that the active region of the solar cell must possess a local density of optical states (LDOS) higher than that of the corresponding, bulk material. Additionally, we show that in addition to having an increased density of states, the absorber must have an appropriate incoupling mechanism to transfer light from free space into the optical modes of the device. We outline a portfolio of new solar cell designs that have potential to exceed the traditional light trapping limit and numerically validate our predictions for select cases. We emphasize the importance of thinking about light trapping in terms of maximizing the optical modes of the device and efficiently coupling light into them from free space. To further explore these two concepts, we optimize patterns of superlattices of air holes in thin slabs of Si and show that by adding a roughened incoupling layer the total absorbed current can be increased synergistically. We suggest that the addition of a random scattering surface to a periodic patterning can increase incoupling by lifting the constraint of selective mode occupation associated with periodic systems. Lastly, through experiment and simulation, we investigate a potential high efficiency solar cell architecture that can be improved with the nanophotonic light trapping concepts described in this thesis. Optically thin GaAs solar cells are prepared by the epitaxial liftoff process by removal from their growth substrate and addition of a metallic back reflector. A process of depositing large area nano patterns on the surface of the cells is developed using nano imprint lithography and implemented on the thin GaAs cells.

  15. Scribing of a-Si thin-film solar cells with picosecond laser

    OpenAIRE

    Gec?ys, P.; Rac?iukaitis, G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The thin-film technology is the most promising technology to achieve a significant cost reduction in solar electricity. Laser scribing is an important step to preserve high efficiency of photovoltaic devices on large areas. The high-repetition-rate laser with the pulse duration of 10ps was applied in selective ablation of multilayer thin-film a-Si solar cells deposited on flexible and rigid substrates. Two types of solar cells with flexible an...

  16. Photovoltaic solar cell from low-cost thin-film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : One of the main hindrances of using solar energy for electrical power supply is the high initial cost. Thin-film technologies hold considerable promise for substantial cost reduction for photovoltaic solar cells. The paper reviews the present state of the most advanced thin-film technologies. Amorphous silicon solar cells have surmounted the barrier to mass production. Pilot manufacturing lines are under construcion for CdTe thin-film module. Cu(In, Ga)Se2 has reached a record efficiency of 18.8 percent in the laboratory and pilot productions have benn announced by various companies

  17. Photovoltaic solar cell from low-cost thin-film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main hindrances of using solar energy for electrical power supply is the high initial cost. Thin-film technologies hold considerable promise for substantial cost reduction for photovoltaic solar cells. The paper reviews the present state of the most advanced thin-film technologies. Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells have surmounted the barrier to mass production. Pilot manufacturing lines are under construction for CdTe thin-film module. Cu(In, Ga)Se2 has reached a record efficiency of 18.8 percent in the laboratory and pilot productions have been announced by various companies

  18. The Mott transition and optimal performance of transparent conducting oxides in thin-film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Slocombe, D.; Porch, A.; Pepper, M.; Edwards, Pp

    2012-01-01

    The performance of thin-film solar cells is critically dependent upon the effective operation of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layers, which play a significant role in both optical and electrical power transmission through these photovoltaic devices. In this article, we model the optical and electrical power transmission through TCO layers in thin-film solar cells as a function of both the electron carrier density, n, and its mobility, ?. The electrical and optical properties of the TCO...

  19. Enhanced light trapping in realistic thin film solar cells using one-dimensional gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Naqavi, A.; Soederstroem, K.; Haug, F. -j; Paeder, V.; Scharf, T.; Herzig, H. P.; Ballif, C.

    2011-01-01

    Finding the optimal structure to enhance light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells has attracted much attention in the previous decades. However, because of problems in integrating theory and experiment, there are only few comprehensive contributions that provide guidelines for the optimal design of such structures. In this work, a realistic thin film solar cell with almost conformal layers based on a one-dimensional metallic grating back-reflector is investigated through experiment and...

  20. Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal onedimensional gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Naqavi, Ali; So?derstro?m, Karin; Paeder, Vincent; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Despite the progress in the engineering of structures to enhance photocurrent in thin film solar cells, there are few comprehensive studies which provide general and intuitive insight into the problem of light trapping. Also, lack of theoretical propositions which are consistent with fabrication is an issue to be improved. We investigate a real thin film solar cell with almost conformal layers grown on a 1D grating metallic backreflector both experimentally and theoretically. Photocurrent inc...

  1. Environmental influences on the performance of thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of thin film photovoltaic devices to changes in the environment is not well understood. There are a large number of conflicting reports, reflecting largely the superimposed nature of the environmental effects. A separation of the effects is not often attempted mainly because of the lack of appropriate spectral data. An experimental system has been designed and operated to facilitate the separation of the environmental effects, including spectral effects. This involves measurements in a controlled laboratory environment as well as outdoor monitoring. Furthermore, a number of analysis tools have been developed and tested for their suitability. In order to develop a system model, the applicability of parametric models for thin film devices is probed. The thermal variation of the underlying physical parameters is investigated and problems of describing thin film devices with parametric models are discussed. It is shown that the magnitude of the spectral effects for thin film devices is potentially much more significant than for conventional crystalline silicon devices. This analysis is centred on the primary spectral effect, i.e. it is conducted purely on the basis of available light and does not consider any absorption profiles or device structures. It is also shown that there is a strong daily and seasonal variation in the fraction of the useful light for devices employing a larger band gap. Environmental effects are observed directly from outdoor measuremee observed directly from outdoor measurements. It is apparent that many of the reported idiosyncrasies occurring during the operation of thin film devices can be explained simply by including spectral effects. It is possible to show the secondary spectral effect for multi-junction devices, i.e. an effect that depends on the composition of the solar irradiance and not purely on the magnitude of spectrally useful irradiance. This effect impacts mainly on the short circuit current and to some extent on the fill factor. Finally, the findings of this work are brought together in a simulation code for thin film photovoltaic devices. It is shown that it is possible to simulate such a photovoltaic system using parametric models, as long as the spectrum is considered. This is used to investigate the operational losses for one particular device. (author)

  2. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The present stature and current research directions of photovoltaic arrays as primary power systems for space are reviewed. There have recently been great advances in the technology of thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. In a thin-film solar cell the thickness of the active element is only a few microns; transfer of this technology to space arrays could result in ultralow-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper-indium selenide (CuInSe2) and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon:hydrogen and alloys. The best experimental efficiency on thin-film solar cells to date is 12 percent AMO for CuIn Se2. This efficiency is likely to be increased in the next few years. The radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single-crystal materials. CuIn Se2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1 MeV electrons. Experimental evidence also suggests that most of all of the radiation damage on thin-films can be removed by a low temperature anneal. The possibility of thin-film multibandgap cascade solar cells is discussed, including the tradeoffs between monolithic and mechanically stacked cells. The best current efficiency for a cascade is 12.5 percent AMO for an amorphous silicon on CuInSe2 multibandgap combination. Higher efficiencies are expected in the future. For several missions, including solar-electric propulsion, a manned Mars mission, and lunar exploration and manufacturing, thin-film photovolatic arrays may be a mission-enabling technology.

  3. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, G.A.; Bailey, S.G.; Flood, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The present stature and current research directions of photovoltaic arrays as primary power systems for space are reviewed. There have recently been great advances in the technology of thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. In a thin-film solar cell the thickness of the active element is only a few microns; transfer of this technology to space arrays could result in ultralow-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper-indium selenide (CuInSe2) and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon:hydrogen and alloys. The best experimental efficiency on thin-film solar cells to date is 12 percent AMO for CuInSe2. This efficiency is likely to be increased in the next few years. The radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single-crystal materials. CuInSe2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1 MeV electrons. Experimental evidence also suggests that most of all of the radiation damage on thin-films can be removed by a low temperature anneal. The possibility of thin-film multibandgap cascade solar cells is discussed, including the tradeoffs between monolithic and mechanically stacked cells. The best current efficiency for a cascade is 12.5 percent AMO for an amorphous silicon on CuInSe2 multibandgap combination. Higher efficiencies are expected in the future. For several missions, including solar-electric propulsion, a manned Mars mission, and lunar exploration and manufacturing, thin-film photovolatic arrays may be a mission-enabling technology.

  4. Review of thin film solar cell technology and applications for ultra-light spacecraft solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in thin-film amorphous and polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are reviewed and discussed with a view to potential applications in space. Two important figures of merit are discussed: efficiency (i.e., what fraction of the incident solar energy is converted to electricity), and specific power (power to weight ratio).

  5. Fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on plastic substrate by very high frequency PECVD

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, J. K.; Brinza, M.; Liu, Y.; Borreman, A.; Schropp, R. E. I.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the way to transfer process technology of state-of-the-art high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells fabrication on cheap plastic (such as PET or PEN) substrates, by two completely different approaches: (i) by transfer process (Helianthos concept) of thin film silicon cells deposited at high substrate temperature, Ts (200 C) and (ii) direct deposition on temperature sensitive substrates at low Ts (100 C). Adaptation of the process parameters and cell processing to ...

  6. Molybdenum Back-Contact Optimization for CIGS Thin Film Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum (Mo thin films are most widely used as an ohmic back-contact in the copper indium diselenide (CIS and its alloy copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS based thin film solar cell. Radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering system used to deposit Mo thin films on soda lime glass substrate. The deposition was carried out using argon (Ar gas at different Ar controlled (working pressures (1 mTorr to 10 mTorr and at different RF powers (60 W to 100 W. The influence of both the working pressure and the RF power on the Mo thin films was studied by investigating its structural, morphological, electrical, and optical measurements. The results reveal that a stress-free, low-sheet-resistance (~1 ?/?cm2, and reflecting (~ 55 % Mo thin film was observed at 1 mTorr working pressure and 100 W RF power.

  7. Nanosized Structural Anti-Reflection Layer for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kang-Soo; Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Kang-In; Lee, Heon

    2011-02-01

    A nanosized pattern layer was formed on the front surface (glass side) of the thin film solar cell using nanoimprint lithography with a Ni based moth-eye imprint mold in order to increase the total conversion efficiency of the amorphous silicon based thin film solar cell. The imprinted pattern layer had nanosized protrusions, which suppressed the reflection of light on the glass surfaces. The nanopatterns were formed using a methacryloxypropyl terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (MPDMS) based hard polymeric resin. The reflectance of the thin film solar cell significantly decreased because of the nanosized structural anti-reflection layer, and the total conversion efficiency of the cell increased about 3% compared to the identical solar cell without the nanosized pattern layer. Moreover, the surface exhibited a hydrophobic nature because of the surface nanopatterns and the self-assembled monolayer coating, and this hydrophobicity provided the solar cell with a self-cleaning functionality.

  8. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cell prepared by the solid phase crystallization (SPC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Sawada, T.; Takahama, T.; Wakisaka, K.; Tsuda, S.; Nakano, S. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Hirakata, Osaka (Japan). New Materials Research Center

    1994-12-31

    A solid phase crystallization (SPC) method was applied to the fabrication of thin-film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) for solar cells for the first time. Among crystalline silicon solar cells crystallized at a low temperature of less than 600 C, the world`s highest conversion efficiency of 8.5% was achieved in a solar cell using thin-film poly-Si with only 10 {micro}m thickness prepared by the SPC method. This solar cell showed high photosensitivity in the long-wavelength region of more than 800 nm and also exhibited no light-induced degradation after light exposure.

  9. Molybdenum back-contact optimization for CIGS thin film solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, J. R.; Shah, N. M.; Desai, M. S.; Panchal, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films are most widely used as an ohmic back-contact in the copper indium diselenide (CIS) and its alloy copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) based thin film solar cell. Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system used to deposit Mo thin films on soda lime glass substrate. The deposition was carried out using argon (Ar) gas at different Ar controlled (working) pressures (1 mTorr to 10 mTorr) and at different RF powers (60 W to 100 W). The influence of both the ...

  10. Characterization, modelling and optimization of industrial silicon thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rodri?guez Gonza?lez, Jose? Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis has been mostly developed at T-Solar Global S.A., a factory of silicon thin film photovoltaic modules. The main objectives are divided in three lines of action. On the one hand, we have characterised the optical and electrical properties of silicon thin film layers and transparent conductive oxides, as well as 1cm2 research solar cells deposited in substrates of 2.6 m x 2.2 m size used in the T-Solar production line. To characterize the solar cells, we have mainly measured the...

  11. Analyzing periodic and random textured silicon thin film solar cells by Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Rahul; Jovanov, Vladislav; Hamraz, Saeed; Knipp, Dietmar

    2014-08-01

    A simple and fast method was developed to determine the quantum efficiency and short circuit current of thin-film silicon solar cells prepared on periodically or randomly textured surfaces. The optics was studied for microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells with integrated periodic and random surface textures. Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) was used to investigate the behaviour of the solar cells. The analysis of the periodic and random textured substrates allows for deriving optimal surface textures. Furthermore, light trapping in periodic and randomly textured substrates will be compared.

  12. High power impulse magnetron sputtering of CIGS thin films for high efficiency thin film solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejn?ek, Ji?; Hubi?ka, Zden?k; Kohout, Michal; Krov, Petra; Kment, t?pn; Brunclkov, Michaela; ?ada, Martin; Darveau, S.A.; Exstrom, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 1, ?. 3 (2014), s. 135-137. ISSN 2336-2626 R&D Projects: GA Mk LH12045 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CIGS * HiPIMS * emission spectroscopy * thin films * magnetron sputtering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/olejnicek.pdf

  13. Enhanced optical absorption by Ag nanoparticles in a thin film Si solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film solar cells have the potential to significantly reduce the cost of photovoltaics. Light trapping is crucial to such a thin film silicon solar cell because of a low absorption coefficient due to its indirect band gap. In this paper, we investigate the suitability of surface plasmon resonance Ag nanoparticles for enhancing optical absorption in the thin film solar cell. For evaluating the transmittance capability of Ag nanoparticles and the conventional antireflection film, an enhanced transmittance factor is introduced. We find that under the solar spectrum AM1.5, the transmittance of Ag nanoparticles with radius over 160 nm is equivalent to that of conventional textured antireflection film, and its effect is better than that of the planar antireflection film. The influence of the surrounding medium is also discussed. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  14. Study on AlxNiy Alloys as Diffusion Barriers in Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-sputtered AlxNiy thin films were used as diffusion barriers between aluminum and hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) for flexible thin film solar cells. The stoichiometric ratio of AlxNiy showed a significant effect on the structures of the films. The obtained Al3Ni2 film was amorphous, while polycrystalline films were obtained when the ratio of aluminum to nickel was 1:1 and 2:3. An auger electron spectroscope and four-point probe system were applied to test the resistance to the interdiffusion between aluminum and silicon, as well as the conductivities of the AlxNiy barriers. The data of auger depth profile showed that the content of silicon was the minimum in the aluminum layer after sputtering for 4 min using AlNi thin film as the barrier layer. Compared to other AlxNiy alloys, the AlNi thin film possessed the lowest sheet resistance.

  15. Spray-on Thin Film PV Solar Cells: Advances, Potentials and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Eslamian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability to fabricate photovoltaic (PV solar cells on a large scale and at a competitive price is a milestone waiting to be achieved. Currently, such a fabrication method is lacking because the effective methods are either difficult to scale up or expensive due to the necessity for fabrication in a vacuum environment. Nevertheless, for a class of thin film solar cells, in which the solar cell materials can be processed in a solution, up scalable and vacuum-free fabrication techniques can be envisioned. In this context, all or some layers of polymer, dye-sensitized, quantum dot, and copper indium gallium selenide thin film solar cells illustrate some examples that may be processed in solution. The solution-processed materials may be transferred to the substrate by atomizing the solution and carrying the spray droplets to the substrate, a process that will form a thin film after evaporation of the solvent. Spray coating is performed at atmospheric pressure using low cost equipment with a roll-to-roll process capability, making it an attractive fabrication technique, provided that fairly uniform layers with high charge carrier separation and transport capability can be made. In this paper, the feasibility, the recent advances and challenges of fabricating spray-on thin film solar cells, the dynamics of spray and droplet impaction on the substrate, the photo-induced electron transfer in spray-on solar cells, the challenges on characterization and simulation, and the commercialization status of spray-on solar cells are discussed.

  16. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorka, Benjamin

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen passivation is a key process step in the fabrication of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film solar cells. In this work a parallel plate rf plasma setup was used for the hydrogen passivation treatment. The main topics that have been investigated are (i) the role of plasma parameters (like hydrogen pressure, electrode gap and plasma power), (ii) the dynamics of the hydrogen treatment and (iii) passivation of poly-Si with different material properties. Passivation was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage V{sub OC} of poly-Si reference samples. Optimum passivation conditions were found by measurements of the breakdown voltage V{sub brk} of the plasma for different pressures p and electrode gaps d. For each pressure, the best passivation was achieved at a gap d that corresponded to the minimum in V{sub brk}. Plasma simulations were carried out, which indicate that best V{sub OC} corresponds to a minimum in ion energy. V{sub OC} was not improved by a larger H flux. Investigations of the passivation dynamic showed that a plasma treatment in the lower temperature range ({<=}400 C) is slow and takes several hours for the V{sub OC} to saturate. Fast passivation can be successfully achieved at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C with a plateau time of 10 min. It was found that prolonged hydrogenation leads to a loss in V{sub OC}, which is less pronounced within the observed optimum temperature range (500 C-600 C). Electron beam evaporation has been investigated as an alternative method to fabricate poly-Si absorbers. The material properties have been tuned by alteration of substrate temperature T{sub dep}=200-700 C and were characterized by Raman, ESR and V{sub OC} measurements. Largest grains were obtained after solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si, deposited in the temperature range of 300 C. The defect concentration of Si dangling bonds was lowered by passivation by about one order of magnitude. The lowest dangling bond concentration of 2.5.10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} after passivation was found for poly-Si with largest grains and coincides with best solar cell results, obtained after rapid thermal annealing and hydrogen passivation. Hydrogen passivation of poly-Si films was successfully achieved with a parallel plate rf H plasma treatment at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C. Yet it seems that treatment induced defect generation causes a loss in V{sub OC} with prolonged passivation time and should be minimized. In order to achieve high open circuit voltages larger than 450 mV, in addition to hydrogen passivation, low recombination at the interfaces becomes more and more important. (orig.)

  17. Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandidier, Jonathan; Callahan, Dennis M; Munday, Jeremy N; Atwater, Harry A.

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to increasing light absorption in thin-film solar cells is demonstrated. This new method involves redirecting the incident sunlight into the cell via coupling to the whispering gallery modes of dielectric spheres, which lie atop the cell. Such a scheme leads to a predicted current enhancement of >12% for a-Si.

  18. Spray-on Thin Film PV Solar Cells: Advances, Potentials and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Eslamian

    2014-01-01

    The capability to fabricate photovoltaic (PV) solar cells on a large scale and at a competitive price is a milestone waiting to be achieved. Currently, such a fabrication method is lacking because the effective methods are either difficult to scale up or expensive due to the necessity for fabrication in a vacuum environment. Nevertheless, for a class of thin film solar cells, in which the solar cell materials can be processed in a solution, up scalable and vacuum-free fabrication techniques c...

  19. Fabrication of nanocrystal ink based superstrate-type CuInS? thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Woo; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Woong; Min, Byoung Koun

    2012-07-01

    A CuInS? (CIS) nanocrystal ink was applied to thin film solar cell devices with superstrate-type configuration. Monodispersed CIS nanocrystals were synthesized by a colloidal synthetic route and re-dispersed in toluene to form an ink. A spray method was used to coat CIS films onto conducting glass substrates. Prior to CIS film deposition, TiO? and CdS thin films were also prepared as a blocking layer and a buffer layer, respectively. We found that both a TiO? blocking layer and a CdS buffer layer are necessary to generate photoresponses in superstrate-type devices. The best power conversion efficiency (?1.45%) was achieved by the CIS superstrate-type thin film solar cell device with 200 and 100 nm thick TiO? and CdS films, respectively. PMID:22699212

  20. Soft X-rays shedding light on thin-film solar cell surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? S/Se gradient-driven chemical interaction at the CdS/CIG(S)Se interface. ? Depth-dependent band gap in chalcopyrites. ? Band alignment at the CdS/Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell heterojunction. ? Post-deposition treatment induces intermixing in the CdTe/CdS solar cell structure. -- Abstract: Thin-film solar cells based on compound semiconductors consist of a multilayer structure with various interfaces and contain a multitude of elements and impurities, etc. A rapid progress of these photovoltaic technologies can only be achieved by an insight-driven optimization/development. Hence it is crucial to characterize and understand the relationship between the chemical and electronic properties of these components. This paper reviews some examples of our recent work characterizing compound semiconductor thin films using laboratory- and synchrotron-based electron and soft X-ray spectroscopic characterization methods. It is demonstrated how these different analytical techniques are extraordinarily powerful to reveal the material characteristics from many different perspectives, ultimately resulting in a comprehensive picture of the related electronic and chemical properties. As examples, the paper will discuss the electronic surface structure of chalcopyrite thin-film solar cell absorbers, the chemical structure of the CdS/chalcopyrite interface, present the band alignment at the CdS/kesterite interface, and report on how post-deposition treatments cause chemical interaction/interdiffusion processes in CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cell structures

  1. Properties of ITO-AZO bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering for applications in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study the electro-optical behavior and the application of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) bilayer thin films for silicon solar cells. ITO-AZO bilayer thin films were deposited on glass substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The experimental results show that a decrease in the electrical resistivity of the ITO-AZO bilayer thin films has been achieved without significant degradation of optical properties. In the best case the resistivity of the bilayer films reached a minimum of 5.075 x 10-4 ? cm when the thickness of the AZO buffer layer was 12 nm. The ITO-AZO bilayer films were applied as the front electrodes of amorphous silicon solar cells and the short-circuit current density of the solar cells was considerably increased. (orig.)

  2. Nanoscale investigation of potential distribution in operating Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhenhao

    2012-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells based on CIGS absorber materials show the highest power conversion efficiency among all kinds of thin-film solar cells. The distribution of the electrostatic potential in and between the materials in the solar cell has obviously a major impact on the superior performance of the device. This thesis reported on imaging of the electrostatic potential on untreated cross sections of operating CIGS solar cells using Kelvin probe force microscopy.

  3. ?????????????????? Research Progress of Surface Plasmon Applied in Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????In order to transfer light to electricity efficiently, thin film solar cells with the structure of supporting surface plasmons in metal particles are designed. Due to the surface plasmons can guide and localize lights, the physical thickness of solar photovoltaic absorbing layer can be decreased as well as the absorption in photovoltaic devices can be improved. This technology plays an important role in fabricating low-cost and high-efficiency thin film solar cells. In this review, the latest progress of the application of plasmonics in solar cells is researched, the mechanism of the intersection of plasmonics and photovoltaics is expounded, and an outlook on the future of solar cells based on these principles is offered.

  4. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  5. Low cost and high performance light trapping structure for thin-film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scaled dielectric and metallic structures are popular light tapping structures in thin-film solar cells. However, a large parasitic absorption in those structures is unavoidable. Most schemes based on such structures also involve the textured active layers that may bring undesirable degradation of the material quality. Here we propose a novel and cheap light trapping structure based on the prism structured SiO2 for thin-film solar cells, and a flat active layer is introduced purposefully. Such a light trapping structure is imposed by the geometrical shape optimization to gain the best optical benefit. By examining our scheme, it is disclosed that the conversion efficiency of the flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted to exceed the currently certified highest value. As the cost of SiO2-based light trapping structure is much cheaper and easier to fabricate than other materials, this proposal would have essential impact and wide applications in thin-film solar cells.

  6. Progress in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udai P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For some time, the chalcopyrite semiconductor CuInSe2 and its alloy with Ga and/or S [Cu(InGaSe2 or Cu(InGa(Se,S2], commonly referred as CIGS, have been leading thin-film material candidates for incorporation in high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. CuInSe2-based solar cells have shown long-term stability and the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film solar cells, reaching 20%. A variety of methods have been reported to prepare CIGS thin film. Efficiency of solar cells depends upon the various deposition methods as they control optoelectronic properties of the layers and interfaces. CIGS thin film grown on glass or flexible (metal foil, polyimide substrates require p-type absorber layers of optimum optoelectronic properties and n-type wideband gap partner layers to form the p-n junction. Transparent conducting oxide and specific metal layers are used for front and back contacts. Progress made in the field of CIGS solar cell in recent years has been reviewed.

  7. Disorder improves nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a systematic experimental study on the impact of disorder in advanced nanophotonic light-trapping concepts of thin-film solar cells. Thin-film solar cells made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared on imprint-textured glass superstrates. For periodically textured superstrates of periods below 500?nm, the nanophotonic light-trapping effect is already superior to state-of-the-art randomly textured front contacts. The nanophotonic light-trapping effect can be associated to light coupling to leaky waveguide modes causing resonances in the external quantum efficiency of only a few nanometer widths for wavelengths longer than 500?nm. With increasing disorder of the nanotextured front contact, these resonances broaden and their relative altitude decreases. Moreover, overall the external quantum efficiency, i.e., the light-trapping effect, increases incrementally with increasing disorder. Thereby, our study is a systematic experimental proof that disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light-trapping concepts employing grating couplers in thin-film solar cells. The result is relevant for the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasi periodic textures

  8. Photovoltaic Technology: The Case for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Arvind; Torres, P.; Tscharner, Reto; Wyrsch, N.; Keppner H

    2013-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of photovoltaic solar modules for energy generation are reviewed with their operation principles and physical efficiency limits. Although the main materials currently used or investigated and the associated fabrication technologies are individually described, emphasis is on silicon-based solar cells. Wafer-based crystalline silicon solar modules dominate in terms of production, but amorphous silicon solar cells have the potential to undercut costs owing, for exa...

  9. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PVâ??s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

  10. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  11. Texture ZnO Thin-Films and their Application as Front Electrode in Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-Hui Hu; Yi-Chuan Chen; Hai-Jun Xu; Hao Gao; Wei-Hui Jiang; Fei Hu; Yan-Xiang Wang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, three kinds of textured ZnO thin-films (the first kind has the textured structure with both columnar and polygon, the second posses pyramid-like textured structure only, and the third has the textured structure with both crater-like and pyramid-like), were prepared by three kinds of methods, and the application of these ZnO thin-films as a front electrode in solar cell was studied, respectively. In the first method with negative bias voltage and appropriate sputtering parameter...

  12. Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, C.; Fahr, S.; Lederer, F.; Bittkau, K.; Beckers, T.; Carius, R.

    2008-08-01

    Enhanced light absorption in amorphous silicon thin films deposited on randomly textured zinc-oxide surfaces is investigated by means of a rigorous diffraction theory taking into account measured surface profiles and near-field optical data. Global absorption enhancement is obtained in the calculations for particular modifications of the random texture. We furthermore spatially resolve local domains of the surface texture, which show the strongest contribution to the absorption. Criteria on how random surfaces should look like to enhance absorption in thin-film solar cells are derived.

  13. Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on the Polycrystalline Compound Semiconductors CIS and CdTe

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Bonnet; Michael Powalla

    2007-01-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules based on Cu-In-Ga-Se-S (CIS) and CdTe are already being produced with high-quality and solar conversion efficiencies of around 10%, with values up to 14% expected in the near future. The integrated interconnection of single cells into large-area modules of 0.6×1.2m2 enables low-cost mass production, so that thin-film modules will soon be able to compete with conventional silicon-wafer-based modules. This contribution provides an overview of the basic tec...

  14. Optical Layers for Thin-film Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cuony, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this work we develop and analyze optical layers for use in Micromorph solar cells, a tandem configuration with an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline silicon bottom cell. The morphology of the front electrode has a decisive role in maximizing the efficiency of a solar cell. To reach a better understanding of the requirements for the front electrode surface, we present a wide range of morphologies that can be obtained with as-grown rou...

  15. On the Scalar Scattering Theory for Thin-Film Solar Cells:

    OpenAIRE

    Ja?ger, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-textured interfaces between two media of different refractive indices scatter light. The angular distribution and the intensity of the scattered light are deter- mined by the geometry of the nano-textures and the difference of the refractive indices of the two media. Thin-film silicon solar cells (TFSSC), which convert sunlight directly into electricity, have nano-textured interfaces. These interfaces scatter the light incident on the solar cell. The scattering leads to a longer avera...

  16. Effect of electrode separation on PECVD deposited nanocrystalline silicon thin film and solar cell properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati [Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata-700 032 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Hydrogenated silicon thin films were prepared at different electrode separations and total gas flow rates. Nanocrystalline Si:H films with similar crystalline volume fraction deposited at lower electrode separation have lower microstructural factor. Quality of the absorber layer and solar cell performance improve as electrode separation and deposition power density simultaneously decrease. Maximum efficiency of 6.9% is obtained for solar cell with absorber layer deposited at an electrode separation of 1 cm. (author)

  17. Designing optimized nano textures for thin-film silicon solar cells :

    OpenAIRE

    Ja?ger, K.; Fischer, M.; Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.; Zeman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film silicon solar cells (TFSSC), which can be manufactured from abundant materials solely, contain nano-textured interfaces that scatter the incident light. We present an approximate very fast algorithm that allows optimizing the surface morphology of two-dimensional nano-textured interfaces. Optimized nano-textures scatter the light incident on the solar cell stronger leading to a higher short-circuit current density and thus efficiency. Our algorithm combines a recently developed scat...

  18. Single-layer organic-inorganic-hybrid thin-film encapsulation for organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Shiuan; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, I.-Wen; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Wu, Chih-I.; Lin, Ching-Fuh; Cheng, I.-Chun

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate an organic-inorganic-hybrid thin-film encapsulation technique for organic solar cells. The single-layer encapsulation thin film is deposited from a gas mixture of hexamethyldisiloxane and oxygen by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition at room temperature. The encapsulation film contains organic and inorganic compounds: the inorganic compounds serve as the permeation barriers, and the organic compounds reduce defect propagation. An optical transmission of ?90% in the visible light region and a water vapour transmission rate of 3.6 10-6 g m-2 day are obtained for a 1.5 m thick hybrid film. Efficiency decay is not observed in the inverted organic solar cell coated with this thin film after exposure to air for 3600 h in contrast, the efficiency of the unencapsulated counterpart degrades rapidly and fails after exposure to air for 120 h. The obtained results show that this organic-inorganic-hybrid thin film is promising for the encapsulation of organic solar cells.

  19. Single-layer organicinorganic-hybrid thin-film encapsulation for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate an organicinorganic-hybrid thin-film encapsulation technique for organic solar cells. The single-layer encapsulation thin film is deposited from a gas mixture of hexamethyldisiloxane and oxygen by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition at room temperature. The encapsulation film contains organic and inorganic compounds: the inorganic compounds serve as the permeation barriers, and the organic compounds reduce defect propagation. An optical transmission of ?90% in the visible light region and a water vapour transmission rate of 3.6 10?6 g m?2 day are obtained for a 1.5 m thick hybrid film. Efficiency decay is not observed in the inverted organic solar cell coated with this thin film after exposure to air for 3600 h; in contrast, the efficiency of the unencapsulated counterpart degrades rapidly and fails after exposure to air for 120 h. The obtained results show that this organicinorganic-hybrid thin film is promising for the encapsulation of organic solar cells. (paper)

  20. Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermel, Peter; Luo, Chiyan; Zeng, Lirong; Kimerling, Lionel C; Joannopoulos, John D

    2007-12-10

    Most photovoltaic (solar) cells are made from crystalline silicon (c-Si), which has an indirect band gap. This gives rise to weak absorption of one-third of usable solar photons. Therefore, improved light trapping schemes are needed, particularly for c-Si thin film solar cells. Here, a photonic crystal-based light-trapping approach is analyzed and compared to previous approaches. For a solar cell made of a 2 mum thin film of c-Si and a 6 bilayer distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in the back, power generation can be enhanced by a relative amount of 24.0% by adding a 1D grating, 26.3% by replacing the DBR with a six-period triangular photonic crystal made of air holes in silicon, 31.3% by a DBR plus 2D grating, and 26.5% by replacing it with an eight-period inverse opal photonic crystal. PMID:19550990

  1. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55C 110C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  2. Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Rodot, M.; Barbe, M.; Bouree, J. E.; Perraki, V.; Revel, G.; Kishore, R.; Pastol, J. L.; Mertens, R.; Caymax, M.; Eyckmans, M.

    1987-01-01

    Epitaxial solar cells have been studied with the view of using rather impure upgraded metallurgical grade (UMG)-Si as a substrate material. It is confirmed that transition elements have segregated during ingot growth and that impurities such as B, P, Al do not diffuse from substrate to epilayers, so that the latter have resistivity and electron diffusion length adequate to produce good solar cells. 10.3 % efficiency cells have been obtained. By spectral response measurements, interpreted thro...

  3. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L. (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  4. Computational and experimental study of a multi-layer absorptivity enhanced thin film silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the computational design, fabrication and validation of a multi-layer silicon based thin film solar cell. The cell structure consists of a thin absorber layer of amorphous silicon deposited on a back-reflector aluminum layer and coated on top with ITO transparent conductive oxide. The structure is mounted on a glass substrate. We first use constrained optimization techniques along with numerical solvers of the electromagnetic equations (i.e. FDTD) to tune the geometry of the design. The resulting structure suggests that photon absorptivity in the thin film silicon can be enhanced by as much as 100% over the uncoated layer. The proposed design is then fabricated using thin film deposition techniques, along with a control sample of bare silicon absorber for comparison. AFM imaging and spectrophotometry experiments are applied to image and record the surface roughness and measure the reflectivity spectrum of the sample. Using the measured reflectivity spectrum, we then use inverse optimization to estimate the realized thin film dimensions, deposition error and unwanted oxidation volume. At the end, we use a statistical Monte Carlo analysis as a second method of verification to demonstrate that the measured spectra are in accordance with the expected curves from simulation, and to estimate the effects of fabrication error. - Highlights: Design, fabrication and validation of multi-layer silicon solar cell are studied. The cell consists of aluminum, amorphous silicon and ITO layers. The proposed designs are fabricated by deposition techniques. Inverse optimization is used to estimate the realized dimensions and errors

  5. Photon management in thin-film solar cells; Photon-Management in Duennschicht-Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahr, Stephan

    2011-11-22

    In this thesis procedures were presented, which modify the propagation of the incident light in such a way that by this the efficiency of thin-film solar cells is increased. The strength of the presented numerical studies lies thereby in the rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations. Fundamental statements concerning the lay-out of an ideal texture could be made, which for present thin-film solar cells over the whole relevant spectral range both suppresses reflection losses and leads to an elongation of the effective path. Object of the thesis was also the design of a spectral- and angular-selective filter, which confines the acceptance angle of a solar cell with the aim of an improved absorption in the long-wave spectral region. Furthermore also tandem cells on the base of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon were studied.

  6. Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been recently investigated as a possible way to improve absorption of light in solar cells. The strong interaction of small metal nanostructures with light allows control over the propagation of light at the nanoscale and thus the design of ultrathin solar cells in which light is trapped in the active layer and efficiently absorbed. In this paper we review some of our recent work in the field of plasmonics for improved solar cells. We have investigated two possible ways of integrating metal nanoparticles in a solar cell. First, a layer of Ag nanoparticles that improves the standard antireflection coating used for crystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells has been designed and fabricated. Second, regular and random arrays of metal nanostructures have been designed to couple light in waveguide modes of thin semiconductor layers. Using a large-scale, relative inexpensive nano-imprint technique, we have designed a back-contact light trapping surface for a-Si:H solar cells which show enhanced efficiency over standard randomly textured cells. (review article)

  7. Light-trapping design of graphene transparent electrodes for efficient thin-film silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the performance of solar cells with graphene transparent electrodes is compared with cells using conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, and it is demonstrated the optical absorption of solar cells with bare graphene structure is worse than that of bare ITO structure because of the higher refractive index of graphene. To enhance the light trapping of graphene-based thin-film solar cells, a simple two-layer SiO(2)/SiC structure is proposed as antireflection coatings deposited on top of graphene transparent electrodes, and the thickness of each layer is optimized by differential evolution in order to enhance the optical absorption of a-Si:H thin-film solar cells to the greatest degree. The optimization results demonstrate the optimal SiO(2)/SiC/graphene structure can obtain 37.30% enhancement with respect to bare ITO structure, which has obviously exceeded the light-trapping enhancement of 34.15% for the optimal SiO(2)/SiC/ITO structure. Therefore, with the aid of the light-trapping structure, the graphene films are a very promising indium-free transparent electrode substitute for the conventional ITO electrode for use in cost-efficient thin-film silicon solar cells. PMID:22945173

  8. Thin film solar cell inflatable ultraviolet rigidizable deployment hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simburger, Edward J. (Inventor); Matsumoto, James H. (Inventor); Giants, Thomas W. (Inventor); Garcia, III, Alec (Inventor); Perry, Alan R. (Inventor); Rawal, Suraj (Inventor); Marshall, Craig H. (Inventor); Lin, John K. H. (Inventor); Day, Jonathan Robert (Inventor); Kerslake, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible inflatable hinge includes curable resin for rigidly positioning panels of solar cells about the hinge in which wrap around contacts and flex circuits are disposed for routing power from the solar cells to the power bus further used for grounding the hinge. An indium tin oxide and magnesium fluoride coating is used to prevent static discharge while being transparent to ultraviolet light that cures the embedded resin after deployment for rigidizing the inflatable hinge.

  9. Advanced Light Trapping of High-Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Tomomi; Feltrin, Andrea; Suezaki, Takashi; Ichikawa, Mitsuru; Kuchiyama, Takashi; Adachi, Daisuke; Inaki, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Kunta; Koizumi, Gensuke; Uzu, Hisashi; Ueda, Hiroaki; Uto, Toshihiko; Fujimoto, Takahisa; Irie, Toru; Hayakawa, Hironori; Nakanishi, Naoaki; Yoshimi, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Kaneka has been proposing and developing the advanced super-light trapping (ASLT) structure for thin film silicon solar cells, which incorporates tailored light confinement structures in tandem thin film silicon solar cells to selectively enhance light trapping in top and bottom subcells. In this paper, we present the results of the development of intermediate reflectors with very low refractive index and the design and implementation of nanoimprinted substrates. We demonstrate that significant current gains are possible by reducing the refractive index of the interlayer beyond state-of-the-art values. In addition, we show that the transparent conductive oxide angular scattering properties correlate with the solar cell performance in the infrared part of the spectrum.

  10. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  11. Integration of solar sail and thin film solar cell using spectrum splitting technology for deep space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yudong; Zuo, Huaping; Wang, Zhimin

    It is very important to lighten weight for deep space exploration. Thin film type spacecrafts like solar sails may be the good choice. Due to the favourable photoelectric effect in weak light and light weight, flexible thin film solar sell will also be considered as new generation energy. In order to integrate thin film solar cell into solar sail perfectly, the spectrum splitting technology using optical multilayer film is employed to divide the solar spectrum. The transmissivity of the designed optical film is calculated by a developed computer program. It shows that that the transmissivity is larger than 95% in the range 400-1000nm, and obviously decrease above 400 nm, and below 1000 nm. The result given in this work will provide a new way to realize a low area mass of the solar sail.

  12. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Institute of Energy Conversion

    1997-11-01

    During the third phase of the subcontract, IEC researchers have continued to provide the thin film PV community with greater depth of understanding and insight into a wide variety of issues including: the deposition and characterization of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, a-Si, CdTe, CdS, and TCO thin films; the relationships between film and device properties; and the processing and analysis of thin film PV devices. This has been achieved through the systematic investigation of all aspects of film and device production and through the analysis and quantification of the reaction chemistries involved in thin film deposition. This methodology has led to controlled fabrications of 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells over a wide range of Ga compositions, improved process control of the fabrication of 10% efficient a-Si solar cells, and reliable and generally applicable procedures for both contacting and doping films. Additional accomplishments are listed below.

  13. Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Naqavi, Ali; Sderstrm, Karin; Battaglia, Corsin; Paeder, Vincent; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the angular behavior of the upper bound of absorption provided by the guided modes in thin film solar cells. We show that the 4n^2 limit can be potentially exceeded in a wide angular and wavelength range using two-dimensional periodic thin film structures. Two models are used to estimate the absorption enhancement; in the first one, we apply the periodicity condition along the thickness of the thin film structure but in the second one, we consider imperfect confinement of the wave to the device. To extract the guided modes, we use an automatized procedure which is established in this work. Through examples, we show that from the optical point of view, thin film structures have a high potential to be improved by changing their shape. Also, we discuss the nature of different optical resonances which can be potentially used to enhance light trapping in the solar cell. We investigate the two different polarization directions for one-dimensional gratings and we show that the transverse magnetic pola...

  14. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  15. Development of thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells by a solid phase crystallization (SPC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Takao; Baba, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Makoto; Isomura, Masao; Tsuda, Shinya; Nakano, Shoichi; Kuwano, Yukinori [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Hirakata, Osaka (Japan). Functional Materials Research Center

    1993-12-31

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films prepared by the solid phase crystallization (SPC) method were studied for photovoltaic materials. To improve the properties of the poly-Si thin film, a-Si films suited to the solid phase crystallization were investigated. It was found that TA/TO (peak height ratio of TA peak and TO peak) in Raman spectra of a-Si films had the good correlation with the average grain size, and a factor for the enlargement of grain size was an increase of distortion energy stored in a-Si films. The first adoption of a textured substrate was also performed, which had effects on the enlargement of grain size in poly-Si thin films by the SPC method. By applying the a-Si films with large TA/TO value on textured substrate, the n-type poly-Si thin-film with the grain size of 6 {micro}m was fabricated and this film showed the Hall mobility of 623 cm{sup 2}/Vs (electron density: 3.0 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}). A new heterojunction technology, which was called Artificially Constructed Junction (ACJ), was developed by depositions of thin a-Si films on single-crystalline silicon (c-Si). In a solar cell using this technology, a high conversion efficiency of 18.7% was achieved. This is the highest value ever reported for solar cells in which the junctions were fabricated at a low temperature of less than 200 C. In a thin-film poly-Si solar cell (thickness: 10 {micro}m) applying this technology, a conversion efficiency of 6.3% was also obtained and a collection efficiency of 51% was achieved at a wavelength of 900 nm. This high value attributes to the hole diffusion length of 11 {micro}m, which is longer than the poly-Si thickness.

  16. Development of a thin film solar cell interconnect for the PowerSphere concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive development of microsatellite technologies has resulted in increased demand for lightweight electrical power subsystems including solar arrays. The use of thin film photovoltaics has been recognized as a key solution to meet the power needs. The lightweight cells can generate sufficient power and still meet critical mass requirements. Commercially available solar cells produced on lightweight substrates are being studied as an option to fulfill the power needs. The commercially available solar cells are relatively inexpensive and have a high payoff potential. Commercially available thin film solar cells are primarily being produced for terrestrial applications. The need to convert the solar cell from a terrestrial to a space compatible application is the primary challenge. Solar cell contacts, grids and interconnects need to be designed to be atomic oxygen resistant and withstand rapid thermal cycling environments. A mechanically robust solar cell interconnect is also required in order to withstand handling during fabrication and survive during launch. The need to produce the solar cell interconnects has been identified as a primary goal of the PowerSphere program and is the topic of this paper. Details of the trade study leading to the final design involving the solar cell wrap around contact, flex blanket, welding process, and frame will be presented at the conference

  17. Advanced characterization techniques for thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Uwe; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Written by scientists from leading institutes in Germany, USA and Spain who use these techniques as the core of their scientific work and who have a precise idea of what is relevant for photovoltaic devices, this text contains concise and comprehensive lecture-like chapters on specific research methods.They focus on emerging, specialized techniques that are new to the field of photovoltaics yet have a proven relevance. However, since new methods need to be judged according to their implications for photovoltaic devices, a clear introductory chapter describes the basic physics of thin-film

  18. Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer, Philippe; Morales-masis, Monica; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-carrier, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-of...

  19. Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandidier, Jonathan; Callahan, Dennis M.; Munday, Jeremy N.; Atwater, Harry A. [Thomas J. Watson Laboratories of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-03-11

    Freely propagating sunlight can be diffractively coupled and transformed into several guided whispering gallery modes within an array of wavelength scale dielectric spheres. Incident optical power is then transferred to the thin-film cell by leaky mode coupling into a thin solar cell absorber layer and significantly enhances its efficiency by increasing the fraction of incident light absorbed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Oxide and sulfide semiconductor thin films for solar cells and spintronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Thankalekshmi, Ratheesh

    This dissertation will present the synthesis and characterization of the doped-zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by various techniques for their potential applications in spintronics devices and solar cells. The research work shows room temperature ferromagnetism in transition metal doped zinc oxide dilute magnetic semiconductors in highly crystalline nanostructured and polycrystalline forms. A spin field effect transistor working as a resistive switch was simulated based on the conductance modulation of the electron channel formed by magnetic impurity doped ZnO. Light scattering properties of nanostructured doped ZnO films has been simulated using Mie scattering theory in view of possible application in light harvesting in solar cells. Band gap bowing effect was achieved in sulfur-alloyed ZnO (zinc oxysulfide) films and a new bowing parameter and stress effect gave a better understanding of the sulfur alloyed effect in these polycrystalline thin films synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. A novel nanostructure was developed with sulfur-doping of ZnO in the ZnO core and zinc oxysulfide (ZnO1-xSx) shell form. For the first time the ZnO-ZnO1-xSx core-shell nanorods were applied to develop 3-dimenstional organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells. The performance of organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells based on ZnO-ZnO 1-xSx core-shell nanorods thin films was evaluated using the current-voltage characteristics. Further, the role of flux induced crystallization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films by chemical spray pyrolysis technique is explored. This dissertation also investigates the interface effects and heterojunction properties of cadmium sulfide/CZTS heterojunction solar cells.

  1. IR-imaging and non-destructive loss analysis on thin film solar modules and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jens; Fecher, Frank W.; Hoga, Felix; Vetter, Andreas; Buerhop, Claudia; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2014-10-01

    CIGS thin film solar modules, despite their high efficiency, may contain three different kinds of macroscopic defects referred to as bulk defects, interface defects and interconnect defects. These occur due to the film's sensitivity to inhomogeneities during the manufacturing process and decreasing the electrical power output from a cell or module. In this study, we present infrared (IR) imaging and contactless loss analyses of defects contained in commercially manufactured thin film solar modules. We investigated different relations between the emitted IR-signal (using illuminated lock-in thermography ILIT) and the respective open circuit cell voltage (Voc) as well as the maximum power point (Pmpp). A simulation study, using the 2D finite element method (FEM), provides a deeper understanding as to the impact on electrical performance when defects are present on the cell or module.

  2. Large area thin film cadmium telluride heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.; Firszt, F.; Nassem, H. A.; Stawski, R.

    Cadmium telluride films have been deposited by the direct combination of the elements on the surface of heated substrates in hydrogen. The resistivity of p-type films was controlled by (1) using a cadmium-deficient reaction mixture, and (2) adding a dopant to a nearly stoichiometric reaction mixture. Heterojunction solar cells were prepared from p-type cadmium telluride films by using cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, tin-doped indium oxide, and zinc oxide, deposited by ion-beam sputtering, spray pyrolysis, or vacuum evaporation, as the window material. Thus far, n-ITO/p-CdTe solar cells have the highest AMl efficiency, 8.1 percent for cells of 1 sq cm area. All heterojunction cells exhibit some degradation under continuous illumination, which may be minimized by passivation.

  3. Quantum efficiency enhancement in selectively transparent silicon thin film solar cells by distributed Bragg reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, M Y; Hsing, J Y; Chiu, T T; Li, C N; Kuo, W T; Lay, T S; Shih, M H

    2012-11-01

    This work demonstrated a-Si:H thin-film solar cells with backside TiO(2) / SiO(2) distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) for applications involving building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs). Selectively transparent solar cells are formed by adjusting the positions of the DBR stop bands to allow the transmission of certain parts of light through the solar cells. Measurement and simulation results indicate that the transmission of blue light (430 ~500 nm) with the combination of three DBR mirrors has the highest increase in conversion efficiency. PMID:23326830

  4. Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, James R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and amorphous silicon alloy solar cells have achieved noteworthy performance and are currently being studied for space power applications. Cadmium sulfide cells had been the subject of much effort but are no longer considered for space applications. A review is presented of what is known about the radiation degradation of thin film solar cells in space. Experimental cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon alloy cells are reviewed. Damage mechanisms and radiation induced defect generation and passivation in the amorphous silicon alloy cell are discussed in detail due to the greater amount of experimental data available.

  5. TCAD studies of novel nanoplate amorphous silicon alloy thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.T., E-mail: stchang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Hsieh, B.-F.

    2011-12-30

    A novel nanoplate-structured thin-film solar cell was investigated that could solve the conflict between light absorption and carrier transport in a p-type amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC)/i-type amorphous silicon germanide (a-SiGe)/n-type amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film solar cell. This structure has an n-type a-Si nanoplate array on the substrate, a-SiC p-layer, and an a-SiGe i-layer which are sequentially grown along the surface of each n-type a-Si nanoplate. Under illumination by sunlight, light is absorbed along the vertical direction of the nanoplate, while the carrier transport is along the horizontal direction. The nanoplate structure may absorb most of the sunlight and provide a thinner film for the effective transport of photon-generated carriers as compared to the conventional planar structure.

  6. Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, F.-J.; Sderstrm, T.; Cubero, O.; Terrazzoni-Daudrix, V.; Ballif, C.

    2008-09-01

    We study the influence of different textures and dielectric environments on the excitation of surface plasmon resonances on silver because textured metallic films often serve as back contacts of silicon thin film solar cells. For coupling between light and the surface plasmon excitation we use a periodic sinusoidal structure that enables us to sample the dispersion relation at well defined conditions with a simple spectral reflection measurement. We use three layer samples of amorphous silicon/ZnO/silver to mimic the behavior of the back contact in a thin film silicon solar cell; the measurements suggest that losses due to plasmon excitation can very well extend in the spectral region where optimum reflectance is desired. An appropriate thickness of ZnO is able to reduce absorption losses. Our findings on periodic structures are also found useful to explain the behavior of surface plasmon excitation on randomly textured ZnO/Ag reflector layers.

  7. Highly crystallized sputtered silicon with textured morphology for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiang; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Yong; Li, Dejie

    2011-03-01

    A light-trapping structure with textured morphology for thin-film solar cell is demonstrated in this paper. It is fabricated through Al evaporation, and has a root-mean-roughness (Rms) of about 120 nm and lateral width of about 1 ?m for single bulge. A Mo layer is introduced to be a barrier layer. Subsequently sputtered amorphous silicon film is 100% crystallized by Cu induced crystallization. Reflectivity of samples with different silicon thickness is studied to reveal the light-trapping efficiency and the reflectivity as low as 10% is obtained with only 840 nm thick silicon film. This is a low-cost structure promising for future thin-film solar cells with high efficiency.

  8. A study of ZnO:B films for thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Zhu, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Gao, J.; Mai, Y.; Ma, Y.; Wan, M.; Huang, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) films with different thicknesses were prepared with low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique and implemented in thin film silicon solar cells as front and back electrodes. It is found that thick back ZnO:B film electrode in thin film silicon solar cells leads to a high fill factors (FF), which is attributed to an improvement of the electrical properties of the thick ZnO:B films, and in the meanwhile a slightly low short circuit currents (Jsc) due to a high light absorption in the thick back ZnO:B films. Differently, the thicker front ZnO:B film electrodes result in a high Jsc but a low FF of solar cells compared to the thinner ones. The low FF of the solar cells may be caused by the local shunt originated from the pinholes or by the cracks (zones of non-dense material) formed in particular in microcrystalline silicon materials deposited on rough front ZnO:B films. As to the high Jsc, it is expected to be due to a good light trapping effect inside solar cells grown on rough front ZnO:B films. Moreover, the application of high reflective polyvinyl butyral (PVB) foils effectively enhances the utilization of incident light in solar cells. By optimizing deposition process of the ZnO:B films, high efficiencies of 8.8% and 10% for single junction thin film amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si:H, intrinsic layer thickness < 200 nm) and amorphous/microcrystalline silicon tandem solar cells (a-Si:H/?c-Si:H, intrinsic amorphous silicon layer thickness < 220 nm), respectively, are achieved.

  9. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan; Andr, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Hger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-01

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5 ?m thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiOx and Al2O3 terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al2O3/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4 mA/cm2 and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiOx/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al2O3 lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604 mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  10. Microcrystalline silicon for thin-film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gordijn, Aad

    2005-01-01

    Microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) is a material that is promising for application in solar cells and that has interesting material properties. This thesis reports on the study of the plasma properties in the growth process, the optoelectronic material properties, and the device application of both doped and intrinsic ?c-Si:H. Microcrystalline silicon p- and n-type doped layers have been developed by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition using very high frequency chemical vapor depositio...

  11. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledinsk, Martin; Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Ganzerov, Kristna; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Meillaud, F.; Fejfar, Antonn; Ballif, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 105, ?. 11 (2014), "111106-1"-"111106-4". ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA14-15357S; GA Mk(CZ) LM2011026; GA Mk 7E12029 Grant ostatn: 7FP FAST TRACK(XE) 283501 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : light trapping * microcrystalline silicon * thin film solar cell * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.515, year: 2013

  12. Peel-and-Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cell on Universal Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Hwan Lee; Dong Rip Kim; In Sun Cho; Nemeth William; Qi Wang; Xiaolin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to vi...

  13. Chemical Etching of Zinc Oxide for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hu?pkes, Ju?rgen; Owen, Jorj I.; Pust, Sascha E.; Bunte, Eerke

    2011-01-01

    Chemical etching is widely applied to texture the surface of sputter-deposited zinc oxide for light scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells. Based on experimental findings from the literature and our own results we propose a model that explains the etching behavior of ZnO depending on the structural material properties and etching agent. All grain boundaries are prone to be etched to a certain threshold, that is defined by the deposition conditions and etching solutio...

  14. Excitation of plasmon and guided-mode resonances in thin film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Franz-josef

    2011-01-01

    Thin film silicon solar cells are an attractive option for the production of sustainable energy but their low response at long wavelengths requires additional measures for absorption enhancement. The most successful concepts are based on light scattering interface textures whose understanding is greatly facilitated by considering a superposition of periodic textures that diffract the light into oblique angles, ideally beyond the critical angle of total internal reflection. Because the thickne...

  15. Energy band alignment in chalcogenide thin film solar cells from photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Energy band alignment plays an important role in thin film solar cells. This article presents an overview of the energy band alignment in chalcogenide thin film solar cells with a particular focus on the commercially available material systems CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Experimental results from two decades of photoelectron spectroscopy experiments are compared with density functional theory calculations taken from literature. It is found that the experimentally determined energy band alignment is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for many interfaces. These alignments, in particular the theoretically predicted alignments, can therefore be considered as the intrinsic or natural alignments for a given material combination. The good agreement between experiment and theory enables a detailed discussion of the interfacial composition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS interfaces in terms of the contribution of ordered vacancy compounds to the alignment of the energy bands. It is furthermore shown that the most important interfaces in chalcogenide thin film solar cells, those between Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdS and between CdS and CdTe are quite insensitive to the processing of the layers. There are plenty of examples where a significant deviation between experimentally-determined band alignment and theoretical predictions are evident. In such cases a variation of band alignment of sometimes more than 1 eV depending on interface preparation can be obtained. This variation can lead to a significant deterioration of device properties. It is suggested that these modifications are related to the presence of high defect concentrations in the materials forming the contact. The particular defect chemistry of chalcogenide semiconductors, which is related to the ionicity of the chemical bond in these materials and which can be beneficial for material and device properties, can therefore cause significant device limitations, as e.g. in the case of the CuInS2 thin film solar cells or for new chalcogenide absorber materials.

  16. Plasmon supported defect absorption in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells and devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lu?kermann, Florian

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the absorption of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cell devices is investigated. Small metal nanostructures with lateral dimensions well below 100 nm accompany strong absorption and large electric field amplitudes in their vicinity. This is caused by the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances that are excited upon interaction of light with the nanostructures. By combining silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with am...

  17. Electrical conductivity of chlorophyll with poly thiophene thin film as a bulk heterojunction solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this work, electrical conductivity of the combinations mixture with different ratio of Poly thiophene (PT) and Chlorophyll (CHLO) thin film as a bulk heterojunction solar cell was studied. Spin coating technique was used to deposit the combination of PT and CHLO thin film on the Aurum (Au) layer which acts as a substrate. The optical characterization of thin film was measured using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and four point probes were used to determine the film electrical properties in the dark and under the light. From the optical absorption study, the combination mixture between PT and CHLO altered the energy band gap of the thin film. The increasing of the mixture ratio of both solutions decreased the electrical conductivity in the dark and also under light. Under the light, the electrical conductivity of combine mixture shows the increasing with the increased of light intensity. The lowest mixture ratio shows the highest electrical conductivity 1.389 S/m under dark and increased with the increasing of the light intensity. (author)

  18. Positron annihilation study on CuInSe2 solar cell thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy has been used to investigate CuInSe2 solar cell thin films. The films were grown on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates by the electrochemical deposition processing technique. As-grown samples are found to contain large concentration of vacancy defects. The selenium (Se) atmosphere and sulfur (S) atmosphere annealing of as-grown samples at 800 K can dramatically reduce the number of vacancy defects and the film becomes crystalline. In addition, a defect layer of about 50 nm thickness was observed at the surface of the CuInSe2 thin film. This layer results from the electrochemical deposition method, but the defect concentration in the defect layer can be greatly reduced by annealing in selenium atmosphere. The Doppler broadening line shape parameter correlation plot provided evidence that the positron trapping defect states where in three samples. - Highlights: ? As-grown CuInSe2 thin films contain large concentration of defects. ? A defect layer of about 50 nm exists in the CuInSe2 thin film surface. ? The defect concentration in the defect layer can be greatly reduced.

  19. Inline RF sputtered TAZO films for applications in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Shui-Yang; Hsu, Chia-Hsun; Chang, Chia-Hung; Wu, Hsin-Yu; Hsieh, In-Cha; Wang, Da-Yung

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we aim to evaluate feasibility of replacing tin oxide (SnO2) films by in-line sputtered (titanium, aluminum)-doped zinc oxide (TAZO) as a front electrode of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells. The HCl wet-etching process and the device performances are investigated and optimized. The results show that the textured TAZO can have a lower sheet resistance of 7 ?/square and a higher haze of 22% compared to commercial Asahi-U SnO2 films. The a-Si:H solar cells with a TAZO front contact is found to have a low fill factor due to a poor TAZO/p-a-Si:H interface. However, the interface problem can be significantly improved by inserting a microcrystalline p-layer silicon thin-film. In addition, the reproducibility of the wet-etching process is investigated. The fluctuation in the haze of the etched TAZO films can be obviously reduced when a multi-step wet-etching process is used. Moreover, the light soaking test is performed on the TAZO films. Only slight degradation in film properties indicates high stability with respect to time. These results encourage potential adoption of cost-effective in-line sputtered TAZO films as an alternative for the front contact of a-Si:H thin film solar cells.

  20. Impurity-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Physical Deposition Methods Appropriate for Transparent Electrode Applications in Thin-film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Miyata, Toshihiro; Nomoto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the development of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films that would be appropriate for applications as transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells. Transparent conducting Al-, B- and Ga-doped ZnO (AZO, BZO and GZO) thin films were prepared in a thickness range from 500 to 2000 nm on glass substrates at 200C using various physical deposition methods: BZO films with vacuum arc plasma evaporation, AZO and GZO films with different types of magnetron sputtering depositions (MSDs) and all films with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The suitability and stability of the electrical properties and, in addition, the suitability of the light scattering characteristics and surface texture formation were investigated in the prepared thin films. In particular, the suitability and stability evaluation was focused on the use of AZO, BZO and GZO thin films prepared by doping each impurity at an appropriate content to attain the lowest resistivity. The higher Hall mobility obtained in impurity-doped ZnO thin films with a resistivity on the order of 10-4 ?cm was related more to the content, i.e., the obtained carrier concentration, rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films. The stability of resistivity of the BZO thin films in long-term moisture-resistance tests (in air at 85% relative humidity and 85C) was found to be lower than that of the AZO and GZO thin films. The surface texture formation was carried out by wet-chemical etching (in a 0.1% HCl solution at 25C) conducted either before or after being heat-treated either with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or without RTA. The suitability of the light scattering characteristics and the surface texture formation obtainable by wet-chemical etching (for use in transparent electrode applications) was considerably dependent on the deposition method used as well as whether the wet-chemical etching was conducted with or without RTA. A significant improvement of both transmittance and haze value at wavelengths up to about 1200 nm in the near-infrared region was attained in surface-textured AZO films that were prepared by r.f. power superimposed d.c. MSD as well as etched after being heat treated with RTA at 500C for 5 min in air. The obtained suitability and stability in impurity-doped ZnO thin films were related more to the content rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films as well as to the deposition method used.

  1. Impurity-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Physical Deposition Methods Appropriate for Transparent Electrode Applications in Thin-film Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films that would be appropriate for applications as transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells. Transparent conducting Al-, B- and Ga-doped ZnO (AZO, BZO and GZO) thin films were prepared in a thickness range from 500 to 2000 nm on glass substrates at 200C using various physical deposition methods: BZO films with vacuum arc plasma evaporation, AZO and GZO films with different types of magnetron sputtering depositions (MSDs) and all films with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The suitability and stability of the electrical properties and, in addition, the suitability of the light scattering characteristics and surface texture formation were investigated in the prepared thin films. In particular, the suitability and stability evaluation was focused on the use of AZO, BZO and GZO thin films prepared by doping each impurity at an appropriate content to attain the lowest resistivity. The higher Hall mobility obtained in impurity-doped ZnO thin films with a resistivity on the order of 10?4 ?cm was related more to the content, i.e., the obtained carrier concentration, rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films. The stability of resistivity of the BZO thin films in long-term moisture-resistance tests (in air at 85% relative humidity and 85C) was found to be lower than that of the AZO and GZO thin films. The surface texture formation was carried out by wet-che formation was carried out by wet-chemical etching (in a 0.1% HCl solution at 25C) conducted either before or after being heat-treated either with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or without RTA. The suitability of the light scattering characteristics and the surface texture formation obtainable by wet-chemical etching (for use in transparent electrode applications) was considerably dependent on the deposition method used as well as whether the wet-chemical etching was conducted with or without RTA. A significant improvement of both transmittance and haze value at wavelengths up to about 1200 nm in the near-infrared region was attained in surface-textured AZO films that were prepared by r.f. power superimposed d.c. MSD as well as etched after being heat treated with RTA at 500C for 5 min in air. The obtained suitability and stability in impurity-doped ZnO thin films were related more to the content rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films as well as to the deposition method used.

  2. Microscopic characterizations of nanostructured silicon thin films for solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fejfar, Antonn; Klapetek, P.; Zlmal, J.; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Ledinsk, Martin; Ko?ka, Jan

    Warrendale : MRS, 2011 - (Yan, B.; Higashi, S.; Tsai, C.; Wang, Q.; Gleskova, H.), s. 313-321 ISBN 9781605112985. - (MRS Symposium Proceeding. 1321). [Materials Research Society Spring Meeting. San Francisko (US), 25.04.2011-29.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) LC06040; GA Mk(CZ) MEB061012; GA AV ?R KAN400100701; GA Mk LC510 Grant ostatn: 7. Framework programme EU(XE) no. 240826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : silicon * scanning probe methods * solar cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  3. Si nanostructures thin films for 3rd generation of solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of third generation solar cell concepts in second generation thin film materials has been identified as an efficient way to solve the global energy needs. The quantum confinement effects observed from Si nanostructures are promising towards integration in a third generation solar cell such as an 'All-Si tandem cell'. This thesis focuses on understanding the formation of Si quantum dots (i.e Si- nanoparticles) in two kinds of dielectric matrix: SiO2 and Silicon nitride, in mono...

  4. Thin-film silicon solar cell development on imprint-textured glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells fabricated on textured glass. ? Replication of light trapping textures with a UV-nanoimprint process. ? Excellent replication precision with soft polymer mold. ? Thin TCO front contacts (60 nm) for enhanced incoupling of incident light. ? Impact of high series resistance of front contacts avoided by reduced cell width. -- Abstract: In this work, we report on the fabrication of microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells on textured glass substrates. The development of transparent and conductive front contacts for these solar cells is presented. State-of-the-art random textures for light-trapping were replicated into a glass-like resist on glass substrates with an imprint process. We applied an industrial relevant soft polymer mold that gives excellent replication accuracy. The necessity of applying thin front contacts for enhanced incoupling of the incident light is shown. An increased series resistance of these thin front contacts caused a decrease of the fill factor of the solar cells. One way to surpass this decrease in fill factor by reducing the solar cell width is demonstrated. In addition, the light-trapping and the light-incoupling for solar cells deposited on three different types of random textures were compared

  5. Microcrystalline silicon for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordijn, Aad

    2005-04-01

    Microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) is a material that is promising for application in solar cells and that has interesting material properties. This thesis reports on the study of the plasma properties in the growth process, the optoelectronic material properties, and the device application of both doped and intrinsic ?c-Si:H. Microcrystalline silicon p- and n-type doped layers have been developed by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition using very high frequency chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) at high temperature. The LbL deposition consists of alternating amorphous silicon depositions and crystallization by hydrogen plasma treatments. Device quality ?c-Si:H p- and n-type doped thin layers have been developed in a temperature range from 250 to 400 C, whereas in standard continuous PECVD the addition of a dopant gas reduces the crystallinity. Etching, abstraction and hydrogen diffusion are analyzed and it is concluded that our observations support the nucleation model that is based on hydrogen diffusion in the growth zone. Test solar cells demonstrate the temperature stability and the resistance to high atomic hydrogen fluxes of these ?c-Si:H doped layers. Plasma conditions involving high pressures and high RF powers (high-pressure depletion (HPD) regime) for high-rate deposition by VHF PECVD of ?c-Si:H are explored by studying the optical emission spectra (OES) of the plasma. With an adapted electrode configuration with a shower head gas inlet and a small electrode distance, ?c-Si:H can be deposited at a high rate. Correlations between the material properties and the optical emission spectra of the plasma were found. Source gas depletion is found to be favorable to reduce the loss of atomic hydrogen to abstraction reactions in the gas phase at high pressures. The optoelectronic properties of microcrystalline silicon layers with different crystalline fractions have been studied with the aim to develop an intrinsic material for i-layer application in p-i-n solar cells. It is observed that ?c-Si:H deposited close to the transition to a-Si:H shows the best intrinsic behavior and the highest photo-to-dark conductivity ratio. At higher crystalline fractions, the dark conductivity increases while the dark conductivity activation energy decreases. The oxygen concentration in the layers is around 1019 cm-3. Microcrystalline silicon based p-i-n solar cells are deposited by VHF PECVD under HPD conditions using a shower head cathode. The i-layers made near the transition from amorphous to crystalline are optimized in solar cells. It was found that the performance is very sensitive to the TCO morphology. At an i-layer deposition rate of 0.45 nm/s an efficiency of 9.9% is obtained (Voc = 0.52 V, FF = 0.73) on texture-etched ZnO:Al; the performance is stable under light soaking. In spite of the presence of oxygen contamination a good infrared response is obtained. The i-layer deposition rate was increased up to 4.5 nm/s by increasing the RF power and the total gas flow such that the depletion condition remains similar. This resulted in an efficiency of 6.4% on texture-etched ZnO:Al. It was observed that the performance of cells deposited at these high rates improves upon light soaking.

  6. Thin-film silicon solar cells. A review and selected trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case is developed for considering silicon as the prime medium-term candidate for semiconductor photovoltaic cells; the argumentation is based on other materials not being abundantly available, highly toxic and/or very expensive. Crystalline silicon solar cells have excellent efficiencies, however, according to data presented by the authors on material fluxes and energy consumption there are serious bottlenecks for this technique with respect to future large-scale applications both from an economical as well as from an ecological point of view. Thus, the authors consider thin-film silicon solar cells as the main option for large-scale energy applications in the foreseeable future. Thin-film silicon solar cells are either polycrystalline or amorphous. The first category is gaining in interest at this moment, but major technological problems remain unresolved, e.g., growth of a high-quality crystalline structure on foreign (low-cost) substrates, reduction of deposition temperature and increase of deposition rate. The second category has so far yielded only limited stable efficiencies, although progress has been recently achieved in improving the stability of solar cells using stacked or tandem/triple structures. Novel approaches to further improve the stable efficiencies, such as using low-level doping profiles within the i-layer of the p-i-n solar cell, are listed. Entirely microcrystalline p-i-n solar cells that are stable and can be deposited at low temperatures (22d can be deposited at low temperatures (220C) with rates up to 1 A/s by the VHF plasma deposition technique are described as further, recent contribution to thin-film silicon photovoltaic technology

  7. Cross-sectional electrostatic force microscopy of thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent work, we showed that atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful technique to image cross sections of polycrystalline thin films. In this work, we apply a modification of AFM, namely, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), to investigate the electronic properties of cleaved II--VI and multijunction thin-film solar cells. We cleave the devices in such a way that they are still working with their nominal photovoltaic efficiencies and can be polarized for the measurements. This allows us to differentiate between surface effects (work function and surface band bending) and bulk device properties. In the case of polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO2/glass solar cells, we find a drop of the EFM signal in the area of the CdTe/CdS interface (50 nm). This drop varies in amplitude and sign according to the applied external bias and is compatible with an n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction model, thereby invalidating the possibility of a deeply buried n-p CdTe homojunction. In the case of a triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/Ge device, we observe a variation of the EFM signal linked to both the material work-function differences and to the voltage bias applied to the cell. We attempt a qualitative explanation of the results and discuss the implications and difficulties of the EFM technique for the study of such thin-film devices

  8. Analysis of the p+/p window layer of thin film solar cells by simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a p+/p configuration in the window layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells is simulated and analyzed utilizing an AMPS-1D program. The differences between p+?pin configuration solar cells and pin configuration solar cells are pointed out. The effects of dopant concentration, thickness of p+-layer, contact barrier height and defect density on solar cells are analyzed. Our results indicate that solar cells with a p+?pin configuration have a better performance. The open circuit voltage and short circuit current were improved by increasing the dopant concentration of the p+ layer and lowering the front contact barrier height. The defect density at the p/i interface which exceeds two orders of magnitude in the intrinsic layer will deteriorate the cell property. (semiconductor materials)

  9. Broad-band anti-reflection coupler for a : Si thin-film solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work numerically demonstrates a new anti-reflection coupler (ARC) with high coupling efficiency in a Si substrate solar cell. The ARC in which the grating is integrated on a glass encapsulation and a three-layer impedance match layer is proposed. A coupling efficiency of 90% is obtained at wavelengths between 350 and 1200 nm in the TE and TM modes when the incident angle is less than 300. In comparison with a 1?m absorber layer, the integrated absorption of an a-Si thin-film solar cell without a new ARC is doubled, at long wavelengths (750 nm ? ? ? 1200 nm), as calculated by FDTD method

  10. The role of front and back electrodes in parasitic absorption in thin-film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Boccard Mathieu; Cuony Peter; Hnni Simon; Stuckelberger Michael; Haug Franz-Josef; Meillaud Fanny; Despeisse Matthieu; Ballif Christophe

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to parasitic absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells, most studies focus on one electrode only, most of the time the substrate (in n-i-p configuration) or superstrate (in p-i-n configuration). We investigate here simultaneously the influence of the absorption in both front and back electrodes on the current density of tandem micromorph solar cells in p-i-n configuration. We compare four possible combinations of front and back electrodes with two different doping levels, but ...

  11. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Onno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of substrate and chamber wall temperature and chamber history on the PECVD process. The impact of chamber wall conditioning on the solar cell performance is demonstrated.

  12. Commercial white paint as back surface reflector for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Olaf; Inns, Daniel; Aberle, Armin G. [Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence, The University of New South Wales, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    In this work, commercially available white paint is applied as a pigmented diffuse reflector (PDR) on the rear surface of thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells with a silicon thickness in the 1-2 {mu}m range. We show that white paint increases the short-circuit current density of the solar cells enormously, with a boost of 41% observed for very thin planar solar cells illuminated with the global AM1.5 solar spectrum. We also show that white paint is a better back surface reflector (BSR) than aluminium, air, a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/aluminium stack, and even a detached aluminium mirror. While previous studies have investigated the influence of PDRs on silicon solar cells with thicknesses of over 27 {mu}m, this work closes the gap that has existed for much thinner cells. (author)

  13. Characteristics of p-type nanocrystalline silicon thin films developed for window layer of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Koel; Ray, Swati [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Energy Research Unit, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India)

    2007-07-01

    Different rf-power and chamber pressures have been used to deposit boron doped hydrogenated silicon films by the PECVD method. The optoelectronic and structural properties of the silicon films have been investigated. With the increase of power and pressure the crystallinity of the films increases while the absorption decreases. As a very thin p-layer is needed in p-i-n thin film solar cells the variation of properties with film thickness has been studied. The fraction of crystallinity and thus dark conductivity vary also with the thickness of the film. Conductivity as high as 2.46 S cm{sup -1} has been achieved for 400 A thin film while for 3000 A thick film it is 21 S cm{sup -1}. Characterization of these films by XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, TEM and SEM indicate that the grain size, crystalline volume fraction as well as the surface morphology of p-layers depend on the deposition conditions as well as on the thickness of the film. Optical band gap varies from 2.19 eV to 2.63 eV. The thin p-type crystalline silicon film with high conductivity and wide band gap prepared under high power and pressure is suitable for application as window layer for Silicon thin film solar cells. (author)

  14. Hole-conductor-free perovskite organic lead iodide heterojunction thin-film solar cells: High efficiency and junction property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiangjian; Dong, Juan; Lv, Songtao; Xu, Yuzhuan; Zhu, Lifeng; Xiao, Junyan; Xu, Xin; Wu, Huijue; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo

    2014-02-01

    Efficient hole-conductor-free organic lead iodide thin film solar cells have been fabricated with a sequential deposition method, and a highest efficiency of 10.49% has been achieved. Meanwhile, the ideal current-voltage model for a single heterojunction solar cell is applied to clarify the junction property of the cell. The model confirms that the TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/Au cell is a typical heterojunction cell and the intrinsic parameters of the cell are comparable to that of the high-efficiency thin-film solar cells.

  15. Electron beam evaporation deposition of cadmium sulphide and cadmium telluride thin films: Solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films are deposited by electron beam evaporation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that the root mean square (RMS) roughness values of the CdS films increase as substrate temperature increases. The optical band gap values of CdS films increase slightly with the increase in the substrate temperature, in a range of 2.422.48 eV. The result of Hall effect measurement suggests that the carrier concentration decreases as the substrate temperature increases, making the resistivity of the CdS films increase. CdTe films annealed at 300C show that their lowest transmittances are due to their largest packing densities. The electrical characteristics of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells are investigated in dark conditions and under illumination. Typical rectifying and photovoltaic properties are obtained. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. Chemical synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline copper selenide thin films for heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Mane, R. S.; Kale, S. S.; Sonawane, S. H.; Shaikh, Arif V.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2006-12-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of copper selenide have been grown on glass and tin doped-indium oxide substrates using chemical method. At ambient temperature, golden films have been synthesized and annealed at 200 C for 1 h and were examined for their structural, surface morphological and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry techniques, respectively. Cu 2- xSe phase was confirmed by XRD pattern and spherical grains of 30 4 - 40 4 nm in size aggregated over about 130 10 nm islands were seen by SEM images. Effect of annealing on crystallinity improvement, band edge shift and photoelectrochemical performance (under 80 mW/cm 2 light intensity and in lithium iodide electrolyte) has been studied and reported. Observed p-type electrical conductivity in copper selenide thin films make it a suitable candidate for heterojunction solar cells.

  17. Electron beam evaporation deposition of cadmium sulphide and cadmium telluride thin films: Solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Chen, Jing; Xu, Ling; Su, Wei-Ning; Yu, Yao; Xu, Jun; Ma, Zhong-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films are deposited by electron beam evaporation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that the root mean square (RMS) roughness values of the CdS films increase as substrate temperature increases. The optical band gap values of CdS films increase slightly with the increase in the substrate temperature, in a range of 2.42-2.48 eV. The result of Hall effect measurement suggests that the carrier concentration decreases as the substrate temperature increases, making the resistivity of the CdS films increase. CdTe films annealed at 300C show that their lowest transmittances are due to their largest packing densities. The electrical characteristics of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells are investigated in dark conditions and under illumination. Typical rectifying and photovoltaic properties are obtained.

  18. Identification of critical stacking faults in thin-film CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type semiconductor used in thin-film solar cells. To achieve high light-to-electricity conversion, annealing in the presence of CdCl2 is essential, but the underlying mechanism is still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that a reduction in the high density of stacking faults in the CdTe grains is a key process that occurs during the chemical treatment. A range of stacking faults, including intrinsic, extrinsic, and twin boundary, are computationally investigated to identify the extended defects that limit performance. The low-energy faults are found to be electrically benign, while a number of higher energy faults, consistent with atomic-resolution micrographs, are predicted to be hole traps with fluctuations in the local electrostatic potential. It is expected that stacking faults will also be important for other thin-film photovoltaic technologies

  19. Sustainability of photovoltaics. The case for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure photovoltaics become a major sustainable player in a competitive power-generation market, they must provide abundant, affordable electricity, with environmental impacts drastically lower than those from conventional power generation. The recent reduction in the cost of 2nd generation thin-film PV is remarkable, meeting the production milestone of $1 per watt in the fourth quarter of 2008. This achievement holds great promise for the future. However, the questions remaining are whether the expense of PV modules can be lowered further, and if there are resource- and environmental-impact constraints to growth. I examine the potential of thin-films in a prospective life-cycle analysis, focusing on direct costs, resource availability, and environmental impacts. These three aspects are closely related; developing thinner solar cells and recycling spent modules will become increasingly important in resolving cost, resource, and environmental constraints to large scales of sustainable growth. (author)

  20. Identification of critical stacking faults in thin-film CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Su-Hyun; Walsh, Aron, E-mail: a.walsh@bath.ac.uk [Global E3 Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Butler, Keith T. [Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Soon, Aloysius [Global E3 Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Abbas, Ali; Walls, John M., E-mail: j.m.wall@loughborough.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-11

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type semiconductor used in thin-film solar cells. To achieve high light-to-electricity conversion, annealing in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} is essential, but the underlying mechanism is still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that a reduction in the high density of stacking faults in the CdTe grains is a key process that occurs during the chemical treatment. A range of stacking faults, including intrinsic, extrinsic, and twin boundary, are computationally investigated to identify the extended defects that limit performance. The low-energy faults are found to be electrically benign, while a number of higher energy faults, consistent with atomic-resolution micrographs, are predicted to be hole traps with fluctuations in the local electrostatic potential. It is expected that stacking faults will also be important for other thin-film photovoltaic technologies.

  1. Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on the Polycrystalline Compound Semiconductors CIS and CdTe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Bonnet

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin-film photovoltaic modules based on Cu-In-Ga-Se-S (CIS and CdTe are already being produced with high-quality and solar conversion efficiencies of around 10%, with values up to 14% expected in the near future. The integrated interconnection of single cells into large-area modules of 0.6×1.2m2 enables low-cost mass production, so that thin-film modules will soon be able to compete with conventional silicon-wafer-based modules. This contribution provides an overview of the basic technologies for CdTe and CIS modules, the research and development (R&D issues, production technology and capacities, the module performance in long-term outdoor testing, and their use in installations.

  2. CIGS2 Thin-Film Solar Cells on Flexible Foils for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Ghongadi, Shantinath R.; Pandit, Mandar B.; Jahagirdar, Anant H.; Scheiman, David

    2002-01-01

    CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)S2 (CIGS2) thin-film solar cells are of interest for space power applications because of the near optimum bandgap for AM0 solar radiation in space. CIGS2 thin film solar cells on flexible stainless steel (SS) may be able to increase the specific power by an order of magnitude from the current level of 65 Wkg(sup -1). CIGS solar cells are superior to the conventional silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells in the space radiation environment. This paper presents research efforts for the development of CIGS2 thin-film solar cells on 127 micrometers and 20 micrometers thick, bright-annealed flexible SS foil for space power. A large-area, dual-chamber, inline thin film deposition system has been fabricated. The system is expected to provide thickness uniformity of plus or minus 2% over the central 5" width and plus or minus 3% over the central 6" width. During the next phase, facilities for processing larger cells will be acquired for selenization and sulfurization of metallic precursors and for heterojunction CdS layer deposition both on large area. Small area CIGS2 thin film solar cells are being prepared routinely. Cu-rich Cu-Ga/In layers were sputter-deposited on unheated Mo-coated SS foils from CuGa (22%) and In targets. Well-adherent, large-grain Cu-rich CIGS2 films were obtained by sulfurization in a Ar: H2S 1:0.04 mixture and argon flow rate of 650 sccm, at the maximum temperature of 475 C for 60 minutes with intermediate 30 minutes annealing step at 120 C. Samples were annealed at 500 C for 10 minutes without H2S gas flow. The intermediate 30 minutes annealing step at 120 C was changed to 135 C. p-type CIGS2 thin films were obtained by etching the Cu-rich layer segregated at the surface using dilute KCN solution. Solar cells were completed by deposition of CdS heterojunction partner layer by chemical bath deposition, transparent-conducting ZnO/ZnO: Al window bilayer by RF sputtering, and vacuum deposition of Ni/Al contact fingers through metal mask. PV parameters of a CIGS2 solar cell on 127 micrometers thick SS flexible foil measured under AM 0 conditions at NASA GRC were: V(sub oc) = 802.9 mV, J(sub sc) = 25.07 mA per square centimeters, FF = 60.06%, and efficiency 0 = 8.84%. For this cell, AM 1.5 PV parameters measured at NREL were: V(sub oc) = 788 mV, J(sub sc) = 19.78 mA per square centimeter, FF = 59.44%, efficiency 0 = 9.26%. Quantum efficiency curve showed a sharp QE cutoff equivalent to CIGS2 bandgap of approximately 1.50 eV, fairly close to the optimum value for efficient AM0 PV conversion in the space.

  3. Rigorous optical simulation of rough interface light trapping structures in thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockau, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Zuse-Institut Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Burger, Sven; Zschiedrich, Lin; Schmidt, Frank [Zuse-Institut Berlin, Berlin (Germany); JCMwave GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Rech, Bernd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Thin film silicon solar cells suffer from the disadvantage of a low absorption coefficient of silicon in important spectral regions. In the case of a flat multilayer cell layout a considerable part of the incident light is reflected back out of the cell due to the low absorber thickness. It is therefore desirable to introduce scattering elements that prolong the average photon path length inside the solar cell's absorber. Rough interfaces between the layers of a solar cell have proven to provide efficient and industrially producible light trapping structures. As the scattering structures and the layer thicknesses are in the order of only a few ten wavelengths coherence effects have to be taken into account in the simulation and optimization of such structures. We employ the finite element method for rigorous simulation of Maxwell's equations on 2D and 3D geometries to investigate light trapping effects produced by rough interfaces in thin film silicon solar cells. To approximate an extended rough surface we examine the influence of boundary conditions and a finite computational domain size on the absorption. We apply Monte Carlo sampling over sets of surface representations to obtain averaged measurement quantities. Simulations of 2- and 3-dimensional rough surface geometries are compared.

  4. Electrodeposition of antimony selenide thin films and application in semiconductor sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, T Tuyen; Chavhan, Sudam; Kosta, Ivet; Miguel, Oscar; Grande, Hans-Jurgen; Tena-Zaera, Ramn

    2014-02-26

    Sb2Se3 thin films are proposed as an alternative light harvester for semiconductor sensitized solar cells. An innovative electrodeposition route, based on aqueous alkaline electrolytes, is presented to obtain amorphous Sb2Se3. The amorphous to crystalline phase transition takes place during a soft thermal annealing in Ar atmosphere. The potential of the Sb2Se3 electrodeposited thin films in semiconductor sensitized solar cells is evaluated by preparing TiO2/Sb2Se3/CuSCN planar heterojunction solar cells. The resulting devices generate electricity from the visible and NIR photons, exhibiting the external quantum efficiency onset close to 1050 nm. Although planar architecture is not optimized in terms of charge carrier collection, photocurrent as high as 18 mA/cm(2), under simulated (AM1.5G) solar light, is achieved. Furthermore, the effect of the Sb2Se3 thickness and microstructural properties on the photocurrent is analyzed, suggesting the hole transport is the main limiting mechanism. The present findings provide significant insights to design efficient semiconductor sensitized solar cells based on advanced architectures (e.g., nanostructured and tandem), opening wide possibilities for progresses in this emerging photovoltaics technology. PMID:24437500

  5. Effects of potassium doping on solution processed kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhengfu; Yan, Chang; Su, Zhenghua; Zeng, Fangqin; Yang, Jia; Li, Yi; Jiang, Liangxing; Lai, Yanqing; Liu, Fangyang

    2014-12-01

    Alkaline metals doping is one of the approaches for achieving high efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell. Recently, potassium doping helps to break the record efficiency of CIGS solar cell doped with sodium. In this paper, we have investigated how incorporation of potassium can influence the properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film and the performance of resulting solar cell. Our results showed that K doping can enhance the (112) preferred orientation, increase the grain size and reduce the second phase ZnS of the CZTS thin films. After K doping, despite of some drop of Voc for CZTS thin film solar cells, the Rs is decreased and the Jsc is improved markedly, and the solar cell efficiency is boosted.

  6. Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lare, M.; Lenzmann, F.; Verschuuren, M. A.; Polman, A.

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate effective mode coupling by light scattering from periodic Ag nanoparticle arrays printed onto a completed thin-film a-Si:H solar cell. Current-voltage measurements show a photocurrent enhancement of 10% compared to a flat reference cell with a standard antireflection coating. External quantum efficiency measurements for the nanopatterned cells show clear infrared photocurrent enhancement peaks, corresponding to coupling to discrete waveguide modes in the a-Si:H layer. The data are in good agreement with three-dimensional finite element simulations, which are used to further optimize the design. We show that broadband photocurrent enhancement can be obtained over the 450-750 nm spectral range.

  7. Nano imprint lithography of textures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppe, W.J.; Dorenkamper, M.S.; Notta, J.B.; Pex, P.P.A.C. [ECN-Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schipper, W.; Wilde, R. [Nanoptics GmbH, Innungsstrasse 5, 21244 Buchholz (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) is a versatile and commercially viable technology for fabrication of structures for light trapping in solar cells. We demonstrate the applicability of NIL in thin film silicon solar cells in substrate configuration, where NIL is used to fabricate a textured rear contact of the solar cells. We applied random structures, based on the natural texture of SnO:F grown by APCVD, and designed 2D periodic structures and show that for single junction {mu}c-Si cells these textured rear contacts lead to an increase of Jsc of more than 40 % in comparison to cells with flat rear contacts. Cells on optimized periodic textures showed higher fill factors which can be attributed to reduced microcrack formation, leading to less shunting in comparison to cells on random textures.

  8. Growth, Etching, and Stability of Sputtered ZnO:AI for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jorj Ian

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) can fulfill many requirements in thin-film solar cells, acting as (1) a transparent contact through which the incident light is transmitted, (2) part of the back reflector, and (3) a source of light scattering. Magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al thin-films are highly transparent, conductive, and are typically texturized by post-deposition etching in a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to achieve light scattering. The ZnO:Al thin-film electronic ...

  9. Thin Film intermediate band chalcopyrite solar cells: Theoretical Analysis of device performance and prospects for their realisation

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Marro?n, David; Marti? Vega, Antonio; Tablero Crespo, Ce?sar; Antoli?n Ferna?ndez, Elisa; Ca?novas Di?az, Enrique; Garci?a-linares Fontes, Pablo; Luque Lo?pez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of implementing the intermediate-band (IB) concept into a relevant thin-film technology has been assessed. Compounds belonging to the group of I-III-VI2 chalcopyrites, currently used as absorbers in the leading thin-film technology, appear as promising candidates for the realization of IB-devices. In this paper we first analyze the expected performance of such a thin-film intermediate band solar cell (TF-IBSC) by considering different levels of idealization. In the second...

  10. Progress towards high efficiency polycrystalline thin-film GaAs AMOS solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.; Ernest, F. P.; Stirn, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of Ge film recrystallization using focused laser beams and GaAs film growth on such layers in the making of high efficiency thin-film AMOS solar cells are discussed. Since a conversion efficiency of 14% was obtained for an AMOS cell fabricated on sliced bulk polycrystalline GaAs, high efficiency cells are being developed by chemically vapor-depositing GaAs films on previously recrystallized evaporated Ge films to minimize the grain boundary (GB) effects. Schottky barrier solar cells made on sliced polycrystalline GaAs wafers were studied to investigate the effects of grain boundaries on cell properties and the potential efficiency of GaAs thin-film cells. Ge film recrystallization and the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of the 2 to 3 micron thick GaAs films are described. AMOS solar cells with 100 Angstrom thick Ag metallization were made on CVD GaAs/recrystallized Ge/W substrates with an energy conversion efficiency of 8%.

  11. Fabrication of solution processed 3D nanostructured CuInGaS? thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Van Ben; Cho, Jin Woo; Park, Se Jin; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Park, Hoo Keun; Do, Young Rag; Min, Byoung Koun

    2014-03-28

    In this study we demonstrate the fabrication of CuInGaS? (CIGS) thin film solar cells with a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure based on indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorod films and precursor solutions (Cu, In and Ga nitrates in alcohol). To obtain solution processed 3D nanostructured CIGS thin film solar cells, two different precursor solutions were applied to complete gap filling in ITO nanorods and achieve the desirable absorber film thickness. Specifically, a coating of precursor solution without polymer binder material was first applied to fill the gap between ITO nanorods followed by deposition of the second precursor solution in the presence of a binder to generate an absorber film thickness of ?1.3 ?m. A solar cell device with a (Al, Ni)/AZO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/ITO nanorod/glass structure was constructed using the CIGS film, and the highest power conversion efficiency was measured to be ?6.3% at standard irradiation conditions, which was 22.5% higher than the planar type of CIGS solar cell on ITO substrate fabricated using the same precursor solutions. PMID:24569126

  12. Comparison between periodic and stochastic parabolic light trapping structures for thin-film microcrystalline Silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, M.; Battaglia, C.; Forberich, K.; Blaesi, B.; Sahraei, N.; Aberle, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Light trapping is of very high importance for silicon photovoltaics (PV) and especially for thin-film silicon solar cells. In this paper we investigate and compare theoretically the light trapping properties of periodic and stochastic structures having similar geometrical features. The theoretical investigations are based on the actual surface geometry of a scattering structure, characterized by an atomic force microscope. This structure is used for light trapping in thin-film microcrystallin...

  13. Analysis of thin-film silicon solar cells with white paint back reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipovsek, Benjamin; Krc, Janez; Topic, Marko [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Isabella, Olindo; Zeman, Miro [Delft University of Technology - Electrical Energy Conversion Unit/DIMES, P.O. Box 5053, 2600 GB Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    In this work, we investigate the concept of transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/white paint (WP) back reflectors as an alternative to the conventional textured metal-based reflectors in thin-film silicon solar cells. The optical characterisation results show that WP back reflectors exhibit good reflectivity and excellent light scattering properties which can lead to enhanced light confinement within the thin absorber layers of the cell. To confirm this, ZnO:Al/WP reflectors with WP films of different pigment volume concentration and thickness are tested in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells. The external quantum efficiency measurements indicate that by employing ZnO:Al/WP reflectors, good solar cell performance can be achieved, which is comparable to the performance of the cell with the conventional TCO/Ag reflector. Finally, optical simulations are employed to study the potential for further improvements in cell performance as a result of the optimisation of TCO/WP reflectors. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Photonic and plasmonic structures for enhancing efficiency of thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Sambit

    Crystalline silicon solar cells use high cost processing techniques as well as thick materials that are 200m thick to convert solar energy into electricity. From a cost viewpoint, it is highly advantageous to use thin film solar cells which are generally made in the range of 0.1-3m in thickness. Due to this low thickness, the quantity of material is greatly reduced and so is the number and complexity of steps involved to complete a device, thereby allowing a continuous processing capability improving the throughput and hence greatly decreasing the cost. This also leads to faster payback time for the end user of the photovoltaic panel. In addition, due to the low thickness and the possibility of deposition on flexible foils, the photovoltaic (PV) modules can be flexible. Such flexible PV modules are well suited for building-integrated applications and for portable, foldable, PV power products. For economical applications of solar cells, high efficiency is an important consideration. Since Si is an indirect bandgap material, a thin film of Si needs efficient light trapping to achieve high optical absorption. The previous work in this field has been mostly based on randomly textured back reflectors. In this work, we have used a novel approach, a periodic photonic and plasmonic structure, to optimize current density of the devices by absorbing longer wavelengths without hampering other properties. The two dimensional diffraction effect generated by a periodic structure with the plasmonic light concentration achieved by silver cones to efficiently propagate light in the plane at the back surface of a solar cell, achieves a significant increase in optical absorption. Using such structures, we achieved a 50%+ increase in short circuit current in a nano-crystalline (nc-Si) solar cell relative to stainless steel. In addition to nc-Si solar cells on stainless steel, we have also used the periodic photonic structure to enhance optical absorption in amorphous cells and tandem junction amorphous/nano-crystalline cells. These structures have been fabricated on flexible plastic substrates. We will describe the use of periodic structures to achieve increased light absorption and enhanced photocurrents in thin film solar cells, and also compare them systematically with other textured substrates. We discuss the various technological aspects and obstacles faced before successful fabrication of such structure, and during the fabrication of solar cells on these structures. The ideas of periodic texturing and random texturing will be compared and an implementation of them together will be discussed.

  15. A new technique for large-area thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramoto, T.; Adurodija, F.; Nishiyama, Y.; Arita, T.; Hanafusa, A.; Omura, K.; Morita, A. [Matsushita Battery Industrial Co. Ltd., PV R and D Center, Osaka (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure CSS method has been developed as a reproducible and efficient process. Thin film CdTe grown under atmospheric pressure has a rough surface morphology. The density of carbon black powder in the graphite carbon paste for screen printing is a key factor in reducing the series resistance of the device with rough surface CdTe. Using graphite carbon paste with 7 wt% carbon black powder has resulted in cells with a relatively low back contact resistance. A highly efficient large-area CdS/CdTe solar cell (11.0%, 5327 cm{sup 2}) sub-module has been fabricated using the new technique. (Author)

  16. A study of ZnO:B films for thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? ZnO:B films with different thicknesses were prepared with LPCVD technique. ? The thicker ZnO:B back electrodes lead to higher FF but slightly lower Jsc. ? Back polyvinyl butyral (PVB) foils improves the utilization of incident light in solar cells. ? The thicker ZnO:B front electrode films result in high Jsc but lower FF. - Abstract: Boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) films with different thicknesses were prepared with low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique and implemented in thin film silicon solar cells as front and back electrodes. It is found that thick back ZnO:B film electrode in thin film silicon solar cells leads to a high fill factors (FF), which is attributed to an improvement of the electrical properties of the thick ZnO:B films, and in the meanwhile a slightly low short circuit currents (Jsc) due to a high light absorption in the thick back ZnO:B films. Differently, the thicker front ZnO:B film electrodes result in a high Jsc but a low FF of solar cells compared to the thinner ones. The low FF of the solar cells may be caused by the local shunt originated from the pinholes or by the cracks (zones of non-dense material) formed in particular in microcrystalline silicon materials deposited on rough front ZnO:B films. As to the high Jsc, it is expected to be due to a good light trapping effect inside solar cells grown on rough front ZnO:B films. Moreover, the applicationB films. Moreover, the application of high reflective polyvinyl butyral (PVB) foils effectively enhances the utilization of incident light in solar cells. By optimizing deposition process of the ZnO:B films, high efficiencies of 8.8% and 10% for single junction thin film amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si:H, intrinsic layer thickness < 200 nm) and amorphous/microcrystalline silicon tandem solar cells (a-Si:H/?c-Si:H, intrinsic amorphous silicon layer thickness < 220 nm), respectively, are achieved.

  17. Physical vapor deposition of CdTe thin films at low temperature for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium telluride is successfully utilized as an absorber material for thin film solar cells. Industrial production makes use of high substrate temperatures for the deposition of CdTe absorber layers. However, in order to exploit flexible substrates and to simplify the manufacturing process, lower deposition temperatures are beneficial. Based on the phase diagram of CdTe, predictions on the stoichiometry of CdTe thin films grown at low substrate temperatures are made in this work. These predictions were verified experimentally using additional sources of Cd and Te during the deposition of the CdTe thin films at different substrate temperatures. The deposited layers were analyzed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In case of CdTe layers which were deposited at substrate temperatures lower than 200 C without usage of additional sources we found a non-stoichiometric growth of the CdTe layers. The application of the additional sources leads to a stoichiometric growth for substrate temperatures down to 100 C which is a significant reduction of the substrate temperature during deposition.

  18. Characterization of Optical Properties a-Si:H:B Thin Film For Solar Cell Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The a-Si:H:B thin films were deposited on the glass substrate using plasma DC sputtering technique. The deposition has been done with the following process parameters: the deposition time, gas pressure and substrate temperature with the aim to obtain the optical properties of a-Si:H:B thin films suitable for solar cell material. Variations of deposition time were 0.5 to 2-hour, gas pressure 1.1 to 1.4 x 10-1 Torr and substrate temperature 150 to 300 oC, while the flow rate of the reactive hydrogen was kept constant at 4-sccm. The targets of silicon material were mixed with boron for concentration at (0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7 %). From the optical analysis using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, it was obtained that the maximum optical transmittance of a-Si:H:B thin film at 700 nm wavelength is 47 %. At this conditions, the absorption coefficient is 3.49 x 104 m-1 and the band gap energy of the a-Si:H:B is 1.77 eV. (author)

  19. Spectroscopic aspects of front transparent conductive films for a-Si thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi Hua; Chen, Changyong; Liao, Xianbo; Xiang, Xianbi; Cao, Xinmin; Ingler, William; Adiga, Nirupama; Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-01

    This work demonstrates a method to optimize the indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films as front transparent electrode to maximize the efficiency of substrate type amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film solar cells. It shows that the total light intensity absorbed by the a-Si layer can be predicted by combining a multilayer optical simulation with the nonuniform solar spectrum and the spectroscopic response of the absorption coefficient of the a-Si film. Consequently, an optimized ITO film can be identified. The photovoltaic performances of experimentally obtained a-Si single junction solar cells confirm the simulation results, indicating an ITO film about 56 nm thick leads to the highest efficiency. Furthermore, it is shown that the ITO films should be deposited at relatively low temperature around 132 C to avoid damage to the a-Si top p-layer and p-i-n junction. It is found that introducing a small fraction, 0.61% flow ratio, of O2 in the sputtering Ar gas reduces the sheet resistivity of the ITO film and improves its transmittance, leading to higher efficiency a-Si solar cells.

  20. Defect annealing processes for polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffens, S., E-mail: simon.steffens@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Becker, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Zollondz, J.-H., E-mail: hzollondz@masdarpv.com [CSG Solar AG, Thalheim (Germany); Chowdhury, A.; Slaoui, A. [LInstitut dlectronique du Solide et des Systmes, Strasbourg (France); Lindekugel, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fr Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Schubert, U.; Evans, R. [Suntech R and D Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney (Australia); Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Defect annealing processes were applied to polycrystalline silicon thin films. ? Conventional rapid thermal annealing was compared to novel annealing processes using a laser system and a zone-melting recrystallization setup. ? The open circuit voltages could be enhanced from below 170 mV up to 482 mV. ? Increase in Sun's-V{sub OC} values with decrease in FWHM of the TO Raman phonon of crystalline silicon. ? Solar cells were fabricated for IV-measurements: Best solar cell efficiency of 6.7%. -- Abstract: A variety of defect healing methods was analyzed for optimization of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film solar cells on glass. The films were fabricated by solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon deposited either by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or by electron-beam evaporation (EBE). Three different rapid thermal processing (RTP) set-ups were compared: A conventional rapid thermal annealing oven, a dual wavelength laser annealing system and a movable two sided halogen lamp oven. The two latter processes utilize focused energy input for reducing the thermal load introduced into the glass substrates and thus lead to less deformation and impurity diffusion. Analysis of the structural and electrical properties of the poly-Si thin films was performed by Suns-V{sub OC} measurements and Raman spectroscopy. 1 cm{sup 2} cells were prepared for a selection of samples and characterized by IV-measurements. The poly-Si material quality could be extremely enhanced, resulting in increase of the open circuit voltages from about 100 mV (EBE) and 170 mV (PECVD) in the untreated case up to 480 mV after processing.

  1. Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductive zinc oxide (ZnO) grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique possesses a rough surface that induces an efficient light scattering in thin film silicon (TF Si) solar cells, which makes this TCO an ideal candidate for contacting such devices. IMT-EPFL has developed an in-house LPCVD process for the deposition of nanotextured boron doped ZnO films used as rough TCO for TF Si solar cells. This paper is a general review and synthesis of the study of the electrical, optical and structural properties of the ZnO:B that has been performed at IMT-EPFL. The influence of the free carrier absorption and the grain size on the electrical and optical properties of LPCVD ZnO:B is discussed. Transport mechanisms at grain boundaries are studied. It is seen that high doping of the ZnO grains facilitates the tunnelling of the electrons through potential barriers that are located at the grain boundaries. Therefore, even if these potential barriers increase after an exposition of the film to a humid atmosphere, the heavily doped LPCVD ZnO:B layers show a remarkable stable conductivity. However, the introduction of diborane in the CVD reaction induces also a degradation of the intra-grain mobility and increases over-proportionally the optical absorption of the ZnO:B films. Hence, the necessity to finely tune the doping level of LPCVD ZnO:B films is highlighted. Finally, the next challenges to push further the optimization of LPCVD ZnO:B films for thin film sition of LPCVD ZnO:B films for thin film silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as some remarkable record cell results achieved with LPCVD ZnO:B as front electrode.

  2. Light trapping with plasmonic back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2013-02-08

    Trapping light in silicon solar cells is essential as it allows an increase in the absorption of incident sunlight in optically thin silicon absorber layers. This way, the costs of the solar cells can be reduced by lowering the material consumption and decreasing the physical constraints on the material quality. In this work, plasmonic light trapping with Ag back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells is studied. Solar cell prototypes with plasmonic back contacts are presented along with optical simulations of these devices and general design considerations of plasmonic back contacts. Based on three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations, the conceptual design of plasmonic nanostructures on Ag back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells is studied in this work. Optimizations of the nanostructures regarding their ability to scatter incident light at low optical losses into large angles in the silicon absorber layers of the thin-film silicon solar cells are presented. Geometrical parameters as well as the embedding dielectric layer stack of the nanostructures on Ag layers are varied. Periodic as well as isolated hemispherical Ag nanostructures of dimensions above 200 nm are found to scatter incident light at high efficiencies and low optical losses. Hence, these nanostructures are of interest for light trapping in solar cells. In contrast, small Ag nanostructures of dimension below 100 nm are found to induce optical losses. At the surface of randomly textured Ag back contacts small Ag nanostructures exist which induce optical losses. In this work, the relevance of these localized plasmon induced optical losses as well as optical losses caused by propagating plasmons are investigated with regard to the reflectance of the textured back contacts. In state-of-the-art solar cells, the plasmon-induced optical losses are shifted out of the relevant wavelength range by incorporating a ZnO:Al interlayer of low refractive index at the back contact. The additional but small potential for increasing the reflection at the back contact with dielectric interlayers of even lower refractive index, such as SiO{sub 2} and air, is demonstrated. The light-trapping effect of two types of plasmonic back contacts, which make use of large and efficiently scattering Ag nanostructures, is studied in thin-film silicon solar cell prototypes. The first type of plasmonic back contact applies non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. Measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures are correlated with reflectance spectra derived from three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. A microcrystalline silicon solar cell fabricated on one type of plasmonic Ag back contact with non-ordered Ag nanostructures shows a significantly enhanced plasmonic light trapping when compared with a flat solar cell. The second type of plasmonic back contact applies periodic arrangements of plasmonic Ag nanostructures in a square lattice at the surface of the Ag back contact. It is called a plasmonic reflection grating back contact. A particular advantage of this device is the control of the scattering angles via the diffraction orders of the grating while taking advantage of the efficient plasmon-induced light scattering at the Ag nanostructures. The plasmonic reflection grating back contacts are prepared with a nanoimprint process. The prototype microcrystalline silicon solar cells exhibit a very good light-trapping effect. Even in comparison with solar cells with a state-of-the-art random texture for light trapping, an enhanced light-trapping effect is demonstrated for a solar sell with a plasmonic reflection grating of optimized period. Based on electromagnetic simulations, the light-trapping effect is explained from the intuitive perspective of geometrical optics as well as from the perspective of leaky waveguides.

  3. Absorbing photonic crystals for mono-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianqin; Depauw, Valerie; Gomard, Guillaume; El Daif, Ounsi; Trompoukis, Christos; Drouard, Emmanuel; Jamois, Ccile; Fave, Alain; Dross, Frederic; Gordon, Ivan; Seassal, Christian

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present the integration of an absorbing photonic crystal within a monocrystalline silicon thin film solar cell stack. Optical simulations performed on a complete solar cell revealed that patterning the epitaxial monocrystalline silicon active layer as a 1D and 2D photonic crystal enabled to increase its integrated absorption by 38%rel and 50%rel in the whole 300-1100 nm range, compared to a similar but unpatterned stack. In order to fabricate such promising cells, a specific fabrication process based on holographic lithography, inductively coupled plasma etching and reactive ion etching has been developed and implemented to obtain such photonic crystal patterned solar cells. Optical measurements performed on the patterned stacks highlight the significant absorption enhancement, as expected by simulation. A more advanced structuration combining a front and a rear 1D binary photonic patterning with different periods is designed, enabling a 60%abs larger absorption in silicon.

  4. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  5. Positive ion irradiation of CdS/Cu2S thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of positive ion bombardment on unencapsulated CdS/Cu2S thin film solar cells has been studied using monoenergetic positive ions (of 1H, 4He, 16O, 32S, 35Cl, 40Ar, 63Cu, 84Kr, 112Cd or 132Xe) with energies in the range 10 to 50 keV. The current-voltage characteristics of the cells have been analysed in terms of a five parameter model. The cell degradations produced by radiation damage have been shown to be dependent on the range of the incident particle. A reduction of the short circuit current was shown to result from damage to the cuprous sulphide layer of the cell whereas damage to the junction region was found to give rise to a reduction in the open circuit voltage. Annealing effects on radiation-degraded unencapsulated solar cells have been studied and the fractional recoveries of the cell parameters have been compared. (author)

  6. Unlinking absorption and haze in thin film silicon solar cells front electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Boccard, Mathieu; Cuony, Peter; Battaglia, Corsin; Despeisse, Matthieu; Ballif, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    We study the respective influence of haze and free carrier absorption (FCA) of transparent front electrodes on the photogenerated current of micromorph thin film silicon solar cells. To decouple the haze and FCA we develop bi-layer front electrodes: a flat indium tin oxide layer assures conduction and allows us to tune FCA while the haze is adjusted by varying the thickness of a highly transparent rough ZnO layer. We show how a minimum amount of FCA leads only to a few percents absorption for...

  7. Properties of the new absorber antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new absorber layer antimony tin sulphide thin film was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) using two source simultaneous deposition techniques for solar cell applications. The structural properties were measured by using XRD techniques. The quantum efficiency was measured by photoconductivity spectrometer shows the photo-activeness of the material. The thickness, band gap, refractive index and transmittance were calculated by using ellipsometry techniques. The transmittance of the material was above the visible range which decreases with the increase in wavelength. The material has n-type conductivity measured with hot probe technique. (author)

  8. Self-organized broadband light trapping in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, C; Chiappe, D; Delli Veneri, P; Mercaldo, L V; Usatii, I; Buatier de Mongeot, F

    2013-06-01

    Nanostructured glass substrates endowed with high aspect ratio one-dimensional corrugations are prepared by defocused ion beam erosion through a self-organized gold (Au) stencil mask. The shielding action of the stencil mask is amplified by co-deposition of gold atoms during ion bombardment. The resulting glass nanostructures enable broadband anti-reflection functionality and at the same time ensure a high efficiency for diffuse light scattering (Haze). It is demonstrated that the patterned glass substrates exhibit a better photon harvesting than the flat glass substrate in p-i-n type thin film a-Si:H solar cells. PMID:23633473

  9. Resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanoparticle enhancement for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, Yu A; Koh, W S, E-mail: kohws@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Advanced Photonics and Plasmonics Team, Computational Electronics and Photonics Programme, Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, 16-16 Connexis, 138632 (Singapore)

    2010-06-11

    This paper investigates the influence of resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanostructures, such as arrays of silver and aluminum nanoparticles in the forward scattering configuration, on the optical absorption in a thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell. It is demonstrated that nonresonant coupling of the incident sunlight with aluminum nanoparticles results in higher optical absorption in the photoactive region than resonant coupling with silver nanoparticle arrays. In addition, aluminum nanoparticles are shown to maintain a net positive enhancement of the optical absorption in amorphous silicon, as compared to a negative effect by silver nanoparticles, when the nanoparticles are oxidized.

  10. Resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanoparticle enhancement for thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the influence of resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanostructures, such as arrays of silver and aluminum nanoparticles in the forward scattering configuration, on the optical absorption in a thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell. It is demonstrated that nonresonant coupling of the incident sunlight with aluminum nanoparticles results in higher optical absorption in the photoactive region than resonant coupling with silver nanoparticle arrays. In addition, aluminum nanoparticles are shown to maintain a net positive enhancement of the optical absorption in amorphous silicon, as compared to a negative effect by silver nanoparticles, when the nanoparticles are oxidized.

  11. Laser-Induced Indium-Diffusion into Cadmium Sulfide Thin Film for Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Hoon; Myung Kuk, Do; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2012-12-01

    Laser-induced diffusion is employed to dope indium (In) into sputtering-deposited cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. The increased optical band gap energy from 2.52 to 2.60 eV with maintenance of high optical transmittance about 60 nm in the 200-nm-thick films, the enhanced mobility over 42.5 cm2/Vs, and the decreased resistivity to 1.42 10-3 ?cm are successfully obtained to be advantageous for a window layer in solar cells.

  12. Cu2SnS3 as a potential absorber for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Devendra; Chaudhuri, T. K.; Shripathi, T.; Deshpande, U.

    2012-06-01

    The properties of pure Cu2SnS3 thin films synthesized by direct liquid coating method have been studied for application in TFSCs. The films have band gap of 1.12 eV and an absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1. They are p-type with electrical conductivity of 0.5 S/cm and show photoconductivity. TFSCs made of these p-CTS films and n-CdS have been analyzed. The maximum efficiency of CTS solar cells is 33% with VOC and ISC of 0.75 V and 40 mA/cm.

  13. Laser-Induced Indium-Diffusion into Cadmium Sulfide Thin Film for Solar Cell Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced diffusion is employed to dope indium (In) into sputtering-deposited cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. The increased optical band gap energy from 2.52 to 2.60 eV with maintenance of high optical transmittance about 60 nm in the 200-nm-thick films, the enhanced mobility over 42.5 cm2/Vs, and the decreased resistivity to 1.42 10?3 ?cm are successfully obtained to be advantageous for a window layer in solar cells

  14. Mixed phase silicon oxide layers for thin-film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cuony, Peter; T L Alexander, Duncan; Lo?fgren, Nils Linus; Krumrey, Michael; Marending, Michael; Despeisse, Matthieu; Ballif, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Lower absorption, lower refractive index and tunable resistance are three advantages of doped silicon oxide containing nanocrystalline silicon grains (nc-SiOx) compared to doped microcrystalline silicon, for the use as p- and n-type layers in thin-film silicon solar cells. In this study we show how optical, electrical and microstructural properties of nc-SiOx layers depend on precursor gas ratios and we propose a growth model to explain the phase separation in such films into Si-rich and O-ri...

  15. Energy band alignment in chalcogenide thin film solar cells from photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Andreas

    2015-04-10

    Energy band alignment plays an important role in thin film solar cells. This article presents an overview of the energy band alignment in chalcogenide thin film solar cells with a particular focus on the commercially available material systems CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Experimental results from two decades of photoelectron spectroscopy experiments are compared with density functional theory calculations taken from literature. It is found that the experimentally determined energy band alignment is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for many interfaces. These alignments, in particular the theoretically predicted alignments, can therefore be considered as the intrinsic or natural alignments for a given material combination. The good agreement between experiment and theory enables a detailed discussion of the interfacial composition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS interfaces in terms of the contribution of ordered vacancy compounds to the alignment of the energy bands. It is furthermore shown that the most important interfaces in chalcogenide thin film solar cells, those between Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdS and between CdS and CdTe are quite insensitive to the processing of the layers.There are plenty of examples where a significant deviation between experimentally-determined band alignment and theoretical predictions are evident. In such cases a variation of band alignment of sometimes more than 1eV depending on interface preparation can be obtained. This variation can lead to a significant deterioration of device properties. It is suggested that these modifications are related to the presence of high defect concentrations in the materials forming the contact. The particular defect chemistry of chalcogenide semiconductors, which is related to the ionicity of the chemical bond in these materials and which can be beneficial for material and device properties, can therefore cause significant device limitations, as e.g. in the case of the CuInS2 thin film solar cells or for new chalcogenide absorber materials. PMID:25767081

  16. Self-organized broadband light trapping in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, C.; Chiappe, D.; Delli Veneri, P.; Mercaldo, L. V.; Usatii, I.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.

    2013-06-01

    Nanostructured glass substrates endowed with high aspect ratio one-dimensional corrugations are prepared by defocused ion beam erosion through a self-organized gold (Au) stencil mask. The shielding action of the stencil mask is amplified by co-deposition of gold atoms during ion bombardment. The resulting glass nanostructures enable broadband anti-reflection functionality and at the same time ensure a high efficiency for diffuse light scattering (Haze). It is demonstrated that the patterned glass substrates exhibit a better photon harvesting than the flat glass substrate in p-i-n type thin film a-Si:H solar cells.

  17. Self-organized broadband light trapping in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured glass substrates endowed with high aspect ratio one-dimensional corrugations are prepared by defocused ion beam erosion through a self-organized gold (Au) stencil mask. The shielding action of the stencil mask is amplified by co-deposition of gold atoms during ion bombardment. The resulting glass nanostructures enable broadband anti-reflection functionality and at the same time ensure a high efficiency for diffuse light scattering (Haze). It is demonstrated that the patterned glass substrates exhibit a better photon harvesting than the flat glass substrate in pin type thin film a-Si:H solar cells. (paper)

  18. Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contacts of thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetzold, U. W.; Hallermann, F.; Pieters, B. E.; Rau, U.; Carius, R.; von Plessen, G.

    2010-05-01

    Investigations of optical losses induced by localized plasmons in protrusions on silver back contacts of thin-film silicon solar cells are presented. The interaction of electromagnetic waves with nanoprotrusions on flat silver layers is simulated with a three-dimensional numerical solver of Maxwell's equations. Spatial absorption profiles and spatial electric field profiles as well as the absorption inside the protrusions are calculated. The results presented here show that the absorption of irradiated light at nanorough silver layers can be strongly enhanced by localized plasmonic resonances in Ag nanoprotrusions. Especially, localized plasmons in protrusions with a radius below 60 nm induce strong absorption, which can be several times the energy irradiated on the protrusion's cross section. The localized plasmonic resonances in single protrusions on Ag layers are observed to shift to longer wavelengths with increasing refractive index of the surrounding material. At wavelengths above 500 nm localized plasmonic resonances will increase the absorption of nanorough ?c-Si:H/Ag interfaces. The localized plasmon induced absorption at nanorough ZnO/Ag interfaces lies at shorter wavelengths due to the lower refractive index of ZnO. For wavelengths above 500 nm, a high reflectivity of the silver back contacts is essential for the light-trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells. Localized-plasmon induced losses at silver back contacts can explain the experimentally observed increase of the solar cell performance when applying a ZnO/Ag back contact in comparison to a ?c-Si:H/Ag back contact.

  19. Periodic anti-ring back reflectors for hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yuan; Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Ho, Chung-I; Ho, Chi-Chih; Lee, Wei-Li; Chang, Hung-Chun; Lee, Si-Chen; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Cheng, I-Chun

    2014-06-30

    Large and periodic anti-ring arrays are fabricated by using a monolayer of polymer/nanosphere hybrid technique and applied as back reflectors in substrate-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells. The structure of each anti-ring comprises a nanodome centered inside a nanohole. The excitation of Bloch wave surface plasmon polaritons is observed in the Ag-coated anti-ring arrays. The nanodomes of the anti-ring arrays turn out to enhance large-angle light scattering and increase the effective optical path in the solar cell. The resulting efficiency of an ultrathin a-Si:H (thickness: 150 nm) solar cell is enhanced by 39% compared to that with a flat back reflector and by 13% compared to that with a nanohole back reflector. PMID:24978075

  20. Improved homogeneity of microcrystalline absorber layer in thin-film silicon tandem solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of microcrystalline silicon i-layer modification near p/i interface in tandem configuration silicon thin film solar cells is presented. The structural properties of the absorber layers were investigated by Raman spectroscopy at different stages of growth. The results indicate the possibility of improving both the nucleation process and the film homogeneity in the direction of growth, without specific re-optimization of the p-layer, transferred from a single-junction microcrystalline silicon cell. Structural modifications of the i-layer have been correlated with performance of tandem solar cells, leading to improvements in the bottom cell current Jsc (up to 11.4 mA/cm2) and initial tandem-cell conversion efficiency (up to 11.3%).

  1. Improved homogeneity of microcrystalline absorber layer in thin-film silicon tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Vlad [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt Str., D-52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: v.smirnov@fz-juelich.de; Das, Chandan; Melle, Thomas; Lambertz, Andreas; Huelsbeck, Markus; Carius, Reinhard; Finger, Friedhelm [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt Str., D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    A study of the effects of microcrystalline silicon i-layer modification near p/i interface in tandem configuration silicon thin film solar cells is presented. The structural properties of the absorber layers were investigated by Raman spectroscopy at different stages of growth. The results indicate the possibility of improving both the nucleation process and the film homogeneity in the direction of growth, without specific re-optimization of the p-layer, transferred from a single-junction microcrystalline silicon cell. Structural modifications of the i-layer have been correlated with performance of tandem solar cells, leading to improvements in the bottom cell current J{sub sc} (up to 11.4 mA/cm{sup 2}) and initial tandem-cell conversion efficiency (up to 11.3%)

  2. Band alignment measurements at heterojunction interfaces in layered thin film solar cells & thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Public awareness of the increasing energy crisis and the related serious environmental concerns has led to a significantly growing demand for alternative clean and renewable energy resources. Thin film are widely applied in multiple renewable energy devices owing to the reduced amount of raw materials and increase flexibility of choosing from low-cost candidates, which translates directly into reduced capital cost. This is a key driving force to make renewable technology competitive in the energy market. This thesis is focused on the measurement of energy level alignments at interfaces of thin film structures for renewable energy applications. There are two primary foci: II -VI semiconductor ZnSe/ZnTe thin film solar cells and Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 thin film structures for thermoelectric applications. In both cases, the electronic structure and energy band alignment at interfaces usually controls the carrier transport behavior and determines the quality of the device. High-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (lab-based XPS & synchrotron-based UPS) was used to investigate the chemical and electronic properties of epitaxial Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, in order to validate the anticipated band alignment at interfaces in Bi 2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices as one favoring electron-transmission. A simple, thorough two-step treatment of a chemical etching in dilute hydrochloric acid solution and a subsequent annealing at 150C under ultra-high vacuum environment is established to remove the surface oxides completely. It is an essential step to ensure the measurements on electronic states are acquired on stoichimetric, oxide-free clean surface of Bi 2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. The direct measurement of valence band offsets (VBO) at a real Sb 2Te3/Bi2Te3 interface is designed based on the Kraut model; a special stacking film structure is prepared intentionally: sufficiently thin Sb2Te3 film on top of Bi2Te 3 that photoelectrons from both of them are collected simultaneously. From a combination of core levels and valence band ultraviolet photoemission spectra of the bulk materials as well as the heterojunction (Sb2Te 3/Bi2Te3), the VBO at p-type Sb2Te 3 and n-type Bi2Te3 is determined as 0.04 +/- 0.10 eV. Such a small energy offset is within the same magnitude of the thermal energy of kT, at room temperature. The motivation for the II-VI ZnTe-based thin film solar cell derives from the need to identify and overcome performance-limiting properties related to the processing of film deposition using close space sublimation (CSS). Chemical and electronic properties of the CSS grown ZnTe/ZnSe films were studied in x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoemission spectroscopy. Specifically, Se oxide was observed on the ZnSe surface, the removal of this oxide generated apparent offsets in the valence band and hence the alignment at the heterojunction energy diagram. Processing steps to mitigate oxidation yielded the best cells. Film structure was studied on the dependence of growth time; physical film damage is found during the initial stages when depositing ZnTe on a grown ZnSe film. Preliminary studies of films grown by evaporation and their characterizations are presented at last. In this thesis, a better understanding of the electronic structure at interfaces is built in two different thin film devices, and the resulting band energy diagram of the corresponding devices offered effective feedback in materials and device.The problem of energy equilibrium in the human body has received a great deal.

  3. Novel concepts for low-cost and high-efficient thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmez, D.; Menndez, A.; Snchez, P.; Martnez, A.; Andrs, L. J.; Menndez, M. F.; Campos, N.; Garca, A.; Snchez, B.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents the activities carried out at ITMA Materials Technology related to the building integration of thin film (TF) photovoltaics (PV). Three different approaches have been developed in order to achieve high efficient solar cells at low manufacturing costs: (i) a new route for manufacturing monolithical silicon based thin film solar cells on building materials, (ii) the use of metallic nanoparticles for light trapping (plasmonic effects and light scattering) and (iii) the luminescent sol-gel coating on glass for solar concentration. In the first case, amorphous silicon modules (single junction) have been successfully manufactured at lab scale on steel and commercial ceramic substrates with efficiencies of 5.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Promising initial attempts have been also made in ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), a polymer with high potential in textile architecture. In a similar way, the development of nanotechnology based coatings (metallic nanoparticles and luminescent materials) represent the most innovative part of the work and some preliminary results are showed.

  4. Fabrication, characterization and interface study of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of CdTe and ZnTe are optically and electrically characterized during the course of this research work. Various samples are of CdS/CdTe solar cells are prepared on glass and copper substrate. These samples are then subjected to electrical measurements. For the interface study of CdS/CdTe junction, thin films of CdS CdTe are fabricated on single crystal Si substrate to form CdTe/CdS/Si and ZnTe/CdTe/CdS/Si samples. These samples are analyzed for interface study by using Auger Electron Spectroscopy. Finally, the results obtained by interface study are compared with that for electrical measurements obtained earlier, and it is found that the open circuit voltage for the solar cells is close to the optimum value but the short circuit current values for the same cells are away from the optimum value. The is because of the formation of a resistive layer in the vicinity of the junction of the cell due to unwanted mixing taking place in these samples especially in the CdTe/CdS junction. (author)

  5. Crystalline silicon for thin film solar cells. Final report; Kristallines Silizium fuer Duennschichtsolarzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H.

    2001-07-01

    Thin film solar cells based on silicon are of great interest for cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electric power. In order to reach this goal, intensive research is still necessary, pointing, e.g., to a further enhancement of the conversion efficiency, an improvement of stability and a reduction of the production time. Aim of the project work was the achievement of knowledge on microcrystalline silicon and its application in thin film solar cells by means of a broad research and development program. Material research focused on growth processes of the microcrystalline material, the incorporation and stability of hydrogen, the electronic transport and defects. In particular the transition from amorphous to microcrystalline material which is obtained for the present deposition methods by minor variations of the deposition parameters as well as the enhancement of the deposition rate were intensively studies. Another focus of research aimed toward the development and improvement of zinc oxide films which are of central importance for this type of solar cells for the application as transparent contacts. A comprehensive understanding was achieved. The films were incorporated in thin film solar cells and with conversion efficiencies >8% for single cells (at relatively high deposition rate) and 10% (stable) for tandem cells with amorphous silicon, top values were achieved by international standards. The project achievements serve as a base for a further development of this type of solar cell and for the transfer of this technology to industry. (orig.) [German] Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis von Silizium sind von grossem Interesse fuer eine kostenguenstige Umwandlung von Sonnenenergie in elektrischen Strom. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, ist jedoch noch intensive Forschung, u.a. zur weiteren Steigerung des Wirkungsgrades, zur Verbesserung der Stabilitaet und zur Verkuerzung des Produktionsprozesses erforderlich. Ziel der Projektarbeiten war, durch ein breit angelegtes Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprogramm Kenntnisse ueber mikrokristallines Silizium und dessen Einsatzmoeglichkeit in Duennschichtsolarzellen zu gewinnen. Im Rahmen der Materialforschungzustanden Wachstumsprozesse von mirkrokristallinem Material, der Einbau und die Stabilitaet von Wasserstoff, der elektronische Transport und Defekte im Vordergrund. Insbesondere der Uebergang amorph-mikrokristallin, der bei den vorliegenden Depositionsmethoden durch geringfuegige Veraenderungen der Depositionsparameter erreicht werden kann, sowie eine Erhoehung der Depositionsrate wurden intensiv untersucht. Weiterhin wurden an der Entwicklung und Optimierung von Zinkoxidschichten gearbeitet, die fuer diesen Typ von Solarzellen als transparente Kontaktschichten von zentraler Bedeutung sind. Ein umfassendes Verstaendnis wurde erzielt. Die Schichten wurden in Duennschichtsolarzellen eingebaut und mit Wirkungsgraden >8% fuer Einzelzellen (bei relativ hohen Depositionsraten) und 10% (stabil) fuer Tandemsolarzellen mit amorphem Silizium wurden Spitzenwerte (im internationalen Vergleich) erreicht. Die Projektergebnisse dienen als Basis fuer die Weiterentwicklung dieses Solarzellentyps und fuer einen Transfer der Technologie in die Industrie. (orig.)

  6. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using photonic engineering device concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutitu, James Gichuhi

    In this era of uncertainty concerning future energy solutions, strong reservations have arisen over the continued use and pursuit of fossil fuels and other conventional sources of energy. Moreover, there is currently a strong and global push for the implementation of stringent measures, in order to reduce the amount of green house gases emitted by every nation. As a consequence, there has emerged a sudden and frantic rush for new renewable energy solutions. In this world of renewable energy technologies is where we find photovoltaic (PV) technology today. However, as is, there are still many issues that need to be addressed before solar energy technologies become economically viable and available to all people, in every part of the world. This renewed interest in the development of solar electricity, has led to the advancement of new avenues that address the issues of cost and efficiency associated with PV. To this end, one of the prominent approaches being explored is thin film solar cell (TFSC) technology, which offers prospects of lower material costs and enables larger units of manufacture than conventional wafer based technology. However, TFSC technologies suffer from one major problem; they have lower efficiencies than conventional wafer based solar cell technologies. This lesser efficiency is based on a number of reasons, one of which is that with less material, there is less volume for the absorption of incident photons. This shortcoming leads to the need for optical light trapping; which is concerned with admitting the maximum amount of light into the solar cell and keeping the light within the structure for as long as possible. In this thesis, I present the fundamental scientific ideas, practice and methodology behind the application of photonic engineering device concepts to increase the light trapping capacity of thin film solar cells. In the introductory chapters, I develop the basic ideas behind light trapping in a sequential manner, where the effects of the inclusion of various structures on the front and back surfaces of solar cells are examined. This framework is then adapted as a basis for the development of more advanced topics, such as the inclusion of micro and nano scale surface textures, diffraction gratings and photonic bandgap structures. Analyses of the effects of these light trapping structures is undertaken using performance metrics, such as the short circuit current characteristics and a band-edge enhancement factor, which all serve to quantitatively demonstrate the effects of the optical enhancements. I begin this thesis with an investigation of one dimensional photonic crystals, which are used as selective light filters between vertically stacked tandem multi-junction solar cells. These ideas are then further developed for single junction stand alone thin film solar cells, where the optical enhancement is shown to be very significant. A further investigation on the application of engineered photonic crystal materials as angular selective light filters is then presented; these filters are shown to overcome the physical limitations of light trapping that are imposed by the optical properties of materials; specifically limitations associated with total internal reflection. In the next part of this thesis, I present a fundamental redesign approach to multiple period distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR's) and their applications to solar cell light trapping. As it turns out, multiple period DBR's, which are required for high back surface reflectance - which is especially necessary in thin film solar cells - present formidable challenges in terms of cost and complexity when considered for high volume manufacturing. To this end, I show that when a single period DBR is combined with a phase matching and metallic layer, the combined structure can achieve high back surface reflectance that is comparable to that of a DBR structure with many more layers. This new structure reduces the back reflector complexity and is hence, amenable to large scale fabrication processes. In the latter sections of this thes

  7. Microcrystalline silicon carbide alloys prepared with HWCVD as highly transparent and conductive window layers for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline silicon carbide alloys have a very high potential as transparent conductive window layers in thin-film solar cells provided they can be prepared in thin-film form and at compatible deposition temperatures. The low-temperature deposition of such material in microcrystalline form (?c-Si:C:H) was realized by use of monomethylsilane precursor gas diluted in hydrogen with the Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition process. A wide range of deposition parameters has been investigated and the structural, electronic and optical properties of the ?c-SiC:H thin films have been studied. The material, which is strongly n-type from unintentional doping, has been used as window layer in n-side illuminated microcrystalline silicon solar cells. High short-circuit current densities are obtained due to the high transparency of the material resulting in a maximum solar cell conversion efficiency of 9.2%.

  8. Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Plastic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, solar energy can fulfil a large part of the growing demand. The biggest threshold for large-scale solar energy harvesting is the solar panel price. For drastic cost reductions, roll-to-roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells using plastic substrates can be a solution. In this thesis, we investigate the possibilities of depositing thin film solar cells directly onto cheap plastic substrates. Micro-textured glass and sheets, which have a wide range of applications, such as in green house, lighting etc, are applied in these solar cells for light trapping. Thin silicon films can be produced by decomposing silane gas, using a plasma process. In these types of processes, the temperature of the growing surface has a large influence on the quality of the grown films. Because plastic substrates limit the maximum tolerable substrate temperature, new methods have to be developed to produce device-grade silicon layers. At low temperature, polysilanes can form in the plasma, eventually forming dust particles, which can deteriorate device performance. By studying the spatially resolved optical emission from the plasma between the electrodes, we can identify whether we have a dusty plasma. Furthermore, we found an explanation for the temperature dependence of dust formation; Monitoring the formation of polysilanes as a function of temperature using a mass-spectrometer, we observed that the polymerization rate is indeed influenced by the substrate temperature. For solar cell substrate material, our choice was polycarbonate (PC), because of its low cost, its excellent transparency and its relatively high glass transition temperature of 130-140C. At 130C we searched for deposition recipes for device quality silicon, using a very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical deposition process. By diluting the feedstock silane with hydrogen gas, the silicon quality can be improved for amorphous silicon (a-Si), until we reach the nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) regime. In the nc-Si regime, the crystalline fraction can be further controlled by changing the power input into the plasma. With these layers, a-Si thin film solar cells were fabricated, on glass and PC substrates. The adverse effect of the low temperature growth on the photoactive material is further mitigated by using thinner silicon layers, which can deliver a good current only with an adequate light trapping technique. We have simulated and experimentally tested three light trapping techniques, using embossed structures in PC substrates and random structures on glass: regular pyramid structures larger than the wavelength of light (micropyramids), regular pyramid structures comparable to the wavelength of light (nanopyramids) and random nano-textures (Asahi U-type). The use of nanostructured polycarbonate substrates results in initial conversion efficiencies of 7.4%, compared to 7.6% for cells deposited under identical conditions on Asahi U-type glass. The potential of manufacturing thin film solar cells at processing temperatures lower than 130oC is further illustrated by obtained results on texture-etched aluminium doped zinc-oxide (ZnO:Al) on glass: we achieved 6.9% for nc-Si cells using a very thin absorber layer of only 750 nm, and by combining a-Si and nc-Si cells in tandem solar cells we reached an initial conversion efficiency of 9.5%.

  9. Embedded biomimetic nanostructures for enhanced optical absorption in thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Min-An; Han, Hao-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Tseng, Ping-Chen; Yu, Peichen; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Shen, Chang-Hong; Shieh, Jia-Min; Lin, Shiuan-Huei

    2011-07-01

    Light-management is critical to thin film solar cells due to their usually limited optical absorption in the active layer. Conventional approaches involve employing separate techniques for anti-reflection and light trapping. Here, we demonstrate an embedded biomimetic nanostructure (EBN) that achieves both effects for hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. The fabrication of EBNs is accomplished by patterning an index-matching silicon-nitride layer deposited on a glass substrate using polystyrene nanospheres lithography, followed by reactive ion etching. The profile of EBN is then reproduced layer by layer during the deposition of a-Si:H cells. We show that a solar cell with an optimized EBN exhibits a broadband enhanced external quantum efficiency due to both anti-reflection and light-trapping, with respect to an industrial standard cell using an Asahi U glass substrate which is mostly optimized for light trapping. Overall, the cell with an optimized EBN achieves a large short-circuit current density of 17.74 mA/cm(2), corresponding to a 37.63% enhancement over a flat control cell. The power conversion efficiency is also increased from 5.36% to 8.32%. Moreover, the light management enabled by the EBN remains efficient over a wide range of incident angles up to 60, which is particularly desirable for real environments with diffused sun light. The novel patterning method is not restricted to a-Si:H solar cells, but is also widely applicable to other thin film materials. PMID:21747544

  10. Effect of CdCl2 annealing treatment on CdS thin films and CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of CdCl2 annealing treatment on thin CdS films and CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells, a comparative study was carried out on three types of CdTe/CdS solar cells, which had different kinds of CdS window layer: as-deposited CdS, air-annealed CdS without CdCl2 pre-coating, and CdCl2-annealed CdS. When annealed in air the CdS film was partially oxidated to CdO and CdSO4. These oxides increased the series resistance of the CdTe solar cell and led to the lowest fill factor. The presence of CdCl2 on the surface of a CdS thin film during heat treatment in air protected it from oxidation and promoted the recrystallization of the CdS film, resulting in large and closely packed grains with a grain size of ? 50 -150 nm. CdTe/CdS solar cell with such a kind of CdS window layer showed the largest short circuit current and highest conversion efficiency of 12.4%. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Effect of CdCl{sub 2} annealing treatment on CdS thin films and CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Zhizhong; Wan, Lei; Hou, Zerong; Wang, Deliang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-02-15

    In order to study the effect of CdCl{sub 2} annealing treatment on thin CdS films and CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells, a comparative study was carried out on three types of CdTe/CdS solar cells, which had different kinds of CdS window layer: as-deposited CdS, air-annealed CdS without CdCl{sub 2} pre-coating, and CdCl{sub 2}-annealed CdS. When annealed in air the CdS film was partially oxidated to CdO and CdSO{sub 4}. These oxides increased the series resistance of the CdTe solar cell and led to the lowest fill factor. The presence of CdCl{sub 2} on the surface of a CdS thin film during heat treatment in air protected it from oxidation and promoted the recrystallization of the CdS film, resulting in large and closely packed grains with a grain size of {proportional_to} 50 -150 nm. CdTe/CdS solar cell with such a kind of CdS window layer showed the largest short circuit current and highest conversion efficiency of 12.4%. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Fabrication of thin film nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with low light-induced degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati [Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2009-05-15

    Nanocrystalline silicon thin films have been deposited at different total gas flow rates and plasma excitation frequencies and samples with similar crystalline volume fraction have been compared. In hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells, amorphous component is not necessarily the only determining factor for light-induced degradation. Smaller grain size less than 3 nm diameter and intermediate range order provide a better stability in the i-layer near the p/i interface, thus improving the overall stability of the solar cell. Light-induced degradation (LID) of efficiency of the cell mainly depends on the light-induced degradation of short-circuit current density and light-induced degradation of fill factor (FF). Degradation of open-circuit voltage is less than 1%. Minimum degradation of efficiency obtained in this work is 2%. (author)

  13. The role of front and back electrodes in parasitic absorption in thin-film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boccard Mathieu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to parasitic absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells, most studies focus on one electrode only, most of the time the substrate (in n-i-p configuration or superstrate (in p-i-n configuration. We investigate here simultaneously the influence of the absorption in both front and back electrodes on the current density of tandem micromorph solar cells in p-i-n configuration. We compare four possible combinations of front and back electrodes with two different doping levels, but identical sheet resistance and identical light-scattering properties. In the infrared part of the spectrum, parasitic absorption in the front or back electrode is shown to have a similar effect on the current generation in the cell, which is confirmed by modeling. By combining highly transparent front and back ZnO electrodes and high-quality silicon layers, a micromorph device with a stabilized efficiency of 11.75% is obtained.

  14. The role of front and back electrodes in parasitic absorption in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Cuony, Peter; Hnni, Simon; Stuckelberger, Michael; Haug, Franz-Josef; Meillaud, Fanny; Despeisse, Matthieu; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    When it comes to parasitic absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells, most studies focus on one electrode only, most of the time the substrate (in n-i-p configuration) or superstrate (in p-i-n configuration). We investigate here simultaneously the influence of the absorption in both front and back electrodes on the current density of tandem micromorph solar cells in p-i-n configuration. We compare four possible combinations of front and back electrodes with two different doping levels, but identical sheet resistance and identical light-scattering properties. In the infrared part of the spectrum, parasitic absorption in the front or back electrode is shown to have a similar effect on the current generation in the cell, which is confirmed by modeling. By combining highly transparent front and back ZnO electrodes and high-quality silicon layers, a micromorph device with a stabilized efficiency of 11.75% is obtained.

  15. Development of high band gap protocrystalline material for p-i-n thin film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    High band gap thin film silicon solar cells are of high interest for the use as top cell in triple junctions solar cells. Protocrystalline silicon, in the transition phase between amorphous and microcrystalline silicon, is such a high band gap material. During this project, protocrystalline intrinsic layers have been developed and optimized in p-i-n single junction solar cells by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) in a new multi-chamber deposition system. In the first series, ...

  16. Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

  17. N/I buffer layer for substrate microcrystalline thin film silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sderstrm, T.; Haug, F.-J.; Terrazzoni-Daudrix, V.; Niquille, X.; Python, M.; Ballif, C.

    2008-11-01

    The influence of the substrate surface morphology on the performance of microcrystalline silicon solar cells in the substrate or n-i-p (nip) configuration is studied in this paper. The experiments are carried out on glass substrates coated with naturally textured films of ZnO deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition which serves as backcontact and as template for the light trapping texture. The film surface morphology can be modified with a plasma treatment which smoothens the V-shaped valleys to a more U-shaped form. We investigate, first, the influence of different substrates morphologies on the performance of microcrystalline (?c-Si:H) thin film silicon solar cells deposited by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The V-shaped morphologies are found to have strong light trapping capabilities but to be detrimental for the ?c-Si:H material growth and lead to degraded open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) of the solar cells. Hence, in Sec. III B, we introduce a buffer layer with a higher amorphous fraction between the n doped and intrinsic layer. Our study reveals that the buffer layer limits the formation of voids and porous areas in the ?c-Si:H material on substrates with strong light trapping capabilities. Indeed, this layer mitigates Voc and FF losses which enhances the performance of the ?c-Si:H solar cell. Finally, by applying our findings, we report an efficiency of 9% for a nip ?c-Si:H thin film silicon cell with a thickness of only 1.2 ?m.

  18. Time Domain Characterization of Light Trapping States in Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer W.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spectral interferometry of the backscattered radiation reveals coherence lifetimes of about 150 fs for nanolocalized electromagnetic modes in textured layered nanostructures as they are commonly used in thin film photovoltaics to achieve high cell efficiencies.

  19. A non-resonant dielectric metamaterial for the enhancement of thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelyanovich, M.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Simovski, C.

    2015-02-01

    Recently, we have suggested a dielectric metamaterial composed of an array of submicron dielectric spheres located on top of an amorphous thin-film solar cell. We have theoretically shown that this metamaterial can decrease the reflection and simultaneously suppress the transmission through the photovoltaic layer because it transforms the incident plane wave into a set of focused light beams. This theoretical concept has been strongly developed and experimentally confirmed in the present paper. Here we consider the metamaterial for oblique angle illumination, redesign the solar cell and present a detailed experimental study of the whole structure. In contrast to our previous theoretical study we show that our omnidirectional light-trapping structure may operate better than the optimized flat coating obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  20. A non-resonant dielectric metamaterial for enhancement of thin-film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Omelyanovich, Mikhail; Simovski, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have suggested dielectric metamaterial composed as an array of submicron dielectric spheres located on top of an amorphous thin-film solar cell. We have theoretically shown that this metamaterial can decrease the reflection and simultaneously can suppress the transmission through the photovoltaic layer because it transforms the incident plane wave into a set of focused light beams. This theoretical concept has been strongly developed and experimentally confirmed in the present paper. Here we consider the metamaterial for oblique angle illumination, redesign the solar cell and present a detailed experimental study of the whole structure. In contrast to our precedent theoretical study we show that our omnidirectional light-trapping structure may operate better than the optimized flat coating obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  1. Hybrid light trapping structures in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanpeng; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Wen; Yang, Tianshu; Yang, Fuhua

    2014-07-01

    Enhancing light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells is important for improving efficiency and reducing cost. We introduce a hybrid light trapping structure, where front grating and backside Ag nanoparticles are optimized for antireflection and light trapping. The solar cell with this optimized structure yields a photocurrent of 29.7 mA cm-2 within an active layer equivalent thickness of 1 ?m, close to the theoretical limit. This approach is robust to various incident angles and is applicable to different thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers. Two other similar hybrid structures are also proved to be effective light trapping schemes. Moreover, we illustrate that the device implementation could be realized in low-cost technologies.

  2. Thin film solar cells with Si nanocrystallites embedded in amorphous intrinsic layers by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungil; Parida, Bhaskar; Kim, Keunjoo

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the thin film growths of hydrogenated silicon by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition with different flow rates of SiH4 and H2 mixture ambient and fabricated thin film solar cells by implementing the intrinsic layers to SiC/Si heterojunction p-i-n structures. The film samples showed the different infrared absorption spectra of 2,000 and 2,100 cm(-1), which are corresponding to the chemical bonds of SiH and SiH2, respectively. The a-Si:H sample with the relatively high silane concentration provides the absorption peak of SiH bond, but the microc-Si:H sample with the relatively low silane concentration provides the absorption peak of SiH2 bond as well as SiH bond. Furthermore, the microc-Si:H sample showed the Raman spectral shift of 520 cm(-1) for crystalline phase Si bonds as well as the 480 cm(-1) for the amorphous phase Si bonds. These bonding structures are very consistent with the further analysis of the long-wavelength photoconduction tail and the formation of nanocrystalline Si structures. The microc-Si:H thin film solar cell has the photovoltaic behavior of open circuit voltage similar to crystalline silicon thin film solar cell, indicating that microc-Si:H thin film with the mixed phase of amorphous and nanocrystalline structures show the carrier transportation through the channel of nanocrystallites. PMID:23858866

  3. Enhancing light trapping properties of thin film solar cells by plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Junhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Cho, Jaehyun; Ahn, Shihyun; Park, Hyeongsik; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Choi, Mansoo; Yi, Junsin

    2013-12-01

    The preparation of thin film silicon solar cells containing Ag nanoparticles is reported in this article. Ag nanoparticles were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by the evaporation and condensation method. a-Si:H solar cells were deposited on these substrates by cluster type plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We discuss the double textured surface effect with respect to both the surface morphology of the substrate and the plasmonic effect of the Ag nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles of various sizes from 10 to 100 nm were deposited. The haze values of the Ag embedded samples increased with increasing particle size whereas the optical transmittance decreased at the same conditions. The solar cell with the 30 nm size Ag nanoparticles showed a short circuit current density of 12.97 mA/cm2, which is 0.53 mA/cm2 higher than that of the reference solar cell without Ag nanoparticles, and the highest quantum efficiency for wavelengths from 550 to 800 nm. When 30 nm size nanoparticles were employed, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell was increased from 6.195% to 6.696%. This study reports the application of the scattering effect of Ag nanoparticles for the improvement of the conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells. PMID:24266153

  4. Electron and hole drift mobility measurements on thin film CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report electron and hole drift mobilities in thin film polycrystalline CdTe solar cells based on photocarrier time-of-flight measurements. For a deposition process similar to that used for high-efficiency cells, the electron drift mobilities are in the range of 10?1100 cm2/V s, and holes are in the range of 100101 cm2/V s. The electron drift mobilities are about a thousand times smaller than those measured in single crystal CdTe with time-of-flight; the hole mobilities are about ten times smaller. Cells were examined before and after a vapor phase treatment with CdCl2; treatment had little effect on the hole drift mobility, but decreased the electron mobility. We are able to exclude bandtail trapping and dispersion as a mechanism for the small drift mobilities in thin film CdTe, but the actual mechanism reducing the mobilities from the single crystal values is not known.

  5. Electrical impact of MoSe2 on CIGS thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Kuo-Jui; Liu, Jing-Da; Hsieh, Hsing-Hua; Jiang, Ting-Shiuan

    2013-11-01

    The CIGS solar cell is one of the most promising photovoltaic devices due to the achievement of the highest conversion efficiency (>20%) among all thin-film solar cells. The CIGS cell has a glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/TCO configuration, and the CIGS-Mo interface is a Schottky barrier to holes. During the sulfurization-after-selenization (SAS) CIGS formation process with H2Se gas, the Mo surface transforms naturally into MoSe2 at the CIGS-Mo interface. In this work, the electrical impact of MoSe2 on CIGS solar cells was investigated. Different CIGS-Mo interfaces were prepared with two CIGS processes. One is SAS, and the other is the sequential-sputtering-selenization CIGS process with Se gas. Formation of MoSe2 is hardly observed in the latter process. Samples were characterized by XRD, the van der Pauw method, reflectance, and visual inspection. Besides, Schottky barrier heights of cells were extracted from J-V-T measurements. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the existence of thin MoSe2 film can decrease the apparent Schottky barrier height of CIGS solar cells. In addition, 1-dimensional numerical simulation showed that a larger barrier height affects both the fill factor and open-circuit voltage. Therefore, the formation of MoSe2 during the CIGS process should minimize the negative effect of Schottky barrier on solar-cell performances, especially with large Schottky barrier. PMID:24068110

  6. Two-dimensional high efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with a lateral light trapping architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Liu, Bofei; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2014-08-01

    Introducing light trapping structures into thin-film solar cells has the potential to enhance their solar energy harvesting as well as the performance of the cells; however, current strategies have been focused mainly on harvesting photons without considering the light re-escaping from cells in two-dimensional scales. The lateral out-coupled solar energy loss from the marginal areas of cells has reduced the electrical yield indeed. We therefore herein propose a lateral light trapping structure (LLTS) as a means of improving the light-harvesting capacity and performance of cells, achieving a 13.07% initial efficiency and greatly improved current output of a-Si:H single-junction solar cell based on this architecture. Given the unique transparency characteristics of thin-film solar cells, this proposed architecture has great potential for integration into the windows of buildings, microelectronics and other applications requiring transparent components.

  7. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films processed by co-evaporation and their application into solar cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Sastr-Hernndez; M.E., Calixto; M., Tufio-Velzquez; G., Contreras-Puente; A., Morales-Acevedo; G., Casados-Cruz; M.A., Hernndez-Prez; M.L., Albor-Aguilera; R., Mendoza-Prez.

    2011-10-11

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells are attractive because low cost techniques can be used to obtain high efficiency thin film photovoltaic devices. Several research groups around the world have developed CIGS/CdS solar cells with efficiencies larger than 15% [1] using evaporation, makin [...] g it an attractive and reliable technique for thin film deposition. Our PVD system is provided with MBE-type Knudsen cells to deposit CIGS thin films on glass/Molibdenum (Mo) substrates. The deposition conditions for each metal source have been established by doing a deposition profile of temperature data vs. growth rate by co-evaporation to obtain CIGS thin film for solar cells. Characterization of the co-evaporated CIGS thin films was performed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Good quality polycrystalline films were obtained as shown by X-RD patterns. SEM micrographs show films having a very uniform appearance with large grain sizes (~1 m). Photoluminescence (PL) studies on CIGS samples with different Ga and Cu concentrations (Ga/Ga+In) = 0.25 and 0.34 and (Cu/In+Ga) = 0.83, 0.88 and 0.94) have been performed. The EDS results have shown that is possible to control very precisely the CIGS thin film composition using these Knudsen cells. Film thicknesses of ~3-4 m, were measured with an Ambios profilemeter XP 100 stylus type. A conversion efficiency of 10.9 % has been achieved for solar cells made from the co-evaporated absorbers.

  8. Cu(In,GaSe2 thin films processed by co-evaporation and their application into solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sastr\\u00E9-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS solar cells are attractive because low cost techniques can be used to obtain high efficiency thin film photovoltaic devices. Several research groups around the world have developed CIGS/CdS solar cells with efficiencies larger than 15% [1] using evaporation, making it an attractive and reliable technique for thin film deposition. Our PVD system is provided with MBE-type Knudsen cells to deposit CIGS thin films on glass/Molibdenum (Mo substrates. The deposition conditions for each metal source have been established by doing a deposition profile of temperature data vs. growth rate by co-evaporation to obtain CIGS thin film for solar cells. Characterization of the co-evaporated CIGS thin films was performed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS techniques. Good quality polycrystalline films were obtained as shown by X-RD patterns. SEM micrographs show films having a very uniform appearance with large grain sizes (1 m. Photoluminescence (PL studies on CIGS samples with different Ga and Cu concentrations (Ga/Ga+In = 0.25 and 0.34 and (Cu/In+Ga = 0.83, 0.88 and 0.94 have been performed. The EDS results have shown that is possible to control very precisely the CIGS thin film composition using these Knudsen cells. Film thicknesses of 3-4 m, were measured with an Ambios profilemeter XP 100 stylus type. A conversion efficiency of 10.9 % has been achieved for solar cells made from the co-evaporated absorbers.

  9. Determination of optical and mechanical properties of Nb2O5 thin films for solar cells application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, M.; Szyma?ska, M.; Kaczmarek, D.; Kalisz, M.; Wojcieszak, D.; Domaradzki, J.; Placido, F.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper investigation results of niobium pentoxide thin films deposited by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process were described. Surface of prepared coatings was examined with the aid of atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in the contact-mode and in ultra high vacuum conditions. The surface of thin films was homogenous, crack free and exhibit low root mean square (RMS) roughness of about 0.34 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies were performed to determine the chemical states of the niobium at the surface of thin films. Contact angle and surface free energy were additionally investigated to examine the surface properties of the deposited coatings. Optical properties of the Nb2O5 thin films showed, that prepared coatings were well transparent from 350 nm to longer wavelength range. Based on transmission and reflection measurements the values of refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The antireflective coating based on Nb2O5 thin films for solar cells application was proposed. The hardness and Young's modulus measurements were performed by the nanoindentation technique. These investigations revealed that the hardness of the deposited coatings was ca., 7 GPa. Also scratch tests were applied, which have shown that the Nb2O5 thin films were scratch resistant.

  10. Peel-and-stick: fabricating thin film solar cell on universal substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well. PMID:23277871

  11. Ion beam assisted sputter deposition of ZnO for silicon thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is a promising technique for improving the material quality of ZnO-based thin films. The operation of an auxiliary Ar+ ion source during deposition of ZnO?:?Ga thin films by dc magnetron sputtering led to an improvement in crystalline texture, especially at low temperatures due to momentum transfer from the ions to the growing film. Etching of IBAD-ZnO?:?Ga films in diluted HCl revealed crater-like surface structures with crater diameters of up to 600nm. These structures are usually achieved after deposition at high substrate temperatures. This is an indication that the grain structure was remarkably changed by bombarding these films during deposition in terms of increasing the compactness of the ZnO?:?Ga films. Subsequent annealing procedures led to an improvement in the electrical and optical properties. Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (c-Si?:?H) solar cells exhibited enhanced efficiency as compared to cells on other low-temperature sputtered reference ZnO films. This improvement was ascribed to light trapping by the modified etching behaviour of the IBAD-ZnO?:?Ga films as well as improved transparency after the vacuum annealing step. (paper)

  12. Titanium oxide thin film improving efficiency in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feu, W.H.M.; Martins, R.F.; Krambrock, K.; Cury, L.A.; Guimaraes, P.S.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Reis, G.A.; Franchello, F.; Dias, I.F.L. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Polymer/fullerene based solar cells are of great interest in polymer-based photovoltaic due to low cost fabrication in large areas and on flexible substrates, and roll-to-roll manufacturing. Standard power conversion efficiencies of about 5 - 8% are reported in such organic photovoltaic cells (OPVC) but in order to improve device performance new materials and device architectures are needed. Our OPVC thin films consists of blend of P3HT-PCBM (1:1 by weight) and are spin-coated over indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass substrate covered with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene) polystyrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) forming the hole electrode. The collector electrode is a lower-work-function metal, which is in our case Al. Many papers reported the use of lithium fluoride (LiF) layer for a better ohmic contact, but this insulating layer can also reduce the electron collection efficiency if its thickness is above few nanometers. From current-voltage curves in dark and under illumination we show an improvement in the fill factor (FF) and better quality of an OPVC when LiF layer is replaced by titanium oxide (TiO) thin film. The final device is annealed to 150 deg C well below the crystallization temperature for TiO{sub 2} (anatase), resulting in an amorphous phase of this oxide but keeping good conductive quality.

  13. Material aspects of ZnO to make surface texture growth for light trapping for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvan, J.A.A.; Keppner, H.; Kroll, U.; Cuperus, J.; Shah, A. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Microtechnique; Adatte, T. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Geologie; Ketterer, C. [Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    1997-07-01

    The efficiency of thin film solar cells can be increased through the process of light trapping by having thin films of surface-textured transparent conducting oxides (as a window and back contact), and particularly by using doped zinc oxide (ZnO) for this. Apart from aiming at high electrical conductivity and high optical transmission in the visible light range, the growth of ZnO films with textured surfaces is of main interest in the context of thin-film solar cells. In this work, we present the material aspects of ZnO that play an important role in growing ZnO films with textured surfaces. The surface texture growth of ZnO under different deposition conditions, by both sputtering and by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), is presented. (orig.)

  14. Determination of optical and mechanical properties of Nb2O5 thin films for solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Niobium pentoxide films were prepared by microwave assisted magnetron sputtering. Optical and mechanical properties of Nb2O5 thin films were investigated. The surface of thin films was homogenous, crack free and exhibited low RMS roughness. Prepared Nb2O5 coatings were well transparent from ca., 350 nm. Hardness of deposited coatings was ca., 7 GPa. - Abstract: In this paper investigation results of niobium pentoxide thin films deposited by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process were described. Surface of prepared coatings was examined with the aid of atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in the contact-mode and in ultra high vacuum conditions. The surface of thin films was homogenous, crack free and exhibit low root mean square (RMS) roughness of about 0.34 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies were performed to determine the chemical states of the niobium at the surface of thin films. Contact angle and surface free energy were additionally investigated to examine the surface properties of the deposited coatings. Optical properties of the Nb2O5 thin films showed, that prepared coatings were well transparent from 350 nm to longer wavelength range. Based on transmission and reflection measurements the values of refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The antireflective coating based on Nb2O5 thin films for solar cells application was proposed. The hardness and Young's modulus measurements were performed by the nanoindentation technique. These investigations revealed that the hardness of the deposited coatings was ca., 7 GPa. Also scratch tests were applied, which have shown that the Nb2O5 thin films were scratch resistant

  15. Tailoring randomly rough textures for light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Piotr; Bozzola, Angelo; Liscidini, Marco; Andreani, Lucio Claudio

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution, we use a rigorous electro-optical model to study randomly rough crystalline silicon solar cells with the absorber thickness ranging from 1 to 100 ?m. We demonstrate a significant efficiency enhancement, particularly strong for thin cells. We estimate the "region of interest" for thin-film photovoltaics, namely the thickness range for which the energy conversion efficiency reaches maximum. This optimal thickness results from the opposite trends of current and voltage as a function of the absorber thickness. Finally, we focus on surface recombination. In our design, the cell efficiency is limited by recombination at the rear (silicon absorber/back reflector) interface, and therefore engineering the front surface to a large extent does not reduce the efficiency. The presented model of roughness adds a significant functionality to previous approaches, for it allows performing rigorous calculations at a much reduced computational cost.

  16. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, Voc and Jsc than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  17. Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Metallic Nanostructures: Fundamentals and Their Application to Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, Carsten; Fahr, Stephan; Lederer, Falk

    A surface plasmon polariton is a hybrid excitation where the electromagnetic field is resonantly coupled to a free carrier oscillation in noble metals. Once excited, a large enhancement of the local electromagnetic field and the amount of scattered light can be observed. Since both properties are beneficial for the purpose ofphoton management, in the past several years an increasing share of research was devoted to exploit such effects in solar cells. In this contribution, we review the fundamentals of surface plasmon polaritons and outline different approaches how to incorporate metallic nanostructures into solar cells. We detail to which extent they are useful to enhance the solar cell efficiency and describe different schemes for their experimental implementation. Emphasis is put on thin-film solar cells, since in this class of solar cells metallic nanostructures may have the largest impact. This chapter is written with the intention to make researchers from either the field of plasmonics or the field of photovoltaics familiar with their respective counterpart to foster research in this applied domain.

  18. A study of the applicability of ZnO thin-films as anti-reflection coating on Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-films solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent ZnO thin-films are prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis techniques on the glass substrates. Reflectance spectra and thin films heights are measured using spectrophotometer and stylus surface profiler, respectively. Measured optical data is used for investigating the effect of the ZnO prepared by above two processes on the performance of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films solar cell (TFSC). One dimensional simulation approach is considered using the simulation program, SCAPS. External quantum efficiency and J-V characteristics of CZTS TFSC is simulated on the basis of optical reflectance data of ZnO films with and without ZnO thin-films as antireflection coating (ARC). Study shows that ARC coated CZTS TFSC provides a better fill factor (FF) as compared to other ARC material such as MgF2. Sprayed ZnO thin-films as ARC show comparable performance with the sputtered samples.

  19. A study of the applicability of ZnO thin-films as anti-reflection coating on Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-films solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Abhijit; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Tripathi, Brijesh; Kumar, Manoj

    2012-06-01

    Transparent ZnO thin-films are prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis techniques on the glass substrates. Reflectance spectra and thin films heights are measured using spectrophotometer and stylus surface profiler, respectively. Measured optical data is used for investigating the effect of the ZnO prepared by above two processes on the performance of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films solar cell (TFSC). One dimensional simulation approach is considered using the simulation program, SCAPS. External quantum efficiency and J-V characteristics of CZTS TFSC is simulated on the basis of optical reflectance data of ZnO films with and without ZnO thin-films as antireflection coating (ARC). Study shows that ARC coated CZTS TFSC provides a better fill factor (FF) as compared to other ARC material such as MgF2. Sprayed ZnO thin-films as ARC show comparable performance with the sputtered samples.

  20. Thin film solar cells based on the ternary compound Cu2SnS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alongside with Cu2ZnSnS4 and SnS, the p-type semiconductor Cu2SnS3 also consists of only Earth abundant and low-cost elements and shows comparable opto-electronic properties, with respect to Cu2ZnSnS4 and SnS, making it a promising candidate for photovoltaic applications of the future. In this work, the ternary compound has been produced via the annealing of an electrodeposited precursor in a sulfur and tin sulfide environment. The obtained absorber layer has been structurally investigated by X-ray diffraction and results indicate the crystal structure to be monoclinic. Its optical properties have been measured via photoluminescence, where an asymmetric peak at 0.95 eV has been found. The evaluation of the photoluminescence spectrum indicates a band gap of 0.93 eV which agrees well with the results from the external quantum efficiency. Furthermore, this semiconductor layer has been processed into a photovoltaic device with a power conversion efficiency of 0.54%, a short circuit current of 17.1 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 104 mV hampered by a small shunt resistance, a fill factor of 30.4%, and a maximal external quantum efficiency of just less than 60%. In addition, the potential of this Cu2SnS3 absorber layer for photovoltaic applications is discussed. - Highlights: ? Fabrication of a pn-junction based thin film solar cell based on Cu2SnS3. based on Cu2SnS3. ? Electro-optical properties of the Cu2SnS3 based solar cell and its limits. ? The potential of Cu2SnS3 based solar cells in terms of its photovoltaic application. ? Structural, morphological, and optical properties of a Cu2SnS3 thin film.

  1. Near-field assisted nanoscale patterning for improved absorption in thin film silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukeshan, V. M.; Prabhathan, P.; Sidharthan, R.

    2014-10-01

    Near field optics concepts have introduced a paradigm shift in a wide variety of engineering fields in the recent past and the most significant applications of this fundamental physics concepts have been in the applied engineering problems such as improved broad band light absorption thereby enhancing the conversion efficiency of thin silicon solar cells. Also, for writing patterned structures or features using non contact optical methodologies have enabled near field optics assisted fabrication and related applications. The technology involving optics concepts and methodologies targeting energy sector have seen the impact of the same with a challenging trend to achieve smaller features or devices with micro- or nano-scale features. This demands automatically the need for achieving much smaller features beyond the forecasted sub- 30nm feature patterning methodologies. To meet such demands, a new branch of near- field optical concepts for improving patterning resolution has started developing which have been receiving considerable attention for its ability to produce high density sub-wavelength features that can find tremendous energy harvesting applications. This paper in this context mainly focuses on the review of different near field optical concepts and approaches developed for patterning by the author's group at NTU. Different concepts were explored incorporating surface Plasmon waves ( LSPs, SPPs, LRSPs), gap modes as well as their interference in order to high resolution features and pattern dimensions at nano-scales. The absorbance of near band gap light is small and hence structuring of thin film solar cell is very important for increasing the absorbance by light trapping. The manuscript conclude by correlating the above said aspects and the challenges in achieving improved light conversion in thin film solar cells.

  2. Interfacial alkali diffusion control in chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Yamada, Akimasa; Fons, Paul J; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru

    2014-08-27

    Alkali elements, specifically sodium (Na), are key materials to enhance the energy conversion efficiencies of chalcopyrite and related thin-film photovoltaic solar cells. Recently, the effect of potassium (K) has also attracted attention because elemental K has unique effects different from Na as well as a similar beneficial effect in improving device performance. In this study, the control of selective alkali K and Na diffusion into chalcopyrite thin-films from soda-lime glass substrates, which serve as the monolithic alkali source material and contain both K and Na, is demonstrated using ternary CuGaSe2. Elemental K is found to be incorporated in the several ten nanometer thick Cu-deficient region, which is formed on the CuGaSe2 film surface, while Na is ejected, although both K and Na diffuse from the substrate to the CuGaSe2 film surface during growth. The alkali [K]/[Na] concentration ratio in the surface region of CuGaSe2 films strongly depends on the film structure and can be controlled by growth parameters under the same substrate temperature conditions. The results we present here offer new concepts necessary to explore and develop emerging new chalcopyrite and related materials and optimize their applications. PMID:25004458

  3. Three dimensionally structured interdigitated back contact thin film heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangarter, C. M.; Hamadani, B. H.; Guyer, J. E.; Xu, H.; Need, R.; Josell, D.

    2011-04-01

    Three dimensionally structured thin film photovoltaic devices based on interdigitated arrays of microscale electrodes are examined by external quantum efficiency simulations, indicating considerable JSC enhancement is possible through elimination of the front contact and window layer required in planar geometry devices. Electrode parameters including, pitch, width, height, and material are modeled and experimentally probed, demonstrating experimentally and capturing in models dependence on intrinsic material properties and electrode dimensions. In contrast to analogous silicon wafer back contact solar cells where the electrodes are placed on the silicon absorber at the end of processing, in this design the semiconductor is deposited on the electrodes, taking advantage of the thin film processing already required. Electrodeposited CdS/CdTe heterojunction devices approach 1% efficiencies with simulations as well as optical measurements indicating significant potential for improvement. Suboptimal performance is attributed to unintended materials reactions that preclude annealing at the temperatures required for absorber optimization as well as the Schottky barrier formation on the nonoptimal electrode materials. The test bed structures and absorber synthesis processes are amenable to an array of deposition techniques for fabrication and measurements of three dimensionally structured semiconductors, contact materials, and photovoltaic devices subject to processing feasibility and materials compatibility.

  4. Ag-doped CuGaSe 2 as a precursor for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, T.; Birkholz, M.; Saad, M.; Bleyhl, S.; Kunst, M.; Jger-Waldau, A.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.

    1999-03-01

    For the preparation of p-CuGaSe 2 thin film absorbers, powder of single-phase CuGaSe 2 with defined optical and electrical properties is required as precursor material for solar cells. The motivation for this work was that thin films shall be produced by a chemical vapour transport method using iodine as transport agent. Here we report on an optimised synthesis method of this precursor material and discuss the effect of Ag-doping using Ag, AgSe 2 and AgJ as dopants. Crystalline material was characterised by intensity-dependent photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC). PL-measurements at T=10 K of undoped CuGaSe 2 show a dominating emission at E=1.67 eV which is attributed to a free-to-bound transition where the acceptor bound state is assigned to copper vacancies. Ag-doped samples showed a dominating emission at E=1.61 eV which is attributed to a donor acceptor pair-transition with copper vacancies as acceptors and selenium vacancies as donors. XRD-measurements showed good single-phase quality of CuGaSe 2. TRMC-measurements reveal an increase of the hole mobility of Ag-doped material compared to undoped CuGaSe 2.

  5. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  6. Perovskite solar cells based on nanocolumnar plasma-deposited ZnO thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, F Javier; Lpez-Santos, Maria C; Guilln, Elena; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grtzel, Michael; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2014-04-14

    ZnO thin films having a nanocolumnar microstructure are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 423 K on pre-treated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The films consist of c-axis-oriented wurtzite ZnO nanocolumns with well-defined microstructure and crystallinity. By sensitizing CH3NH3PbI3 on these photoanodes a power conversion of 4.8% is obtained for solid-state solar cells. Poly(triarylamine) is found to be less effective when used as the hole-transport material, compared to 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), while the higher annealing temperature of the perovskite leads to a better infiltration in the nanocolumnar structure and an enhancement of the cell efficiency. PMID:24643984

  7. Thin film solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  8. Single source precursors for fabrication of I-III-VI2 thin-film solar cells via spray CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power (W/kg). Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate that ternary single source precursors can be used in either a hot, or cold-wall spray chemical vapour deposition reactor, for depositing CuInS2, CuGaS2 and CuGaInS2 at reduced temperatures (400-450 sign C), which display good electrical and optical properties suitable for photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of the single phase CIS, CGS, CIGS thin-films on various substrates at reduced temperatures

  9. Ternary Precursors for Depositing I-III-VI2 Thin Films for Solar Cells via Spray CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, K. K.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Jin, M. H.-C.; Harris, J. D.; Duraj, S. A.; Smith, M.; Scheiman, D.; Bohannan, E. W.; Switzer, J. A.; Buhro, W. E.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power (W/kg). Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate that ternary single source precursors (SSP's) can be used in either a hot or cold-wall spray chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor, for depositing CuInS2, CuGaS2, and CuGaInS2 at reduced temperatures (400 to 450 C), which display good electrical and optical properties suitable for photovoltaic (PV) devices. X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the formation of the single phase CIS, CGS, CIGS thin-films on various substrates at reduced temperatures.

  10. Research on polycrystalline thin-film CuGaInSe2 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbery, B. J.; Chen, W. S.; Devaney, W. E.; Stewart, J. W.

    1992-11-01

    This report describes research to fabricate high-efficiency CdZnS/CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells, and to develop improved transparent conductor window layers such as ZnO. A specific technical milestone was the demonstration of an air mass (AM) 1.5 global, 13 percent efficient, 1-sq cm total-area CIGS thin-film solar cell. Our activities focused on three areas. First, a CIGS deposition system was modified to double its substrate capacity, thus increasing throughput, which is critical to speeding the process development by providing multiple substrates from the same CIGS run. Second, new tooling was developed to enable an investigation of a modified aqueous CdZnS process. The goal was to improve the yield of this critical step in the device fabrication process. Third, our ZnO sputtering system was upgraded to improve its reliability, and the sputtering parameters were further optimized to improve its properties as a transparent conducting oxide. The characterization of the new CIGS deposition system substrate fixturing was completed, and we produced good thermal uniformity and adequately high temperatures for device-quality CIGS deposition. Both the CIGS and ZnO deposition processes were refined to yield a ZnO / Cd(0.82)Zn(0.18)S / CuIn(0.80)Ga(0.20)Se2 cell that was verified at NREL under standard testing conditions at 13.1 percent efficiency with V(sub oc) = 0.581 V, J(sub sc) = 34.8 mA/sq cm, FF = 0.728, and a cell area of 0.979 sq cm.

  11. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  12. Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells by embedded lossless silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embedded silica nanoparticles in thin-film silicon solar cells have some advantages over metal nanoparticles in enhancing optical absorption of silicon such as no loss, better compatibility with antireflection coating and extremely low dangling bond densities and interface recombination velocities. To the best of our knowledge, we have carried out the first systematic study of optical absorption enhancement with silica nanoparticles of different radii, array periods and depths in the silica substrate with the finite-difference time-domain method, and we have obtained the optimum values of the nanoparticle parameters. We discuss the physical mechanism of the optical absorption enhancement in detail and attribute the enhancement to the superposition of the particle scattering effect and the FabryPerot resonance effect. (paper)

  13. Spin Coated Plasmonic Nanoparticle Interfaces for Photocurrent Enhancement in Thin Film Si Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Israelowitz, Miriam; Cong, Tao; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) arrays of noble metals strongly absorb light in the visible to infrared wavelengths through resonant interactions between the incident electromagnetic field and the metal's free electron plasma. Such plasmonic interfaces enhance light absorption and photocurrent in solar cells. We report a cost effective and scalable room temperature/pressure spin-coating route to fabricate broadband plasmonic interfaces consisting of silver NPs. The NP interface yields photocurrent enhancement (PE) in thin film silicon devices by up to 200% which is significantly greater than previously reported values. For coatings produced from Ag nanoink containing particles with average diameter of 40 nm, an optimal NP surface coverage of 7% was observed. Scanning electron microscopy of interface morphologies revealed that for low surface coverage, particles are well-separated, resulting in broadband PE. At higher surface coverage, formation of particle strings and clusters caused red-shifting of the PE peak and a narro...

  14. Studying nanostructured nipple arrays of moth eye facets helps to design better thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipples on the surface of moth eye facets exhibit almost perfect broadband anti-reflection properties. We have studied the facet surface micro-protuberances, known as corneal nipples, of the chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella by atomic force microscopy, and simulated the optics of the nipple arrays by three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. The influence of the dimensions and shapes of the nipples on the optics was studied. In particular, the shape of the nipples has a major influence on the anti-reflection properties. Furthermore, we transferred the structure of the almost perfect broadband anti-reflection coatings to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. The coating that imitates the moth-eye array allows for an increase of the short circuit current and conversion efficiency of more than 40%.

  15. Absorbance enhancement of thin film solar cells with front double dielectric and back metallic grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gaige; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Linhua; Chen, Yunyun; Liu, Yuzhu

    2014-11-01

    We present finite difference time domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) simulations to analyze the optical absorption enhancement of thin film solar cells (TFSCs) employing front double dielectric and back plasmonic grating structures. Simulation results show that the combination of a subwavelength aperture and a double nano-structured dielectric grating with back triangle metallic grating results in an enhancement in total optical absorption. The absorption of the planar structure is enhanced thanks to an increase of the optical path length of the red and near-infrared photons, causing a proportional enhancement of the absorption in this spectral range. 90.85% Average harvesting (on TE and TM) can be achieved by the optimized structure in the spectrum range from 300 to 1100 nm. The designed SC has high integrated absorption and is weakly dependent on incident angle, which should be useful for application in film photovoltaics, photodetectors and infrared imaging.

  16. Effective Ag doping by He-Ne laser exposure to improve the electrical and the optical properties of CdTe thin films for heterostructured thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film solar cell is one of the strongest candidates due to the optimum band gap energy (about 1.4 eV) for solar energy absorption, high light absorption capability and lower cost requirements for solar cell production. However, the maximum efficiency of a CdTe thin film solar cell still remains just 16.5% despite its excellent absorption coefficient; i.e., the electrical properties of CdTe thin film, including the resistivity, must be improved to enhance the energy conversion efficiency. Silver (Ag) was doped by using helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) exposure into sputtering-deposited p-type CdTe thin films. The resistivity of the Ag-doped CdTe thin films was reduced from 2.97 x 104 ?-cm to the order of 5.16 x 10'-'2 ?-cm. The carrier concentration of CdTe thin films had increased to 1.6 x 1018 cm-3 after a 15-minute exposure to the He-Ne laser. The average absorbance value of CdTe thin films was improved from 1.81 to 3.01 by the doping of Ag due to impurity-scattering. These improved properties should contribute to the efficiency of the photovoltaic effect of the photogenerated charged carriers. The methodology in this study is very simple and effective to dope a multilayered thin film solar cell with a relatively short process time, no wet-process, and selective treatment.

  17. Selective ablation of thin Mo and TCO films with femtosecond laser pulses for structuring thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on recent results on selective ablation of TCO (SnO2,ZnO) and metallic layers as a possible process for structuring thin film solar cells. The multipulse ablation thresholds determined for substrate and various thin films show a parameter window where the films can be completely removed by a single scan without at the same time damaging the underlying material. By employing ultrashort pulsed lasers, nonthermal ablation at repetition rates up to the megahertz regime enables high quality structuring combined with process speeds meeting industrial demands. (orig.)

  18. Roll to roll fabrication process of thin film silicon solar cells on steel foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Doerenkaemper, M.; Devilee, C.; Heijna, M.C.R.; Loeffler, J.; Soppe, W.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    ECN is developing a novel fabrication process for thin film silicon solar cells on steel foil. Key features in this process chain are: (1) application of an insulating barrier layer which enables texturization of the rear contact with submicron structures for light trapping; (2) Si deposition with remote, linear PECVD; and (3) series interconnection by laser scribing and printing after deposition of the layers (reducing the total number of process steps). The barrier layer is primarily an enabler for monolithic series interconnection of cells, but we show that we can also fabricate any arbitrary sub-micron structure in this layer by hot embossing to achieve optimum light trapping in the solar cells. For deposition of doped and intrinsic silicon layers we use novel remote and linear plasma sources, which are excellently suited for continuous rollto- roll processing. We have been able to fabricate devicequality amorphous and microcrystalline silicon layers with these sources. First pin a-Si solar cells have been made on FTO glass, yielding initial efficiencies up to 4.5%. First n-i-p a-Si cells made on steel foil plus textured barrier layer yielded efficiencies of about 3.7%.

  19. Roll to roll fabrication process of thin film silicon solar cells on steel foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppe, W.J.; Van Aken, B.B.; Doerenkaemper, M.S.; Devilee, C.; Heijna, M.; Loeffler, J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    ECN is developing a novel fabrication process for thin film silicon solar cells on steel foil. Key features in this process chain are: (1) application of an insulating barrier layer which enables texturization of the rear contact with submicron structures for light trapping; (2) Si deposition with remote, linear PECVD; (3) series interconnection by laser scribing and printing after deposition of the layers (reducing the total number of process steps). The barrier layer is primarily an enabler for monolithic series interconnection of cells, but we show that we can also fabricate any arbitrary sub-micron structure in this layer by hot embossing to achieve optimum light trapping in the solar cells. For deposition of doped and intrinsic silicon layers we use novel remote and linear plasma sources, which are excellently suited for continuous roll-to-roll processing. We have been able to fabricate device-quality amorphous and microcrystalline silicon layers with these sources. First pin a-Si solar cells have been made on FTO glass, yielding initial efficiencies up to 4.5%. First nip a-Si cells made on steel foil plus textured barrier layer yielded efficiencies of about 3.7%.

  20. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  1. Plasmonic rear reflectors for thin-film solar cells: design principles from electromagnetic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Claire E. R.; Pillai, Supriya; Johnson, Craig M.; Xu, Qi; Green, Martin A.

    2014-10-01

    The use of plasmonic structures to enhance light trapping in solar cells has recently been the focus of significant research, but these structures can be sensitive to various design parameters or require complicated fabrication processes. Nanosphere lithography can produce regular arrays of nanoscale features which could enhance absorption of light into thin films such as those used in novel solar cell designs. Finite-difference-time-domain simulations are used to model a variety of structures producible by this technique and compare them against the use of mirrors as rear reflectors. Through analysis of these simulations, sensitivity of device performance to parameters has been investigated. Variables considered include the feature size and array period, as well as metal and absorber materials selection and thickness. Improvements in idealized photocurrent density are calculated relative to the use of rear mirrors that are a standard for solar cells. The maximum simulated increase to photocurrent density was 3.58mA/cm2 or 21.61% for a 2?m thick Si cell relative to the case where a silver mirror is used as a rear reflector. From this, an initial set of design principles for such structures are developed and some avenues for further investigation are identified.

  2. Transparent sculptured titania films for enhanced light absorption in thin-film Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a description of the enhancement of light absorption in thin-film silicon (Si) solar cells by using sculptured titania (TiO2) films. We used an electron-beam evaporation system with a glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method to deposit porous TiO2 films on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrates. The GLAD TiO2/FTO films were used as conductive electrodes in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the GLAD TiO2 films are composed of sculptured nano-pillars on an FTO surface, and this nanostructure provides a synergistic route for light scattering enhancement. The GLAD TiO2/FTO exhibited a 68% improvement of optical haze (at ? = 600 nm). The ?c-Si:H solar cells consisting of the GLAD-nanostructured TiO2 resulted in a 5% improvement of short-circuit current (Jsc) and yielded a cell efficiency of 6.6%.

  3. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool to determine the light-trapping capability of textured ZnO front electrodes implemented in microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon films deposited on superstrates of various roughnesses are characterized by Raman micro-spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 442?nm, 514?nm, 633?nm, and 785?nm, respectively. The way to measure quantitatively and with a high level of reproducibility the Raman intensity is described in details. By varying the superstrate texture and with it the light trapping in the ?c-Si:H absorber layer, we find significant differences in the absolute Raman intensity measured in the near infrared wavelength region (where light trapping is relevant). A good agreement between the absolute Raman intensity and the external quantum efficiency of the ?c-Si:H solar cells is obtained, demonstrating the validity of the introduced method. Applications to thin-film solar cells, in general, and other optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  4. Correlation between Microstructure and Photovoltaic Performance of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takuya; Tsukiji, Masaharu; Saika, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    Intrinsic polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films have been prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at a very high excitation frequency (100 MHz) for the development of p-i-n junction solar cells. The correlation between poly-Si microstructure and photovoltaic performance of poly-Si solar cells has been investigated as a function of deposition parameters such as deposition pressure, SiH4 flow rate and SiH4 concentration. It is found that the poly-Si microstructure including crystalline volume fraction, Xc, and crystallographic orientation is closely related to the atomic hydrogen flux during film growth, which is evidenced by plasma diagnostics in the in situ measurement of optical emission spectroscopy. Basically, with an increase in Xc, open circuit voltage tends to decrease, while poly-Si with Xc > 50% and (220) preferential orientation is essential for high short circuit current. Based on these results, the role of poly-Si microstructure in the photovoltaic performance of poly-Si solar cells is discussed.

  5. Characteristics of in-substituted CZTS thin film and bifacial solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jie; Chu, Junhao; Jiang, Jinchun; Yan, Yanfa; Yang, Pingxiong

    2014-12-10

    Implementing bifacial photovoltaic devices based on transparent conducting oxides (TCO) as the front and back contacts is highly appealing to improve the efficiency of kesterite solar cells. The p-type In substituted Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTIS) thin-film solar cell absorber has been fabricated on ITO glass by sulfurizing coelectroplated Cu-Zn-Sn-S precursors in H2S (5 vol %) atmosphere at 520 C for 30 min. Experimental proof, including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR transmission/reflection spectra, PL spectra, and electron microscopies, is presented for the interfacial reaction between the ITO back contact and CZTS absorber. This aggressive reaction due to thermal processing contributes to substitutional diffusion of In into CZTS, formation of secondary phases and electrically conductive degradation of ITO back contact. The structural, lattice vibrational, optical absorption, and defective properties of the CZTIS alloy absorber layer have been analyzed and discussed. The new dopant In is desirably capable of improving the open circuit voltage deficit of kesterite device. However, the nonohmic back contact in the bifacial device negatively limits the open circuit voltage and fill factor, evidencing by illumination-/temperature-dependent J-V and frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V-f) measurements. A 3.4% efficient solar cell is demonstrated under simultaneously bifacial illumination from both sides of TCO front and back contacts. PMID:25340540

  6. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledinsk, M., E-mail: ledinsky@fzu.cz [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnick 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladire 71b, CH-2000 Neuchtel (Switzerland); Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Meillaud, F.; Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladire 71b, CH-2000 Neuchtel (Switzerland); Ganzerov, K.; Vetushka, A.; Fejfar, A. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnick 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool to determine the light-trapping capability of textured ZnO front electrodes implemented in microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon films deposited on superstrates of various roughnesses are characterized by Raman micro-spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 442?nm, 514?nm, 633?nm, and 785?nm, respectively. The way to measure quantitatively and with a high level of reproducibility the Raman intensity is described in details. By varying the superstrate texture and with it the light trapping in the ?c-Si:H absorber layer, we find significant differences in the absolute Raman intensity measured in the near infrared wavelength region (where light trapping is relevant). A good agreement between the absolute Raman intensity and the external quantum efficiency of the ?c-Si:H solar cells is obtained, demonstrating the validity of the introduced method. Applications to thin-film solar cells, in general, and other optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  7. Dyadic Greens functions of thin films: Applications within plasmonic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jesper; Sndergaard, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Optimization and design of silicon solar cells by exploiting light scattering frommetal nanoparticles to increase the efficiency is addressed in the small particle limit from a fundamental point of view via the dyadic Greens function formulation. Based on the dyadic Greens function (Greens tensor) of a three-layer geometry, light scattering from electric point dipoles (representing small metal scatterers) located within a thin layer sandwiched between a substrate and a superstrate is analyzed. Starting from the full dyadic Greens function we derive analytical near- and far-field approximations. The far-field approximations enable efficient, exact, and separate evaluation of light scattering into waves that propagate in the substrate or the superstrate. Based on the near-field approximation we present a semianalytical expression for the total near-field absorption in the substrate. The theoretical approach is used to analyze realistic configurations for plasmon-assisted silicon solar cells. We showthat by embedding metal nanoscatterers in a thin film with a high refractive index (rutile TiO2 with n ? 2.5) on top of the silicon, the fraction of scattered light that couples into the solar cell can become larger than 96%, and an optical path length enhancement of more than 100 can be achieved.

  8. Electronic grain boundary properties in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 semiconductors for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film absorbers reach the highest energy conversion efficiency among all thin film solar cells. The record efficiency is at least partly attributed to benign electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in the CIGSe layers. However, despite a high amount of research on this phenomenon the underlying physics is not sufficiently understood. This thesis presents an elaborate study on the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe thin films. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was employed to investigate the electronic properties of GBs in dependence of the Ga-content. Five CIGSe thin lms with various Ga-contents were grown by means of similar three stage co-evaporation processes. Both as grown as well as chemically treated (KCN etched) thin films were analyzed. The chemical treatment was employed to remove surface oxides. No difference in electronic GB properties was found with or without the chemical treatment. Therefore, we conclude that a moderate surface oxidation does not alter the electronic properties of GBs. In general, one can observe significant variations of electronic potential barriers at GBs. Under consideration of the averaging effect of the work function signal of nanoscale potential distributions in KPFM measurements which was quantified in the course of this thesis both positive and negative potential barriers in a range between ?-350 mV and ?+450 mV were detected. Additionally, variations in the defect densities at GBs between ?3.1 x 1011 cm-2 and ?2.1 x 1012 cm-2 were found. However, no correlation between the electronic properties of GBs and the Ga-content of CIGSe thin films was discovered. Consequently, one cannot explain the drop in device efficiency observed for CIGSe thin film solar cells with a high Ga-content by a change of the electronic properties of GBs. Combined KPFM and electron backscatter diffraction measurements were employed for the first time on CIGSe thin films to gather complementary information about both the structural and electronic properties of individual GBs. With the help of this information it was possible to investigate the interrelationship between the symmetry and the electronic potential barrier of GBs. We could reveal that highly symmetric ?3 GBs have a lower probability to possess a charged potential barrier than lower symmetric non-?3 GBs. The assumption of a general symmetry-dependence of the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe, i.e. a correlation between the particular symmetry of a GB and its potential barrier that is also valid for GBs with symmetries lower than ?3, could help to explain the large variations of potential barriers observed at GBs in polycrystalline CIGSe thin films.

  9. Efficient simulation of plasmonic structures for thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockau, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Zuse-Institut Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Burger, Sven; Zschiedrich, Lin; Schmidt, Frank [Zuse-Institut Berlin, Berlin (Germany); JCMwave GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Rech, Bernd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Thin film silicon solar cells suffer from the disadvantage of a low absorption coefficient of silicon in important spectral regions. In the case of a flat multilayer cell layout a considerable part of the incident light is reflected back out of the cell due to the low absorber thickness. It is therefore desirable to introduce scattering elements that prolong the average photon path length inside the solar cell's absorber. Plasmonic structures are an upcoming area of research in this field. They might be better suited for optimization than other means of light trapping. The influences of periodic arrays of metal scatters on cell absorption can be very well assessed by different simulation methods. We employ the finite element method for 3D simulations of Maxwell's equations. The setup for our simulations has been proposed by Rockstuhl et al. who numerically studied absorption enhancement in a thin bulk of amorphous silicon due to scattering on a periodic array of silver discs. Using the same setup we show that our method is very time and memory efficient for the simulation of such plasmonic structures. Absorption enhancement is shown for wavelengths above 500 nm compared to the absorption without silver discs.

  10. CIGSS Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 10 October 2001-30 June 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, N. G.

    2006-02-01

    This report describes the I-III-VI2 compounds that are developing into a promising material to meet the energy requirement of the world. CuInSe2 (CIS) and its alloy with Ga and S have shown long-term stability and highest conversion efficiency of 19.5%. Among the various ways of preparing CuIn1-xGaxSe2-ySy (CIGSS)/CdS thin-film solar cells, co-evaporation and sputtering techniques are the most promising. Sputtering is an established process for very high-throughput manufacturing. ARCO Solar, now Shell Solar, pioneered the work in CIS using the sputtering technique. The two-stage process developed by ARCO Solar involved sputtering of a copper and indium layer on molybdenum-coated glass as the first step. In the second step, the copper-indium layers were exposed to a selenium-bearing gas such as hydrogen selenide (H2Se) mixed with argon. The hydrogen selenide breaks down and leaves selenium, which reacts and mixes with the copper and indium in such a way to produce very high-quality CIS absorber layer. Sputtering technology has the added advantage of being easily scaled up and promotes roll-to-roll production on flexible substrates. Preliminary experiments were carried out. ZnO/ZnO:Al deposition by RF magnetron sputtering and CdS deposition by chemical-bath deposition are being carried out on a routine basis.

  11. Band offset of high efficiency CBD-ZnS/CIGS thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The band offset at the CBD-ZnS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) interface and solar cells performance were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The valence band maximum and valence band offset at the chemical bath deposition (CBD)-ZnS/CIGS interface region was directly measured using a XPS spectral multiplot. We found that the conduction band offset (CBO) at the CBD-ZnS/CIGS (ordered vacancy compound, OVC) interface was smaller than that of the evaporated ZnS/CIGS (OVC) interface. However, the CBO for the CBD-ZnS/CIGS (OVC) interface was still quite large for fabrication of high efficiency devices, although, in fact, high efficiency CBD-ZnS/CIGS devices were fabricated with good run-to-run reproducibility. The bandgap dependence of cell performance for CBD-ZnS/CIGS devices (large CBO) showed a tendency similar to that of CBD-CdS/CIGS devices (small CBO). Therefore, the observed decrease in cell performance for high bandgap devices is not interpreted in terms of the CBO. These results suggest that the band offset is not the predominant factor in achieving high efficiency CBD-ZnS/CIGS thin film solar cells. This finding suggests that the recombination mechanism of those wide-gap alloys is a bulk recombination

  12. Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppe, W J; Borg, H; Van Aken, B B; Devilee, C; Drenkmper, M; Goris, M; Heijna, M C R; Lffler, J; Peeters, P

    2011-12-01

    ECN is developing a novel fabrication process for thin film silicon solar cells on steel foil. Key features in this process are: (1) application of an insulating barrier layer which enables monolithic interconnection and texturization of the rear contact with submicron structures for light trapping; (2) Si deposition with remote, linear PECVD; (3) series interconnection by laser scribing and printing after deposition of all layers, which reduces the total number of process steps. The barrier layer is essential for the monolithic series interconnection of cells, but we show that it also enables optimum light trapping in the solar cells. We can fabricate any arbitrary sub-micron surface profile by hot embossing the barrier layer. For deposition of doped and intrinsic silicon layers we use novel remote, linear plasma sources, which are excellently suited for continuous roll-to-roll processing. We have been able to fabricate device-quality amorphous and microcrystalline silicon layers with these sources. The first nip a-Si cells were made on steel substrates with flat barrier layer and had initial efficiencies of 6.3%, showing the potential of the concept. PMID:22408957

  13. Surface textured ZnO:Al thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for thin film solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, W. T.; Lin, Y. C.; Ke, J. H.

    2010-11-01

    Transparent conducting thin films of ZnO:Al (Al-doped ZnO, AZO) were prepared via pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with good transparency and relatively lower resistivity. The AZO films with 800 nm in thickness were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates keeping at 473 K under 0.4 Pa working pressure, 150 W power, 100 ?s duty time, 5 ?s pulse reverse time, 10 kHz pulse frequency and 95% duty cycle. The as-deposited AZO thin films has resistivity of 6.39 10 -4 ? cm measured at room temperature with average visible optical transmittance, Ttotal of 81.9% under which the carrier concentration and mobility were 1.95 10 21 cm -3 and 5.02 cm 2 V -1 s -1, respectively. The films were further etched in different aqueous solutions, 0.5% HCl, 5% oxalic acid, 33% KOH, to conform light scattering properties. The resultant films etched in 0.5% HCl solution for 30 s exhibited high Ttotal = 78.4% with haze value, HT = 0.1 and good electrical properties, ? = 8.5 10 -4 ? cm while those etched in 5% oxalic acid for 150 s had desirable HT = 0.2 and relatively low electrical resistivity, ? = 7.9 10 -4 ? cm. However, the visible transmittance, Ttotal was declined to 72.1%.

  14. Effect of substrate position in i-ZnO thin-film formation to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO) thin films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering of nondoped ZnO targets in Ar gas under various substrate positions and they were applied to solar cells. We have characterized i-ZnO thin films and investigated the solar cell performance. The resistivity and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) in the x-ray diffraction peak were changed, depending on the substrate position. The performance of solar cells was correspondent to the change of the resistivity and the FWHM of the i-ZnO thin films

  15. Transparent conducting oxide contacts and textured metal back reflectors for thin film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, R. H. -j

    2006-01-01

    With the growing population and the increasing environmental problems of the 'common' fossil and nuclear energy production, the need for clean and sustainable energy sources is evident. Solar energy conversion, such as in photovoltaic (PV) systems, can play a major role in the urgently needed energy transition in electricity production. At the present time PV module production is dominated by the crystalline wafer technology. Thin film silicon technology is an alternative solar energy technol...

  16. Indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells. Semiannual report, July 1980-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanio, K.

    1981-03-01

    InP thin films were deposited by planar reactive deposition on recyrstallized CdS (RXCdS) and semi-insulating (100) InP substrates and evaluated as potential layers for an all-thin-film solar cell. Films prepared on RXCdS at approximately 330/sup 0/C contained a mixture of grains having both large and submicron lateral dimensions. SIMS analysis showed the interdiffusion profiles to be well behaved and, within the resolution of the analysis, no significant difference in the profiles between structures prepared at 330/sup 0/C and 380/sup 0/C. Be-doped epitaxial films, deposited on semi-insulating InP at 330/sup 0/C, showed both n- and p-type behavior. Films prepared at higher and lower temperatures with a freshly Be-charged In source were p-type and n-type, respectively; the n-type behavior is associated with an excess of n-type native defects. SIMS analyses confirmed the presence of Be in all Be-doped films. Growth with deviation from stoichiometry was initiated at 330/sup 0/C to reduce the concentration of native defects. Growth of Be-doped films at higher substrate temperature with the same Be-doped source after several runs eventually resulted in n-type films. Analyses of the In source and films were initiated to determine the cause of the transient doping. As an alternative to Be doping, p-type Zn-doped InP films were prepared on InP semi-insulating substrates with room-temperature carrier concentration and mobilities of 6 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/, and 80 cm/sup 2//Vsec, respectively.

  17. Surface treatments and properties of CuGaSe2 thin films for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline CuGaSe2 (CGS) films with slightly Ga-rich composition were prepared on Mo/soda-lime substrates by the 'bi-layer' process. The film surfaces were modified by chemical bath treatment with In2(SO4)3, thioacetamid, and triethanolamin to improve the performance in solar cell applications. The film compositions were characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the surface of treated films was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Solar cells with ZnO/CdS/CGS/Mo/soda-lime glass structure were fabricated, and the current-voltage properties and the quantum efficiency were analyzed. Improvement of the spectral response, especially in the long wavelength region, was observed for the samples treated with the chemical bath, which results in increase in a short circuit current density. An increase in the parallel and series resistance of the cells was also observed with the treatment. The surface compositions of the CGS thin films modified by the chemical bath are discussed on the base of the results of XPS

  18. AgSb(SxSe1?x)2 thin films for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? AgSb(SxSe1?x)2 thin films were formed by heating Na2SeSO3 dipped Sb2S3/Ag layers. ? S/Se ratio was varied by changing the dipping time in Na2SeSO3 solution. ? Characterized the films using XRD, XPS, SEM, Optical and electrical measurements. ? Band gap engineering of 1?1.1 eV for x = 0.51 and 0.52 respectively. ? PV Glass/FTO/CdS/AgSb(SxSe1?x)2/C were prepared showing Voc = 410 mV, Jsc = 5.7 mA/cm2. - Abstract: Silver antimony sulfoselenide (AgSb(SxSe1?x)2) thin films were prepared by heating glass/Sb2S3/Ag layers after selenization using sodium selenosulphate solution. First, Sb2S3 thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3. Then Ag thin films were thermally evaporated onto glass/Sb2S3, followed by selenization by dipping in an acidic solution of Na2SeSO3. The duration of selenium dipping was varied as 30 min and 2 h. The heating condition was at 350 C for 1 h in vacuum. Analysis of X-ray diffraction pattern of the thin films formed after heating showed the formation of AgSb(SxSe1?x)2. Morphology and elemental analysis were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray detection. Depth profile of composition of the thin films was performed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The spectral study showed the presence of Ag, Sb, S, and Se, and the corresponding binding energy analysis confirmed the formation of AgSb(SxSe1?x)2. Photovoltaic structures (PV) were prepared using AgSb(SxSe1?x)2 thin films as absorber and CdS thin films as window layers on FTO coated glass substrates. The PV structures were heated at 6080 C in air for 1 h to improve ohmic contact. Analysis of JV characteristics of the PV structures showed Voc from 230 to 490 mV and Jsc 0.28 to 5.70 mA/cm2, under illumination of AM1.5 radiation using a solar simulator

  19. Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Piotr; Bozzola, Angelo; Liscidini, Marco; Claudio Andreani, Lucio

    2014-05-01

    Using rigorous electro-optical calculations, we predict a significant efficiency enhancement in thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells with rough interfaces. We show that an optimized rough texture allows one to reach the Lambertian limit of absorption in a wide absorber thickness range from 1 to 100 ?m. The improvement of efficiency due to the roughness is particularly substantial for thin cells, for which light trapping is crucial. We consider Auger, Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH), and surface recombination, quantifying the importance of specific loss mechanisms. When the cell performance is limited by intrinsic Auger recombination, the efficiency of 24.4% corresponding to the wafer-based PERL cell can be achieved even if the absorber thickness is reduced from 260 to 10 ?m. For cells with material imperfections, defect-based SRH recombination contributes to the opposite trends of short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage as a function of the absorber thickness. By investigating a wide range of SRH parameters, we determine an optimal absorber thickness as a function of material quality. Finally, we show that the efficiency enhancement in textured cells persists also in the presence of surface recombination. Indeed, in our design the efficiency is limited by recombination at the rear (silicon absorber/back reflector) interface, and therefore it is possible to engineer the front surface to a large extent without compromising on efficiency.

  20. Comparison of silicon oxide and silicon carbide absorber materials in silicon thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Cordula; Kellermann, Martin; Wendler, Elke; Rensberg, Jura; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Since solar energy conversion by photovoltaics is most efficient for photon energies at the bandgap of the absorbing material the idea of combining absorber layers with different bandgaps in a multijunction cell has become popular. In silicon thin-film photovoltaics a multijunction stack with more than two subcells requires a high bandgap amorphous silicon alloy top cell absorber to achieve an optimal bandgap combination. We address the question whether amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) or amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO:H) is more suited for this type of top cell absorber. Our single cell results show a better performance of amorphous silicon carbide with respect to fill factor and especially open circuit voltage at equivalent Tauc bandgaps. The microstructure factor of single layers indicates less void structure in amorphous silicon carbide than in amorphous silicon oxide. Yet photoconductivity of silicon oxide films seems to be higher which could be explained by the material being not truly intrinsic. On the other hand better cell performance of amorphous silicon carbide absorber layers might be connected to better hole transport in the cell.

  1. Comparison of silicon oxide and silicon carbide absorber materials in silicon thin-film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walder Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since solar energy conversion by photovoltaics is most efficient for photon energies at the bandgap of the absorbing material the idea of combining absorber layers with different bandgaps in a multijunction cell has become popular. In silicon thin-film photovoltaics a multijunction stack with more than two subcells requires a high bandgap amorphous silicon alloy top cell absorber to achieve an optimal bandgap combination. We address the question whether amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H or amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO:H is more suited for this type of top cell absorber. Our single cell results show a better performance of amorphous silicon carbide with respect to fill factor and especially open circuit voltage at equivalent Tauc bandgaps. The microstructure factor of single layers indicates less void structure in amorphous silicon carbide than in amorphous silicon oxide. Yet photoconductivity of silicon oxide films seems to be higher which could be explained by the material being not truly intrinsic. On the other hand better cell performance of amorphous silicon carbide absorber layers might be connected to better hole transport in the cell.

  2. Inverted polymer solar cells with sol-gel derived cesium-doped zinc oxide thin film as a buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos; Salari, Saeid; Fatehy, Hamed

    2014-09-01

    An inverted structure of polymer solar cells based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):[6-6] Phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with thin films of sol-gel derived Cesium doped ZnO (Cs:ZnO) was developed as an efficient cathode buffer layer. Doped and undoped thin films were deposited using a less studied method, doctor blade, which was compatible with Roll-2-Roll printing method. By comparing the effect of Cs:ZnO thin films with various dopant ratio on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells, 0.5% Cs doped ZnO was found as the most effective doping level among the selected doping ratios. Using 30 nm thickness of 0.5% Csn:ZnO thin film as an electron transport layer led to the average efficiency which was significantly higher than (9%) that of similar devices employing the same thickness of undoped ZnO film. Results showed that the devices fabricated with 1% and 2% cesium doped ZnO yielded lower power conversion efficiency, which could be due to the lower FF. Also, the influence of dopant incorporation on the optical transmittance and electrical conductivity of ZnO films was investigated.

  3. Preparation of CulnS2 Thin Films on the Glass Substrate by DC Sputtering for Solar Cell Component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CuInS2 alloys were deposited on glass substrate using plasma DC sputtering technique. A CuInS2 alloy target was made from Cu, In, Se powder with impurity of 99.998%. The deposition process was done with the following process parameter variations: deposition time and substrate temperature were the range of 15 to 45 min and 150 to 300 ?, the gas pressure was kept at 1.4x10-1 Torr. The purpose of the research is to obtain the solar cell component of CuInS2 thin films. The electrical and optical properties measurement has been done by four-point probe and UV-Vis. Crystal structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result shows that minimum resistance of CuInS2 thin films is 35.7 k? and optical transmittance is 14.7 %. The crystal structure of CuInS2 is oriented at (112) plane and by Touc-plot method was obtained that the band gap energy of thin films is 1.45 eV. It could be concluded that the CuInS2 thin film can be used as a solar cell component. (author)

  4. Thin film silicon solar cells for space applications: Study of proton irradiation and thermal annealing effects on the characteristics of solar cells and individual layers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuendig, J.; Goetz, M.; Shah, Arvind; Gerlach, L.; Fernandez, E.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the effects of a proton irradiation campaign on a series of thin-film silicon solar cells (single- and double-junction). The effect of subsequent thermal annealing on solar cells degraded by proton irradiation is investigated. A low-temperature annealing behaviour can be observed (at temperatures around 100 to 160C) for microcrystalline silicon solar cells. To further explore this effect, a second proton irradiation campaign has been carried out, but this time on microc...

  5. Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light-scattering substrate

    OpenAIRE

    So?derstro?m, Karin; Bugnon, Gre?gory; Biron, Re?mi; Pahud, Ce?line; Meillaud, Fanny; Haug, Franz-josef; Ballif, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Several thin-film solar cell technologies require light-trapping schemes that are predominantly based on depositing the solar cells on rough surfaces. While this approach efficiently increases the density of photo-generated carriers, open-circuit voltage and fill factor generally decrease. Substrates that decouple the growth interface from the light-scattering interface were previously proposed as a solution to this dilemma, and proof-of-concepts were demonstrated in thin film-silicon solar c...

  6. CdTe thin film solar cells with reduced CdS film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed to reduce the CdS film thickness in CdTe thin film solar cells to minimize losses in quantum efficiency. Using close space sublimation deposition for CdS and CdTe a maximum efficiency of ? 9.5% was obtained with the standard CdS film thickness of ? 160 nm. Reduction of the film CdS thickness to less than 100 nm leads to poor cell performance with ? 5% efficiency, mainly due to a lower open circuit voltage. An alternative approach has been tested to reduce the CdS film thickness (? 80 nm) by depositing a CdS double layer. The first CdS layer was deposited at high substrate temperature in the range of 520-540 deg. C and the second CdS layer was deposited at low substrate temperature of ? 250 deg. C. The cell prepared using a CdS double layer show better performance with cell efficiency over 10%. Quantum efficiency measurement confirmed that the improvement in the device performance is due to the reduction in CdS film thickness. The effect of double layer structure on cell performance is also observed with chemical bath deposited CdS using fluorine doped SnO2 as substrate.

  7. Characterisation of photovoltaic modules based on thin film solar cells in environmental operating conditions of Algerian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroui, K.; Hadj Mahammed, I.; Hadj Arab, A.; Belghachi, A.

    2008-08-01

    This paper summarizes the electrical and thermal characterizations of thin film PV modules based on amorphous triple junctions (3J: a-Si) and Copper Indium Selenide (CIS) thin film solar cells. Tests are operated in outdoor exposure and under natural sunlight of Ghardaia, Algeria) as specific desert climate environment, characterized by high irradiation and temperature levels. Data acquired from Environmental Operating Conditions (EOC) was converted into solar module output characteristics at Standard Test Conditions (STC) by using three method suggested by Anderson and Mermoud as well as the equations already standardized as IEC 60891. Then, based on the investigation results of the conversion equations, differences among the converting methods (range of application, specificity of solar cell material, and experimental test conditions) were studied.

  8. Diode laser crystallization processes of Si thin-film solar cells on glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jae Sung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of Si thin-film on glass using continuous-wave diode laser is performed. The effect of various processing parameters including laser power density and scanning speed is investigated in respect to microstructure and crystallographic orientation. Optimal laser power as per scanning speed is required in order to completely melt the entire Si film. When scan speed of 15100 cm/min is used, large linear grains are formed along the laser scan direction. Laser scan speed over 100 cm/min forms relatively smaller grains that are titled away from the scan direction. Two diode model fitting of Suns-Voc results have shown that solar cells crystallized with scan speed over 100 cm/min are limited by grain boundary recombination (n = 2. EBSD micrograph shows that the most dominant misorientation angle is 60. Also, there were regions containing high density of twin boundaries up to ~1.2 10-8/cm2. SiOx capping layer is found to be effective for reducing the required laser power density, as well as changing preferred orientation of the film from ? 110 ? to ? 100 ? in surface normal direction. Cracks are always formed during the crystallization process and found to be reducing solar cell performance significantly.

  9. Numerical 3D-simulation of micromorph silicon thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissendoerfer, Stefan; Lacombe, Juergen; Maydell, Karsten von; Agert, Carsten [EWE-Forschungszentrum fuer Energietechnologie e.V. NEXT ENERGY, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 15, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this contribution 3-dimensional simulations of micromorph silicon thin film solar cells, which have a tandem structure consisting of amorphous and microcrystalline subcells, are presented. The variety of different active layers leads to a very complex structure. Additionally, randomly textured surfaces and interfaces have to be taken into account. Our goal is to create physical models to describe the coupled optical and electrical behaviour of the whole structure in three dimensions to determine the theoretical limits and dominant material parameters. To simulate solar cells with rough interfaces, the surfaces topography was measured via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transferred to the commercial software Sentaurus TCAD from the company Synopsys. The virtual structure includes layer thicknesses and optoelectronic parameters. Results of the space resolved optical generation rates by using the optical solver ''Raytracer'' are presented. The space resolved optical generation rate inside the semiconductor layers depends on the structure of the TCO interface. Therefore, regions with higher charge carrier densities can be observed which has an influence on the current transport through the stack. These investigations and the influence to the IV characteristic are presented.

  10. Semi-coherent optical modelling of thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, Cordula; Lacombe, Juergen; Maydell, Karsten von; Agert, Carsten [EWE-Forschungszentrum fuer Energietechnologie e.V., Carl-von-Ossietzky-Strasse 15, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    At NEXT ENERGY the experimental investigation of thin film silicon solar cells is combined with numerical simulations using the software Sentaurus TCAD from Synopsys. We present the results of optical modelling with Sentaurus TCAD based on the one-dimensional semi-coherent optical model by Janez Krc. The idea of this model is that after interacting with a rough interface the incident light is split into a direct coherent part treated as electromagnetic waves and in a diffuse incoherent part treated as light beams. The proportion of either direct or diffuse part is determined by the haze parameter which can be obtained from spectrometer data. In order to describe the scattering effects at rough interfaces the intensities of the diffuse light are scaled with angular distribution functions. These functions are obtained from angle resolved scattering measurements. The optical model will be verified by experimental data and compared to the Raytracer and the Transfer Matrix Model. Furthermore the influence of different angles of incidence and of the spectral dependency on the solar cell performance will be investigated.

  11. Effect of p-layer properties on nanocrystalline absorber layer and thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Adhikary, Koel; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati [Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)], E-mail: ray_swati2004@yahoo.co.in

    2008-07-07

    The influence of the p-layer on the crystallinity of the absorber layer and nanocrystalline silicon thin film solar cells has been studied. Boron doped Si : H p-layers of different crystallinities have been prepared under different power pressure conditions using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. The crystalline volume fraction of p-layers increases with the increase in deposition power. Optical absorption of the p-layer reduces as the crystalline volume fraction increases. Structural studies at the p/i interface have been done by Raman scattering studies. The crystalline volume fraction of the i-layer increases as that of the p-layer increases, the effect being more prominent near the p/i interface. Grain sizes of the absorber layer decrease from 9.2 to 7.2 nm and the density of crystallites increases as the crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer increases and its grain size decreases. With increasing crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer solar cell efficiency increases.

  12. Electrophoretic deposited TiO2 pigment-based back reflectors for thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Braden; Morris, Nathan; Dubey, Mukul; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-02-01

    Highly reflective coatings with strong light scattering effect have many applications in optical components and optoelectronic devices. This work reports titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment-based reflectors that have 2.5 times higher broadband diffuse reflection than commercially produced aluminum or silver based reflectors and result in efficiency enhancements of a single-junction amorphous Si solar cell. Electrophoretic deposition is used to produce pigment-based back reflectors with high pigment density, controllable film thickness and site-specific deposition. Electrical conductivity of the pigment-based back reflectors is improved by creating electrical vias throughout the pigment-based back reflector by making holes using an electrical discharge / dielectric breakdown approach followed by a second electrophoretic deposition of conductive nanoparticles into the holes. While previous studies have demonstrated the use of pigment-based back reflectors, for example white paint, on glass superstrate configured thin film Si solar cells, this work presents a scheme for producing pigment-based reflectors on complex shape and flexible substrates. Mechanical durability and scalability are demonstrated on a continuous electrophoretic deposition roll-to-roll system which has flexible metal substrate capability of 4 inch wide and 300 feet long. PMID:25836255

  13. Design, fabrication and optical characterization of photonic crystal assisted thin film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianqin; Depauw, Valrie; Gomard, Guillaume; El Daif, Ounsi; Trompoukis, Christos; Drouard, Emmanuel; Jamois, Ccile; Fave, Alain; Dross, Frdric; Gordon, Ivan; Seassal, Christian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present the integration of an absorbing photonic crystal within a monocrystalline silicon thin film photovoltaic stack fabricated without epitaxy. Finite difference time domain optical simulations are performed in order to design one- and two-dimensional photonic crystals to assist crystalline silicon solar cells. The simulations show that the 1D and 2D patterned solar cell stacks would have an increased integrated absorption in the crystalline silicon layer would increase of respectively 38% and 50%, when compared to a similar but unpatterned stack, in the whole wavelength range between 300 nm and 1100 nm. In order to fabricate such patterned stacks, we developed an effective set of processes based on laser holographic lithography, reactive ion etching and inductively coupled plasma etching. Optical measurements performed on the patterned stacks highlight the significant absorption increase achieved in the whole wavelength range of interest, as expected by simulation. Moreover, we show that with this design, the angle of incidence has almost no influence on the absorption for angles as high as around 60. PMID:22828615

  14. The complex interface chemistry of thin-film silicon/zinc oxide solar cell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, D; Wimmer, M; Wilks, R G; Flix, R; Kronast, F; Ruske, F; Br, M

    2014-12-21

    The interface between solid-phase crystallized phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si(n(+))) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using spatially resolved photoelectron emission microscopy. We find the accumulation of aluminum in the proximity of the interface. Based on a detailed photoemission line analysis, we also suggest the formation of an interface species. Silicon suboxide and/or dehydrated hemimorphite have been identified as likely candidates. For each scenario a detailed chemical reaction pathway is suggested. The chemical instability of the poly-Si(n(+))/ZnO:Al interface is explained by the fact that SiO2 is more stable than ZnO and/or that H2 is released from the initially deposited a-Si:H during the crystallization process. As a result, Zn (a deep acceptor in silicon) is "liberated" close to the silicon/zinc oxide interface presenting the inherent risk of forming deep defects in the silicon absorber. These could act as recombination centers and thus limit the performance of silicon/zinc oxide based solar cells. Based on this insight some recommendations with respect to solar cell design, material selection, and process parameters are given for further knowledge-based thin-film silicon device optimization. PMID:25363298

  15. Antimony sulphide thin film as an absorber in chemically deposited solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messina, Sarah; Nair, M T S; Nair, P K [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en EnergIa, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico)

    2008-05-07

    Antimony sulfide thin films (thickness, 500 nm) were deposited on chemically deposited CdS thin films (100 nm) obtained on 3 mm glass substrates coated with a transparent conductive coating of SnO{sub 2}:F (TEC-15 with 15 {omega} sheet resistance). Two different chemical formulations were used for depositing antimony sulfide films. These contained (i) antimony trichloride dissolved in acetone and sodium thiosulfate, and (ii) potassium antimony tartrate, triethanolamine, ammonia, thioacetamide and small concentrations of silicotungstic acid. The films were heated at 250 deg. C in nitrogen. The cell structure was completed by depositing a 200 nm p-type PbS thin film. Graphite paint applied on the PbS thin film and a subsequent layer of silver paint served as the p-side contact. The cell structure: SnO{sub 2}:F/CdS/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} (i or ii)/PbS showed open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 640 mV and short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) above 1 mA cm{sup -2} under 1 kW m{sup -2} tungsten-halogen radiation. Four cells, each of 1.7 cm{sup 2} area, were series-connected to give V{sub oc} of 1.6 V and a short circuit current of 4.1 mA under sunlight (1060 W m{sup -2})

  16. Antimony sulphide thin film as an absorber in chemically deposited solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony sulfide thin films (thickness, 500 nm) were deposited on chemically deposited CdS thin films (100 nm) obtained on 3 mm glass substrates coated with a transparent conductive coating of SnO2:F (TEC-15 with 15 ? sheet resistance). Two different chemical formulations were used for depositing antimony sulfide films. These contained (i) antimony trichloride dissolved in acetone and sodium thiosulfate, and (ii) potassium antimony tartrate, triethanolamine, ammonia, thioacetamide and small concentrations of silicotungstic acid. The films were heated at 250 deg. C in nitrogen. The cell structure was completed by depositing a 200 nm p-type PbS thin film. Graphite paint applied on the PbS thin film and a subsequent layer of silver paint served as the p-side contact. The cell structure: SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2S3 (i or ii)/PbS showed open circuit voltage (Voc) of 640 mV and short circuit current density (Jsc) above 1 mA cm-2 under 1 kW m-2 tungsten-halogen radiation. Four cells, each of 1.7 cm2 area, were series-connected to give Voc of 1.6 V and a short circuit current of 4.1 mA under sunlight (1060 W m-2)

  17. Antimony sulphide thin film as an absorber in chemically deposited solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Sarah; Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, P. K.

    2008-05-01

    Antimony sulfide thin films (thickness, 500 nm) were deposited on chemically deposited CdS thin films (100 nm) obtained on 3 mm glass substrates coated with a transparent conductive coating of SnO2:F (TEC-15 with 15 ? sheet resistance). Two different chemical formulations were used for depositing antimony sulfide films. These contained (i) antimony trichloride dissolved in acetone and sodium thiosulfate, and (ii) potassium antimony tartrate, triethanolamine, ammonia, thioacetamide and small concentrations of silicotungstic acid. The films were heated at 250 C in nitrogen. The cell structure was completed by depositing a 200 nm p-type PbS thin film. Graphite paint applied on the PbS thin film and a subsequent layer of silver paint served as the p-side contact. The cell structure: SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2S3 (i or ii)/PbS showed open circuit voltage (Voc) of 640 mV and short circuit current density (Jsc) above 1 mA cm-2 under 1 kW m-2 tungsten-halogen radiation. Four cells, each of 1.7 cm2 area, were series-connected to give Voc of 1.6 V and a short circuit current of 4.1 mA under sunlight (1060 W m-2).

  18. Studies of compositional dependent CZTS thin film solar cells by pulsed laser deposition technique: An attempt to improve the efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moholkar, A.V., E-mail: avmoholkar@yahoo.co.in [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Shinde, S.S. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Agawane, G.L.; Jo, S.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500 757 (Korea, Republic of); Rajpure, K.Y. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Bhosale, C.H. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Kim, J.H., E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500 757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of CZTS thin films by PLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of stoichiometry, its deviation on the physical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement in conversion efficiency using CZTS absorber layer. - Abstract: The performance of CZTS thin films deposited by using pulsed laser deposition technique is investigated as a function of target composition. The chemical composition ratio a = Cu/(Zn + Sn) of the target material has been varied from 0.8 to 1.2 in step of 0.1 by keeping Zn/Sn constant. The effect of the chemical composition in the precursor thin films on the structural, morphological, chemical and optical properties of the CZTS thin films has been investigated. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies showed that the annealed CZTS thin films are of a single kesterite crystal structure without any other secondary phases. The direct band gap energy of the CZTS thin films is found to decrease from 1.72-1.53 eV with increase of 'a'. The estimated band-gap energy from the quantum efficiency measurements is about 1.54 eV. The solar cell fabricated with Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO:Al/Al structure grown using [a = Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 1.1] showed the best conversion efficiency of 4.13% with V{sub oc} = 700 mV, J{sub sc} = 10.01 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF = 0.59.

  19. Influence of optical properties of ZnO thin-films deposited by spray pyrolysis and RF magnetron sputtering on the output performance of silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Brijesh; Patel, Malkesh; Ray, Abhijit; Kumar, Manoj

    2013-05-01

    ZnO thin-films were deposited by spray pyrolysis and RF magnetron sputtering techniques. The optical reflection of these thin-films is measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The measured optical reflection data is used in PC-1D simulation software to study the output performance of commercial silicon wafer-based solar cell. As far as optical performance is concerned it could be demonstrated that the sprayed ZnO thin-film under laboratory conditions show equivalent performance compared to sputtered ZnO thin-film. The influence of optical properties of 65 nm thick zinc oxide thin-films deposited by vacuum and non-vacuum techniques on quantum efficiency and IV characteristics of commercial silicon-wafer based solar cell is studied and reported here.

  20. Influence of optical properties of ZnO thin-films deposited by spray pyrolysis and RF magnetron sputtering on the output performance of silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thin-films were deposited by spray pyrolysis and RF magnetron sputtering techniques. The optical reflection of these thin-films is measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The measured optical reflection data is used in PC-1D simulation software to study the output performance of commercial silicon wafer-based solar cell. As far as optical performance is concerned it could be demonstrated that the sprayed ZnO thin-film under laboratory conditions show equivalent performance compared to sputtered ZnO thin-film. The influence of optical properties of 65 nm thick zinc oxide thin-films deposited by vacuum and non-vacuum techniques on quantum efficiency and IV characteristics of commercial silicon-wafer based solar cell is studied and reported here.

  1. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1993--January 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Yokimcus, T.A. [Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The overall objective of the research presented in this report is to advance the development and acceptance of thin-film photovoltaic modules by increasing the understanding of film growth and processing and its relationship to materials properties and solar cell performance. The specific means toward meeting this larger goal include: (1) investigating scalable, cost-effective deposition processes; (2) preparing thin-film materials and device layers and completed cell structures; (3) performing detailed material and device analysis; and (4) participating in collaborative research efforts that address the needs of PV-manufacturers. These objectives are being pursued with CuInSe{sub 2}, CdTe and a-Si based solar cells.

  2. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donglin; Su, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350 nm-800 nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced.

  3. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350 nm-800 nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced. PMID:25418477

  4. Enhanced photocurrent in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells via shape controlled three-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have explored manufacturable approaches to sub-wavelength controlled three-dimensional (3D) nano-patterns with the goal of significantly enhancing the photocurrent in amorphous silicon solar cells. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement of about 50% over typical flat a-Si thin-film solar cells, and report an enhancement of 20% in optical absorption over Asahi textured glass by fabricating sub-wavelength nano-patterned a-Si on glass substrates. External quantum efficiency showed superior results for the 3D nano-patterned thin-film solar cells due to enhancement of broadband optical absorption. The results further indicate that this enhanced light trapping is achieved with minimal parasitic absorption losses in the deposited transparent conductive oxide for the nano-patterned substrate thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell configuration. Optical simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, and also show a significant enhancement in optical absorption, quantum efficiency and photocurrent. (paper)

  5. Fabrication and photovoltaic characteristics of Cu2O/TiO2 thin film heterojunction solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A p-Cu2O/n-TiO2 thin film heterojunction solar cell has been fabricated by electrodeposition of Cu2O on radio-frequency sputtered n-TiO2 thin film. The heterojunction solar cell was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV spectroscopy. Capacitancevoltage (CV) and currentvoltage measurements were performed. The values of barrier height and carrier concentration were estimated from the reverse bias CV. The transport mechanism is related to space charge limited current and a trapped charge limited current having slope values of 1.95 and 3.5. Impedance measurement showed that electrical resistance decreases when the voltage is increased. The energy band diagram shows that the main-band discontinuity forms in the valence band. The ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance, fill factor and efficiency were also measured. The heterojunction solar cell exhibits a maximum fill factor and a power conversion efficiency of about 0.35 and 0.15% respectively. - Highlights: ? p-Cu2O/n-TiO2 thin film heterojunction was fabricated. ? Conduction and valance band discontinuities were measured. ? The maximum efficiency of solar cell was measured to be 0.15%. ? The defects, band discontinuity and large mismatch caused low efficiency.

  6. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, DongLin

    2014-01-01

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350nm-800nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced.

  7. Selective ablation of thin films in latest generation CIGS solar cells with picosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Andreas; Romano, Valerio; Muralt, Martin; Witte, Reiner; Frei, Bruno; Bcheler, Stephan; Nishiwaki, Shiro

    2012-03-01

    Recent developments in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics enabled the manufacturers to produce highly efficient solar modules. Nevertheless, the production process still lacks a competitive process for module patterning. Today, the industry standard for the serial interconnection of cells is still based on mechanical scribing for the P2 and P3 process. A reduction of the non-productive "dead zone" between the P1 and P3 scribes is crucial for further increasing module efficiency. Compact and affordable picosecond pulsed laser sources are promising tools towards all-laser scribing of CIGS solar modules. We conducted an extensive parameter study comprising picosecond laser sources from 355 to 1064 nm wavelength and 10 to 50 ps pulse duration. Scribing results were analyzed by laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We developed stable and reliable processes for the P1, P2 and P3 scribe. The best parameter sets were then used for the production of functional mini-modules. For comparison, the same was done for a selection of nanosecond pulsed lasers. Standardized analysis of the modules has shown superior electrical performance of the interconnections and confirmed the feasibility of a dead zone width of less than 200 m on an entire mini module.

  8. NANO-IMPRINT TECHNIQUE FOR BACK REFLECTOR IN HIGH EFFICIENCY N-I-P THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    So?derstro?m, Karin; Escarre Palou, Jordi; Biron, Re?mi; Eminian, Ce?line; Haug, Franz-josef; Ballif, Christophe; Garcia, Cubero; Jesus, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, the replication of nano-textures enhancing the short circuit current of thin film silicon solar cells onto low cost substrates (glass or PolyEthylene Naphtalate (PEN)) is studied. Optical and morphological analysis is performed to asses the quality of these replicas. Single and tandem a-Si:H solar cells are deposited on top of the master and replica structures to verify their suitability to be used as substrates for solar cells in substrate (n-i-p) configuration. We find...

  9. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  10. A blazed grating for light trapping in a-Si thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blazed grating has been studied to improve light absorption in thin-film solar cells (TFSCs). The grating is a periodic arrangement of wedges made of aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) that also serves as the back spacer. The absorber layer of the photovoltaic (PV) device can be made of inorganic or organic semiconductor material. Here we study hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and nano-crystalline Si (nc-Si). Full wave, finite element simulations were performed to optimize the design for the highest short circuit current (Jsc). The Jsc of the optimized 1D grating design was 16.05 mA cm?2 for TE polarization and 15.18 mA cm?2 for TM polarization, with an effective a-Si:H layer thickness of only 277 nm. As compared to a planar cell with the same volume of a-Si:H, the enhancement of Jsc by the 1D grating design was 27.6% for TE polarization and 20.7% for TM polarization. We extended this design to a 2D grating structure that was less sensitive to polarization as compared to the 1D grating design. With an equivalent a-Si:H layer thickness of 322 nm, the optimized design yielded a Jsc of 17.16 mA cm?2. The blazed grating surface can be fabricated using the glancing angle deposition method. (paper)

  11. Broadband light trapping in thin film solar cells with self-organized plasmonic nano-colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Manuel J.; Morawiec, Seweryn; Mateus, Tiago; Lyubchyk, Andriy; guas, Hugo; Ferreira, Isabel; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Priolo, Francesco; Crupi, Isodiana

    2015-03-01

    The intense light scattered from metal nanoparticles sustaining surface plasmons makes them attractive for light trapping in photovoltaic applications. However, a strong resonant response from nanoparticle ensembles can only be obtained if the particles have monodisperse physical properties. Presently, the chemical synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles is the method that produces the highest monodispersion in geometry and material quality, with the added benefits of being low-temperature, low-cost, easily scalable and of allowing control of the surface coverage of the deposited particles. In this paper, novel plasmonic back-reflector structures were developed using spherical gold colloids with appropriate dimensions for pronounced far-field scattering. The plasmonic back reflectors are incorporated in the rear contact of thin film n-i-p nanocrystalline silicon solar cells to boost their photocurrent generation via optical path length enhancement inside the silicon layer. The quantum efficiency spectra of the devices revealed a remarkable broadband enhancement, resulting from both light scattering from the metal nanoparticles and improved light incoupling caused by the hemispherical corrugations at the cells front surface formed from the deposition of material over the spherically shaped colloids.

  12. Simulation approach for studying the performances of original superstrate CIGS thin films solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report on the performances of superstrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells with an alternative SLG/SnO2:F/CIGS/In2Se3/Zn structure using AMPS-1D (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic structures) device simulator. An inverted surface layer, n-type CIGS layer, is inserted between the In2Se3 buffer and CIGS absorber layers and the SnO2:F layer is just a transparent conducting oxide (TCO). The simulation has been carried out by lighting through SnO2:F. The obtained results show that the existence of so-called 'ordered defect compound' (ODC) layer in such a structure is the critical factor responsible for the optimization of the performances. Photovoltaic parameters were determined using the current density-voltage (J-V) curve. An optimal absorber and ODC layer thickness has been estimated, that improve significantly the devices efficiency exceeding 15% AM1.5 G. The variation of carrier density in In2Se3 layer has an influence on the superstrate CIGS cells performances. Moreover, the quantum efficiency (Q.E.) characteristics display a maximum value of about 80% in the visible range.

  13. Broadband light trapping in thin film solar cells with self-organized plasmonic nano-colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Manuel J; Morawiec, Seweryn; Mateus, Tiago; Lyubchyk, Andriy; guas, Hugo; Ferreira, Isabel; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Priolo, Francesco; Crupi, Isodiana

    2015-03-27

    The intense light scattered from metal nanoparticles sustaining surface plasmons makes them attractive for light trapping in photovoltaic applications. However, a strong resonant response from nanoparticle ensembles can only be obtained if the particles have monodisperse physical properties. Presently, the chemical synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles is the method that produces the highest monodispersion in geometry and material quality, with the added benefits of being low-temperature, low-cost, easily scalable and of allowing control of the surface coverage of the deposited particles. In this paper, novel plasmonic back-reflector structures were developed using spherical gold colloids with appropriate dimensions for pronounced far-field scattering. The plasmonic back reflectors are incorporated in the rear contact of thin film n-i-p nanocrystalline silicon solar cells to boost their photocurrent generation via optical path length enhancement inside the silicon layer. The quantum efficiency spectra of the devices revealed a remarkable broadband enhancement, resulting from both light scattering from the metal nanoparticles and improved light incoupling caused by the hemispherical corrugations at the cells' front surface formed from the deposition of material over the spherically shaped colloids. PMID:25760231

  14. Ion beam treatment of functional layers in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wendi

    2013-10-01

    In silicon thin-film solar cells, transparent conductive layers have to fulfill the following requirements: high conductivity as effective contact, high transparency to transmit the light into the cell, and a textured surface which provides light scattering. Magnetron sputtered and wet-chemically textured aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films are widely used as the transparent conductor. The technological goal of this dissertation is to develop an alternative to the wet etching process for light trapping in the thin silicon absorber layers through modification of the glass/ZnO:Al or ZnO:Al/Si interfaces by ion beam treatment. The study focuses on the textured growth of ZnO:Al films on ion beam pretreated glass substrates, and the preparation and application of textured glass for light trapping. The technological aspects such as the etch rates of the glass substrate and ZnO:Al films with different ion beam configurations were studied. The experimental etch rates are compared with simulated and theoretically predicted values. With regard to the ion beam treatment of glass substrate, the influence of the ion pretreated glass on the growth of ZnO:Al films was investigated. The ZnO:Al films grown on ion beam pretreated glass substrates exhibit self-textured morphology with surface roughness of 40 nm while remaining highly conductive. Silicon thin-film solar cells prepared on the as-grown rough ZnO:Al films show that this front contact can provide excellent light trapping effect. The highest initial efficiencies for amorphous single junction solar cells on as-grown rough ZnO:Al films was 9.4%. The as-grown rough morphology was attributed to large conical ZnO:Al grains initiated from the ion pretreated glass surface. It was found that the roughness of the as-grown rough ZnO:Al film is proportional to the number of O dangling bonds created by ion beam treatment on the glass substrate. A growth model was proposed to explain the growth mechanism of ZnO:Al films on Zn- and O-polar ZnO single crystals, as well as on untreated and ion beam treated glass substrates. With regard to the ion beam treatment of ZnO:Al films, the influence of the ion treatment on the surface morphology, HCl etching, silicon growth, and additional ZnO:Al growth was investigated. Ion beam etching has a smoothening effect on the textured ZnO:Al films. Using sputtered and wet chemically etched ZnO:Al as ion beam etching mask, textured glass with features similar to the ZnO:Al films were obtained. Textured glass with a wide range of morphologies was prepared by varying the etching mask and the ion beam treatment conditions. Finally, as-grown textured ZnO:Al films prepared on ion beam treated textured glass, which exhibit 'double textured' features, were produced and applied in solar cells. The ion beam treatment enabled the preparation of light scattering surfaces by textured glass and as-grown rough ZnO:Al films without the need of wet etching between TCO preparation and absorber deposition. Further, new 'double textured' surface structures could be created by the combination of both techniques. Solar cells with efficiency of 11.9% proved the applicability as-grown textured ZnO:Al for light trapping. The growth studies provided deeper insights and a new understanding of ZnO structure formation and will govern optimization of ZnO:Al film properties.

  15. Band alignment of SnS/Zn(O,S) heterojunctions in SnS thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Leizhi; Haight, Richard; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Bok Kim, Sang; Park, Helen Hejin; Gordon, Roy Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Band alignment is critical to the performance of heterojunction thin film solar cells. In this letter, we report band alignment studies of SnS/Zn(O,S) heterojunctions with various compositions of Zn(O,S). Valence band offsets (VBOs) are measured by femtosecond laser pump/probe ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (fs-UPS) from which conduction band offsets (CBOs) are calculated by combining with band gaps obtained by optical transmission/reflection measurements. The SnS/Zn(O,S) heterojuncti...

  16. HUMID ENVIRONMENT STABILITY OF LPCVD ZNO:B USED AS TRANSPARENT ELECTRODES IN THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhauser, Je?ro?me; Meyer, Stefan; Schwab, Marle?ne; Fay?, Sylvie; Ballif, Christophe; Kroll, U.; Borrello, D.

    2008-01-01

    The stability in humid environment of low pressure chemical vapor deposited boron doped zinc oxide (LPCVD ZnO:B) used as transparent conductive oxide in thin film silicon solar cells is investigated. Damp heat treatment (exposition to humid and hot atmosphere) induces a degradation of the electrical properties of unprotected LPCVD ZnO:B layers. By combining analyses of the electrical and optical properties of the films, we are able to attribute this behavior to an increase of electron grain b...

  17. Improved Thin Film Solar Cells Made by Vapor Deposition of Earth-Abundant Tin(II) Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Leizhi

    2014-01-01

    Tin(II) sulfide (SnS) is an earth-abundant, inexpensive, and non-toxic absorber material for thin film solar cells. SnS films are deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) through the reaction of a tin precursor, bis(N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinato)tin(II), and hydrogen sulfide. The SnS films demonstrate excellent surface morphology, crystal structure, phase purity, stoichiometry, elemental purity, and optical and electrical properties.

  18. Micromorph thin-film silicon solar cells with transparent high-mobility hydrogenated indium oxide front electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglia, Corsin; Erni, Lukas; Boccard, Mathieu; Barraud, Loris; Escarre?, Jordi; So?derstro?m, Karin; Bugnon, Gre?gory; Billet, Adrian; Ding, Laura; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-josef; Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the performance of hydrogenated indium oxide as a transparent front electrode for micromorph thin-film silicon solar cells on glass. Light trapping is achieved by replicating the morphology of state-of-the-art zinc oxide electrodes, known for their outstanding light trapping properties, via ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography. As a result of the high electron mobility and excellent near-infrared transparency of hydrogenated indium oxide, the short-circuit current density of the...

  19. Mimicry of sputtered i-ZnO thin films using chemical bath deposition for solution-processed solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; van Embden, Joel; Chesman, Anthony S R; Duffy, Noel W; Jasieniak, Jacek J

    2014-12-24

    Solution processing provides a versatile and inexpensive means to prepare functional materials with specifically designed properties. The current challenge is to mimic the structural, optical, and/or chemical properties of thin films fabricated by vacuum-based techniques using solution-based approaches. In this work we focus on ZnO to show that thin films grown using a simple, aqueous-based, chemical bath deposition (CBD) method can mimic the properties of sputtered coatings, provided that the kinetic and thermodynamic reaction parameters are carefully tuned. The role of these parameters toward growing highly oriented and dense ZnO thin films is fully elucidated through detailed microscopic and spectroscopic investigations. The prepared samples exhibit bulk-like optical properties, are intrinsic in their electronic characteristics, and possess negligible organic contaminants, especially when compared to ZnO layers deposited by sol-gel or from nanocrystal inks. The efficacy of our CBD-grown ZnO thin films is demonstrated through the effective replacement of sputtered ZnO buffer layers within high efficiency solution processed Cu2ZnSnS4xSe4(1-x) solar cells. PMID:25506738

  20. Double-layer indium doped zinc oxide for silicon thin-film solar cell prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on corning eagle 2000 glass substrate. 1 and 2 at.% indium doped single-layer ZnO:In thin films with different amounts of acetic acid added in the initial solution were fabricated. The 1 at.% indium doped single-layers have triangle grains. The 2 at.% indium doped single-layer with 0.18 acetic acid adding has the resistivity of 6.8210?3 ?cm and particle grains. The double-layers structure is designed to fabricate the ZnO:In thin film with low resistivity (2.5810?3 ?cm) and good surface morphology. It is found that the surface morphology of the double-layer ZnO:In film strongly depends on the substrate-layer, and the second-layer plays a large part in the resistivity of the double-layer ZnO:In thin film. Both total and direct transmittances of the double-layer ZnO:In film are above 80% in the visible light region. Single junction a-Si:H solar cell based on the double-layer ZnO:In as front electrode is also investigated. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Development of Commercial Technology for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Glass: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-209

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.

    2013-03-01

    NREL has conducted basic research relating to high efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and the method of making solar cells. Two patents have been issued to NREL in the above field. In addition, specific process and metrology tools have been developed by NREL. Applied Optical Sciences Corp. (AOS) has expertise in the manufacture of solar cells and has developed its own unique concentrator technology. AOS wants to complement its solar cell expertise and its concentrator technology by manufacturing flat panel thin film silicon solar cell panels. AOS wants to take NREL's research to the next level, using it to develop commercially viable flat pane, thin film silicon solar cell panels. Such a development in equipment, process, and metrology will likely produce the lowest cost solar cell technology for both commercial and residential use. NREL's fundamental research capability and AOS's technology and industrial background are complementary to achieve this product development.

  2. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cell properties of chemically deposited cadmium selenide thin films with heteropolyacids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savadogo, O.; Mandal, K.C. (Dept. de Metallurgie et de Genie des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1992-06-01

    The photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cell properties of chemically deposited cadmium selenide thin films with heteropolyacids have been studied. It has been shown that the PEC solar cell parameters change with the concentration of silicotungstic acid (STA) or phosphotungstic acid (PTA). The best performances are obtained on the electrodes fabricated with 10{sup -5} M STA or 10{sup -5} M PTA. Without STA or PTA, the CdSe film in 0.45 M SeSO{sub 3}{sup 2-} electrolyte showed an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 510 mV, a short circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}) of 2.7 mA cm{sup -2}, a fill factor of 0.48 and a cell efficiency ({eta}) of 1.6%. The film when grown with 10{sup -5} M PTA showed the following PEC solar cell parameters: V{sub oc}=570 mW; J{sub sc}=7.6 mA. cm{sup -2}, fill factor, 0.55 and {eta}, 5.9%. The CdSe film deposited with 10{sup -5} M STA showed for superior I-V properties with a V{sub oc} of 600 mV, a J{sub sc} of 11.8 mA. cm{sup -2}, a fill factor of 0.68 and a {eta} of 11.7%. The determination of the chemical composition of the films by X-ray diffraction, XPS and neutron activation analysis have shown the presence of WO{sub 3} in the films deposited with HPAs. The improvements of the PEC solar cell properties have been ascribed to the formation of the n-CdSe/n-WO{sub 3} heterojunction which enhances the charge transfer at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. These results indicated for the first time the interesting effects of STA and PTA on the chemically deposited CdSe films. This opens up a new method to develop mixed electrodes having improved physical properties and PEC solar cells performances. (orig.).

  3. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01

    The stability of intrinsic and Al-doped single- and bi-layer ZnO for thin-film CuInGaSe2 solar cells, along with Al-doped Zn1-xMgxO alloy and Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and F-doped SnO2, was evaluated by direct exposure to damp heat (DH) at 85oC and 85% relative humidity. The results show that the DH-induced degradation rates followed the order of Al-doped ZnO and Zn1-xMgxO >> ITO > F:SnO2. The degradation rates of Al:ZnO were slower for films of higher thickness, higher substrate temperature in sputter-deposition, and with dry-out intervals. As inferred from the optical micro-imaging showing the initiation and propagation of degrading patterns and regions, the degradation behavior appears similar for all TCOs, despite the obvious difference in the degradation rate. A degradation mechanism is proposed to explain the temporal process involving thermal hydrolysis.

  4. Polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells prepared by PECVD-SPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, R.H.; Risso, G.A.; Cutrera, M.; Battioni, M.; De Bernardez, L.; Schmidt, J.A.; Arce, R.D.; Koropecki, R.R. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, CONICET-UNL, Guemes 3450, CP 3000, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    Among the most promising technological alternatives for the development of photovoltaic modules and cells of a low cost, good energetic conversion and feasibility for mass production, polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells deposited directly on a transparent substrate are currently being considered the best. We have developed in our laboratory a PECVD reactor capable of producing the deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon at rates of above 2 nm/seg, allowing a significant production per line on the plant. Discharge gas is silane, to which diborane or phosphine is added so as to form the cell. Basically, work is done on a structure of cell type TCO/n+/p-/p+/M, which has 2 {mu}m of total thickness. Schott AF-37 glass is used as a substrate, for their ability to withstand temperatures of up to 800 C. The amorphous cell is subsequently annealed at gradual temperatures of 100 C to achieve dehydrogenation up to 650-700 C for 12 h until their complete crystallization is achieved. Our results show a complete crystallization of silicon with a grain size of less than a micron, with a dehydrogenation process at 500 C, leaving a remainder of less than 1% in hydrogen as monohydrate. The parameters of the cell estimated from the IV curve yield low values, FF<0.55, Icc <200 {mu}A and Voc<420 mV. The high series resistance is due to the grain size and defect density, which will be attempted to be improved by post-hydrogenation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) methods at high temperatures. (author)

  5. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices: Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1995 -- January 15, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R W; Phillips, J E; Buchanan, W A; Eser, E; Hegedus, S S; McCandless, B E; Meyers, P V; Shafarman, W N [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The overall mission of the Institute of Energy Conversion is the development of thin film photovoltaic cells, modules, and related manufacturing technology and the education of students and professionals in photovoltaic technology. The objectives of this four-year NREL subcontract are to advance the state of the art and the acceptance of thin film PV modules in the areas of improved technology for thin film deposition, device fabrication, and material and device characterization and modeling, relating to solar cells based on CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, on a-Si and its alloys, and on CdTe. In the area of CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, EEC researchers have produced CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} films by selenization of elemental and alloyed films with H{sub 2}Se and Se vapor and by a wide variety of process variations employing co-evaporation of the elements. Careful design, execution and analysis of these experiments has led to an improved understanding of the reaction chemistry involved, including estimations of the reaction rate constants. Investigation of device fabrication has also included studies of the processing of the Mo, US and ZnO deposition parameters and their influence on device properties. An indication of the success of these procedures was the fabrication of a 15% efficiency CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} solar cell.

  6. Efficiency limitations of polycrystalline thin film solar cells: case of Cu(In,Ga)Se2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-area Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells have reached more than 19% efficiencies. Compared to other polycrystalline materials this efficiency value is remarkable. Nevertheless, the 19% for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 range more than 6% (absolute) below the world's best single-crystalline Si cells and almost 14% below the upper theoretical limit of 33% for an ideal black body cell with infinitely large mobility and radiative recombination only. About 4% out of the 14% are of optical nature, additional 3% stem from the limited mobility/diffusion length and from band gap fluctuations with a standard deviation no. sigmano. gno. approxno. 50 meV due to spatial variations of composition and stoichiometry of the quaternary compound Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Thus, about 26% efficiency would be possible if there were only these band gap fluctuations. Additional, voltage-dependent electrostatic potential fluctuations push down the efficiency further to 19%: The polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 which is unavoidably structurally inhomogeneous due to dislocations, grain boundaries, point defects, etc. is also electrostatically inhomogeneous because of charged defects. Electrostatic potential fluctuations at the valence and conduction band edge may be not only responsible for a high saturation current density but also for the ideality factor in the current/voltage curve. The band gap and electrostatic potential fluctuations make the effective band gap wfluctuations make the effective band gap which controls the intrinsic carrier density smaller than the average optical gap. The (zero bias) electrostatic potential fluctuations are here derived from the ideality factors of the current/voltage curve. The ideality factor reflects the voltage-induced electrostatic homogenization of the sample. For the world's best Cu(In,Ga)Se2 cells with an ideality factor of n id=1.5, we estimate zero bias electrostatic potential fluctuations with a standard deviation no. sigmano. elecno. approxno. 140 meV

  7. Absorptive carbon nanotube electrodes: Consequences of optical interference loss in thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jeffrey G; De Volder, Michal F L; Cheyns, David; Heremans, Paul; Rand, Barry P

    2015-04-01

    A current bottleneck in the thin film photovoltaic field is the fabrication of low cost electrodes. We demonstrate ultrasonically spray coated multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) layers as opaque and absorptive metal-free electrodes deposited at low temperatures and free of post-deposition treatment. The electrodes show sheet resistance as low as 3.4 ? ?(-1), comparable to evaporated metallic contacts deposited in vacuum. Organic photovoltaic devices were optically simulated, showing comparable photocurrent generation between reflective metal and absorptive CNT electrodes for photoactive layer thickness larger than 600 nm when using archetypal poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)?:?(6,6)-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) cells. Fabricated devices clearly show that the absorptive CNT electrodes display comparable performance to solution processed and spray coated Ag nanoparticle devices. Additionally, other candidate absorber materials for thin film photovoltaics were simulated with absorptive contacts, elucidating device design in the absence of optical interference and reflection. PMID:25811493

  8. Experimental study of Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 thin films for solar cell applications

    OpenAIRE

    Engman, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 (CZT(Se,S)) has recently been shown to be a promising material to use in thin film solar cells. It has a band gap of between 1eV (CZTSe) and 1.5eV (CZTS). CZT(Se,S) solar cells have reached 10% efficiency. The aim of this project was to find an effective way to selenise metallic Cu, Zn, Sn films in order to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) films, without destroying the metallic molybdenum (Mo) back contact. Another aim was to make films containing both Se and S and to study the po...

  9. Optimized nano-textured interfaces for thin-film silicon solar cells: identifying the limit of randomly textured interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jger, Klaus; Linssen, Dane N. P.; Isabella, Olindo; Zeman, Miro

    2014-05-01

    Thin-film solar cells contain nano-textured interfaces that scatter the incident light, leading to increased absorption and hence increased current densities in the solar cell. In this manuscript we systematically study optimized random nano-textured morphologies for three different cases: amorphous hydrogenated silicon solar cells (a-Si:H, bandgap 1.7 eV), nano-crystalline silicon solar cells (nc-Si:H, bandgap 1.1 eV) and tandem solar cells consisting of an a-Si:H and a nc-Si:H junction. For the optimization we use the Perlin texture algorithm, the scalar scattering theory, and a semi-coherent optical device simulator.

  10. Cu (In,Ga)Se2 thin films and solar cells prepared by selenization of metallic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CuIn(1-x)GaxSe2 (CIGS) thin films with Ga ratio, x, ranging from 0.55 to 0.75 were grown on Mo/glass substrates by the selenization of metallic precursors in a H2Se atmosphere. Without a postdeposition annealing step the films were found to have a highly graded composition that became Ga rich near the absorber/Mo interface. A high-temperature annealing step promoted diffusion of Ga to the surface region of the films. These absorbers were used to fabricate glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/ZnO thin-film solar cells with open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.4 to 0.74 V and efficiencies approaching 12%. Devices, as well as the absorber layers, were characterized. copyright 1996 American Vacuum Society

  11. Progress toward 20% efficiency in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} polycrystalline thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Miguel A.; Egaas, Brian; Ramanathan, K.; Swartzlander, A.; Hasoon, F.; Noufi, Rommel [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Hiltner, J. [Colorado State Univ., Dept. of Physics, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This short communication reports on achieving 18.8% total-area conversion efficiency for a ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}/Mo polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. We also report a 15%-efficient, Cd-free device fabricated via physical vapor deposition methods. The Cd-free cell includes no buffer layer, and it is fabricated by direct deposition of ZnO on the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film absorber. Both results have been measured at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under standard reporting conditions (1000 W/m{sup 2}, 25degC, ASTM E 892 Global). The 18.8% conversion efficiency represents a new record for such devices (Notable Exceptions) and makes the 20% performance level by thin-film polycrystalline materials much closer to reality. We allude to the enhancement in performance of such cells as compared to previous record cells, and we discuss possible and realistic routes to enhance the performance toward the 20% efficiency level. (Author)

  12. Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, M.; Lipovsek, B.; Krc, J.; Campa, A.; Topic, M. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering Trzaska cesta 25, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Sanchez Plaza, G. [Technical University of Valencia, Valencia Nanophotonics Technology Center (NTC) Valencia 46022 (Spain); Haug, F.J. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Institute of Microengineering IMT, Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Neuchatel 2000 (Switzerland); Duchamp, M. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons Institute for Microstructure Research, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich D-52425 (Germany); Soppe, W. [ECN-Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, Eindhoven 5656 AE (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    In thin-film silicon solar cells textured interfaces are introduced, leading to improved antireflection and light trapping capabilities of the devices. Thin-layers are deposited on surface-textured substrates or superstrates and the texture is translated to internal interfaces. For accurate optical modelling of the thin-film silicon solar cells it is important to define and include the morphology of textured interfaces as realistic as possible. In this paper we present a model of thin-layer growth on textured surfaces which combines two growth principles: conformal and isotropic one. With the model we can predict the morphology of subsequent internal interfaces in thin-film silicon solar cells based on the known morphology of the substrate or superstrate. Calibration of the model for different materials grown under certain conditions is done on various cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of realistic devices. Advantages over existing growth modelling approaches are demonstrated - one of them is the ability of the model to predict and omit the textures with high possibility of defective regions formation inside the Si absorber layers. The developed model of layer growth is used in rigorous 3-D optical simulations employing the COMSOL simulator. A sinusoidal texture of the substrate is optimised for the case of a micromorph silicon solar cell. More than a 50 % increase in short-circuit current density of the bottom cell with respect to the flat case is predicted, considering the defect-free absorber layers. The developed approach enables accurate prediction and powerful design of current-matched top and bottom cell.

  13. Doped and multi-compound ZnO-based transparent conducting oxides for silicon thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras Segui?, Paz

    2013-01-01

    [eng] The objective of the present work is to provide a better understanding of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides based on ZnO in order to use them as electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells at the Grup d'Energia Solar of the Universitat de Barcelona. This thesis presents the properties of magnetron sputtered aluminium and gallium doped ZnO as well as the properties of multi-compound materials deposited by the co-sputtering of zinc oxide and indium tin oxide. The applicati...

  14. Characterization of CdS/CdTe and CdS/CuInSe2 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L. J.; Nguyen, T. T.; Shyu, C. M.; Basol, B. M.; Yoo, H. I.

    1984-01-01

    A study on low cost polycrystalline thin film CdS/CdTe and CdS/CuInSe2 solar cells using measurements of spectral response and capacitance-voltage-frequency relationships was performed. Because of high concentrations of localized levels in the energy gap existing in materials and at interfaces, the redistribution of charge among the levels due to illumination plays an important role in the collection of light-generated current in these cells. The results illustrate some related phenomena observed in these cells.

  15. In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Buehlmann, Peter; Bailat, J.; Domine?, Didier; Billet, Adrian; Meillaud, F.; Feltrin, Andrea; Ballif, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    We show that SiO-based intermediate reflectors (SOIRs) can be fabricated in the same reactor and with the same process gases as used for thin-film silicon solar cells. By varying input gas ratios, SOIR layers with a wide range of optical and electrical properties are obtained. The influence of the SOIR thickness in the micromorph cell is studied and current gain and losses are discussed. Initial micromorph cell efficiency of 12.2% (Voc=1.40 V, fill factor=71.9%, and Jsc=12.1 mA/cm2) is achiev...

  16. Electronic grain boundary properties in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} semiconductors for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, Robert

    2012-06-25

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin film absorbers reach the highest energy conversion efficiency among all thin film solar cells. The record efficiency is at least partly attributed to benign electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in the CIGSe layers. However, despite a high amount of research on this phenomenon the underlying physics is not sufficiently understood. This thesis presents an elaborate study on the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe thin films. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was employed to investigate the electronic properties of GBs in dependence of the Ga-content. Five CIGSe thin lms with various Ga-contents were grown by means of similar three stage co-evaporation processes. Both as grown as well as chemically treated (KCN etched) thin films were analyzed. The chemical treatment was employed to remove surface oxides. No difference in electronic GB properties was found with or without the chemical treatment. Therefore, we conclude that a moderate surface oxidation does not alter the electronic properties of GBs. In general, one can observe significant variations of electronic potential barriers at GBs. Under consideration of the averaging effect of the work function signal of nanoscale potential distributions in KPFM measurements which was quantified in the course of this thesis both positive and negative potential barriers in a range between ?-350 mV and ?+450 mV were detected. Additionally, variations in the defect densities at GBs between ?3.1 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and ?2.1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} were found. However, no correlation between the electronic properties of GBs and the Ga-content of CIGSe thin films was discovered. Consequently, one cannot explain the drop in device efficiency observed for CIGSe thin film solar cells with a high Ga-content by a change of the electronic properties of GBs. Combined KPFM and electron backscatter diffraction measurements were employed for the first time on CIGSe thin films to gather complementary information about both the structural and electronic properties of individual GBs. With the help of this information it was possible to investigate the interrelationship between the symmetry and the electronic potential barrier of GBs. We could reveal that highly symmetric ?3 GBs have a lower probability to possess a charged potential barrier than lower symmetric non-?3 GBs. The assumption of a general symmetry-dependence of the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe, i.e. a correlation between the particular symmetry of a GB and its potential barrier that is also valid for GBs with symmetries lower than ?3, could help to explain the large variations of potential barriers observed at GBs in polycrystalline CIGSe thin films.

  17. Fabrication of solution processed 3D nanostructured CuInGaS2 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chu, Van; Cho, Jin Woo; Park, Se Jin; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Park, Hoo Keun; Rag Do, Young; Koun Min, Byoung

    2014-03-01

    In this study we demonstrate the fabrication of CuInGaS2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells with a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure based on indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorod films and precursor solutions (Cu, In and Ga nitrates in alcohol). To obtain solution processed 3D nanostructured CIGS thin film solar cells, two different precursor solutions were applied to complete gap filling in ITO nanorods and achieve the desirable absorber film thickness. Specifically, a coating of precursor solution without polymer binder material was first applied to fill the gap between ITO nanorods followed by deposition of the second precursor solution in the presence of a binder to generate an absorber film thickness of 1.3 ?m. A solar cell device with a (Al, Ni)/AZO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/ITO nanorod/glass structure was constructed using the CIGS film, and the highest power conversion efficiency was measured to be 6.3% at standard irradiation conditions, which was 22.5% higher than the planar type of CIGS solar cell on ITO substrate fabricated using the same precursor solutions.

  18. Cd-free heterojunctions in chalcopyrite based thin film solar cells; Cd-freie Heterokontakte in Chalkopyrit-basierten Duennschichtsolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieven, David

    2012-02-06

    This thesis took care of the problem to replace the buffer layers Cds and i-ZnO in thin-film solar cells of the layer system p-Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}/CdS/i-ZnO/n{sup +} by a Cd-free buffer layer. The synthesis of the material layers. The synthesis was carried out by the method of cathode sputtering established in the deposition of the n{sup +}-ZnO window layer. Aim was to modify the electronic properties of the studied materials either by the choice of the applied bonding elements or by the choice of the composition in such a way that the basic conditions for buffer layers are fulfilled: Optical transparency and suited band fitting to the absorber material. The analysis of the interfaces between the potential buffer materials and the Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} absorber material considering the conduction-band fitting important for solar cells formed a main topic. Finally suited materials came into application as buffer layers in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based thin-film solar cells. Thereby was of interest, whether efficient solar cells can be fabricated, and whether the photovoltaic parameters open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density are dominantly influenced by possible interface defects, as they are especially discussed in connection with the sputtering deposition.

  19. Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with Integrated Metal Nanoparticles and Metal Nanostructures for an Enhanced Light Absorption - Impedance Measurements and Simulations of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, Etienne

    2009-01-01

    Photovoltaic technology offers the possibility of environmentally friendly production of electricity based on an almost infinite source of energy, the sun. Today most commercially available solar cells are made of crystalline or polycrystalline silicon. Such solar cells can achieve efficiencies of up to 24.7 % for unconcentrated light. However, their disadvantages are the high material cost and the high energy consumption during production...

  20. Impacts of electron irradiation on the optical and electrical properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : A thin film solar cell composed of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) is essentially light-weight and shows high conversion efficiency and excellent radiation tolerance. These characteristics lead to CIGS solar cells very attractive for space applications. However, only a few irradiation studies have been carried out on CIGS thin films and entire solar cell structure, resulting in limited knowledge on the mechanisms responsible for the irradiation-induced damage. In addition, the cell performance is known to change due to the damp heat and/or light soaking effects. Accordingly, understanding the degradation mechanisms of CIGS, ZnO, a buffer, Mo, and even glass components is necessary for not only space use but also commercial use. In this presentation, electron irradiation effects will be discussed for CIGS solar cells and each layer that composed the CIGS solar cell structure such as CIGS, CdS, undoped ZnO, and Ga- or Al-doped ZnO films. Electron irradiation experiments were carried out using the DYNAMITRON electron accelerator. The electron energy was fixed at 2 MeV and the fluence was varied between 1 * 1013 and 1 * 1018 cm-2. All the irradiated CIGS films exhibited common PL peaks originating from donor to acceptor transitions. PL peak intensity due to Cu-related point defects, which did not affect solar cell performance significantly, increased in CIGS thin films with increasing electron irradiation. Converth increasing electron irradiation. Conversely, transmittance spectra of all the irradiated ZnO and ZnO:Al films did not change by the electron irradiation up to 6 * 1017 cm-2. The normalized performance parameters of the irradiated CIGS solar cell such as Voc, Jsc, and ? are shown in article as a function of irradiation fluence. ? tended to decrease in comparison with Voc and Jsc for large irradiation fluence. Shunt resistance and series resistance of the CIGS solar cells degraded even though the resistivity of each layer did not change after electron irradiation. The result indicates that CdS/CIGS interface or another heterojunction tended to degrade easily in comparison with each bulk of solar cell composed of semiconductors

  1. Thin film silicon solar cells for space applications. Study of proton irradiation and thermal annealing effects on the characteristics of solar cells and individual layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuendig, J.; Goetz, M.; Shah, A. [Institute of Microtechnology (IMT), Thin-film silicon and Photovoltaic group, University of Neuchatel, A.-L. Breguet 2, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Gerlach, L.; Fernandez, E. [ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL 2200 AG Noordwijk, The (Netherlands)

    2003-09-30

    The paper reports on the effects of a proton irradiation campaign on a series of thin-film silicon solar cells (single- and double-junction). The effect of subsequent thermal annealing on solar cells degraded by proton irradiation is investigated. A low-temperature annealing behaviour can be observed (at temperatures around 100 to 160C) for microcrystalline silicon solar cells. To further explore this effect, a second proton irradiation campaign has been carried out, but this time on microcrystalline silicon layers. The effect of proton irradiation and subsequent thermal annealing on the optical and electronic properties of microcrystalline silicon is, thus, thoroughly investigated.

  2. Impact of contamination on hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerdenweber, Jan

    2011-09-26

    This thesis deals with atmospheric contamination and cross-contamination of boron (single-chamber process) of the intrinsic absorber layer (i-layer) of p-i-n thin film solar cells based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The atmospheric contaminations were introduced by means of intentional leaks. Hereby, the focus is on the influence of contamination species (oxygen and nitrogen), quantity of contamination (leak flow), source of contamination (leaks at chamber wall or in the process gas pipe), and plasma power on the properties of solar cells. Thereby, the minimum requirements for the purity of vacuum and process gas as well as leak conditions of the recipient and gas pipe system have been determined. Additionally, deposition regimes were developed, where the incorporation of impurities is significantly suppressed. For standard processes critical levels of nitrogen and oxygen contamination are determined to be {proportional_to} 4 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and {proportional_to} 2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, respectively, for a leak situated at the chamber wall. Above these concentrations the solar cell efficiency deteriorates. In literature, incorporation of oxygen and nitrogen in doping configuration is assumed to be the reason for the cell deterioration. This assumption is supported by additional material studies of contaminated absorber layers done in this work. The difference in critical concentration is due to the higher doping efficiency of nitrogen compared to that for oxygen. Nevertheless, applying an air leak the critical concentrations of O and N are reached almost simultaneously since the incorporation probability of oxygen is about one order of magnitude higher compared to that for nitrogen. Applying a leak in the process gas pipe the critical oxygen contamination level increases to {proportional_to} 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} whereas the critical nitrogen level remains unchanged compared to a chamber wall leak. Applying a deposition regime with a very high flow of process gases for oxygen the higher critical contamination level is found as well for a chamber wall leak. Possible reasons for the dependence of the critical oxygen contamination on the deposition regime and the oxygen source may be the following. Before entering the plasma zone the oxygen can react with hydrogen atoms, silane (very high reaction probability), or silane radicals. Mainly, three reaction products may result, namely SiO{sub 2}-clusters, siloxane (SiH{sub 3}-O-SiH{sub 3}), and OH / H{sub 2}O molecules. The SiO{sub 2} is assumed to drop to the bottom of the reactor or to be pumped out. If oxygen is incorporated from siloxane, it is assumed to be electrically inactive. In contrast, oxygen incorporated from hydrogen-oxygen molecules leads to oxygen incorporation in an electrically active configuration. For a source gas pipe leak, the density of silane in the gas pipe is high compared to that for the chamber wall leak. For the chamber wall leak the hydrogen density is assumed to be much higher compared to that for the process gas pipe leak. Thus, the critical oxygen concentration is suggested to increases due to the resulting higher siloxane to OH / H{sub 2}O ratio for the gas pipe leak compared to that in the vicinity of the chamber wall leak. The different critical levels for different deposition regimes can be explained by their oxygen incorporation velocity. The lifetime of the OH / H{sub 2}O molecules is assumed to be shorter, compared to that for the siloxane. As a consequence this might lead to the fact, that oxygen form these molecules is incorporated in one regime (fast incorporation), and in another regime it is not incorporated (slow incorporation). For nitrogen the same critical contamination levels are observed which is attributed to the lack of reactivity of silane and nitrogen. The observed critical impurity concentrations do not change after light-soaking experiments of the solar cells. A further aspect of this thesis is to improve the single-chamber process for the fabrication of amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin-film solar c

  3. Opto-electronic properties of rough LP-CVD ZnO:B for use as TCO in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline Boron-doped ZnO films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition technique are developed for their use as transparent contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells. The size of the columnar grains that constitute the ZnO films is related to their light scattering capability, which has a direct influence on the current generation in thin-film silicon solar cells. Furthermore, if the doping level of the ZnO films is kept below 1 x 1020 cm-3, the electron mobility can be drastically enhanced by growing large grains, and the free carrier absorption is reduced. All these considerations have been taken in account to develop ZnO films finely optimized for the fabrication of microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells. These TCO allow the achievement of solar cell conversion efficiencies close to 10%

  4. ZnO thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition, used as buffer layer in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thin films synthetized by chemical bath deposition are used as buffer layer between the anode and the organic electron donor in organic solar cells. Films deposited from zinc nitrate solutions are annealed in room air at 300 deg. C for half an hour. The X-ray diffraction and microanalysis studies show that ZnO polycrystalline thin films are obtained. The solar cells used are based on the couple copper phthalocyanine as electron donor and (N,N-diheptyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide-PTCDI-C7) as electron acceptor. It is shown that the presence of the ZnO buffer layer improves the energy conversion efficiency of the cells. Such improvement could be attributed to a better energy level alignment at the anode/electron donor interface. The anode roughness induced by the ZnO buffer layer can also transform the planar interface organic electron donor/electron acceptor into roughen topography. This increases the interface area, where carrier separation takes place, which improves solar cells performances.

  5. Quadruple-junction thin-film silicon-based solar cells with high open-circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Fai Tong; Kim, Do Yun; Santbergen, Rudi; Tan, Hairen; van Swaaij, Ren A. C. M. M.; Smets, Arno H. M.; Isabella, Olindo; Zeman, Miro

    2014-08-01

    We have fabricated a-SiOx:H/a-Si:H/nc-Si:H/nc-Si:H quadruple-junction thin-film silicon-based solar cells (4J TFSSCs) to obtain high spectral utilization and high voltages. By processing the solar cells on micro-textured superstrates, extremely high open-circuit voltages for photovoltaic technology based on thin-film silicon alloys up to 2.91 V have been achieved. Optical simulations of quadruple-junction solar cells using an advanced in-house model are a crucial tool to effectively tackle the challenging task of current matching among the individual sub-cells in such devices. After optimizing the optical design of the device and the absorber thicknesses, an energy conversion efficiency of 11.4% has been achieved. The open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor were 2.82 V, 5.49 mA/cm2, and 73.9%, respectively. Based on this demonstration, strategies for further development of highly efficient 4J TFSSCs are proposed.

  6. A comparative study of solution-processed low- and high-band-gap chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-cost and printable chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells were fabricated by a precursor solution-based coating method with a multi-step heat-treatment process (oxidation, sulfurization, and selenization). The high-band-gap (1.57eV) Cu(InxGa1?x)S2 (CIGS) solar cell showed a high open-circuit voltage of 787mV, whereas the low-band-gap (1.12eV) Cu(InxGa1?x)(S1?ySey)2 (CIGSSe) cell exhibited a high short-circuit current density of 32.6mAcm?2. The energy conversion efficiencies were 8.28% for CIGS and 8.81% for CIGSSe under standard irradiation conditions. Despite similar efficiencies, the two samples showed notable differences in grain size, surface morphology, and interfacial properties. Low-temperature transport and admittance characteristics of the samples clearly revealed how their structural differences influenced their photovoltaic and electrical properties. Such analyses provide insight into the enhanced solar cell performance of the solution-processed chalcopyrite thin films. (paper)

  7. Solution-processed highly efficient Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells by dissolution of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanchun; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Wangen; Tian, Qingwen; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2015-01-14

    Solution deposition approaches play an important role in reducing the manufacturing cost of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film solar cells. Here, we present a novel precursor-based solution approach to fabricate highly efficient CZTSe solar cells. In this approach, low-cost elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se powders were simultaneously dissolved in the solution of thioglycolic acid and ethanolamine, forming a homogeneous CZTSe precursor solution to deposit CZTSe nanocrystal thin films. Based on high-quality CZTSe absorber layer, pure selenide CZTSe solar cell with a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.02% has been achieved without antireflection coating. PMID:25494493

  8. Light-scattering effectiveness of two-dimensional disordered surface textures in thin-film silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pinghui S; Chen, Chien-Wei; Yang, Bing-Ru; Hong, Lu-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    To compare the light-scattering effectiveness of surface-textured solar cells of various design parameters such as density, diameter, refractive index, and location, this study used a new parameter, optical path length gain (OPLG), that is more sensitive than Haze. By modeling two-dimensional disordered textures as a structure that comprises many randomly distributed, small, spherical scatterers, ray-tracing simulations of surface-textured thin-film silicon solar cells were performed. The simulation results suggest that: (1) the optimal scatterer diameter for hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells is ~50 nm, producing an average OPLG of 3.5; and (2) the optimal scatterer diameter for a-Si:H/?c-Si:H (hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon) tandem cells is ~75 nm, producing an average OPLG of 3.4 and an increase in the bandwidth of the absorption spectrum of 14.5%. PMID:24921870

  9. Dipolar and Quadrupolar Modes of SiO2/Au Nanoshell Enhanced Light Trapping in Thin Film Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipolar and quadrupolar resonance wavelengths of SiO2/Au nanoshell surface plasmons are designed at 560 nm to enhance the light trapping in thin film solar cells. In order to quantitatively describe the light trapping effect, the forward-scattering efficiency (FSE) and the light trapping efficiency (LTE) are proposed by considering the light scattering direction of SiO2/Au nanoshells. Based on the Mie theory, the FSE and the LTE are calculated for SiO2/Au nanoshells of different dimensions, and the contributions of the dipolar and quadrupolar modes to the light trapping effect are analyzed in detail. When the surface coverage of nanoshells is 5%, the LTEs are 21.7% and 46.9% for SiO2/Au nanoshells with sizes of (31 nm, 69 nm) and (53 nm, 141 nm), respectively. The results indicate that the SiO2/Au nanoshell whose quadrupolar mode peak is designed to the strongest solar energy flux density of the solar spectrum facilitates the further enhancement of light harvesting in thin film solar cells. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Light coupling into the Whispering Gallery Modes of a fiber array thin film solar cell for fixed partial Sun tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Marina; Rodrguez, Francisco J.; Romero-Gomez, Pablo; Kozyreff, Gregory; Martorell, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    We propose the use of whispering gallery mode coupling in a novel configuration based on implementing a thin film cell on the backside of an array of parallel fibers. We performed numerical calculations using the parameters of a thin film organic cell which demonstrate that light coupling becomes more effective as the angle for the incident light relative to the fiber array normal increases up to an optimal angle close to 55?deg. At this angle the power conversion efficiency of the fiber array solar cell we propose becomes 30% times larger than the one from an equivalent planar cell configuration. We demonstrate that the micro fiber array solar cell we propose may perform an effective partial tracking of the sun movement for over 100?degrees without any mechanical help. In addition, in the event that such fiber array cell would be installed with the adequate orientation on a vertical faade, an optimal photon-to-charge conversion would be reached for sunlight incident at 55?deg with respect to the horizon line, very close to the yearly average position for the sun at Latitude of 40?deg.

  11. Low pressure chemical vapor deposited Zinc Oxide for thin film silicon solar cells: optical and electrical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhauser, Je?ro?me; Ballif, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxides (TCO), such as LPCVD ZnO:B (low pressure chemical vapor deposited zinc oxide doped with boron), play a major role as contacts in thin film silicon photovoltaic solar cells. This document study the "LPCVD ZnO:B layers, from the deposition process to the final application" and focus especially on their electrical and optical properties. This work intended on understanding the physics of the LPCVD ZnO:B film properties in order to efficiently optimize its characteri...

  12. The optical near-field of randomly textured light trapping structures for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, T.; Bittkau, K.; Rockstuhl, C.; Fahr, S.; Lederer, F.; Carius, R.

    2008-04-01

    Randomly textured zinc oxide surfaces with and without amorphous silicon deposited on top are studied by near-field scanning optical microscopy. By virtue of a three dimensions it allows to access the local light intensity in the entire spatial domain above the structures. Measurements are compared with large scale finite-difference time-domain simulations. This study provides new insight into light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells on a nanoscopic scale. Light localization on the surface of the textured interface and a focusing of light by the structure further away are observed as the key features characteristic for such surfaces.

  13. ZnO nanorod arrays for highly efficient thin film a-Si and micromorph solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neykova, Neda; Hruka, Karel; Reme, Zden?k; Van??ek, Milan

    Roma : University of Roma Tor Vergata, 2012 - (DE Crescenzi, M.). s. 75-75 [International Conference on NANO-structures self-assembly - NANOSEA 2012 /4./. 25.06.2012-29.06.2012, S. Margherita di Pula - Sardinie] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP108/11/0937 Grant ostatn: FP7(XE) CP-IP 214134-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ZnO nanocolumns * thin film solar cells * EBL Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  14. Ion-beam and plasma etching of a conical-pores photonic crystal for thin-film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervinskas, Gediminas; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2013-12-01

    Conical holes bored in the active layer of a thin-film silicon solar cell by ion-beam lithography (IBL) show increase of effective optical absorption in the underlying silicon active layer. The optical properties are numerically simulated by the 3D finite-difference time-domain method (3D-FDTD), showing wideband increase of the UV, visible, and IR quantum efficiency. An experimental fabrication procedure is developed using IBL for high wide- area repeatability. A further optimization on the cone shapes is performed in order to make fabrication feasible with plasma etching techniques.

  15. Simulation of nanostructure-based and ultra-thin film solar cell devices beyond the classical picture

    CERN Document Server

    Aeberhard, Urs

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an optoelectronic device simulation framework valid for arbitrary spatial variation of electronic potentials and optical modes, and for transport regimes ranging from ballistic to diffusive, is used to study non-local photon absorption, photocurrent generation and carrier extraction in ultra-thin film and nanostructure-based solar cell devices at the radiative limit. Among the effects that are revealed by the microscopic approach and which are inaccessible to macroscopic models is the impact of structure, doping or bias induced nanoscale potential variations on the local photogeneration rate and the photocarrier transport regime.

  16. Rapid crystallization of amorphous silicon utilizing a very-high-frequency microplasma jet for Si thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Jhantu Kumar [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 2-1-6 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Haruta, Koji; Yeo, Mina; Shirai, Hajime [The Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Koabayshi, Tomohiro [The Institute of Physics and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The rapid crystallization of amorphous silicon utilizing a very-high-frequency thermal microplasma jet of argon is demonstrated. Highly crystallized microcrystalline Si films were fabricated on textured a-Si:H:B/SnO{sub 2}/glass by adjusting the translational velocity of the substrate stage. The crystallization of amorphous silicon was promoted from the bottom surface with no significant inter diffusions of B and Sn from Si:H:B/SnO{sub 2} layers to intrinsic crystallized Si layer. The preliminary result of p-i-n Si thin-film solar cell is demonstrated using the microcrystalline Si films fabricated by the plasma annealing. (author)

  17. Interface characteristics of CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells by using photoreflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface characteristics of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells by using photoreflectance spectroscopy and their influence on the photovoltaic performance. We prepared CIGS solar cells with CdS and CIGS layers fabricated by using different methods of chemical bath deposition (CBD). The thiourea concentration in the CBD-CdS process was varied from 0.025 M to 0.1 M. The final In-Ga-Se deposition time for the CIGS film's deposition was varied from 300 s to 490 s. We fabricated solar cells with thin films fabricated by using a combination of these conditions. The transition energies changed from 2.277 eV to 2.387 eV and the conversion efficiencies changed from 14.13% to 15.81% depending on the fabrication process. The formation of different states in CdS/CIGS resulted in different conversion efficiencies, as well as different band alignments at the CdS/CIGS interface.

  18. New strategies in laser processing of TCOs for light management improvement in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzurica, S.; Llusc, M.; Canteli, D.; Snchez-Aniorte, M. I.; Lpez-Vidrier, J.; Hernndez, S.; Bertomeu, J.; Molpeceres, C.

    2014-10-01

    Light confinement strategies play a crucial role in the performance of thin-film (TF) silicon solar cells. One way to reduce the optical losses is the texturing of the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) that acts as the front contact. Other losses arise from the mismatch between the incident light spectrum and the spectral properties of the absorbent material that imply that low energy photons (below the bandgap value) are not absorbed, and therefore can not generate photocurrent. Up-conversion techniques, in which two sub-bandgap photons are combined to give one photon with a better matching with the bandgap, were proposed to overcome this problem. In particular, this work studies two strategies to improve light management in thin film silicon solar cells using laser technology. The first one addresses the problem of TCO surface texturing using fully commercial fast and ultrafast solid state laser sources. Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) samples were laser processed and the results were optically evaluated by measuring the haze factor of the treated samples. As a second strategy, laser annealing experiments of TCOs doped with rare earth ions are presented as a potential process to produce layers with up-conversion properties, opening the possibility of its potential use in high efficiency solar cells.

  19. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The lightmatter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type ?c-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells

  20. Development of natively textured surface hydrogenated Ga-doped ZnO-TCO thin films for solar cells via magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Xin-liang; Geng, Xin-hua; Zhang, De-kun; Wei, Chang-chun; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Ying

    2012-09-01

    The main purposes are to obtain high quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high optical transparency in the visible and near infrared spectral range, high electrical conductivity and good light-scattering capability to enhance the path of the light inside the Si-based thin film solar cells. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped ZnO (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 553 K. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit high optical transmittance (over 80%) in the visible and near infrared region (? = 380-1100 nm) and excellent electrical properties. The optimized HGZO thin film with crater-type textured surface obtained at the hydrogen flow rate of 2.0 sccm exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm2/V s and a relatively low sheet resistance of 7.0 ?. The influences of hydrogen flow rates on the surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of HGZO thin films were investigated in detail. In addition, we put forward a method of gradient H2 growth technique for fabricating HGZO thin films so as to obtain rough surface structure with good light-scattering capability and high electrical conductivity. "Crater-like" surface feature size and optical transmittance can be improved through gradient H2 growth technique.

  1. Silicon-Light: a European FP7 Project Aiming at High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soppe, W.; Haug, F.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon-Light is a European FP7 project, which started January 1st, 2010 and aims at development of low cost, high-efficiency thin film silicon solar cells on foil. Three main routes are explored to achieve these goals: a) advanced light trapping by implementing nanotexturization through UV Nano Imprinting Lithography (UV-NIL); b) growth of crack-free silicon absorber layers on highly textured substrates; c) development of new TCOs which should combine the best properties of presently available materials like ITO and AZO. The paper presents the midterm status of the project results, showing model calculations of ideal nanotextures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells; the fabrication of masters and the replication and roll-to-roll fabrication of these nanotextures. Further, results on ITO variants with improved work function are presented. Finally, the status of cell fabrication on foils with nanotexture is shown. Microcrystalline and amorphous silicon single junction cells with stable efficiencies with more than 8 % have been made, paving the way towards a-Si/ c-Si tandem cells with more than 11% efficiency.

  2. Enhanced performance of flexible nanocrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells using seed layers with high hydrogen dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Donghwan; Yoon, Kyung Hoon; Cho, Jun-Sik

    2013-12-01

    Flexible hydrogenated nanocrystalline (nc-Si:H) thin-film solar cells were prepared by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD), and the effect of highly crystalline intrinsic Si seed layers at the initial growth stage of i nc-Si:H absorbers on their structural and electrical properties and on the performance of solar cells was investigated. The crystallization of i nc-Si:H absorbers was significantly enforced by the introduction of highly crystalline seed layers, resulting in the reduction of defect-dense a-Si:H grain boundary and incubation layer thickness. The open circuit voltage of the nc-Si:H solar cells with the seed layers was improved by the decrease of charged defect density in the defect-rich amorphous region. PMID:24266159

  3. Fabrication of polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells using carbon electrodes with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Hayashi, Ryoji; Ogawa, Yohei; Hosono, Aikyo; Doi, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    The effects of adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to carbon back electrodes in polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells were investigated. The CNTs were prepared by arc discharge under atmospheric pressure. The conductivity of the obtained CNT film with a density of 1.65 g/cm3 was approximately 2.6 103 S/cm. In the CdTe solar cells using carbon back electrodes with CNTs, the fill factor (FF) was improved as a result of adding CNTs with a concentration of 1 to 5 wt %. The improvement of FF was mainly due to the decrease in the series resistance of the CdTe solar cell. Furthermore, the open-circuit voltage (VOC) was improved by the CNT addition. The improvement of VOC was probably due to the reduction of the back barrier at the back contact.

  4. Nanoimprinted backside reflectors for a-Si:H thin-film solar cells: critical role of absorber front textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yao-Chung; Fisker, Christian; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2014-05-01

    The development of optimal backside reflectors (BSRs) is crucial for future low cost and high efficiency silicon (Si) thin-film solar cells. In this work, nanostructured polymer substrates with aluminum coatings intended as BSRs were produced by positive and negative nanoimprint lithography (NIL) techniques, and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was deposited hereon as absorbing layers. The relationship between optical properties and geometry of front textures was studied by combining experimental reflectance spectra and theoretical simulations. It was found that a significant height variation on front textures plays a critical role for light-trapping enhancement in solar cell applications. As a part of sample preparation, a transfer NIL process was developed to overcome the problem of low heat deflection temperature of polymer substrates during solar cell fabrication. PMID:24922373

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Zn(O,OH)S and AgInS2 layers to be used in thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper AgInS2 and Zn(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized and characterized. AgInS2 layers were grown by co-evaporation from metal precursors in a two-step process, and, Zn(O,OH)S thin films were deposited from chemical bath containing thiourea, zinc acetate, sodium citrate and ammonia. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that AgInS2 thin films grown with chalcopyrite structure, and the as-grown Zn(O,OH)S thin films were polycrystalline. It was also found that the AgInS2 films presented p-type conductivity, a high absorption coefficient (greater than 104 cm-1) and energy band-gap Eg of about 1.95 eV, Zn(O,OH),S thin films presented Eg of about 3.89 eV. Morphological analysis showed that under this synthesis conditions Zn(O,OH),S thin films coated uniformly the absorber layer. Additionally, the Zn(O,OH)S kinetic growth on AgInS2 layer was studied also. Finally, the results suggest that these layers possibly could be used in one-junction solar cells and/or as top cell in a tandem solar cell.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Zn(O,OH)S and AgInS{sub 2} layers to be used in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo, W., E-mail: wavallejol@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra 30 No 45-03, Bogota (Colombia); Arredondo, C.A.; Gordillo, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra 30 No 45-03, Bogota (Colombia)

    2010-11-01

    In this paper AgInS{sub 2} and Zn(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized and characterized. AgInS{sub 2} layers were grown by co-evaporation from metal precursors in a two-step process, and, Zn(O,OH)S thin films were deposited from chemical bath containing thiourea, zinc acetate, sodium citrate and ammonia. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that AgInS{sub 2} thin films grown with chalcopyrite structure, and the as-grown Zn(O,OH)S thin films were polycrystalline. It was also found that the AgInS{sub 2} films presented p-type conductivity, a high absorption coefficient (greater than 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}) and energy band-gap E{sub g} of about 1.95 eV, Zn(O,OH),S thin films presented E{sub g} of about 3.89 eV. Morphological analysis showed that under this synthesis conditions Zn(O,OH),S thin films coated uniformly the absorber layer. Additionally, the Zn(O,OH)S kinetic growth on AgInS{sub 2} layer was studied also. Finally, the results suggest that these layers possibly could be used in one-junction solar cells and/or as top cell in a tandem solar cell.

  7. Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited culnSe2 thin films for photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical an structural properties of electrodeposited copper indium diselenide, CulnSe2, thin films were studied for its application in photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that thin films were grown in chalcopyrite phase after suitable treatments. Values of Eg for the CulnSe2 thin films showed a dependence on the deposition potential as determined by optical measurements. (Author) 47 refs

  8. Optical properties of Cd1-xZnxS thin films for CuInGaSe2 solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photovoltaic Cd1-xZnxS thin films, fabricated by chemical bath deposition, were successfully used as n-type buffer layer in CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Comprehensive optical properties of the Cd1-xZnxS thin films were measured and modeled by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), which is proven to be an excellent and non-destructive technique to determine optical properties of thin films. The optical band gap of Cd1-xZnxS thin films can be tuned from 2.43 eV to 3.25 eV by controlling the Zn content (x) and deposition conditions. The wider-band-gap Cd1-xZnxS film was found to be favorable to improve the quantum efficiency in the wavelength range of 450-550 nm, resulting in an increase of short-circuits current for solar cells. From the characterization of quantum efficiency (QE) and current-voltage curve (J-V) of CIGS cells, the Cd1-xZnxS films (x = 0.32, 0.45) were demonstrated to significantly enhance the photovoltaic performance of CIGS solar cell. The highest efficiency (10.5%) of CIGS solar cell was obtained using a dense and homogenous Cd0.68Zn0.32S thin film as the buffer layer.

  9. Analysis of radiation resistance of InGaP/GaAs dual-junction thin-film space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-film III-V multi-junction solar cells can realize the advantages of being high-efficiency and light-weight, as such these cells meets the requirement for higher specific power and lower stowage volume solar panels. Here we report the development results of an InGaP/GaAs thin-film dual-junction (TF2J) solar cell. In this paper, we study the radiation resistance of the TF2J cells with efficiency of 20-23% under AM0.1 sun at 25degC. The cells were subjected to proton irradiation with an energy range of 100keV-10MeV. The results were compared with the radiation resistance of a conventional InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction (3J) cell. In the proton energy range of 200-400keV, radiation resistance of the TF2J cell is superior to that of the 3J cell. Particularly, the 1sc of the TF2J cell is significantly higher than that of the 3J cell after exposure to 380keV protons, which results in higher remaining factor of Pmax for the TF2J cell. In additions, Voc of the cells after the irradiations are almost equivalent, even though the TF2J cell is a dual-junction structure. The higher 1sc of the TF2J cell after irradiation is due to higher radiation resistance of the GaAs subcell according to the comparison of the spectral response. (author)

  10. Non-destructive Evaluation of Compound Semiconductor Thin-Film Solar Cells by Photothermal Beam Deflection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Anita R.; Sebastian, Tina; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that the photothermal beam deflection technique can be used for measuring the series resistance, optimum load resistance, and conversion efficiency of thin-film solar cells. This technique is also used for determining the carrier transport properties of an absorber and window layer of -based solar cells during different stages of cell fabrication. Transport properties such as the carrier mobility, lifetime, and surface recombination velocity of the individual absorber and window layer are shown to influence the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the final photovoltaic device. The cell parameters measured using the photothermal technique agree well with the electrical measurements. The principle of the technique is explained on the basis of the "mirage effect" and maximum power transfer theorem.

  11. Preparation routes based on magnetron sputtering for tungsten disulfide (WS2) films for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semiconductor tungsten disulfide (WS2) exhibits van der Waals bonding, crystallizes in a layer-type structure and is of interest as an absorber layer for thin-film solar cells. In this review article different preparation routes for WS2 thin films, based on magnetron sputtering, are reviewed. Films prepared by direct magnetron sputtering, though exhibiting quite a good structural quality, are not or only poorly photoactive. This can be attributed to the generation of recombination centers, especially sulfur vacancies, during the ion bombardment of the films, due to the low defect-formation energy of tungsten disulfide, an intrinsic property of transition metal dichalcogenides. A promising preparation route, which leads to photoactive WS2 films, is a two-step process, where, in a first step, a sulfur-rich, X-ray amorphous tungsten sulfide is deposited at low substrate temperatures onto a thin metal film (Ni, Co). This film sandwich is after wards annealed in an ampoule in a sulfur atmosphere or in flowing gas with a sufficient H2S partial pressure. From in-situ transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction, it was found that the WS2 film crystallization with a pronounced (001) texture is closely related to the formation of the liquid (eutectic) metal-sulfur phase. Based on these in-situ investigations the growth of the 2-dimensional WS2 nanosheets from an amorphous WS3sub> nanosheets from an amorphous WS3+x precursor can be described as an amorphous solid-liquid-crystalline solid process (SLS), somewhat similar to the well-known vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the growth of whiskers or nanorods and nanotubes. Research opportunities, to overcome current limitations for a broad use of WS2 (and MoS2) as thin-film solar cell absorbers are given. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Deep level transient spectroscopy investigation of deep levels in CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with Te:Cu back contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep levels in Cds/CdTe thin film solar cells have a potent influence on the electrical property of these devices. As an essential layer in the solar cell device structure, back contact is believed to induce some deep defects in the CdTe thin film. With the help of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), we study the deep levels in CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with Te:Cu back contact. One hole trap and one electron trap are observed. The hole trap H1, localized at Ev + 0.128 eV, originates from the vacancy of Cd (VCd). The electron trap E1, found at Ec ?0.178 eV, is considered to be correlated with the interstitial Cuj+ in CdTe. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. Multilayer nanoparticle arrays for broad spectrum absorption enhancement in thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Aravind; Krishna, Siva Rama; Khan, Mohammed Zafar Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the absorption efficiency enhancement of a thin film amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic cell over a broad spectrum of wavelengths using multiple nanoparticle arrays. The light absorption efficiency is enhanced in the lower wavelengths by a nanoparticle array on the surface and in the higher wavelengths by another nanoparticle array embedded in the active region. The efficiency at intermediate wavelengths is enhanced by the constructive interference of plasmon coupled light. We optimize this design by tuning the radius of particles in both arrays, the period of the array and the distance between the two arrays. The optimization results in 61.44% increase in total quantum efficiency for a 500 nm thick a-Si substrate.

  14. Broadband absorption enhancement in a-Si:H thin-film solar cells sandwiched by pyramidal nanostructured arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanhao; Xia, Liangping; Gao, Hongtao; Shi, Ruiying; Sun, Chen; Shi, Haofei; Du, Chunlei

    2012-09-10

    A new thin-film solar cell structure with a broadband absorption enhancement is proposed. The active a-Si:H film is sandwiched by two periodic pyramidal structured layers. The upper dielectric pyramidal layer acts as matching impedance by gradual change of the effective refractive index to enhance the absorption of the active layer in the short wavelength range. The lower metallic pyramidal layer traps light by the excitation of Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance, waveguide (WG) resonance and surface plasmon (SP) mode to enhance the absorption in the long wavelength range. With the cooperation of the two functional layers, a broadband absorption enhancement is realized. The structure parameters are designed by the cavity resonance theory, which shows that the results are accordant with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. By optimizing, the absorption of the sandwich structure is enhanced up to 48% under AM1.5G illumination in the 350-900 nm wavelength range compared to that of bare thin-film solar cells. PMID:23037526

  15. The effect of dopant concentration on properties of transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO thin films for efficient Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cells prepared by electrodeposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkawi, E. M.; Ibrahim, K.; Ali, M. K. M.; Farrukh, M. A.; Mohamed, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were potentiostatically deposited on indium tin oxide substrates. The influence of the doping level of the ZnO:Al films was investigated. The results of the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the structural properties of the AZO films were found polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite-type structure along the (002) plane. The grain size of the AZO films was observed as approximately 3 ?m in the film doping with 4 mol% ZnO:Al concentration. The thin films also exhibited an optical transmittance as high as 90 % in the wavelength range of 100-1,000 nm. The optical band gap increased from 3.33 to 3.45 eV. Based on the Hall studies, the lowest resistivity (4.78 10-3 ? cm) was observed in the film doping with 3 mol% ZnO:Al concentration. The sheet resistant, carrier concentration and Hall mobility values were found as 10.78 ?/ square, 9.03 1018 cm-3 and 22.01 cm2/v s, respectively, which showed improvements in the properties of AZO thin films. The ZnO:Al thin films were used as a buffer layer in thin-film solar cells with the structure of soda-lime glass/Mo/Cu2ZnSnS4/ZnS/ZnO/Al grid. The best solar cell efficiency was 2.3 % with V OC of 0.430 V, J SC of 8.24 mA cm-2 and FF of 68.1 %.

  16. Development of natively textured surface hydrogenated Ga-doped ZnO-TCO thin films for solar cells via magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei [Institute of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key laboratory of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Science and Technology for Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Chen, Xin-liang, E-mail: cxlruzhou@163.com [Institute of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key laboratory of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Science and Technology for Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Geng, Xin-hua; Zhang, De-kun; Wei, Chang-chun; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Ying [Institute of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key laboratory of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Science and Technology for Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The directly deposited HGZO thin films present rough crater-type surface morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical HGZO thin film exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm{sup 2}/V s and a relative low sheet resistance of {approx}7.0 {Omega}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These HGZO thin films have high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region ({approx}380-1100 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gradient H{sub 2} growth method for fabricating HGZO thin films has been proposed in magnetron sputtering process. - Abstract: The main purposes are to obtain high quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high optical transparency in the visible and near infrared spectral range, high electrical conductivity and good light-scattering capability to enhance the path of the light inside the Si-based thin film solar cells. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped ZnO (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 553 K. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit high optical transmittance (over 80%) in the visible and near infrared region ({lambda} = 380-1100 nm) and excellent electrical properties. The optimized HGZO thin film with crater-type textured surface obtained at the hydrogen flow rate of {approx}2.0 sccm exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm{sup 2}/V s and a relatively low sheet resistance of {approx}7.0 {Omega}. The influences of hydrogen flow rates on the surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of HGZO thin films were investigated in detail. In addition, we put forward a method of gradient H{sub 2} growth technique for fabricating HGZO thin films so as to obtain rough surface structure with good light-scattering capability and high electrical conductivity. 'Crater-like' surface feature size and optical transmittance can be improved through gradient H{sub 2} growth technique.

  17. Development of natively textured surface hydrogenated Ga-doped ZnO-TCO thin films for solar cells via magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. ? The directly deposited HGZO thin films present rough crater-type surface morphology. ? Typical HGZO thin film exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm2/V s and a relative low sheet resistance of ?7.0 ?. ? These HGZO thin films have high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region (?3801100 nm). ? A gradient H2 growth method for fabricating HGZO thin films has been proposed in magnetron sputtering process. - Abstract: The main purposes are to obtain high quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high optical transparency in the visible and near infrared spectral range, high electrical conductivity and good light-scattering capability to enhance the path of the light inside the Si-based thin film solar cells. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped ZnO (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 553 K. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit high optical transmittance (over 80%) in the visible and near infrared region (? = 3801100 nm) and excellent electrical properties. The optimized HGZO thin film with crater-type textured surface obtained at the hydrogen flow rate of ?2.0 sccm exhite of ?2.0 sccm exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm2/V s and a relatively low sheet resistance of ?7.0 ?. The influences of hydrogen flow rates on the surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of HGZO thin films were investigated in detail. In addition, we put forward a method of gradient H2 growth technique for fabricating HGZO thin films so as to obtain rough surface structure with good light-scattering capability and high electrical conductivity. Crater-like surface feature size and optical transmittance can be improved through gradient H2 growth technique.

  18. Cu(In,Ga)S2, Thin-Film Solar Cells Prepared by H2S Sulfurization of CuGa-In Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kulkarni, Shashank R.; Chavan, Sanjay S.; Ghongadi, Shantinath R.

    2005-01-01

    Thin-film CuInS2 solar cell is the leading candidate for space power because of bandgap near the optimum value for AM0 solar radiation outside the earth's atmosphere, excellent radiation hardness, and freedom from intrinsic degradation mechanisms unlike a-Si:H cells. Ultra-lightweight thin-film solar cells deposited on flexible polyimide plastic substrates such as Kapton(trademark), Upilex(trademark), and Apical(trademark) have a potential for achieving specific power of 1000 W/kg, while the state-of-art specific power of the present day solar cells is 66 W/kg. This paper describes the preparation of Cu-rich CuIn(sub 1-x)Ga(sub x)S(sub 2) (CIGS2) thin films and solar cells by a process of sulfurization of CuGa-In precursor similar to that being used for preparation of large-compact-grain CuIn(sub 1-x)Ga(sub x)Se2 thin films and efficient solar cells at FSEC PV Materials Lab.

  19. Development of CdxZn1-xTe alloy thin films for tandem solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report our development efforts for CdxZn1-xTe alloy thin films for tandem solar cells. We used three aspects of CdTe solar cell fabrication considered key to high performance: high-temperature deposition, post-deposition CdCl2 heat treatment, and use of O2 ambient during device processing. We used bilayers of CdTe and ZnTe as the basis for the formation of CdxZn1-xTe alloy. Use of oxygen at any stage of the processing proved to be problematic due to the formation of ZnO, which resulted in two-phase mixture of CdTe and ZnO. These results can explain the poor performance of CdxZn1-xTe alloy thin-film solar cells reported by several groups. We carried out oxygen free processing of the bilayer stacks and post-deposition heat treatments. Heat treatment in the presence of CdCl2 vapor resulted in the interaction between ZnTe and CdCl2 and the loss of Zn in the form of ZnCl2. Heat treatments of the stack in He ambient resulted in the interdiffusion of the two layers. The composition profiles of the intermixed alloy region were influenced mainly by temperature and the time of the treatment. It is possible to obtain either uniform or graded alloy profiles by adjusting the two parameters. It is possible to adjust the composition of the resulting alloy by adjusting the thickness ratio of CdTe and ZnTe layers. We discuss suitability of the alloy formation usiuss suitability of the alloy formation using the CdTe/ZnTe bilayers for the top cell fabrication of two-junction tandem solar cells. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Effect of load voltage on thin film cuprous sulfide: Cadmium sulfide solar cells thermally cycled in a simulated space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Thomas, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Thin-film Cu2S-CdS solar cells, loaded at various fixed values of load resistance, were thermally cycled for 1429 cycles in a simulated space environment. Cell performance was measured under controlled conditions in air before and after thermal cycling. These data were used to determine the effect of load voltage on cell performance. The performance of the cells was relatively independent of load voltage up to about 0.39 volt. This appears to be a threshold voltage, beyond which there was a significant loss in cell performance. Fortunately, this threshold voltage appears to be sufficiently higher than the maximum power voltage of 0.33 volt so that it can be avoided in most applications.

  1. Fabrication of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films using oxides nanoparticles ink for solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Yuan, Chenchen; Liu, Jiwan; Huang, Zhigao; Chen, Shuiyuan; Liu, Weifeng; Jiang, Guoshun; Zhu, Changfei

    2015-02-01

    Oxides nanoparticles-based process is one of the successful approaches to CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) formation. To explore systematically the possibility of application of the similar methods to high quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), an oxides nanoparticles-based process for preparation of CZTS films is described. The CZTS films are prepared by sulfurizing oxides precursor. Thermodynamic appreciation of sulfurization of oxides precursor is first studied. The development of the CZTS formation with increasing temperature is also investigated. Through optimizing the sulfurization, phase-pure CZTS films with very large grains are obtained. The loss of tin can be avoided, due to the stability of oxides. Finally, preliminary CZTS thin-film solar cells with efficiencies of 1.47% have been fabricated. This study provides basis for low-cost and large area CZTS solar cells.

  2. Carbon nanotubes application as buffer layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 based thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Nima E.; Houshmand, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, numerous alternative materials have been proposed to replace with CdS in chalcopyrite solar cells. In this work, the possible advantages of inserting a carbon nanotube layer as buffer layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells are investigated. Three mechanisms to improve the open circuit voltage without compromising the short circuit current are discussed: (i) introduction of an energy barrier which is higher for dark current than for light current; (ii) reduction in the density interface states at either sides of this buffer layer compared to the structures without this layer and due to a more favourable position of the Fermi levels at the interface with respect to the band edges (iii) due to the chemical interaction of the materials. The performance parameters turn out to be determined by interface recombination along with the chemical and electrostatic interactions at the interfaces.

  3. Band alignment of SnS/Zn(O,S) heterojunctions in SnS thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leizhi; Haight, Richard; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Bok Kim, Sang; Park, Helen H.; Gordon, Roy G.

    2013-10-01

    Band alignment is critical to the performance of heterojunction thin film solar cells. In this letter, we report band alignment studies of SnS/Zn(O,S) heterojunctions with various compositions of Zn(O,S). Valence band offsets (VBOs) are measured by femtosecond laser pump/probe ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (fs-UPS) from which conduction band offsets (CBOs) are calculated by combining with band gaps obtained by optical transmission/reflection measurements. The SnS/Zn(O,S) heterojunctions with S/Zn ratios of 0.37 and 0.50 have desirable small positive CBOs, while a ratio of 0.64 produces an undesirable large positive CBO. The results are consistent with the device performance of SnS/Zn(O,S) solar cells.

  4. Silicon-Light: a European project aiming at high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells on foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppe, W.; Krc, J.; Leitner, K.; Haug, F.-J.; Duchamp, M.; Sanchez Plaza, G.; Wang, Q.-K.

    2014-07-01

    In the European project Silicon-Light we developed concepts and technologies to increase conversion efficiencies of thin film silicon solar cells on foil. Main focus was put on improved light management, using NIL for creating light scattering textures, improved TCOs using sputtering, and improved silicon absorber material made by PECVD. On foil we achieved initial cell efficiencies of 11% and on rigid substrates stable efficiencies of 11.6% were achieved. Finally, the project demonstrated the industrial scale feasibility of the developed technologies and materials. Cost of ownership calculations showed that implementation of these technologies on large scale would enable the production of these high efficiency solar modules at manufacturing cost of 0.65 /Wp with encapsulation costs (0.20 /Wp) being the dominant costs. Life cycle analysis showed that large scale production of modules based on the technologies developed in Silicon-Light would have an energy payback time of 0.85 years in Central European countries.

  5. Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid Thin-Film Solar Cells: A Survey of Enabling Technologies for Space Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Dickman, John E.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Anctil, Annick; DiLeo, Roberta; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Lee, Chung-Young; Friske, Theresa J.; Sun, Sam-S.; Zhang, Cheng; Choi, S.; Ledbetter, Abram; Seo, Kang; Bonner, Carl E.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Rauh, David

    2007-01-01

    The development of hybrid inorganic/organic thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified, durable substrates provides an attractive solution for fabricating solar arrays with high mass specific power (W/kg). Next generation thin-film technologies may well involve a revolutionary change in materials to organic-based devices. The high-volume, low-cost fabrication potential of organic cells will allow for square miles of solar cell production at one-tenth the cost of conventional inorganic materials. Plastic solar cells take a minimum of storage space and can be inflated or unrolled for deployment. We will explore a cross-section of in-house and sponsored research efforts that aim to provide new hybrid technologies that include both inorganic and polymer materials as active and substrate materials. Research at University of Texas at Arlington focuses on the fabrication and use of poly(isothianaphthene-3,6-diyl) in solar cells. We describe efforts at Norfolk State University to design, synthesize and characterize block copolymers. A collaborative team between EIC Laboratories, Inc. and the University of Florida is investigating multijunction polymer solar cells to more effectively utilize solar radiation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) group has undertaken a thermal analysis of potential metallized substrates as well as production of nanoparticles of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 in good yield at moderate temperatures via decomposition of single-source precursors. Finally, preliminary work at the Rochester Institute of Technology (R.I.T.) to assess the impact on performance of solar cells of temperature and carbon nanotubes is reported. Technologies that must be developed to enable ultra-lightweight solar arrays include: monolithic interconnects, lightweight array structures, and new ultra-light support and deployment mechanisms. For NASA applications, any solar cell or array technology must not only meet weight and AMO efficiency goals, but also must be durable enough to survive launch conditions and space environments.

  6. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Studies of Thin Film a-Si:H Solar Cell Fabrication by Multichamber Deposition in the n-i-p Substrate Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Lila Raj

    Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE), and ex-situ mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) are powerful characterization techniques capable of performance optimization and scale-up evaluation of thin film solar cells used in various photovoltaics technologies. These non-invasive optical probes employ multichannel spectral detection for high speed and provide high precision parameters that describe (i) thin film structure, such as layer thicknesses, and (ii) thin film optical properties, such as oscillator variables in analytical expressions for the complex dielectric function. These parameters are critical for evaluating the electronic performance of materials in thin film solar cells and also can be used as inputs for simulating their multilayer optical performance. In this Thesis, the component layers of thin film hydrogenated silicon (Si:H) solar cells in the n-i-p or substrate configuration on rigid and flexible substrate materials have been studied by RTSE and ex-situ mapping SE. Depositions were performed by magnetron sputtering for the metal and transparent conducting oxide contacts and by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for the semiconductor doped contacts and intrinsic absorber layers. The motivations are first to optimize the thin film Si:H solar cell in n-i-p substrate configuration for single-junction small-area dot cells and ultimately to scale-up the optimized process to larger areas with minimum loss in device performance. Deposition phase diagrams for both i- and p -layers on 2" x 2" rigid borosilicate glass substrate were developed as functions of the hydrogen-to-silane flow ratio in PECVD. These phase diagrams were correlated with the performance parameters of the corresponding solar cells, fabricated in the Cr/Ag/ZnO/n/i/ p/ITO structure. In both cases, optimization was achieved when the layers were deposited in the protocrystalline phase. Identical solar cell structures were fabricated on 6" x 6" borosilicate glass with 256 cells followed by ex-situ mapping SE on each cell to achieve better statistics for solar cell optimization by correlating local structural parameters with solar cell parameters. Solar cells of similar structure were also fabricated on flexible polymer substrates in the roll-to-roll configuration. In this configuration as well, RTSE was demonstrated as an effective process monitoring and control tool for thin film photovoltaics.

  7. Solution Processing of Cadmium Sulfide Buffer Layer and Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Window Layer for Thin Films Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahboob; Islam, Mohammad; Achour, Amine; Hayat, Ansar; Ahsan, Bilal; Rasheed, Haroon; Salam, Shahzad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) thin films are used as buffer layer and front window layer, respectively, in thin film solar cells. CdS and Al:ZnO thin films were produced using chemical bath deposition (CBD) and sol-gel technique, respectively. For CBD CdS, the effect of bath composition and temperature, dipping time and annealing temperature on film properties was investigated. The CdS films are found to be polycrystalline with metastable cubic crystal structure, dense, crack-free surface morphology and the crystallite size of either few nanometers or 12-17 nm depending on bath composition. In case of CdS films produced with 1:2 ratio of Cd and S precursors, spectrophotometer studies indicate quantum confinement effect, owing to extremely small crystallite size, with an increase in Eg value from 2.42 eV (for bulk CdS) to 3.76 eV along with a shift in the absorption edge toward 330 nm wavelength. The optimum annealing temperature is 400C beyond which film properties deteriorate through S evaporation and CdO formation. On the other hand, Al:ZnO films prepared via spin coating of precursor sols containing 0.90-1.10 at.% Al show that, with an increase in Al concentration, the average grain size increases from 28 nm to 131 nm with an associated decrease in root-mean-square roughness. The minimum value of electrical resistivity, measured for the films prepared using 0.95 at.% Al in the precursor sol, is 2.7 10-4 ? ? cm. The electrical resistivity value rises upon further increase in Al doping level due to introduction of lattice defects and Al segregation to the grain boundary area, thus limiting electron transport through it.

  8. Photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated by anodizing method and spin coating and electrochemical impedance properties of DSSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies the photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by anodizing method, explores the structure and properties of the fabricated photoelectrode thin film, measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC, and finds the electrochemical impedance properties of DSSCs assembled by photoelectrode thin films in different thicknesses. Besides, in order to increase the specific surface area of nanotubes, this paper deposits TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) on the surface of titanium oxide nanotube (TNT). As shown in experimental results, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC fabricated by the study rises to 6.5% from the original 5.43% without TnB treatment, with an increase of photoelectric conversion efficiency by 19.7%. In addition, when the photoelectrode thin film is fabricated with mixture of TNTs and TNP in an optimal proportion of 2:8 and the photoelectrode thin film thickness is 15.5 ?m, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 7.4%, with an increase of 36.7% from the original photoelectric conversion efficiency at 5.43%. Besides, as found in the results of electrochemical impedance analysis, the DSSC with photoelectrode thin film thickness at 15.5 ?m has the lowest charge-conduction resistance (Rk) value 9.276 ? of recombined electron and conduction resistance (Rw) value 3.25 ? of electrons in TiO2.

  9. Photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated by anodizing method and spin coating and electrochemical impedance properties of DSSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Chih-Hao; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chien, Shu-Hua; Chou, Cheng-Yi

    2013-06-01

    The paper studies the photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by anodizing method, explores the structure and properties of the fabricated photoelectrode thin film, measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC, and finds the electrochemical impedance properties of DSSCs assembled by photoelectrode thin films in different thicknesses. Besides, in order to increase the specific surface area of nanotubes, this paper deposits TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) on the surface of titanium oxide nanotube (TNT). As shown in experimental results, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC fabricated by the study rises to 6.5% from the original 5.43% without TnB treatment, with an increase of photoelectric conversion efficiency by 19.7%. In addition, when the photoelectrode thin film is fabricated with mixture of TNTs and TNP in an optimal proportion of 2:8 and the photoelectrode thin film thickness is 15.5 ?m, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 7.4%, with an increase of 36.7% from the original photoelectric conversion efficiency at 5.43%. Besides, as found in the results of electrochemical impedance analysis, the DSSC with photoelectrode thin film thickness at 15.5 ?m has the lowest charge-conduction resistance (Rk) value 9.276 ? of recombined electron and conduction resistance (Rw) value 3.25 ? of electrons in TiO2.

  10. Optimization of processing and modeling issues for thin film solar cell devices: Final report, February 3, 1997--September 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.

    2000-02-28

    This final report describes results achieved under a 20-month NREL subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated to CuInSe{sub 2} and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for the development of viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development and improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  11. Determination of optical and mechanical properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films for solar cells application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, M. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroc?aw (Poland); Szyma?ska, M., E-mail: magdalena.szymanska@its.waw.pl [Centre for Material Testing and Mechatronics, Motor Transport Institute, Jagiellonska 80, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, Warsaw (Poland); Kaczmarek, D. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroc?aw (Poland); Kalisz, M. [Centre for Material Testing and Mechatronics, Motor Transport Institute, Jagiellonska 80, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, Warsaw (Poland); Wojcieszak, D.; Domaradzki, J. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroc?aw (Poland); Placido, F. [University of the West of Scotland, High Street, Paisley, PA1 2BE, and SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: Niobium pentoxide films were prepared by microwave assisted magnetron sputtering. Optical and mechanical properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were investigated. The surface of thin films was homogenous, crack free and exhibited low RMS roughness. Prepared Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings were well transparent from ca., 350 nm. Hardness of deposited coatings was ca., 7 GPa. - Abstract: In this paper investigation results of niobium pentoxide thin films deposited by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process were described. Surface of prepared coatings was examined with the aid of atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in the contact-mode and in ultra high vacuum conditions. The surface of thin films was homogenous, crack free and exhibit low root mean square (RMS) roughness of about 0.34 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies were performed to determine the chemical states of the niobium at the surface of thin films. Contact angle and surface free energy were additionally investigated to examine the surface properties of the deposited coatings. Optical properties of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films showed, that prepared coatings were well transparent from 350 nm to longer wavelength range. Based on transmission and reflection measurements the values of refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The antireflective coating based on Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films for solar cells application was proposed. The hardness and Young's modulus measurements were performed by the nanoindentation technique. These investigations revealed that the hardness of the deposited coatings was ca., 7 GPa. Also scratch tests were applied, which have shown that the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were scratch resistant.

  12. Thin-film copper indium gallium selenide solar cell based on low-temperature all-printing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjeet; Jiu, Jinting; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-09-24

    In the solar cell field, development of simple, low-cost, and low-temperature fabrication processes has become an important trend for energy-saving and environmental issues. Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) solar cells have attracted much attention due to the high absorption coefficient, tunable band gap energy, and high efficiency. However, vacuum and high-temperature processing in fabrication of solar cells have limited the applications. There is a strong need to develop simple and scalable methods. In this work, a CIGS solar cell based on all printing steps and low-temperature annealing is developed. CIGS absorber thin film is deposited by using dodecylamine-stabilized CIGS nanoparticle ink followed by printing buffer layer. Silver nanowire (AgNW) ink and sol-gel-derived ZnO precursor solution are used to prepare a highly conductive window layer ZnO/[AgNW/ZnO] electrode with a printing method that achieves 16 ?/sq sheet resistance and 94% transparency. A CIGS solar cell based on all printing processes exhibits efficiency of 1.6% with open circuit voltage of 0.48 V, short circuit current density of 9.7 mA/cm(2), and fill factor of 0.34 for 200 nm thick CIGS film, fabricated under ambient conditions and annealed at 250 C. PMID:25180569

  13. Electrodeposited antimony and antimony telluride as back contact interlayer for cadmium telluride thin film solar cells. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimkuehler, G.; Bartelt, O.; Reineke-Koch, R.

    2002-07-01

    Electrodeposition is chosen for preparation of the back contact for CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells because it is one of the most inexpensive ways to form thin films. Common CdTe solar cells have the following superstrate configuration: TCO/CdS/CdTe/metal. The CdTe-metal back contact is one reason for losses in the fill factor and the efficiency. This is caused by the high electron affinity of CdTe and the difficulty to get p{sup ++}-CdTe. The stability of the contact could be reduced by diffusion of metal atoms from the back contact or by the formation of the metal telluride in the Te rich surface. Both problems are supposed to be solved by deposition of an intermediate layer between CdTe and the metal back contact. Electrodeposited Sb and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} should act as a diffusion barrier and may improve the ohmic contact due top-doping the CdTe surface. The parameters of the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb electrodeposition have been varied. In order to find the correct parameters SbO{sup +}/Sb and HTeO{sub 2}{sup +}/Te redox systems are studied by means of cyclic voltammetry on ITO-substrates. These Sb and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} layers deposited on ITO-substrates are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). An accelerated life time test has been done for solar cells at 373 K and 1 sun.

  14. Ag-doped CuGaSe{sub 2}as a precursor for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, T.; Birkholz, M.; Saad, M.; Bleyhl, S.; Kunst, M.; Jaeger-Waldau, A.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abt. Heterogene Materialsysteme, Glienicker Str. 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1999-03-15

    For the preparation of p-CuGaSe{sub 2} thin film absorbers, powder of single-phase CuGaSe{sub 2} with defined optical and electrical properties is required as precursor material for solar cells. The motivation for this work was that thin films shall be produced by a chemical vapour transport method using iodine as transport agent. Here we report on an optimised synthesis method of this precursor material and discuss the effect of Ag-doping using Ag, AgSe{sub 2} and AGI as dopants. Crystalline material was characterised by intensity-dependent photoluminescence (PL),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC). PL-measurements at T=10 K of undoped CuGaSe{sub 2} show a dominating emission at E=1.67 eV which is attributed to a free-to-bound transition where the acceptor bound state is assigned to copper vacancies. Ag-doped samples showed a dominating emission at E=1.61eV which is attributed to a donor acceptor pair-transition with copper vacancies as acceptors and selenium vacancies as donors. XRD-measurements showed good single-phase quality of CuGaSe{sub 2}. TRMC-measurements reveal an increase of the hole mobility of Ag-doped material compared to undoped CuGaSe{sub 2}

  15. Effect of fluorine plasma treatment with chemically reduced graphene oxide thin films as hole transport layer in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inorganic materials such as V2O5, MoO3 and WO3 were investigated to replace PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer (HTL) in organic electronic devices such as organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic lighting emission diodes. However, these methods require vacuum techniques that are long time process and complex. Here, we report about plasma treatment with SF6 and CF4 using reactive ion etching on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films that are obtained using an eco-friendly method with vitamin C. The plasma treated rGO thin films have dipoles since they consist of covalent bonds with fluorine on the surface of rGO. This means it is possible to increase the electrostatic potential energy than bare rGO. Increased potential energy on the surface of rGO films is worth applying organic electronic devices as HTL such as OSCs. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency of OSCs increased more than the rGO films without plasma treatment.

  16. Effect of fluorine plasma treatment with chemically reduced graphene oxide thin films as hole transport layer in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Youn-Yeol; Kang, Byung Hyun; Lee, Yang Doo; Lee, Sang Bin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2013-12-01

    The inorganic materials such as V2O5, MoO3 and WO3 were investigated to replace PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer (HTL) in organic electronic devices such as organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic lighting emission diodes. However, these methods require vacuum techniques that are long time process and complex. Here, we report about plasma treatment with SF6 and CF4 using reactive ion etching on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films that are obtained using an eco-friendly method with vitamin C. The plasma treated rGO thin films have dipoles since they consist of covalent bonds with fluorine on the surface of rGO. This means it is possible to increase the electrostatic potential energy than bare rGO. Increased potential energy on the surface of rGO films is worth applying organic electronic devices as HTL such as OSCs. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency of OSCs increased more than the rGO films without plasma treatment.

  17. Spray-on PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Eslamian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PEDOT:PSS electron-blocking layer, and PEDOT:PSS + P3HT:PCBM stacked layers are fabricated by ultrasonic atomization and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical profilometry. The measured thicknesses based on SEM and optical profilometry are quite different, indicating the incapability of measurement techniques for non-uniform thin films. The thickness measurements are compared against theoretical estimations and a qualitative agreement is observed. Results indicate that using a multiple pass fabrication strategy results in a more uniform thin film. It was also found that the film characteristics are a strong function of solution concentration and spraying passes, and a weak function of substrate speed. Film thickness increases with solution concentration but despite the prediction of theory, the increase is not linear, indicating a change in the film porosity and density, which can affect physical and opto-electrical properties. Overall, while spray coating is a viable fabrication process for a wide range of solar cells, film characteristics can be easily altered by a change in process parameters.

  18. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1996-02-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto-electronic (infrared detectors, lasers, and optical communications) technologies. Low bandgaps and larger fluences employed in TPV cells result in very high current densities which make it difficult to collect the current effectively. Techniques for laser and mechanical scribing, integral interconnection, and multi-junction tandem structures which have been fairly well developed for thin-film PV solar cells could be further refined for enhancing the voltages from TPV modules. Thin-film TPV cells may be deposited on metals or back-surface reflectors. Spectral control elements such as indium-tin oxide or tin oxide may be deposited directly on the TPV convertor. It would be possible to reduce the cost of TPV technologies based on single-crystal materials being developed at present to the range of US 2-5 per watt so as to be competitive in small to medium size commercial applications. However, a further cost reduction to the range of US 35- 1 per watt to reach the more competitive large-scale residential, consumer, and hybrid-electric car markets would be possible only with the polycrystalline-thin film TPV cells.

  19. New diarylmethanofullerene derivatives and their properties for organic thin-film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sukeguchi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of diarylmethanofullerene derivatives were synthesized. The cyclopropane ring of the derivatives has two aryl groups substituted with electron-withdrawing and -donating groups, the latter with long alkyl chains to improve solubility in organic solvents, an important property in processing cells. First reduction potentials of most derivatives were less negative than that of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, which is possibly ascribed to their electron-withdrawing nature. Organic thin-film photovoltaic cells fabricated with poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT as the electron-donor and diarylmethanofullerene derivatives as the electron-acceptor material were examined. The {(methoxycarbonylphenyl[bis(octyloxyphenyl]methano}fullerene showed power conversion efficiency as high as PCBM, but had higher solubility in a variety of organic solvents than PCBM. The Voc value was higher than that of PCBM, which is derived from the electron-donating (octyloxyphenyl group, possibly raising the LUMO level. Photovoltaic effects of the devices fabricated with the derivatives having some electron-withdrawing groups were also examined.

  20. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of AlY codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low cost transparent conductive AlY codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 513 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 10?4 ? cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm2/V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 1020 cm?3, and high transmittance in the visible region (400800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (?) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  1. Textured surface boron-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxides on polyethylene terephthalate substrates for Si-based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textured surface boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films were directly grown via low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates at low temperatures and high-efficiency flexible polymer silicon (Si) based thin film solar cells were obtained. High purity diethylzinc and water vapors were used as source materials, and diborane was used as an n-type dopant gas. P-i-n silicon layers were fabricated at ? 398 K by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. These textured surface ZnO:B thin films on PET substrates (PET/ZnO:B) exhibit rough pyramid-like morphology with high transparencies (T ? 80%) and excellent electrical properties (Rs ? 10 ? at d ? 1500 nm). Finally, the PET/ZnO:B thin films were applied in flexible p-i-n type silicon thin film solar cells (device structure: PET/ZnO:B/p-i-n a-Si:H/Al) with a high conversion efficiency of 6.32% (short-circuit current density JSC = 10.62 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage VOC = 0.93 V and fill factor = 64%).

  2. Cadmium sulfide nanowires for the window semiconductor layer in thin film CdS-CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film CdS/CdTe heterojunction device is a leading technology for the solar cells of the next generation. We report on two novel device configurations for these cells where the traditional CdS window layer is replaced by nanowires (NW) of CdS, embedded in an aluminum oxide matrix or free-standing. An estimated 26.8% improvement in power conversion efficiency over the traditional device structure is expected, primarily because of the enhanced spectral transmission of sunlight through the NW-CdS layer and a reduction in the junction area/optical area ratio. In initial experiments, nanostructured devices of the two designs were fabricated and a power conversion efficiency value of 6.5% was achieved.

  3. Cadmium sulfide nanowires for the window semiconductor layer in thin film CdS-CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Piao; Singh, Vijay P; Jarro, Carlos A; Rajaputra, Suresh, E-mail: vsingh@engr.uky.edu [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CeNSE), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Thin film CdS/CdTe heterojunction device is a leading technology for the solar cells of the next generation. We report on two novel device configurations for these cells where the traditional CdS window layer is replaced by nanowires (NW) of CdS, embedded in an aluminum oxide matrix or free-standing. An estimated 26.8% improvement in power conversion efficiency over the traditional device structure is expected, primarily because of the enhanced spectral transmission of sunlight through the NW-CdS layer and a reduction in the junction area/optical area ratio. In initial experiments, nanostructured devices of the two designs were fabricated and a power conversion efficiency value of 6.5% was achieved.

  4. Improving low pressure chemical vapor deposited zinc oxide contacts for thin film silicon solar cells by using rough glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared to zinc oxide grown (ZnO) on flat glass, rough etched glass substrates decrease the sheet resistance (Rsq) of zinc oxide layers grown on it. We explain this Rsq reduction from a higher thickness and an improved electron mobility for ZnO layers deposited on rough etched glass substrates. When using this etched glass substrate, we also obtain a large variety of surface texture by changing the thickness of the ZnO layer grown on it. This new combination of etched glass and ZnO layer shows improved light trapping potential compared to ZnO films grown on flat glass. With this new approach, Micromorph thin film silicon tandem solar cells with high total current densities (sum of the top and bottom cell current density) of up to 26.8 mA cm?2 were fabricated.

  5. Highly transparent front electrodes with metal fingers for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs, traditionally used in thin-film silicon (TF-Si solar cells as front-electrode materials, are interlinked, such that an increase in TCO transparency is generally achieved at the cost of reduced lateral conductance. Combining a highly transparent TCO front electrode of moderate conductance with metal fingers to support charge collection is a well-established technique in wafer-based technologies or for TF-Si solar cells in the substrate (n-i-p configuration. Here, we extend this concept to TF-Si solar cells in the superstrate (p-i-n configuration. The metal fingers are used in conjunction with a millimeter-scale textured foil, attached to the glass superstrate, which provides an antireflective and retroreflective effect; the latter effect mitigates the shadowing losses induced by the metal fingers. As a result, a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency, from 8.7% to 9.1%, is achieved for 1-?m-thick microcrystalline silicon solar cells deposited on a highly transparent thermally treated aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer combined with silver fingers, compared to cells deposited on a state-of-the-art zinc oxide layer.

  6. Highly transparent front electrodes with metal fingers for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Etienne; Mller, Thomas Christian Mathias; Warzechac, Marek; Hoffmann, Andre; Paetzold, Ulrich Wilhelm; Aeberhard, Urs

    2015-03-01

    The optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), traditionally used in thin-film silicon (TF-Si) solar cells as front-electrode materials, are interlinked, such that an increase in TCO transparency is generally achieved at the cost of reduced lateral conductance. Combining a highly transparent TCO front electrode of moderate conductance with metal fingers to support charge collection is a well-established technique in wafer-based technologies or for TF-Si solar cells in the substrate (n-i-p) configuration. Here, we extend this concept to TF-Si solar cells in the superstrate (p-i-n) configuration. The metal fingers are used in conjunction with a millimeter-scale textured foil, attached to the glass superstrate, which provides an antireflective and retroreflective effect; the latter effect mitigates the shadowing losses induced by the metal fingers. As a result, a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency, from 8.7% to 9.1%, is achieved for 1-?m-thick microcrystalline silicon solar cells deposited on a highly transparent thermally treated aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer combined with silver fingers, compared to cells deposited on a state-of-the-art zinc oxide layer.

  7. A study of crystallinity in amorphous Si thin films for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Kwang-sun [Solar Energy Group, Devices and Materials Lab., LG Electronics Advanced Research Institutes, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Meterials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Junghoon; Yang, Hyunjin; Lee, Heon-Min [Solar Energy Group, Devices and Materials Lab., LG Electronics Advanced Research Institutes, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Meterials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this work we analyzed the crystallinity of hydrogenated amorphous Si thin films deposited on n-type Si substrates using the effective medium approximation (EMA) method of a spectroscopic ellipsometer (SE) and evaluated their passivation quality by measuring effective carrier lifetime ({tau}{sub eff}) and implied V{sub oc} using quasi-steady-state photo conductance decay (QSSPC) simultaneously. The crystalline volume fraction of doped a-Si:H layers using RF-PECVD was controlled from {proportional_to}0% (nearly full amorphous phase) to above 90% (nearly polycrystalline phase) through varying deposition conditions. The passivation property depended on the crystallinity more strongly for p-a-Si:H than n-a-Si:H of which crystallinity was more sensitive to deposition rate relatively. The implied V{sub oc} above 650 mV was achieved with crystallinity less than about 5% for p-a-Si:H and 20% for n-a-Si:H. The HRTEM images confirmed the reliability of SE analysis with EMA modeling and showed the maximum part of crystalline phase exists at the interface of a-Si:H and c-Si in the form of epitaxial growth configuration. By the optimization of each a-Si:H deposition conditions 17.17% the cell efficiency was accomplished on non-textured substrate. (author)

  8. A Study on the Development of Organic Thin Film Solar Cell Device With Optimized Hole Transfer Layer of PEDOT:PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik-Kyun Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin film solar cells show generally lower power conversion efficiencies than those of the solar cells based on inorganic active materials. To solve the problem diverse research works have been tried: development of new organic semiconductors; modification of internal structure of active layers by means of organic solvent; design and fabrication of vertical device structure; introduction of buffer layer on the side of cathode electrode. Nevertheless, the buffer layer on the side of anode has not been fully optimized. This study is focused on the representative anode-side-buffer layer of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene(PEDOT: poly(styrenesulfonate (PSS. PEDOT:PSS is an excellent conducting polymer material with favorably high optical transparency for almost entire range of visible wavelength, which is widely used for organic thin film solar cells as well as for other organic material based electronic devices such as organic light emitting diodes. Aiming for further performance enhancement of organic thin film solar cell device, an optimized condition was studied on the PEDOT:PSS by means of the thickness control and modification of the internal structure via addition of different organic solvents in mixture solution for thin film process.

  9. Growth, etching, and stability of sputtered ZnO:Al for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jorj Ian

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) can fulfill many requirements in thin-film solar cells, acting as (1) a transparent contact through which the incident light is transmitted, (2) part of the back reflector, and (3) a source of light scattering. Magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al thin-films are highly transparent, conductive, and are typically texturized by post-deposition etching in a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to achieve light scattering. The ZnO:Al thin-film electronic and optical properties, as well as the surface texture after etching, depend on the deposition conditions and the post-deposition treatments. Despite having been used in thin-film solar cells for more than a decade, many aspects regarding the growth, effects of heat treatments, environmental stability, and etching of sputtered ZnO:Al are not fully understood. This work endeavors to further the understanding of ZnO:Al for the purpose improving silicon thin-film solar cell efficiency and reducing ZnO:Al production costs. With regard to the growth of ZnO:Al, the influence of various deposition conditions on the resultant electrical and structural properties and their evolution with film thickness were studied. The surface electrical properties extracted from a multilayer model show that while carrier concentration of the surface layer saturates already at film thickness of 100 nm, the surface mobility continues to increases with film thickness, and it is concluded that electronic transport across grain boundaries limits mobility in ZnO:Al thin films. ZnO:Al deposited onto a previously etched ZnO:Al surface grows epitaxially, preserving both the original orientation and grain structure. Further, it is determined that a typical ZnO:Al used in thin-film silicon solar cells grows Zn-terminated on glass substrates. Concerning the affects of heat treatments and stability, it is demonstrated that a layer of amorphous silicon can protect ZnO:Al from degradation during annealing, and the mobility of ZnO:Al films can be increased up to 76 cm{sup 2}/Vs by annealing at high temperatures. Further, it is observed that this annealing process does not affect the morphology of the film and increases the total transmission in the solar cell relevant portion of the spectrum. Accelerated aging in a damp-heat is shown to affect the mobility primarily, and is thus likely related to poor transport across grain boundaries. Using deuterium as an isotopic marker, it is observed that the deuterium uptake was fairly linear with time and penetrated the whole film within 24 hours. Additionally, the deuterium is quickly replaced by hydrogen upon damp-heat treatment in water. It is concluded that the electrical degradation is related to the penetration of water via grain boundaries, and that the bulk of the reactions causing this degradation are fairly weak, such as the formation of zinc hydroxide. Additionally, the annealed high-mobility ZnO:Al films prove to be very stable in the damp-heat environment, exhibiting electron mobilities above 70 cm{sup 2}/Vs after 1000 hours of exposure. The initial points of attack during HCl etching of ZnO:Al, and the long-term etch evolution are shown to be related to certain grain boundaries built into the film during growth. The density of craters from an HCl etch is controllable by altering the temperature and concentration of the etching solution. It is further demonstrated that most acids exhibit etching behavior similar to that of HCl. Hydrofluoric acid (HF), however, exhibits unique etching characteristics with higher crater densities and sharper features. The crater density and shape are also shown to be controllable by etching in various concentrations of HF and in various mixtures of HF and HCl. Additional etching experiments are made to develop a polycrystalline ZnO:Al etching model. It is shown that basic and acidic solutions attack the same points on a polycrystalline ZnO:Al sample. The dependence of crater density on the acid concentration, temperature, and type holds true for single crystal ZnO. Planar and cross-sectional transmissio

  10. Nanocrystalline CdS/ZnO thin films: fabrication and application to solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meijuan; Tang, Yiwen; Li, Bihui; Luo, Lijuan

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we reported the preparation and characterization of the nanostrutured CdS/ZnO nanoarray thin film, based on the free-standing ZnO nanorod-array. The method was simple and low-cost. The ZnO nanorod-arrays were synthesized on F-doped tin oxide glass (TCO) substrate by hydrothermal method, then coated with CdS nanoparticles closely via chemical bath deposition method. The resulting thin films showed better photoelectrochemical performances than those of CdS/ZnO nanoparticles thin films. Under the illumination of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight (30 mW/cm2), the photocurrent of the samples achieved to 0.72 mA/cm2. PMID:19441557

  11. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cells prepared by non-vacuum processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Oonuki, Masatoshi; Moritake, Noriko; Uchiki, Hisao [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS)-based solar cell devices were prepared entirely by non-vacuum deposition techniques on soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. The ZnO:Al window, CdS buffer and CZTS absorber layers of the Al/ZnO:Al/CdS/CZTS/Mo/SLG solar cell structure were deposited by sol-gel method, chemical bath deposition method and sol-gel sulfurizing method, respectively. The best solar cell sample showed an open-circuit voltage of 390 mV, a short-circuit current density of 7.8mA/cm{sup 2}, a fill factor of 0.33 and an efficiency of 1.01% under irradiation of AM 1.5 and 100mW/cm{sup 2}. This is the first report on CZTS thin film solar cells in which all the semiconductor layers were prepared under non-vacuum condition. (author)

  12. Photoluminescence of epitactical and polycrystalline CuInS2 layers for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis deals with one- and polycrystalline CuInS2 absorber layers for thin-film solar cells and especially with their optical and structural characterization. By means of detailed temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence measurements in epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers different radiative transitions could be analyzed and identified. The spectra were dominated by broad luminescence bands of deep perturbing levels. The implantation of hydrogen at low energies led to a passivation of these perturbing levels. On the base of the optical studies on epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers a new improved defect model for CuInS2 could be developed. The model contains two donor and two acceptor levels with following ionization energies: D-1=46 meV, D-2=87 meV, A-1=70 meV, and A-2=119 meV

  13. Conducting glasses recovered from thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastes for dye-sensitized solar cell cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-C; Chang, F-C; Peng, C Y; Wang, H Paul

    2014-11-27

    Transparent conductive glasses such as thin film transistor (TFT) array and colour filter glasses were recovered from the TFT-liquid crystal display panel wastes by dismantling and sonic cleaning. Noble metals (i.e. platinum (Pt)) and indium tin oxide (ITO) are generally used in the cathode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). To reduce the DSSC cost, Pt was replaced with nano nickel-encapsulated carbon-shell (Ni@C) nanoparticles, which were prepared by carbonization of Ni(2+)-?-cyclodextrin at 673?K for 2?h. The recovered conductive glasses were used in the DSSC electrodes in the substitution of relatively expensive ITO. Interestingly, the efficiency of the DSSC having the Ni@C-coated cathode is as high as 2.54%. Moreover, the cost of the DSSC using the recovered materials can be reduced by at least 24%. PMID:25399759

  14. Chemical properties of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo/glass interfaces in thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo and the Mo/glass interfaces in high efficiency thin film solar cells have been investigated by surface-sensitive photoelectron spectroscopy and bulk-sensitive X-ray emission spectroscopy. The interfaces were accessed by a suitable lift-off technique. Our experiments show a strong Se diffusion from the absorber into the Mo film, suggesting the formation of a MoSe2 layer in the surface-near region of the back contact. In addition, we find a Ga diffusion into the Mo back contact, while no diffusion of In and Cu occurs. Furthermore, we derive a detailed picture of the Na distribution near the back and front side of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber

  15. Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell using Cr doped Cu-Zn-Se type chalcopyrite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D. Paul; Venkateswaran, C. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India); Ganesan, S.; Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin; Maruthamuthu, P. [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kovendhan, M. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Chalcopyrites are a versatile class of semiconductors known for their potential in photovoltaic applications. Considering the well established CuInSe{sub 2} as a prototype system, a new compound of the chalcopyrite type, Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-y}Se{sub 2-{delta}}, by replacing In with Zn, has been prepared (both undoped and 2% Cr doped) by the metallurgical method. Thin films have been deposited by the thermal evaporation technique using the stabilized polycrystalline compounds as charge. Structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties of the films are analyzed and reported. Use of these films as electrodes in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. XPS characterization of sensitized n-TiO2 thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO2 thin films, employed in dye-sensitized solar cells, were prepared by the sol-gel method or directly by Degussa P25 oxide and their surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of adsorption of the cis-[Ru(dcbH2)2(NCS)2] dye, N3, on the surface of films was investigated. From XPS spectra taken before and after argon-ion sputtering procedure, the surface composition of inner and outer layers of sensitized films was obtained and a preferential etching of Ru peak in relation to the Ti and N ones was identified. The photoelectrochemical parameters were also evaluated and rationalized in terms of the morphological characteristics of the films

  17. Preparation and characterization of TiO/sub 2/ thin films for photo electrochemical solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO/sub 2/ thin films are deposited by electron beam evaporation technique at varying substrate temperature and accelerating voltages. Three samples are prepared at room temperature for different accelerating voltages. Three more samples are prepared for different substrate temperature, varied from room temperature to 300 deg. C, and at fixed accelerating voltage. The thin films so prepared are characterized optically, electrically and structurally. It is found that the resulting films have high transmission values, are of low resistivity and are amorphous in nature. (author)

  18. Performance enhancement of thin film silicon solar cells based on distributed Bragg reflector & diffraction grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Dubey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various designing parameters were investigated and explored for high performance solar cells. Single layer grating based solar cell of 50 ?m thickness gives maximum efficiency up to 24 % whereas same efficiency is achieved with the use of three bilayers grating based solar cell of 30 ?m thickness. Remarkably, bilayer grating based solar cell design not only gives broadband absorption but also enhancement in efficiency with reduced cell thickness requirement. This absorption enhancement is attributed to the high reflection and diffraction from DBR and grating respectively. The obtained short-circuit current were 29.6, 32.9, 34.6 and 36.05 mA/cm2 of 5, 10, 20 and 30 ?m cell thicknesses respectively. These presented designing efforts would be helpful to design and realize new generation of solar cells.

  19. Preparation routes based on magnetron sputtering for tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) films for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellmer, K. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Abt. Solare Energetik, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The semiconductor tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) exhibits van der Waals bonding, crystallizes in a layer-type structure and is of interest as an absorber layer for thin-film solar cells. In this review article different preparation routes for WS{sub 2} thin films, based on magnetron sputtering, are reviewed. Films prepared by direct magnetron sputtering, though exhibiting quite a good structural quality, are not or only poorly photoactive. This can be attributed to the generation of recombination centers, especially sulfur vacancies, during the ion bombardment of the films, due to the low defect-formation energy of tungsten disulfide, an intrinsic property of transition metal dichalcogenides. A promising preparation route, which leads to photoactive WS{sub 2} films, is a two-step process, where, in a first step, a sulfur-rich, X-ray amorphous tungsten sulfide is deposited at low substrate temperatures onto a thin metal film (Ni, Co). This film sandwich is after wards annealed in an ampoule in a sulfur atmosphere or in flowing gas with a sufficient H{sub 2}S partial pressure. From in-situ transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction, it was found that the WS{sub 2} film crystallization with a pronounced (001) texture is closely related to the formation of the liquid (eutectic) metal-sulfur phase. Based on these in-situ investigations the growth of the 2-dimensional WS{sub 2} nanosheets from an amorphous WS{sub 3+x} precursor can be described as an amorphous solid-liquid-crystalline solid process (SLS), somewhat similar to the well-known vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the growth of whiskers or nanorods and nanotubes. Research opportunities, to overcome current limitations for a broad use of WS{sub 2} (and MoS{sub 2}) as thin-film solar cell absorbers are given. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Physical models of thin film polycrystalline solar cells based on measured grain-boundary and electronic-parameter properties. Final report, September 18, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, F.A.; Fossum, J.G.; Holloway, P.A.; Neugroschel, A.

    1979-01-01

    The research has sought the following: to identify and characterize the basic photovoltaic mechanisms that govern the conversion efficiency of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells; to experimentally determine the electronic parameters related to these photovoltaic mechanisms; and to relate these mechanisms and parameters to the conversion efficiency through theoretical physical models developed for engineering design. These objectives are all intimately related. The emphasis of the work has been on polysilicon, although it is building a foundation of understanding useful for similar research in the future on other thin-film materials. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  1. Tuning of undoped ZnO thin film via plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition and its application for an inverted polymer solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Mi-jin Jin; Junhyeon Jo; Neupane, Guru P.; Jeongyong Kim; Ki-Seok An; Jung-Woo Yoo

    2013-01-01

    We studied the tuning of structural and optical properties of ZnO thin film and its correlation to the efficiency of inverted solar cell using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The sequential injection of DEZn and O2 plasma was employed for the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin film. As the growth temperature of ZnO film was increased from 100?C to 300?C, the crystallinity of ZnO film was improved from amorphous to highly ordered (002) direction ploy-c...

  2. Determination of Optimum Film Thickness and Composition of Cu(InAlSe2 Thin Films as anAbsorber for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Kavitha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cu(InAlSe2 [CIAS] thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition [CBD] technique. X-ray diffraction [XRD] and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis [EDAX] spectra have been employed to confirm the structure and composition of the prepared films. The structural parameters have been estimated from XRD and EDAX spectra and their variation with film thickness and composition has been discussed in this paper in detail. From the discussion we enabled to find the optimum film thickness and composition of CIAS thin films for solar cell applications.

  3. Band gap grading and photovoltaic performance of solution-processed Cu(In,Ga)S2 thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, So Hyeong; Han, Noh Soo; Park, Yong Jin; Park, Seung Min; An, Hee Sang; Kim, Dong-Wook; Min, Byoung Koun; Song, Jae Kyu

    2014-12-28

    The photophysical properties of CuInxGa1-xS2 (CIGS) thin films, prepared by solution-based coating methods, are investigated to understand the correlation between the optical properties of these films and the electrical characteristics of solar cells fabricated using these films. Photophysical properties, such as the depth-dependent band gap and carrier lifetime, turn out to be at play in determining the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells. A double grading of the band gap in CIGS films enhances solar cell efficiency, even when defect states disturb carrier collection by non-radiative decay. The combinational stacking of different density films leads to improved solar cell performance as well as efficient fabrication because a graded band gap and reduced shunt current increase carrier collection efficiency. The photodynamics of minority-carriers suggests that the suppression of defect states is a primary area of improvement in CIGS thin films prepared by solution-based methods. PMID:25387997

  4. Efficient light incoupling into silicon thin-film solar cells by anti-reflecting MgO/high-compact-AZO with air-side textured glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light incoupling effects have been enhanced at front interfaces of silicon (Si) thin-film solar cells. Firstly, a MgO thin film was introduced at glass substrate/Al-doped ZnO (AZO) interface for anti-reflection effect. We additionally found that the surface morphology of AZO films grown on MgO film after texture-etching is dependent on the compactness of AZO. For high-compact AZO films, the texture-etched MgO/AZO double layer exhibited significantly enhanced light-scattering capability. Secondly, we made textured surfaces at air/glass interface through simple plasma-etching without sacrificial layers or masks by optimizing the etching pressure. The additional air-side texture contributed to further improvement of total light scattering from the MgO/AZO-coated glass substrate. Fabricated microcrystalline Si thin-film solar cells employing the MgO coated glass with air-side surface texture showed decreased cell reflectance and increased quantum efficiency. The Jsc increased from 21.7 to 26.5mAcm?2 and final efficiency of 9.49% was achieved. Based on our experimental results, the suggested structure, the MgO coating on glass substrate of which air-side surface is texture-etched, can offer a promising approach to improve the light incoupling and efficiency of Si thin-film solar cells. (paper)

  5. Efficient light incoupling into silicon thin-film solar cells by anti-reflecting MgO/high-compact-AZO with air-side textured glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Heon-Min; Han, Min-Koo

    2013-12-01

    Light incoupling effects have been enhanced at front interfaces of silicon (Si) thin-film solar cells. Firstly, a MgO thin film was introduced at glass substrate/Al-doped ZnO (AZO) interface for anti-reflection effect. We additionally found that the surface morphology of AZO films grown on MgO film after texture-etching is dependent on the compactness of AZO. For high-compact AZO films, the texture-etched MgO/AZO double layer exhibited significantly enhanced light-scattering capability. Secondly, we made textured surfaces at air/glass interface through simple plasma-etching without sacrificial layers or masks by optimizing the etching pressure. The additional air-side texture contributed to further improvement of total light scattering from the MgO/AZO-coated glass substrate. Fabricated microcrystalline Si thin-film solar cells employing the MgO coated glass with air-side surface texture showed decreased cell reflectance and increased quantum efficiency. The Jsc increased from 21.7 to 26.5 mA cm-2 and final efficiency of 9.49% was achieved. Based on our experimental results, the suggested structure, the MgO coating on glass substrate of which air-side surface is texture-etched, can offer a promising approach to improve the light incoupling and efficiency of Si thin-film solar cells.

  6. Spray Deposited Thin Film Metal Oxide Based Heterojunction for Solar Cell Application

    OpenAIRE

    John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan; Jeyaprakash, B. G.; Balamurugan, D.; Gayathri Devi, R.; Inpasalini, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, thin film heterojunction based on n-CdO/p-NiO was fabricated on glass substrate by home built spray pyrolysis technique under optimized condition. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and Nickel chloride were used as precursors. Structural, surface morphology, optical and photovoltaic properties were analyzed and reported.

  7. Nano-level characterization of silicon thin films and solar cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fejfar, Antonn

    Tokyo : Ohmsha, 2013 - (Konagai, M.), s. 468-478 ISBN 978-4-274-21399-1 R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) LM2011026 Grant ostatn: AV?R(CZ) M100101217 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon * thin films * atomic force microscopy * photoresponse Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Spray Deposited Thin Film Metal Oxide Based Heterojunction for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, thin film heterojunction based on n-CdO/p-NiO was fabricated on glass substrate by home built spray pyrolysis technique under optimized condition. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and Nickel chloride were used as precursors. Structural, surface morphology, optical and photovoltaic properties were analyzed and reported.

  9. Solar control on irradiated Ta2O2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films consisting of Ta2O5 have been used in industry in applications related to thin-film capacitors, optical waveguides, and antireflection coatings on solar cells. Ta2O5 films are used for several special applications as highly refractive material and show different optical properties depending on the deposition methods. Sol-gel technique has been used for the preparation of Ta2O5 thin films. Ta2O5 thin films were prepared by sol-gel proses on glass substrates to obtain good quality films. These films were exposed to gamma radiation from Co-60 radioisotope. Ta2O5 coated thin films were placed against the source and irradiated for 8 different gamma doses; between 0.35 and 21.00 kGy at room temperature. Energetic gamma ray can affect the samples and change its colour. On the other hand some of the Ta2O5 coated thin films were irradiated with beta radiation from Sr-90 radioisotope. The effect of gamma irradiation on the solar properties of Ta2O5 films is compared with that of beta irradiation. The solar properties of the irradiated thin films differ significantly from those of the unirradiated ones. After the irradiation of the samples transmittance and reflectance are measured for solar light between 300 and 2100 nm, by using Perkin Elmer Lambda 9 UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer. Change in the direct solar transmittance, reflectance and absorptance with absorbed dose are determined. Using the optical properties, the redistribution of the absorbed component of the solar radiation and the shading coefficient (SC) are calculated as a function of the convective heat-transfer coefficient. Solar parameters are important for the determination of the shading coefficient. When the secondary internal heat transfer factor (qi), direct solar transmittance (?e), and solar factor (g) are known, it is possible to determine shading coefficient via the dose rates. The shading coefficient changes as the dose rate is increased. In this study, the shading coefficient is related to the colour centres, which are both present as intrinsic defects in structure and created induced defects by irradiation. The optical absorption bands were investigated depending on the gamma and beta irradiation. The changes of solar properties on irradiated Ta2O5 films are associated with the formation of defect centers and radiolytic electrons or holes. Under irradiation, the defects centers are formed as a result of charge trapping by radiolytic electrons or holes. It can be said that the control of solar energy is possible while the shading coefficient decreases in the irradiation condition

  10. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1994--January 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results achieved during the second phase of a four year subcontract to develop and understand thin film solar cell technology related to a-Si and its alloys, CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, and CdTe. Accomplishments during this phase include, development of equations and reaction rates for the formation of CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} films by selenization, fabrication of a 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} cell, development of a reproducible, reliable Cu-diffused contact to CdTe, investigation of the role of CdTe-CdS interdiffusion on device operation, investigation of the substitution of HCl for CdCl{sub 2} in the post-deposition heat treatment of CdTe/CdS, demonstration of an improved reactor design for deposition of a-Si films, demonstration of improved process control in the fabrication of a ten set series of runs producing {approximately}8% efficient a-Si devices, demonstration of the utility of a simplified optical model for determining quantity and effect of current generation in each layer of a triple stacked a-Si cell, presentation of analytical and modeling procedures adapted to devices produced with each material system, presentation of baseline parameters for devices produced with each material system, and various investigations of the roles played by other layers in thin film devices including the Mo underlayer, CdS and ZnO in CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} devices, the CdS in CdTe devices, and the ZnO as window layer and as part of the back surface reflector in a-Si devices. In addition, collaborations with over ten research groups are briefly described. 73 refs., 54 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Efficient water-splitting device based on a bismuth vanadate photoanode and thin-film silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lihao; Abdi, Fatwa F; van de Krol, Roel; Liu, Rui; Huang, Zhuangqun; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Dam, Bernard; Zeman, Miro; Smets, Arno H M

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid photovoltaic/photoelectrochemical (PV/PEC) water-splitting device with a benchmark solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 5.2% under simulated air mass (AM) 1.5 illumination is reported. This cell consists of a gradient-doped tungsten-bismuth vanadate (W:BiVO4 ) photoanode and a thin-film silicon solar cell. The improvement with respect to an earlier cell that also used gradient-doped W:BiVO4 has been achieved by simultaneously introducing a textured substrate to enhance light trapping in the BiVO4 photoanode and further optimization of the W gradient doping profile in the photoanode. Various PV cells have been studied in combination with this BiVO4 photoanode, such as an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single junction, an a-Si:H/a-Si:H double junction, and an a-Si:H/nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) micromorph junction. The highest conversion efficiency, which is also the record efficiency for metal oxide based water-splitting devices, is reached for a tandem system consisting of the optimized W:BiVO4 photoanode and the micromorph (a-Si:H/nc-Si:H) cell. This record efficiency is attributed to the increased performance of the BiVO4 photoanode, which is the limiting factor in this hybrid PEC/PV device, as well as better spectral matching between BiVO4 and the nc-Si:H cell. PMID:25138735

  12. Pyrolysis preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film and its application to counter electrode in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films with uniform and porous surface feature with the pore size of 100-200 nm were successfully prepared by pyrolysis procedure using the methanol solution containing copper chloride dihydrate (0.06 mol dm?3), zinc chloride (0.03 mol dm?3), stannous chloride dihydrate (0.03 mol dm?3), thiourea (0.48 mol dm?3) and deionized water (1.92 mol dm?3) as precursor solution at 380C in air atmosphere. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to evaluate the electrochemical catalytic activity of the pyrolysis CZTS thin films for redox couple of Sn2-/S2? and the charge transfer resistance was 64.08 ? using the pyrolysis CZTS thin film obtained by repeating the procedure of dipping the FTO substrate into the precursor solution and heating at 380C for 7 cycles. The assembled quantum dot-sensitized solar cells gave an open-circuit photovoltage of 0.52 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 12.96 mA cm?2, and a fill factor of 0.38, corresponding to the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 2.56%. Because the pyrolysis procedure was a facile, low cost and vacuum-free process, and had the advantage of obtaining various porous microstructure thin films and allowing deposition over large areas, the pyrolysis CZTS thin films can serve as an effective counter electrode for QDSCs

  13. Influence of sulfurization pressure on Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films and solar cells prepared by sulfurization of metallic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Sun, Lin; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Jinchun; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2015-01-01

    Effects of sulfurization pressure on composition, morphology and microstructure of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films obtained by sulfurization of the metallic layers have been investigated in detail. It is found that the S content in the CZTS thin films is strongly dependent on the sulfurization pressure. The CZTS thin films sulfurized under low sulfurization pressure have S-poor state with a bilayer structure, while it exhibits sufficient amounts of sulfur under high sulfurization pressure with grain growth throughout the entire absorber film. X-ray diffraction data indicate lower sulfurization pressure during the CZTS grain growth process can induce the formation of more structural defects in the CZTS lattice and the CZTS thin films sulfurized under high sulfurization pressure have more random orientation. Furthermore, ZnS and MoS2 phase exist in all samples determined by Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy as complementary to Raman spectroscopy. The solar cell fabricated with the CZTS thin film under 10 Torr sulfurization pressure shows the best conversion efficiency of 3.52% (VOC = 484 mV, JSC = 14.56 mA cm-2, FF = 50.1%).

  14. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 1080??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies

  15. Development of high-efficiency, thin-film CdTe solar cells. Annual subcontract report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Chou, H.C.; Kamra, S.; Bhat, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin film CdTe solar cells are one of the leading candidates for terrestrial photovoltaic applications. Theoretical calculations project an efficiency of 27% for single crystal, single junction CdTe cells, and the practically achievable efficiency for polycrystalline CdTe cells is 18-20%. Polycrystalline CdTe cells made by different groups show a significant variation in short circuit currents, open circuit voltages, and cell efficiencies. A better understanding of carrier loss and transport mechanism is crucial for explaining these differences, improving the yield, and bridging the gap between current and practically achievable limits in CdTe cell efficiencies. The goal of this program is to improve the understanding of the loss mechanisms in thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells and to improve their efficiency by characterizing the properties of the films as well as the finished devices.

  16. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 July 1988--31 December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  17. Optical modelling of thin-film silicon solar cells deposited on textured substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical modelling is used to investigate effects of light scattering in amorphous silicon and microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The role of enhanced haze parameter and different angular distribution function of scattered light is analyzed. Results of optical simulation show that enhanced haze parameter compared to that of Asahi U-type SnO2:F does not improve external quantum efficiency and short-circuit current density of amorphous silicon solar cell significantly, whereas for microcrystalline silicon solar cell the improvement is larger. Angular distribution function affects the external quantum efficiency and the short-circuit current density significantly

  18. Dependence of efficiency of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell on optical and recombination losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, H. A.

    2013-03-01

    Thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells fabricated on glass substrates have been considered as one of the most promising candidates for large-scale applications in the field of photovoltaic energy conversion. The recorded experimental efficiency of these cells is about 16%-17% and the corresponding theoretical values are more than 28%. The main causes of efficiency loss are due to optical and recombination losses. Most of the theoretical literatures either study the effect of recombination or optical losses on the CdS/CdTe solar cell efficiency. The present work studies the effect of both the optical and recombination losses on the current density and hence the solar cell efficiency. Calculations of optical losses have been carried out based on the optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) of materials used and the thickness of ITO and CdS layers. Calculation of recombination losses has been based on the values of width of space-charge region and the absorption coefficient for CdTe. It has been found that the reflection losses of the interfaces air-glass, glass-ITO, ITO-CdS, and CdS-CdTe decrease the short-circuit current (JSC) from 31.24 to 28.2 mA/cm2 (9%). The absorption losses in ITO and CdS layers decrease JSC to 22.2 (20%). The recombination losses decrease JSC to 19.7 mA/cm2 (8%). The optical and recombination losses yield efficiency of CdS/CdTe solar cells in the range of 12%-16% at thickness 100 nm of each layer of ITO and CdS. According to these results, there is a good agreement between experimental and theoretical studies and this is the real start to develop the solar cells efficiency in the future studies.

  19. On the diffusion length and grain size homogeneity requirements for efficient thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the influence of intragrain defects and grain boundaries on the macroscopic performance of a thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell. In addition, we evaluate the effect of grain size inhomogeneity on the cell performance via circuit simulations. From an analytical study of charge transport in individual grains and homogeneous grain systems, we obtain the grain size and intragrain diffusion length requirements for a desired efficiency. We identify the conditions under which the grain size and the intragrain diffusion length dominate the cell characteristics. In devices with intragrain effective diffusion length Lmono ? 100 m and grain boundary recombination velocity SGB ? 104 cm s-1, achieving a larger grain size beyond several m is not crucial. The inhomogeneous distribution circuit simulations show that grain size inhomogeneity is not the main limiting factor in polycrystalline silicon solar cells. This is so even in thin polycrystalline silicon films with a broad grain size distribution such as those made with aluminum-induced crystallization at low annealing temperature. The main reason is that the optimum bias point for grains of different sizes only differ by about ?50 mV over a fairly wide grain diameter range 0.5-50 m even when Lmono = 100 m and SGB = 105 cm s-1.

  20. Light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells by Raman spectroscopy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ganzerov, Kristna; Ledinsk, Martin; Fejfar, Antonn; Ko?ka, Jan

    Tokyo : ACEEES, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2013. s. 1-2. [International Education Forum on Enviroment and Energy Science /2./. 13.12.2013-17.12.2013, Los Angeles] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI2/736; GA Mk(CZ) LM2011026 Grant ostatn: AV?R(CZ) M100101216; AV ?R(CZ) M100101217 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * thin film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

    2009-01-27

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  2. Review of the CdCl2 Treatment Used in CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cell Development and New Evidence towards Improved Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium chloride treatment is a key processing step identified in the late 1970s to drastically improve the solar to electric conversion efficiency of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells. Although a large body of experimental results are available to date, this process is yet to be understood even after three decades of research. This paper reviews the experimental results available, presents some new clues leading to improved understanding and suggests key research areas necessary to fully unders...

  3. Defects induced by ionizing radiations in AII-BVI pollycrystalline thin films used as solar cell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of AII-BVI compounds are potential candidates for the manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic devices, especially solar cells. In this paper the effects of irradiation with high-energy electrons and protons on structural, electrical and optical properties of CdS and CdSe thin films have been investigated. The films, 1-3 ?m thick, were prepared by thermal-vacuum evaporation on glass substrate at a temperature of 220 deg C. The samples were irradiated with 6-7 MeV electrons, up to a fluency of 1017 e/cm2 and with 3 MeV protons, up to a fluency of 1013 protons/cm2, respectively. XRD investigation has revealed that the films contain wurtzite-type CdS and CdSe, (001) preferentially oriented in the growth direction. The defects induced by ionizing radiations have been studied by using various techniques: the space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) measurements, the thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC), and the absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra measurements. It was found that the electrical conduction of the samples, both before and after irradiation, is controlled by different types of defect distributions, placed in the band gap of the investigated semiconducting layers. Parameters of identified defect levels were determined. A detailed discussion about the possible origin of these defects has been done, suggesting that the mainly defects induced by high-energy electron defects induced by high-energy electron and proton irradiations are related with chalcogen (S or Se) vacancies. The origin of the other identified defects, with smaller ionization energies, remains unknown at this time. (authors)

  4. Defects induced by ionizing radiations in AII-BVI polycrystalline thin films used as solar cell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thin films of AII-BVI compounds are potential candidates for the manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic devices, especially solar cells. In this paper the effects of irradiation with high-energy electrons and protons on structural, electrical and optical properties of CdS and CdSe thin films have been investigated. The films, 1-3 mm thick, were prepared by thermal-vacuum evaporation on glass substrate at a temperature of 220 deg. C. The samples were irradiated with 6-7 MeV electrons, up to a fluency of 1017 e/cm2 and with 3 MeV protons, up to a fluency of 1013 protons/cm2, respectively. XRD investigation has revealed than the films contain wurtzite-type CdS and CdSe (001) preferentially oriented in the growth direction. The defects induced by ionizing radiations have been studied by using various techniques: the space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) measurements, the thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC), and the absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra measurements. It was found that the electrical conduction of the samples, both before and after irradiation, is controlled by different types of defect distributions, placed in the band gap of the investigated semiconducting layers. Parameters of identified defect levels were determined. A detailed discussion about the possible origin of these defects has been done, suggesting that the main defects induced by high-energy e the main defects induced by high-energy electron and proton irradiations are related with chalcogen (S or Se) vacancies. The origin of the other identified defects, with smaller ionization energies, remains unknown at this time. (authors)

  5. A new approach to the manufacture of chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass beads of 0.2 mm diameter are covered with molybdenum, copper and indium. The copper/indium layers are transformed into copper indium disulfide (CIS) by exposing the glass beads to a hydrogensulfide/argon mixture at temperatures of around 500 oC. The CIS covered glass beads serve as the basis material for the formation of solar cells. The main advantage of this approach is the separation between absorber and cell/module formation. In this paper the different process steps necessary for cell manufacturing are described. Some properties of solar cells made out of CIS covered glass beads are presented

  6. Hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film multijunction solar cells exceeding 11% power conversion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Steffen; Neubert, Sebastian; Albrecht, Steve; Stannowski, Bernd; Seger, Mark; Facchetti, Antonio; Schlatmann, Rutger; Rech, Bernd; Neher, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    Hybrid multijunction solar cells comprising hydrogenated amorphous silicon and an organic bulk heterojunction are presented, reaching 11.7% power conversion efficiency. The benefits of merging inorganic and organic subcells are pointed out, the optimization of the cells, including optical modeling predictions and tuning of the recombination contact are described, and an outlook of this technique is given. PMID:25581318

  7. Photosensitivity of ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo thin-film solar cells fabricated on various substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measuring the first spectra of relative quantum efficiency for photoconversion in thin-film ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cells fabricated on rigid (glass) and flexible (polyimide) substrates are reported. The character of interband transitions has been studied and the values of the band gap for direct and indirect transitions in thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films are determined. It is found that a shift of the maximal photosensitivity for the obtained solar cells to shorter wavelengths is observed as rigid substrates are replaced by flexible ones. It is concluded that thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 structures can be used as broad-band photoconverters of solar radiation.

  8. Nano-patterned glass superstrates with different aspect ratios for enhanced light harvesting in a-Si:H thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Gang; Yu, Peichen; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Shen, Chang-Hong; Shieh, Jia-Min; Tsai, Min-An; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2012-05-01

    Nano-patterned glass superstrates obtained via a large-area production approach are desirable for antireflection and light trapping in thin-film solar cells. The tapered nanostructures allow a graded refractive index profile between the glass and material interfaces, leading to suppressed surface reflection and increased forward diffraction of light. In this work, we investigate nanostructured glass patterns with different aspect ratios using scalable nanosphere lithography for hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells. Compared to flat glass cell and Asahi U-type glass cell, enhancements in short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 51.6% and 8%, respectively, were achieved for a moderate aspect ratio of 0.16. The measured external quantum efficiencies (EQE) spectra confirmed a broadband enhancement due to antireflection and light trapping properties. PMID:22712090

  9. Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon prepared by hot-wire chemical vapour deposition for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) prepared by hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) at low substrate temperature TS and low deposition pressure exhibits excellent material quality and performance in solar cells. Prepared at TS below 250 deg. C, ?c-Si:H has very low spin densities, low optical absorption below the band gap, high photosensitivities, high hydrogen content and a compact structure, as evidenced by the low oxygen content and the weak 2100 cm-1 IR absorption mode. Similar to PECVD material, solar cells prepared with HWCVD i-layers show increasing open circuit voltages Voc with increasing silane concentration. The best performance is achieved near the transition to amorphous growth, and such solar cells exhibit very high Voc up to 600 mV. The structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows considerable amorphous volume fractions in the cells with high Voc. Raman spectra show a continuously increasing amorphous peak with increasing Voc. Crystalline fractions XC ranging from 50% for the highest Voc to 95% for the lowest Voc were obtained by XRD. XRD-measurements with different incident beam angles, TEM images and electron diffraction patterns indicate a homogeneous distribution of the amorphous material across the i-layer. Nearly no light induced degradation was observed in the induced degradation was observed in the cell with the highest XC, but solar cells with high amorphous volume fractions exhibit up to 10% degradation of the cell efficiency

  10. Formation of silicon nanostructures in silicon nitride thin films for use in solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Boge, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The increase in the world?s demand for energy, and the fact that at one point we will run out of oil and gas which are two major contributers of the world supply of energy toady, are two reasons for why new and reliable energy sources are needed. The solar industry is one of the fastest growing industires, but the price of energy delivered by solar cells is still too high compared to other alternatives. More research is therefore needed in order to drive the price of solar energy down.In thi...

  11. Depth Profile Analysis of Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells by Pulsed Radiofrequency Glow Discharge Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Toral, Aitor; Sanchez, Pascal; Menndez, Armando; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Fernndez, Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    Among the different solar cell technologies, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells (TFSCs) are today very promising and, so, TFSCs analytical characterization for quality control issues is increasingly demanding. In this line, depth profile analysis of a-Si:H TFSCs on steel substrate has been investigated by using pulsed radiofrequency glow discharge-time of flight mass spectrometry (rf-PGD-TOFMS). First, to discriminate potential polyatomic interferences for several analytes (e.g., 28Si+, 31P+, and 16O+) appropriate time positions along the GD pulse profile were selected. A multi-matrix calibration approach, using homogeneous certified reference materials without hydrogen as well as coated laboratory-made standards containing hydrogen, was employed for the methodological calibration. Different calibration strategies (in terms of time interval selection on the pulse profile within the afterglow region) have been compared, searching for optimal calibration graphs correlation. Results showed that reliable and fast quantitative depth profile analysis of a-Si:H TFSCs by rf-PGD-TOFMS can be achieved.

  12. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of boron-doped layers in amorphous thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, M.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Moreno, M. S.; van Aken, B. B.; Soppe, W. J.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.

    2013-03-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is used to study p-doped layers in n-i-p amorphous thin film Si solar cells grown on steel foil substrates. For a solar cell in which an intrinsic amorphous hydrogenated Si (a-Si-H) layer is sandwiched between 10-nm-thick n-doped and p-doped a-Si:H layers, we assess whether core-loss EELS can be used to quantify the B concentration. We compare the shape of the measured B K edge with real space ab initio multiple scattering calculations and show that it is possible to separate the weak B K edge peak from the much stronger Si L edge fine structure by using log-normal fitting functions. The measured B concentration is compared with values obtained from secondary ion mass spectrometry, as well as with EELS results obtained from test samples that contain 200-nm-thick a-Si:H layers co-doped with B and C. We also assess whether changes in volume plasmon energy can be related to the B concentration and/or to the density of the material and whether variations of the volume plasmon line-width can be correlated with differences in the scattering of valence electrons in differently doped a-Si:H layers.

  13. Property control of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide with focus on thin film solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Property control of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide is demonstrated considering intrinsic, i.e. bulk, and extrinsic transparent conducting oxide quality relevant for application in thin film amorphous silicon pin solar cells. Particularly the interdependence of electrical conductivity, film composition and film morphology, i.e. structure, feature shape and roughness of the surface, is addressed. Control of film composition is mainly governed by plasma production and gas phase chemistry inherently inducing a significant contribution to film morphology, whereas control of film morphology solely is governed by near-substrate conditions. Especially the ratio of zinc to oxygen and the reactor chamber pressure appear to be determinative in obtaining zinc oxide exhibiting the appropriate intrinsic and extrinsic quality, i.e. a high electrical conductivity, a high transmittance, a textured rough surface morphology and a strong hydrogen plasma resistance. The solar cell performance of appropriate undoped and aluminium doped textured zinc oxide inherently obtained during deposition is comparable with respect to Asahi U-type fluorine-doped tin oxide

  14. Property control of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide with focus on thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenen, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Loeffler, J. [Utrecht University, Debye Institute, SID-Physics of Devices, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Linden, J.L. [TNO TPD, Division Models and Processes, P.O. Box 595, 5600 AN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schropp, R.E.I. [Utrecht University, Debye Institute, SID-Physics of Devices, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sanden, M.C.M. van de [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.c.m.v.d.sanden@tue.nl

    2005-12-01

    Property control of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide is demonstrated considering intrinsic, i.e. bulk, and extrinsic transparent conducting oxide quality relevant for application in thin film amorphous silicon pin solar cells. Particularly the interdependence of electrical conductivity, film composition and film morphology, i.e. structure, feature shape and roughness of the surface, is addressed. Control of film composition is mainly governed by plasma production and gas phase chemistry inherently inducing a significant contribution to film morphology, whereas control of film morphology solely is governed by near-substrate conditions. Especially the ratio of zinc to oxygen and the reactor chamber pressure appear to be determinative in obtaining zinc oxide exhibiting the appropriate intrinsic and extrinsic quality, i.e. a high electrical conductivity, a high transmittance, a textured rough surface morphology and a strong hydrogen plasma resistance. The solar cell performance of appropriate undoped and aluminium doped textured zinc oxide inherently obtained during deposition is comparable with respect to Asahi U-type fluorine-doped tin oxide.

  15. Analysis of impact of non-uniformities on thin-film solar cells and modules with two-dimesional simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishiyev, Galymzhan T.

    Clean and environmentally friendly photovoltaic (PV) technologies are now generally recognized as an alternative solution to many global-scale problems such as energy demand, pollution, and environment safety. The cost ($/kWh) is the primary challenge for all PV technologies. In that respect, thin-film polycrystalline PV technology (CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, etc), due to its fast production line, large area panels and low material usage, is one of the most promising low-cost technologies. Due to their granular structure, thin-film solar cells are inherently non-uniform. Also, inevitable fluctuations during the multistep deposition process of large area thin-film solar panels and specific manufacturing procedures such as scribing result in non-uniformities. Furthermore, non-uniformities can occur, become more severe, or increase in size during the solar-panel's life cycle due to various environmental conditions (i.e. temperature variation, shading, hail impact, etc). Non-uniformities generally reduce the overall efficiency of solar cells and modules, and their effects therefore need to be well understood. This thesis focuses on the analysis of the effect of non-uniformities on small size solar cells and modules with the help of numerical simulations. Even though the 2-D model developed here can analyze the effect of non-uniformities of any nature, only two specific types of microscopic non-uniformities were addressed here: shunts and weak-diodes. One type of macroscopic non-uniformity, partial shading, was also addressed. The circuit model developed here is a network of diodes, current-sources, and transparent-conductive-oxide (TCO) resistors. An analytic relation between the TCO-resistor, which is the primary model parameter, and TCO sheet resistance rhoS, which is the corresponding physical parameter, was derived. Based on the model several useful general results regarding a uniform cell were deduced. In particular, a global parameter delta, which determines the performance of a uniform solar cell depending on sheet resistance rhoS, cell length L, and other basic parameters, was found. The expression for the lumped series resistance in terms of physical parameters was also derived. Primary power loss mechanisms in the uniform case and their dependence on rhoS, L, and light generated current JL were determined. Similarly, power losses in a small-area solar cell with either a shunt or a weak-microdiode were identified and their dependence on rho S, JL, and location of the non-uniformity with respect to the current collecting contact was studied. The impact of multiple identical non-uniformities (shunts or weak-diodes) on the performance of a module was analyzed and estimates of efficiency loss were presented. It was found that the efficiency of the module strongly depends not only on the severity and fractional area of non-uniformities but also on their distribution pattern. A numerical parameter characterizing distribution pattern of non-uniformities was introduced. The most and least favorable distribution patterns of shunts and weak-diodes over the module area were determined. Experimentally, non-uniformities may be detected with the help of spatially resolved measurements such as electroluminescence (EL). The 2-D circuit model was also used to develop the general framework to extract useful information from experimental EL data. In particular, a protocol that can help distinguish a shunt from a weak-diode and estimate the severity of the non-uniformity based on the EL data was developed. Parts of these simulation results were verified with experimental EL data obtained by other authors. The thesis also discusses the effect of partial shading (a macroscopic nonuniformity) on the operation and safety of thin-film solar panels. A detailed analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of partially shaded module was performed. Conditions that result in a shaded cell experiencing high reverse voltage were shown. A mathematical formalism was developed to distinguish two extremes: when reverse-bias shunting or breakdown dominates

  16. Repeatable electrical measurement instrumentation for use in the accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. W.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the construction, calibration, and performance of a repeatable measurement system for use in conjunction with the accelerated stress testing of a-Si:H cells. A filtered diode array is utilized to approximate the spectral response of any type of solar cell in discrete portions of the spectrum. It is noted that in order to achieve the necessary degree of overall repeatability, it is necessary to pay particular attention to methods of contacting and positioning the cells.

  17. Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential improvements in the performance of tandem amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si:H/?c-Si:H) solar cells, related to the TCO superstrates with enhanced scattering properties are studied. In particular, optical effects of a high haze double textured (W-textured) SnO2:F TCO superstrate are analyzed and compared to the properties of the pyramidal type SnO2:F TCO superstrate. Solar cell with W-textured superstrate exhibits higher long-wavelength external quantum efficiency of the bottom ?c-Si:H cell than the one with pyramidal type TCO superstrate. Optical simulations are employed to study the potential improvements of the solar cell performance if ideal haze parameter (H = 1) and/or a broad angular distribution function (Lambertian) of scattered light are applied to textured interfaces in the solar cell structure. Simulations reveal significant improvements in long-wavelength quantum efficiencies if a broad angular distribution function of scattered light is applied. Optical losses in the cells with enhanced scattering properties are analysed and evaluated in terms of short-circuit current losses in the supporting layers and losses due to reflected light.

  18. Efficient hole-blocking layer-free planar halide perovskite thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Wan, Jiawei; Tao, Hong; Liu, Qin; Xiong, Liangbin; Qin, Pingli; Wang, Jing; Lei, Hongwei; Yang, Guang; Qin, Minchao; Zhao, Xingzhong; Yan, Yanfa

    2015-01-01

    Efficient lead halide perovskite solar cells use hole-blocking layers to help collection of photogenerated electrons and to achieve high open-circuit voltages. Here, we report the realization of efficient perovskite solar cells grown directly on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated substrates without using any hole-blocking layers. With ultraviolet-ozone treatment of the substrates, a planar Au/hole-transporting material/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/substrate cell processed by a solution method has achieved a power conversion efficiency of over 14% and an open-circuit voltage of 1.06?V measured under reverse voltage scan. The open-circuit voltage is as high as that of our best reference cell with a TiO2 hole-blocking layer. Besides ultraviolet-ozone treatment, we find that involving Cl in the synthesis is another key for realizing high open-circuit voltage perovskite solar cells without hole-blocking layers. Our results suggest that TiO2 may not be the ultimate interfacial material for achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:25798925

  19. Sputtered of ZnO:Al thin Films for Application in Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Novotny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High transparent and conductive, aluminium - doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al, were prepared by radio frequency (RF diode sputtering from ZnO+2 wt. % Al2O3 target on Eutal glass substrates. Surfaces of the samples weretreated by various technological steps during preparation. The ion bombardment and the substrate temperature modified theirstructure, surface morphology, electrical and optical parameters. In this work we present changes between samples preparedat room temperature (RT and at 200C, between samples on ion etched substrate and non-modified substrate, and effect ofion etching of the sample surface. We measured transmittance, resistivity and microroughness by AFM on all samples.

  20. Triangular metallic gratings for large absorption enhancement in thin film Si solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battal, Enes; Yogurt, Taha Alper; Aygun, Levent Erdal; Okyay, Ali K

    2012-04-23

    We estimate high optical absorption in silicon thin film photovoltaic devices using triangular corrugations on the back metallic contact. We computationally show 21.9% overall absorptivity in a 100-nm-thick silicon layer, exceeding any reported absorptivity using single layer gratings placed on the top or the bottom, considering both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations and a wide spectral range (280 - 1100 nm). We also show that the overall absorptivity of the proposed scheme is relatively insensitive to light polarization and the angle of incidence. We also discuss the implications of potential fabrication process variations on such a device. PMID:22535035

  1. Development of Rear Surface Passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells with Nano-Sized Local Rear Point Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Vermang, Bart; Fja?llstro?m, Viktor; Pettersson, Jonas; Salome?, Pedro; Edoff, Marika

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, a novel rear contacting structure for copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells is discussed theoretically, developed in an industrially viable way, and demonstrated in tangible devices. The proposed cell design reduces back contacting area by combining a rear surface passivation layer and nano-sized local point contacts. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 is used to passivate the CIGS surface and the formation of nano-sphere shaped precipitates i...

  2. Chemically deposited lead sulfide and bismuth sulfide thin films and Bi2S3/PbS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar cells with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 6 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 280 mV and a conversion efficiency of 0.5% under a 1000 W/m2 solar radiation were prepared by sequential chemical deposition of Bi2S2 (160 nm) and PbS (400 nm) thin films. The optical band gap (Eg) of Bi2S3 (160 nm) decreased from 1.67 to 1.61 eV upon heating the as-deposited film at 250 oC in air for 15 min to make it crystalline, but also reduced its thickness to 100 nm. Photoconductivity of this film is 0.003 (? cm)-1. The Eg of PbS film (200 nm) deposited at 25 oC (24 h) is 0.57 eV, and is 0.49 eV for the film deposited at 40 oC. The electrical conductivity of the latter is 0.48 (? cm)-1. The photo-generated current density for a Bi2S3(100 nm)/PbS(300 nm) absorber stack is above 40 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5 G (1000 W/m2) solar radiation. However, the optical losses in the cell structure reduces the Jsc. Spectral sensitivity of the external quantum efficiency of the cell establishes the contribution of Bi2S3 and PbS to Jsc. The energy level diagram of the cell structure suggests a built-in potential of 470 mV for the present case. Six series-connected cells gave the Voc of 1.4 V and Jsc of 5 mA/cmsc of 5 mA/cm2.

  3. Chemical interaction at the buried silicon/zinc oxide thin-film solar cell interface as revealed by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, M., E-mail: mark.wimmer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R.G.; Scherf, S.; Flix, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Lupulescu, C. [Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universitt Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ruske, F.; Schondelmaier, G.; Lips, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Hpkes, J. [Institute for Energy Research, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strae, 52425 Jlich (Germany); Gorgoi, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Eberhardt, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universitt Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Br, M., E-mail: marcus.baer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut fr Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universitt Cottbus, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: We used HAXPES to identify chemical interactions at the buried silicon/aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin-film solar cell interface. The results indicate a diffusion of zinc and aluminum into the silicon upon annealing procedures which are part of the solar cell processing. The contamination of the silicon may be detrimental for the solar cell performance. -- Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is used to identify chemical interactions (such as elemental redistribution) at the buried silicon/aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin-film solar cell interface. Expanding our study of the interfacial oxidation of silicon upon its solid-phase crystallization (SPC), in which we found zinc oxide to be the source of oxygen, in this investigation we address chemical interaction processes involving zinc and aluminum. In particular, we observe an increase of zinc- and aluminum-related HAXPES signals after SPC of the deposited amorphous silicon thin films. Quantitative analysis suggests an elemental redistribution in the proximity of the silicon/aluminum-doped zinc oxide interface more pronounced for aluminum than for zinc as explanation. Based on these insights the complex chemical interface structure is discussed.

  4. Chemical interaction at the buried silicon/zinc oxide thin-film solar cell interface as revealed by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: We used HAXPES to identify chemical interactions at the buried silicon/aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin-film solar cell interface. The results indicate a diffusion of zinc and aluminum into the silicon upon annealing procedures which are part of the solar cell processing. The contamination of the silicon may be detrimental for the solar cell performance. -- Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is used to identify chemical interactions (such as elemental redistribution) at the buried silicon/aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin-film solar cell interface. Expanding our study of the interfacial oxidation of silicon upon its solid-phase crystallization (SPC), in which we found zinc oxide to be the source of oxygen, in this investigation we address chemical interaction processes involving zinc and aluminum. In particular, we observe an increase of zinc- and aluminum-related HAXPES signals after SPC of the deposited amorphous silicon thin films. Quantitative analysis suggests an elemental redistribution in the proximity of the silicon/aluminum-doped zinc oxide interface more pronounced for aluminum than for zinc as explanation. Based on these insights the complex chemical interface structure is discussed

  5. Ultrasonically sprayed and inkjet printed thin film electrodes for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film pi-conjugated poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a hole transport layer on indium tin oxide is a key element in some of the most efficient organic photovoltaic and light emitting devices to date. Films are typically deposited by spincoating, which is not readily scalable. In this paper we investigate the critical parameters for both inkjet and ultrasonic spray deposition of PEDOT:PSS thin films on commercial indium tin oxide as a potentially scalable approach to contact formation. Inkjet parameters investigated include drop spacing and substrate temperature. Ultrasonic spray coating parameters investigated include substrate temperature and solution flow rate. We also show that the ink viscosity has a Newtonian character, making it well suited for inkjet printing. Films were characterized via optical profilometry, sheet resistance and atomic force microscopy. Optimized inkjet printed and ultrasonic sprayed PEDOT:PSS films were then compared to spincast layers in a prototypical bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device employing a poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-PCBM (6,6-phenylC61-butric acid-methyl ester) blend as the absorber. Practically all three approaches produced devices of comparable efficiency. Efficiencies were 3.6%, 3.5% and 3.3% for spin, spray and inkjet depositions respectively

  6. A highly efficient light-trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L. [Solar Cell Technology Group, Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrical Engineering, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zuo, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, C.L.; Li, H.L.; Diao, H.W.; Wang, W.J. [Solar Cell Technology Group, Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrical Engineering, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A highly efficient light-trapping structure, consisting of a diffractive grating, a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and a metal reflector was proposed. As an example, the proposed light-trapping structure with an indium tin oxide (ITO) diffraction grating, an a-Si:H/ITO DBR and an Ag reflector was optimized by the simulation via rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) for a 2.0-{mu}m-thick c-Si solar cell with an optimized ITO front antireflection (AR) layer under the air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) solar illumination. The weighted absorptance under the AM1.5 solar spectrum (A{sub AM1.5}) of the solar cell can reach to 69%, if the DBR is composed of 4 pairs of a-Si:H/ITOs. If the number of a-Si:H/ITO pairs is up to 8, a larger A{sub AM1.5} of 72% can be obtained. In contrast, if the Ag reflector is not adopted, the combination of the optimized ITO diffraction grating and the 8-pair a-Si:H/ITO DBR can only result in an A{sub AM1.5} of 68%. As the reference, A{sub AM1.5} = 31% for the solar cell only with the optimized ITO front AR layer. So, the proposed structure can make the sunlight highly trapped in the solar cell. The adoption of the metal reflector is helpful to obtain highly efficient light-trapping effect with less number of DBR pairs, which makes that such light-trapping structure can be fabricated easily. (author)

  7. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  8. Micromorph thin-film silicon solar cells with transparent high-mobility hydrogenated indium oxide front electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Corsin; Erni, Lukas; Boccard, Mathieu; Barraud, Loris; Escarr, Jordi; Sderstrm, Karin; Bugnon, Grgory; Billet, Adrian; Ding, Laura; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-Josef; Wolf, Stefaan De; Ballif, Christophe

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the performance of hydrogenated indium oxide as a transparent front electrode for micromorph thin-film silicon solar cells on glass. Light trapping is achieved by replicating the morphology of state-of-the-art zinc oxide electrodes, known for their outstanding light trapping properties, via ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography. As a result of the high electron mobility and excellent near-infrared transparency of hydrogenated indium oxide, the short-circuit current density of the cells is improved with respect to indium tin oxide and zinc oxide electrodes. We assess the potential for further current gains by identifying remaining sources of parasitic absorption and evaluate the light trapping capacity of each electrode. We further present a method, based on nonabsorbing insulating silicon nitride electrodes, allowing one to directly relate the optical reflectance to the external quantum efficiency. Our method provides a useful experimental tool to evaluate the light trapping potential of novel photonic nanostructures by a simple optical reflectance measurement, avoiding complications with electrical cell performance.

  9. Development of a Wide Bandgap Cell for Thin Film Tandem Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 6 November 2003 - 5 January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafarman, W.; McCandless, B.

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop approaches for a transparent wide-bandgap cell to be used in a thin-film tandem polycrystalline solar cell that can ultimately attain 25% efficiency. Specific goals included the research and development of Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 and Cd1-xZnxTe alloys with a bandgap from 1.5 to 1.8 eV, demonstrating the potential of a 15% cell efficiency with a transparent contact, and supporting the High Performance PV Program. This Final Report presents results that emphasize the 3rd phase of the program.

  10. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells with plasmonic-enhanced light-trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, Sergey; Rao, Jing; Soderstrom, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    One of major approaches to cheaper solar cells is reducing the amount of semiconductor material used for their fabrication and making cells thinner. To compensate for lower light absorption such physically thin devices have to incorporate light-trapping which increases their optical thickness. Light scattering by textured surfaces is a common technique but it cannot be universally applied to all solar cell technologies. Some cells, for example those made of evaporated silicon, are planar as produced and they require an alternative light-trapping means suitable for planar devices. Metal nanoparticles formed on planar silicon cell surface and capable of light scattering due to surface plasmon resonance is an effective approach. The paper presents a fabrication procedure of evaporated polycrystalline silicon solar cells with plasmonic light-trapping and demonstrates how the cell quantum efficiency improves due to presence of metal nanoparticles. To fabricate the cells a film consisting of alternative boron and phosphorous doped silicon layers is deposited on glass substrate by electron beam evaporation. An Initially amorphous film is crystallised and electronic defects are mitigated by annealing and hydrogen passivation. Metal grid contacts are applied to the layers of opposite polarity to extract electricity generated by the cell. Typically, such a ~2 ?m thick cell has a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 14-16 mA/cm(2), which can be increased up to 17-18 mA/cm(2) (~25% higher) after application of a simple diffuse back reflector made of a white paint. To implement plasmonic light-trapping a silver nanoparticle array is formed on the metallised cell silicon surface. A precursor silver film is deposited on the cell by thermal evaporation and annealed at 23C to form silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticle size and coverage, which affect plasmonic light-scattering, can be tuned for enhanced cell performance by varying the precursor film thickness and its annealing conditions. An optimised nanoparticle array alone results in cell Jsc enhancement of about 28%, similar to the effect of the diffuse reflector. The photocurrent can be further increased by coating the nanoparticles by a low refractive index dielectric, like MgF(2;), and applying the diffused reflector. The complete plasmonic cell structure comprises the polycrystalline silicon film, a silver nanoparticle array, a layer of MgF(2;), and a diffuse reflector. The Jsc for such cell is 21-23 mA/cm(2), up to 45% higher than Jsc of the original cell without light-trapping or ~25% higher than Jsc for the cell with the diffuse reflector only. PMID:22805108

  11. Identification and Analysis of Distinct Features in Imaging Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbrecher, K. N.; Johnston, S. W.; Sites, J. R.

    2012-06-01

    Electroluminescence and photoluminescence (EL and PL) are two imaging techniques employed at NREL that are used to qualitatively evaluate solar cells. In this work, imaging lab-scale CdTe and CIGS devices provides information about small-area PV response, which will aid in determining the effects of non-uniformities on cell performance. EL, PL, and dark lock-in thermography signatures are first catalogued. Their responses to varying conditions are then studied. Further analysis includes acquiring spectral data, making microscopy measurements, and correlating luminescence to device performance. The goal of this work is to quantitatively determine non-uniformity effects on cell performance using rapid imaging techniques.

  12. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of AlY codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan (China); Houng, Mau-Phon, E-mail: mphoung@eembox.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-01

    Low cost transparent conductive AlY codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 513 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 10{sup ?4} ? cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm{sup 2}/V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3}, and high transmittance in the visible region (400800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (?) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  13. GaAs CLEFT solar cells for space applications. [CVD thin film growth technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. C. C.; Mcclelland, R. W.; King, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    Although GaAs solar cells are radiation-resistant and have high conversion efficiencies, there are two major obstacles that such cells must overcome before they can be widely adopted for space applications: GaAs wafers are too expensive and cells made from these wafers are too heavy. The CLEFT process permits the growth of thin single-crystal films on reusable substrates, resulting in a drastic reduction in both cell cost and cell weight. Recent advances in CLEFT technology have made it possible to achieve efficiencies of about 14 percent AM0 for 0.51-sq cm GaAs solar cells 5 microns thick with a 41-mil-thick coverglass. In preliminary experiments efficiencies close to 19 percent AM1 have been obtained for 10-micron-thick cells. It is suggested that the CLEFT technology should yield inexpensive, highly efficient modules with a beginning-of-life specific power close to 1 kW/kg (for a coverglass thickness of 4 mils).

  14. Optimum feature size of randomly textured glass substrates for maximum scattering inside thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Nasim; Venkataraj, Selvaraj; Aberle, Armin G.; Peters, Marius

    2014-03-01

    Optimization of light scattering by designing proper randomly textured surfaces is one of the important issues when designing thin-film silicon solar cell structures. The wavelength region that needs to be scattered depends on the absorber material and the thickness of the solar cell. The optimum morphology of the textured substrate can be defined regarding the wavelength range intended for scattering. Good scattering is experimentally achieved by optimizing the fabrication process of the randomly textured substrate. However, optimum morphological parameters have not been analytically formulated. In this work we develop the morphological criteria for optimum light scattering in a-Si:H solar cells using Aluminum Induced Texture (AIT) glass superstrates. Transmission haze is widely used as an evaluating factor for scattering properties. Haze can be easily measured for the substrate/air interface. However, the relevant scattering properties are those in the absorber material. These properties cannot be measured directly, but can be predicted by an appropriate model. The simple model for haze calculation based on scalar scattering theory cannot correctly estimate the haze value because it only considers the root mean square (RMS) roughness of the textured surface, which does not contain information about lateral feature size. In addition, the opening angel of the haze measurement is not considered in the equation. In this work, we demonstrate that the power spectral density (PSD) function of the randomly textured surface can provide the missing information in the haze equation. A general formulation for calculating the lateral feature size based on the PSD function is presented. We use this calculated haze value based on PSD to find the optimum lateral feature size for scattering a specific wavelength into the desired material. The optimum lateral feature size for scattering 620-nm light, which is weakly absorbed in a-Si:H, is shown to be 100 nm.

  15. Amorphous thin films for solar-cell applications. Final report, September 11, 1978-September 10, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D E; Balberg, I; Crandall, R S; Goldstein, B C; Hanak, J J; Pankove, J I; Staebler, D L; Weakliem, H A; Williams, R

    1980-02-01

    In Section II, Theoretical Modeling, theories for the capture of electrons by deep centers in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and for field-dependent quantum efficiency in a-Si:H are presented. In Section III, Deposition and Doping Studies, the optimization of phosphorus-doped a-Si:H carried out in four different discharge systems is described. Some details of the dc proximity and rf magnetron discharge systems are also provided. Preliminary mass spectroscopy studies of the rf magnetron discharge in both SiH/sub 4/ and SiF/sub 4/ are presented. In Section IV, Experimental Methods for Characterizing a-Si:H, recent work involving photoluminescence of fluorine-doped a-Si:H, photoconductivity spectra, the photoelectromagnetic effect, the photo-Hall effect and tunneling into a-Si:H is presented. Also, studies of the growth mechanism of Pt adsorbed on both crystalline Si and a-Si:H are described. Measurements of the surface photovoltage have been used to estimate the distribution of surface states of phosphorus-doped and undoped a-Si:H. Section V, Formation of Solar-Cell Structures, contains information on stacked or multiple-junction a-Si:H solar cells. In Section VI, Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Solar-Cell Parameters, an upper limit of approx. = 400 A is established for the hole diffusion length in undoped a-Si:H. A detailed description of carrier generation, recombination and transport in a-Si:H solar cells is given. Finally, some characteristics of Pd-Schottky-barrier cells are described for different processing histories.

  16. Physical properties of disordered Chalcogenide solar cell from Pb20GexSe80-x thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation and study of homogeneous p-n junctions from amorphous chalcogenide Pb20GexSe80-x by thermal evaporation are presented. Such p-n junction is a novel module since no one had fabricated such homogeneous cell from these amorphous compounds yet. The p-type layer is Pb20Ge20Se60 and the n-type is Pb20Ge25Se55 elemental analysis of n- and p-types of Pb20GexSe80-x is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Optical energy gaps were determined from transmission spectra in the range of 300 to 2500 nm; these values was 1.9 eV for p-Pb20Ge20Se60 and 2.0 eV for n-Pb20Ge25Se55 thin films. The J-V characteristics in the dark are exhibited rectification in the reverse voltage resulting from j